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Book Reviews

Dislocations
J. FRIEDEL. International Series of Monographs on Solid State Physics, Vol. 3.
Pergamon: London; Gauthier-Villars: Paris, 1964. xxi+491 pp. 6½ i n . × 9 in. 120s
ORIGINALLY published in French in 1956, Professor FRIEDEL'S book has been translated
into English and extended to include a number of recent developments in the field.
It now appears as a valuable addition to this series of solid state monographs.
The French edition originated from a series of lectures given by the author; the
present edition retains much of the character of lecture notes and probably accounts
for the somewhat staccato nature of the English. A great deal of the theory is
discussed in relation to illustrations in the text of which there are some 250 line
diagrams and 30 plates. This is of considerable help in obtaining a clear physical
picture of the properties of dislocations.
The text is divided into three parts; the first deals with the general properties of
dislocations and includes definitions and discussions on elastic theory and motion
of dislocations, dislocation climb, imperfect dislocations and the relations between
dislocations and crystal growth, vacancies and interstitial atoms. Part two is
concerned with the properties of dislocation networks, covering elastic limits, cold
working, grain boundaries, creep and cleavage. The third part deals largely with
the interactions of dislocations with impurity defects, and concludes with a chapter
discussing the role of dislocations in relation to such topics as X-ray scattering,
electron microscopy, semiconductivity, thermal conductivity and optical and magnetic
properties.
Although the bulk of dislocation theory appears in the classic texts of ten years
ago this volume is a useful addition to the literature, and provides a dual supplement
to the older texts. In the first place it contains a useful account of recent work,
including the important development of the direct observation of dislocations, together
with a number of excellent illustrations which demonstrate the appearance of disloca-
tions when observed by various techniques. Secondl~ the subject matter is treated
in a rather different manner, going into some aspects of the background theory in
considerable detail.
Dislocation theory is most completely understood in its applications to metals
and ionic crystals, and this book is written primarily for the metallurgist. Although
the observation and properties of dislocations in molecular crystals, and polymer
crystals in particular, where the theory is more speculative, are not discussed, this
book should provide useful background information on the general features of
dislocations for the worker interested in the physics and chemistry of the organic
solid state.
In general the book is well produced. There are, however, a small n u m b e r o f
mistakes, most of which, fortunately are obvious on a careful reading of the text.
The subject index is very short for a book of this size, but when combined with the
detailed contents pages it provides a satisfactory means of finding information on
specific topics.
G. C. EASTMOND

Fibre Structure
J. W. S. HE,~LE and R. H. PETERS. Butterworths: London, 1963. 667 pp.
5½ in. by 9 in. 126s
T h i s book started life as a series of lectures given to students in the Manchester
College of Science and Technology in 1959. It is aimed primarily at the technologist
who requires knowledge of fibre structure in order to carry out his own work more
effectively. It is also intended to summarize existing knowledge and the sources of
that knowledge in order to provide a springboard for future research workers in the
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BOOK REVIEWS

field. The lectures were given by a well chosen team drawn from industrial labora-
tories and research institutes in both the U.K. and the U.S.A. and from Universities.
This diversity is apparent in the changing style and content as the reader passes from
chapter to chapter. It has also, one suspects, been the bane of the editors' life and
has accounted for the long period of gestation so that few references to work
published after 1960 are given.
The book is thorough and treats the subject in three ways. In the first five
chapters the chemical structure of fibres is discussed. The main chapter headings are
cellulose, polypeptides and proteins and synthetic polymers and copolymers. A small
chapter tagged on the end describes the knowledge of tactic polymers in existence in
those days and points to the first casualty brought about by the delay in publishing.
The fine structure of fibres is the second theme, and this is developed in the next
six chapters. The beginning of this section contains a general introduction largely
devoted to the micellar theory and its subsequent development to the fringed fibril
structure proposed by one of the editors. The next two chapters deal with observed
structure in plant, animal and synthetic fibres. These two chapters contain excellent
photographs taken by both optical and electron microscopes. Two further chapters
discuss the non-crystal,line and the crystalline state respectively. These provide the
second casualty caused by delay. The author of the second chapter (A. Keller) has
been forced to admit to second thoughts and both chapters should be understood to
refer to the knowledge available early in 1960. This middle section is completed by
chapters on the cell structure of natural fibres and the surface structure of fibres.
The final section reinforces the work of the two preceding ones by describing,
chapter by chapter, the detailed structure of specific fibres including cotton and
other vegetable fibres, various types of synthetic and man-made fibres, animal fibres,
glass and asbestos. A final short chapter by one of the editors makes it clear why
the fibre technologist and scientist should bother with the preceding six hundred pages.
The book is excellently produced and well illustrated. It is, however, too long and
in many places a firmer band by the editors would have avoided unnecessary repeti-
tion. At least I had thought that removing obvious repetitions was an essential
part of their work until I came in the last chapter to Table 19.2 and Figure 19.9.
These are minor variants on Table 13.2 and Figure 13.5. They are sufficiently
identical to annoy the man who has himself paid six guineas for the book and yet
the reviewer was intrigued by the differences between the tables. They confirmed
his belief that technologists do not normally know quantitative measures of the
properties of their materials to three significant figures. The chapter on fibres from
condensation polymers gives a very clear account of the production of synthetic fibres
by melt extrusion and drawing. It is only included in this book by stretching the
idefinition of fibre structure rather far. It will be a pity if anyone wanting this
knowledge overlooks this account because he has been misled by the title of the
b o o k , since the chapter does not deserve to be lost in this way. The reviewer
suggests a method of overcoming this difficulty in the second edition, confident that
the book will be so successful. Re-edit this book and the companion volume of
Physical Properties of Textile Fibres [cf. Polymer, Lond. 1964, 5, 313 for review],
complete the trilogy by a volume on methods of manufacture and by hard, but quite
possible, pruning produce the three volumes for the length and price of the two.
K. W. HILLIER

Dictionary of Plastics
J. A. WOROINGHAM and P. REBOUL. Newnes: London, 1964. 211 pp. 5 in. by 7½ in.
30s
A D~CTIONARY of plastics? A Glossary of Terms used in the Plastics Industry would
be more accurate, although it would still be surprising to find entries such as atom,
pH and sulphurie acid. Indeed, one wishes that the space allotted to terms like these
had been devoted to others which could have been usefully amplified. F o r example,
the descriptions of abrasion resistance as 'the degree to which a product will withstand
surface wear and rubbing', and of resin as 'an amorphous substance or mixture, of
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