10 views

Uploaded by api-3733260

save

- TB family with usermat
- Work Energy Power
- IFAC- Crack Tip Strain on Ship and in Situ Measurement in Shipyards
- Assignment 1 - Work and Strain Energy - 2016Assignment 1 - Work and Strain Energy - 2016
- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 8
- AWS100 Ch08 Results
- Work Power Energy Etoos
- 6.txt
- concept of electrostatics.docx
- On the Definition of State Variables for an Internal State Variable Constitutive Model
- WORK POWER ASN
- Typical Design for Type b1
- emd_part3
- Engineering Mechanics Statics
- Linear Beam
- Chapter 1 Solutions
- FHWA-ICT
- CH1.PDF
- Lightweight structures
- Abaqus Theory Manual
- CE6402_uw
- Flu Mech Class Notes Slot g
- Microsoft Word - L03_AUDJG_2007.pdf
- Chip Formation
- FE-Lab-1.pdf
- Small Questions
- Brick Masonry Properties
- Energy
- Chapter 8_Work and Energy
- Finite Element Analysis of Skew Curved Rc Box Girder Bridge
- YESIM
- wei
- wortmann
- yannas
- zeronian
- years
- Anne_Hooper_s_Kama_Sutra._Classic_Lovemaking_techniques_reinterpeted_for_today_s_lovers
- warwicker
- yang
- wang
- yeo
- WETTON
- wort
- WOOL
- white
- terene
- treloar
- str
- statton
- versh
- stress
- vijayan
- stearne
- VSUBRAM
- ugbolue
- tsur
- tabor
- vinis
- t6
- ULLMAN

You are on page 1of 11

**Polymer Crystals." II. Terylene*
**

L. R. G. T~ELO~

The value oJ Young's modulus E for the crystal of Terylene in the direction of

the chain axis is calculated from the force constants for bond stretching and

valence angle deformation. The presence of the benzene ring in the structure

makes this problerr~ less str~ghtforward than that of the simple linear chain

structures, polyethylene and nylon, considered in a previous paper by the

author. The resultant value of E is 1"22 x 1012 dyn/cm 2.

INTRODUCTION

IN THIS paper the type of analysis set out in Part I of this series 1 is applied

to the calculation of the modulus of elasticity of the Terylene crystal in the

direction of the chain axis. The Chain parameters (Figure 1) are taken

from the structural determination of Daubeny, Bunn and Brown ~, but the

benzene ring is assumed to be a regular hexagon of side 1.35 A, equal to

the mean of the two slightly different values (1'34 and 1-36) quoted by

these authors. The remaining angles are tetrahedral. The only significant

departure from the structure of Daubeny, Bunn and Brown is that the

whole system is assumed to lie in one plane. In their structure the O---C--O

group was rotated through an angle of 12 ° out of the plane of the benzene

ring (though this deviation could not be definitely established) while the

CH~--CH2 bond was rotated through an angle of 20 ° about the adjacent

O--CH2 bonds. Any such departures from planarity must arise from the

action of secondary forces either within the molecule or between molecules,

and since the effect of such forces cannot be taken into account in a theory

based on the deformation of primary bonds and valence angles alone, they

will be ignored, the chain being assumed to have its fully-extended (i.e.

planar) configuration. This simplification will lead to an underestimate of

the total deformation, and hence to an overestimate of the modulus.

The presence of the benzene ring in the Terylene structure renders the

mechanical analysis more complicated than for the straight-chain structures

discussed in Part I. Apart from this complication the treatment is generally

similar. In the following presentation the problem of the deformation of

the ring, with its associated terminal bonds, will therefore be considered

in detail before the deformation of the chain as a whole is dealt with.

**FORCES ACTING ON B E N Z E N E RING
**

AS in Part I the applied force F (Figure 1) will be considered to act along

the chain axis PP', which passes through the ring centres. If the chain be

broken at carbon atom number 3 the forces which have to be applied to

the right-hand portion to maintain equilibrium are (1) a tensile force F

parallel to the chain axis, and (2) a couple equal to the product of the

force F and the distance of its line of action from the chain axis. The same

*Part I, Polymer 1960, 1, (1) 95.

279

L. R. G. TRELOAR

**forces act on the left-hand portion if the chain is broken at the symmetrically
**

situated carbon atom to the right of the ring. The forces acting on the

ring, with its associated terminal bonds, are therefore as shown in Figure 2.

The effect of these forces on the terminal bond JA (or the symmetrically

disposed bond DK) is to produce (a) an extension and (b) a rotation with

respect to the adjacent ring bonds. The extension can be treated in the

usual way. The rotation takes place against the restoring couple arising

from the unequal deformation of the angles B1 and B~. This restoring

couple is zero when /3x=/32, i.e. when the bond JA is collinear with the

bisector of the angle ~. This is true whether or not the angle ~ is deformed

IP//'~,

1 2~1"3~

L9

3 ~',"'-")

J 1 O p,,/CH2

F~ ~ ~ 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 _ _-7--"

o

Figure/--The repeating unit of Terylene

from its stress-free value. It is therefore convenient to express the couple

r on the bond JA in terms of the angle -/(initially 180 °) between this bond

and the bisector of the angle ~ (Figure 1). The couple is then proportional

to the angular displacement ~y, i.e.

~=k~ (1)

where k~ is the corresponding angular force constant. The value of k~

may be derived from the frequency of vibration of the bond JA about the

point A in a molecule of the appropriate type. The couple 7 is the mutual

couple between the terminal bond AJ and the two ring bonds AB, AG.

Since the angles/31 and/3s are equally deformable, the total couple acting

on the ring at the point A may be represented by couples r/2 acting on

each of the bonds AB, AG.

B

F ~ C

E

**Figure 2--Force~ acting on ring with adjacent bonds
**

If the chain is broken at the points A and D, so as to isolate the ring,

an argument similar to the above shows the forces acting at A (or at D)

to consist similarly of a force F parallel to the chain axis and a couple ~"

equal to the product of the force F and the distance of its line of action

from the chain axis. Resolving the force F into components Fx and F~,

28O

C A L C U L A T I O N S OF ELASTIC M O D U L I O F P O L Y M E R CRYSTALS: 11

**respectively parallel and perpendicular to the ring diameter AD, we arrive
**

at the system of forces represented in Figure 3. Since the sum of the

couples acting at A and D is equal to the moment of the applied forces,

the couple r is given by

r =F~I (2)

where l is the length of the side of the regular hexagon.

The forces applied to the ring produce changes in both the bond lengths

and the valence angles. These changes may be calculated either by a

direct resolution of the forces into components acting on the individual

bonds and valence angles, or by a consideration of the change in the

potential energy of the system due to specified changes in the parameters.

The second of these methods is presented here; it has, however, been

verified that the first leads to an identical solution.

DEFORMATION OF THE BENZENE RING

For a regular hexagonal structure in which the deformability of the bond

angles is defined by a single angular deformation constant ko and the

deformability of the bond lengths by a single stretching constant k~, and

which is subjected to the system of forces represented in Figure 3, the

B 12 c

F, - Figure 3--Forces applied to ring

**symmetry of the system (i.e. of the ring together with the applied forces)
**

requires that pairs of opposite angles and opposite sides deform equally.

It can be seen that, with this system, changes in bond length can take place

independently of changes in valence angle. The deformation of each of

these sets of variables may therefore be considered separately.

Angular variables

To determine the deformation of the ring due to changes in bond angles,

with all the bond lengths held constant, it is convenient to distinguish the

three pairs of opposite angles by the symbols al, ~= and a3 as in Figure 3.

(Initially a1=~==~3). The variations ~1, ~a~ and ~a~ are, however, not

independent, but must satisfy the geometrical condition

~1 + ~2 + ~8 =0 (3)

There are thus two independently variable angular parameters.

It is not immediately obvious how these two independent variables are

to be chosen. It is not possible to consider ~ and % as independent

variables, since a variation of ~,~ at constant ~, for example, involves a

variation of ~. This leads to difficulties in expressing the change in the

potential energy of the system in a manageable form. The only satisfactory

way which has been found of treating the problem is to consider two basic

types of deformation which are consistent with the symmetry conditions

and with the geometrical restriction (equation (3)). These, which will be

281

L. R. G. TRELOAR

**referred to as type A and type B, respectively, are defined by the relations
**

A:

~=~= ~=~= - ½8=i (4a)

B:

&,==-8=~; ~%=0 (4b)

Type A, represented in Figure 4(a), results in a displacement of the point D

(with respect to A) in the direction of the force component F~, and is

analogous to a 'tensile' strain, while type B (Figure 4b) yields a displacement

of the point D in the direction of the force component F~, and is analogous

to a 'shear' strain. It is easy to show that any deformation, involving

arbitrary variations of =~, % and % (consistent with equation (3)), may be

resolved into two component deformations, one of each of the above two

basic types. For, from equation (4a), the value of 8~x determines the

amount of A, while from (4b), the value of ~ - ~% determines the amount

of B. These two variational parameters therefore have the properties of

mathematically independent variables.

_ _B C - B ~

A~a'l- . . . . . ")0~ A D

__ _ / /

G E G E

(o) (b)

Figure4--(a) Type A and (b) type B deformations

In considering the displacements due to the above angular variations we

are not concerned with any translation or rotation of the ring as a whole,

which, for a system of forces in equilibrium, involves h o n e r performance

of work. We are therefore at liberty to fix any one point and any one

direction arbitrarily. In the forms of displacement shown~in Figures 4(a)

and 4(b) and in the following analysis, the point A and the direction of

the bisector of the angle =1 at A are taken as fixed.

The quantitative relations between the components of force and the

deformations of type A and type B will now be examined.

'Tensile' deformation (Type A)--The amount of type A deformation

due to the system of forces represented in Figure 3 is obtained by equating

the angular potential energy to the work done by the applied forces in the

corresponding displacement. It is convenient to introduce the variable

0 = = - %. Then, for a variation 80,

~% =2~0; ~ % = ~ 8 = -~0 (5)

The potential energy associated with a change ~= in one of the angles being

½ka (8=)2, the total energy associated with the deformation of the six ring

angles is therefore

V=½ka [2 (~,)2 + 2 (~.2)*+ 2 (8%)2] =6k. (~0)' (6)

The components of displacement for the point D referred to x and y

axes, respectively parallel and perpendicular to the diameter AD are

~x=-2IsinO$O; By=0 (7)

282

CALCULATIONS OF ELASTIC MODULI OF POLYMER CRYSTALS: 1I

**The work done by the applied forces is
**

W = ½ [Fx3x + F~3y+ ~r:50~] (8)

where r~ is the couple applied to a bond which rotates through the angle

30~. In the present case (type A) each of the bonds DC, DE is acted on

by the couple r/2, but the rotations ~ are in opposite senses; the net work

done by the couples is therefore zero. Similarly no net work is done by

the couples acting on AB and AG. Hence, with (7)

W =½Fx3x= - (I sin 080) F~ (8a)

The energy equation is therefore

6 k . (80) 2 = - (/sin 0 80) F ~ (9)

whence

8 0 = - lsind

~

F~ (10)

**Substituting this value in (7), and introducing the numerical value
**

sin 2 0=3/4, the displacement components become

l 2 sin 2 0 _ 12 F •

3x= ~ /~x=~ ~, 3y=0 (11)

The result (11) implies that the deformation of type A is in equilibrium

with the force component Fx alone, and is unaffected by the presence of

the force component F~, with the associated terminal couples r/2.

'Shear' deformation (Type B)--For the type B deformation defined by

equation (4b) and represented in Figure (4b) the angular potential energy is

V = ½k~ [4 (3a~)2] = 2k~ (3%)2 (12)

The displacement components for the point D are

~x=0; 3y=/3% (13)

The terminal bonds AB, AG and DC, DE do not rotate. The work done

by the applied couples, as well as that due to the force F~, is therefore

zero. Hence

2k. (3%)2= ½F~13% (14)

I

3~, = ~ F~ (15)

The corresponding displacement components are obtained by substitution

of thisvalue of 3% in (13),i.e.

3x=O; 3y= ~-~F,, (16)

This result implies that the deformation of type B is in equilibrium with

the force component F~ (together with the associated terminal couples

introduced to prevent rotation of the system as a whole), and is unaffected

by the presence of the force component F~.

The combined effect of the components Fx and F~ (with associated

couples) acting together is to produce a displacement whose components in

the x and y directions are the sum of the displacements produced by these

force components acting separately.

283

L. R. G. TRELOAR

Length variables

In this section we consider the deformation of the ring due to changes

in bond length, assuming all the angles to be held constant. As already

stated, the deformations of opposite bonds are equal. Furthermore, the

lengths of each of these pairs, which may conveniently be distinguished by

the symbols Is, 12 and 13 (Figure 3) may be varied independently of the

remaining two. Thus ll, l~ and ls are the three independent length variables

defining the system. (Initially 11= 12= la.)

To find the change in any one of these variables under the action of the

system of forces represented in Figure 3, the work done by the applied

forces in the deformation associated with this variable is equated to the

change in potential energy of the system.

The co-ordinates of the point D, referred to A as origin, are

x = (Is + Is) cos 0 + 12 1

(17)

y=(ll -Is) sin 0 J"

For a change in Is of amount 8ll the corresponding displacements are

therefore

8x=cosO~ls; ~y=sin081l (18)

Since no rotation is involved, the work done by the applied couples is zero.

The total work done is therefore

W= ½(Fx~x+ FvSy) (19)

Introducing the values of ~x and ~y given by (19) the energy equation for

the two bonds of length l~ is therefore

½ks [2 (~/~)2] = ½ (Fx cos 0 + F~ sin 0) ~ll (20).

Hence

1

~I~ = ~ (Fx cos 0 + Fy sin 0) (21)

**For a variation of l~ the displacement components are
**

~x = ~I2; ~y = 0 (22)

The energy equation for these two bonds is therefore

½kl [2 (~/~)2] = ½F~312 (23)

~12=Fx/2kl (24)

For a variationof Is the displacement components (equation 17) are

~x=cos 0~13; ~y=-sinO6la (25>

Hence

½kx '[2 (81s)2] = ½ (F~ cos 0 - Fu sin #)Sls (26)

81s = ~ 1 (F ~ cos 0 - Fu sin 0) (27)

**Equations (22), (24) and (27) represent the changes in each of the
**

independent length variables due to the action of the applied forces. The

284

CALCULATIONS OF ELASTIC MODULI OF POLYMER CRYSTALS: II

**total displacement components due to the three variables together are
**

~x ~x ~x )

8x= ffi~ ~l, + -~2~12+ ff~381*

(28)

~y ~y ~y

~y = ~ ~l~+ ~ ~12+ ~ ~I~

**Introducing the above values of ~l 1, 812 and 813 together with values of the
**

partial derivatives obtained from (17), the result is

1

~x = ~ ' [ ( F . cos O+ F~ sin 0) cos 0 + F. + (F. cos 0 - Fu sin 0) cos 0]

1 (2cos20+ 1)F~= 3---F (29)

- 2kl 4k~

:since cos 2 0 = 1/4. Similarly

~y [(Fx cos,0+ F~ sin 0) sin O- (F~ cos 0 - F~ sin 0) sin 0]

1 3

= ~ (2 sin ~ O)F~ = ~ F~ (30)

since sin 2 0 = 3/4.

Total deformation

The total deformation due to the combined effects of the angular and

length variables is obtained by summation of their individual contributions.

In terms of the components of displacement ~xx and Ay in the x and y

directions we have therefore, from (11) and (16) with (29) and (30)

respectively

&x= [ ~12+ ~ 3 I Fx and A y = [ ~l'+

~ T k - 3~ 3 F= (31)

**The resultant displacement is the vector sum of the two component
**

,displacements. Since each of the displacement components is related to

the corresponding force component by the same factor of proportionality,

it follows that the resultant displacement ~s is in the direction of the

resultant force F, and is given by

8s=E I4-~+~-[~3F (31a)

This result will be applied in the calculations which follow.

VALUES OF FORCE C O N S T A N T S

The values of bond stretching and valence angle deformation constants

given in Table 1 will be used. The latter may be expressed in terms of

either the couple k, per unit change of angle, or the force k~ acting at the

extremities of the associated bonds, per unit linear displacement. As

shown in Part I, kp=kJP.

285

L. R. G. TRELOAR

**Table 1. Values of force constants
**

k x (stretching) k~,(bending) k~ = 1112kp

Bond (dyn/crn) Re/. Angle Re/. (dyn cm rad. -1)

(dyn/em)

-T --F-

C---C 4"36 x l0 s C---C--O 0'524 x 105 1.105x 10-ix

(paraffin)

C---O 4'54 x 105 C--O~ 0"432 x 105 0"883 x10-11

C--C 7"620 x 105 4 C---C----C 0"661 x 105 4 1"29~x 10-I1

(arom.) (arom.)

@-; 1'064 × 103 2"523 x 10-Ix

**The C---O stretching constant and the C--O----C bending constant were
**

calculated from data for ether quoted by Herzberg 5, using his equations

(II 190, 191). The C - - C - - O bending constant was derived from the data

of Cross and van Vleck 5 for ethyl alcohol, their value being slightly modified

to correspond with the definition used in the present paper (approximately,

k~ = 2k3 in Cross and van Vleck's notation). The last constant in the table

is equivalent to the constant kv defined by equation (1). This was calculated

from the frequency of vibrations (347 cm-1) for the CH3 group in toluene

recorded by PlylerL

NUMERICAL C A L C U L A T I O N S

The chain axis passes through the centre of the ring and the mid-points of

the CH2--CH2 bonds (Figure 1). Since the repeating unit has a centre

of symmetry at the centre of the ring, it is sufficient to calculate the

deformation of one half of the unit only. This will include one half of

the ring and one half of the terminal CHs--CH2 bond. The contributions

to the total deformation due to (a) bond stretching (excluding the benzene

ring), (b) the benzene ring (bond stretching and valence angle deformation)

and (c) valence angle deformation (excluding the benzene rin D will be

calculated separately.

**Bond stretching (excluding benzene ring)
**

As in the treatment of nylon in Part I, the deformation due to bond

stretching is calculated from the formula

8LI=F/_,

S'cos2

~

0,

(32)

**where 0~ is the inclination of a particular bond to the chain axis. With
**

the values of bond length given in Figure 1, and assuming tetrahedral valence

angles, the bond inclinations have two values only, namely,

0x=21°34 ', cos281=0"8650, for bonds (1,2), (3,4) and (4,5)

02=48 ° 58", cos202=0"4310, for bonds (0,1) and (2,3)

For half the C---C bond (0,1) we have

1058L/F = ½(0"4310/4.36)= 0-04948 c m / d y n

For the C---O bond (1,2)

1038L/F = 0"8650/4.54 = 0" 19053 cm [dyn

286

C A L C U L A T I O N S OF ELASTIC M O D U L I OF P O L Y M E R CRYSTALS: I1

For the O---C bond (2,3)

**1053L/F=0.4310/4"54 =0"0949, c m / d y n
**

For the C----C bond (3,4)

**1053L/F = 0"8650/4"36 = 0"19839 c m / d y n
**

The total deformation due to bond stretching (excluding the benzene

ring) is therefore

1053L1/F = 0"5333 c m / d y n (33)

Benzene ring

The formula (31a) gives directly the contribution of the ring (arising

from both bond stretching and angular deformation) to the extension of

the chain due to a force F acting along the chain axis. For the half-ring

we have 3L2 = 3s/2, and therefore (since l~/4k, = kp/4),

F°25 0-75q

1053L2/F=½ L0.-~61 + 7.620-1 =0.2383 c m / d y n (34)

**Valence angle deformation (excluding benzene ring)
**

The general method of handling the deformation of valence angles was

discussed fully in Part I, with particular reference to the nylon chain. The

same method is applied here to the deformation of the angles ~ , ~ , ~3, and

7 (Figure 1). If d~ is the distance of the vertex i from the chain axis, the

couple acting on the angle ~ is F x d , and the angular deformation is

F×ddk~, where k~ is the angular deformation constant. The changes

b0~ in bond inclination are calculated assuming one particular bond to be

fixed, and superimposing the effects of the successive changes 3~. In the

present case the bond (0,1) is arbitrarily fixed. We have then

30o~= 0

(35)

30,5 = + ~;03~- 37

**The values of dr and the corresponding values of 3ff~calculated on the basis
**

of the angular deformation constants listed in Table 1 are shown in Table 2.

Knowing the changes in bond inclination, the contribution to the axial

Table 2

Angle 10s di 10-2 3~t/F 10 -2 80~/F - 10a I sin 01(80JF)

Bond

(Fig. I) (cm) (rad./dyn) (rad./dyn) (cm/dyn)

0"5620 +5"084 0"00 o 0"00 o

~2 --0"032 s --0'37 t (1, 2) - 5'086 + 2"691

¢3 1"0436 +9"444 (2, 3) + 5"45r -5-514

T 0"4961 + 1"960 (3,4) - 14.901 +8-15 s

½(4, 5) - 16"86~ +8"36~

287

L.R.G. TRELOAR

**extension of the chain due to valence angle deformation is obtained by
**

summation of the individual contributions from each bond, according to

the formula,

~Ls = - ~ I sin 0~~0~ (36)

**The calculated values of - l sin 0 ~ , are given in Table 2. The resultant
**

total deformation due to the distortion of valence angles, obtained by

summation of the figures in the last column, is

IOSSL3/F= 1-3700 cm/dyn (37)

Calculation of modulus

The longitudinal modulus E is given by the formula

E _ F/A

- 8L/L (38)

where ~L is the total increase of length in the chain direction associated

with the tensileforce F, A is the effectivecross-sectionalarea of the chain

and L the axiallength considered.

Combining the separate increments of length due to bond stretching,

ring deformation and valence angle distortion given by (33), (34) and (37)

above, we obtain,

~L/F =0"5333 + 0-2383 + 1"370o=2"141e x I0-s cm/dyn

The half-lengthof the repeating unit (L) for the planar molecule, with the

bond lengths shown in Figure I, is 5"35 A. The cross-sectionalarea A is

equal to the volume of the unit cell divided by the length of the c-axis,

which from the data of Daubeny, Bunn and Brown is 219/I0-70=20'5 A ~.

Insertion of these figures into (38) yields the value of modulus,

E = 1"219 x I0 '2dyn/cm ~ (39)

DISCUSSION

The only previous calculation of the modulus of the Terylene crystal

available in the literature is that of Lyonss, which yielded the not very

different figure of 1.46× 101~dyn/cmL This close agreement, however,

is purely coincidental, since the two treatments differ quantitatively in

important respects, some of which have been discussed in detail in Part I.

In the present problem there is the additional complication of the defor-

mation of the benzene ring, which is here subjected to a more exact analysis

than in the treatment of Lyons.

In considering the significance of calculations of this kind it must again

be emphasized that the effect of forces other than primary valence forces

is ignored, and that in the absence of any estimate of the effect of such

forces it is not possible to assess the reliability of the calculations. Also,

in the present problem, the assumption of a planar configuration of the

chain will tend to give too high a value of modulus.

Apart from these theoretical defects, the uncertainty of the experimental

data for the force constants must be borne in mind.

288

CALCULATIONS OF ELASTIC MODULI OF POLYMER CRYSTALS: II

**It has been pointed out by Lyons that his calculated value of modulus
**

is higher than typical experimental values of modulus for Terylene fibres

by a factor of at least 10. This difference is attributed to the presence of a

non-crystalline component, and to the imperfect orientation of the crystallites

in the fibre. H e also refers to the close agreement between his calculated

modulus and the crystal modulus derived experimentally from X - r a y

measurements of the change of lattice spacing with stress by Dulmage and

Contois 9, namely 1 "37 x 1012 d y n / c m 2. These comparisons remain valid for

the calculated value derived in the present paper.

**The author wishes to make acknowledgments to Dr I. Mann for valuable
**

discussions in the preparation of this paper. The work forms part of a

programme of research undertaken by the British Rayon Research

Association.

**British Rayon Research Association,
**

Heald Green Laboratories,

W yt hens hawe ,

Manchester

(Received 3rd January, 1960)

REFERENCES

**I TRELOAR, L. R. G. Polymer, 1960, 1, (1), 95
**

2 D^UB~rY, R. DE P., BUNN, C. W. and BROWN,C. J. Proc. roy. Soc. A, 1954, 226,

531

3 RASMUSSEN,R. S. I. chem. Phys. 1948, 16, 712

WHIFFEN,D. H. Phil. Trans. roy. Soc. 1956, 248, 131

5 HERZaERG,G. In/tared and Rttman Spectra, Van Nostrand, New York, 1945, p. 354

e CROSS, P. C. and VANVLECK,J. H. J. chem. Phys. 1933, 1, 350

7 PLYLER,E. K. Disc. Faraday Soc. 1950, 9, 100

s LYONS,W. J. J. appl. Phys. 1958, 29, 1429

9 DULMAGE, W. J. and Cotcrols, L. E. J. Polym. Sci. 1958, 28, 275

289

- TB family with usermatUploaded byAhmed
- Work Energy PowerUploaded bynyumnam
- IFAC- Crack Tip Strain on Ship and in Situ Measurement in ShipyardsUploaded byJasmina Lozanović Šajić
- Assignment 1 - Work and Strain Energy - 2016Assignment 1 - Work and Strain Energy - 2016Uploaded byZakir Muradali
- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 8Uploaded byJaspal Singh
- AWS100 Ch08 ResultsUploaded byRebeca Garzon
- Work Power Energy EtoosUploaded byT sidharth
- 6.txtUploaded bygiovanni
- concept of electrostatics.docxUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- On the Definition of State Variables for an Internal State Variable Constitutive ModelUploaded byRené Mora-Casal
- WORK POWER ASNUploaded byAdarsh Dhawan
- Typical Design for Type b1Uploaded byGanesh Prabu
- emd_part3Uploaded bykgrhoads
- Engineering Mechanics StaticsUploaded byJignesh Bhatt
- Linear BeamUploaded byGogy
- Chapter 1 SolutionsUploaded byjeffpascua17
- FHWA-ICTUploaded byJohn
- CH1.PDFUploaded byteknikpembakaran2013
- Lightweight structuresUploaded byIuliaVicol
- Abaqus Theory ManualUploaded byMehdi Taheri
- CE6402_uwUploaded byAishwarya
- Flu Mech Class Notes Slot gUploaded byBharathh Kuumar Pothuraju
- Microsoft Word - L03_AUDJG_2007.pdfUploaded byHussein Zein
- Chip FormationUploaded bysanthoshjoys
- FE-Lab-1.pdfUploaded bykhudhayer1970
- Small QuestionsUploaded byursaravana
- Brick Masonry PropertiesUploaded byKali Bahadur Shahi
- EnergyUploaded byismun nadhifah
- Chapter 8_Work and EnergyUploaded bysheil.cogay
- Finite Element Analysis of Skew Curved Rc Box Girder BridgeUploaded byTran Tien Dung

- YESIMUploaded byapi-3733260
- weiUploaded byapi-3733260
- wortmannUploaded byapi-3733260
- yannasUploaded byapi-3733260
- zeronianUploaded byapi-3733260
- yearsUploaded byapi-3733260
- Anne_Hooper_s_Kama_Sutra._Classic_Lovemaking_techniques_reinterpeted_for_today_s_loversUploaded byapi-3733260
- warwickerUploaded byapi-3733260
- yangUploaded byapi-3733260
- wangUploaded byapi-3733260
- yeoUploaded byapi-3733260
- WETTONUploaded byapi-3733260
- wortUploaded byapi-3733260
- WOOLUploaded byapi-3733260
- whiteUploaded byapi-3733260
- tereneUploaded byapi-3733260
- treloarUploaded byapi-3733260
- strUploaded byapi-3733260
- stattonUploaded byapi-3733260
- vershUploaded byapi-3733260
- stressUploaded byapi-3733260
- vijayanUploaded byapi-3733260
- stearneUploaded byapi-3733260
- VSUBRAMUploaded byapi-3733260
- ugbolueUploaded byapi-3733260
- tsurUploaded byapi-3733260
- taborUploaded byapi-3733260
- vinisUploaded byapi-3733260
- t6Uploaded byapi-3733260
- ULLMANUploaded byapi-3733260