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Book Reviews

Functional monomers Polymer spectroscopy
Edited by R. H. Yocum and E. B. N/quist Edited by D. O. Hummel
Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973, Vol 1, 715 pp. Verlag Chemic, Weinheim, 1974, 401 pp. DM 125
$39.50; 1974, Vol 2, 817 pp. $46.50
The book is intended for practising chemists and spectroscopists
In these two volumes, written and edited by six members of the Dow concerned with polymers in industry and in universities. Apart from
Chemical Company staff, one obviously benefits from the technical diffraction techniques, spectroscopic methods offer the main means
and information resources of a large organization, resulting in a of elucidating the structures of polymers: these methods have been
competent and comprehensive review. The title refers to monomers brought together here. The chapter entitled Vibrational spectroscopy
which undergo addition polymerization and, which although gene- is sub-divided into the contributions: Vibrational analysis of highly
rally used only in small amount in relation to other polymerizable ordered polymers by H. Tadokoro and M. Kobayashi; Applied infra-
compounds, introduce into the final polymers groups capable o f red spectroscopy by D. O. Hummel; Raman spectroscopy by P. J.
further modification or reaction so as to provide specific properties Hendra; at 180 pages this is the longest chapter. The remaining
such as ability to crosslink, modified surface behaviour, or enhanced chapters are High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectros-
solubility, adhesion or dye receptivity. Thus the subject is onewhich copy by E. Klesper and G. Sielaff (95 pages); Electron spin reso-
will have appeal to a wide range of readers, many of whom are con- nance by H. Fisher, D. O. Hummel, H. D. Schtlddemage and K.
cerned with preparation and polymerization or with macromolecular Rtibenacker (31 pages). The size of the articles is in direct propor-
design and behaviour to meet specific end-uses. tion to the importance and level of treatment given to the various
The chapters in both volumes show commendable uniformity in branches of spectroscopy. The book is well printed and bound and
treatment and include sections on synthesis, chemical reactions, it is profusely illustrated: there is a subject but not a name index.
physical properties and polymerizability, technical applications and The scientific literature is cluttered with spectroscopic compendia
some, but probably far from complete, commercial information claiming to give special insight into some topic but mainly they
regarding suppliers and costs. Much of the information on structure, represent well-documented basic material. This book, however,
synthesis and properties is summarized and presented in tabular rarely deviates from its intended purpose of describing the applica-
form, thus providing for quick review and reference. At the end of tions of spectroscopic methods to polymer systems. Thus the
each chapter there are many hundreds of references to the relevant reviewer can recommend the book to anyone interested in the struc-
literature which serve to bring the subjects up to early 1970, although tural aspects of polymers L.H. Sutcliffe
as the editors indicate, in an area such as this where scientific and
technical advance is rapid, the books cannot be regarded as the last
word. However, they will obviate the need for much time-consum-
ing literature searching and for this reason alone could be welcomed. Structured polymer properties
In the first volume are four chapters dealing with acrylamide and
other a,/3-unsaturated amides; reactive halogen-containing mono- R. J. Samuels
mers (but excluding for very obvious reasons vinyl and allyl halides John Wiley, New York, 1974, 251 pp. £10.60
and chloroprene); hydroxy monomers such as hydroxyalkyl acrylic
esters, allyl alcohol, N-methylolacrylamides; and ethylene-, allyl-
and styrene-sulphonic acids and 2-sulphoethyl methacrylate. The This book aims to present a unified approach to the quantitative
second volume comprises three chapters on reactive heterocyclic correlation of crystalline polymer structure with both fabrication
monomers co ntaining three, five and six-membered rings (thus cover- and end use property behaviour, in such a way that it will be of
ing compounds such as glycidyl methacrylate, allyl glycidyl ether, interest to polymer physicists, chemists and engineers as well as
vinyl o xazolidones and pyrazo les, vinyMne carbonate, and unsatu- advanced course students.
rated dioxolanes - vinyl pyridine and maleic anhydride are more Following a short introductory chapter on the nature of crystal-
adequately dealt with in later chapters); acidic monomers based on linity in polymers with special reference to polypropylene, a second
maleic, fumaric, itaconic and erotonic acids; and basic monomers chapter is devoted to details of techniques used in the characteriza-
such as the vinyl pyridines and aminoalkyl acrylates and methacry- tion of polycrystalline polymer structure including those of wide
lates. angle X-ray diffraction, sonic modulus, birefringence, infra-red
Apart from some omissions in the compounds covered, e.g., dichroism and small angle light scattering in the context of actual
reactive vinyl esters like the chloroacetate, N-substituted maleimides application. The third chapter concerns structural interpretation of
and vinyl propiolactone, the several types of functional monomer the fabrication processes for polypropylene film and fibre formation.
are well represented and the more important ones considered very The last chapter which precedes some concluding remarks deals with
fully. Particular aspects of preparation and manufacture, reactions, the quantitative correlation of polymer structure with end-use pro-
polymerization behaviour, and properties receive detailed attention, perties, using polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as
although discussion is generally based on the publications concerned examples.
and there may be a lack of critical review of some of the references The overall impression of this book is that it is authoritative
or expert appraisal of some of the technical information, particularly reflecting a great deal of the author's personal experience as an indus-
that based on patent disclosures. trial and academic scientist. Indeed so much does the impression
Lay-out of the text, formulae and binding are good but the come through, occasionally as in say, chapter 3 where coded refe-
printed format relies on photoreduced typescript of only moderate rence to polymer samples used, one almost has the feeling of reading
contrast which compares unfavourably with conventional type. an original paper. On the other hand, experimental details of tech-
Again, the numbering systems used for compounds, reactions and nique provide an air of conviction from which the most casual
references can lead to some confusion. There are some errors in the reader can only presume an expert acquaintance of the author with
typescript but these are generally of a minor nature. Author and his subject. Despite one or two minor irritations such as a suggestion
subject indexes are included although the latter seem to be quite for further reading to a book still in preparation or a different type
inadequate in view of the comprehensive nature of the work, and face for the index compared with the main text, the book appears
fuller itemization would have been an advantage. to be remarkably free from errors and its easy style makes it most
The volumes are, perhaps understandably, somewhat expensive readable.
(together they amount to $86, equivalent to some £36) but to those The book is particulalry recommended to workers in the general
interested in the preparation, reactions and uses of the monomers as well as specific field and to more advanced students. Other
or in technical applications of derived polymers and copolymers, readers may have some difficulty in appreciating the significance of
they are a worthwhile investment, providing a well informed source the account in the broader area ot~ polymeric materials as a whole,
of information and means of rapid reference. Many academic and although after reading the book they would then be well armed to
industrial workers will find it useful to have access to these books. seek this significance.
R. d. W. Reynolds R. P. Sheldon

Typeset by Mid-County Press, London SW19
472 POLYMER, 1975, Vol 16, June Printed by Kingprint Ltd, Richmond, Surrey