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THE SPIRALITY OF THE SINGLE JERSEY FABRICS AND ITS EFFECT

ON THE GARMENTS
F. CEKEN
Dokuz Eylul University Engineering Fac. Textile Eng. Department Bornova-Izmir/TURKEY

1. Introduction

The single jersey knitted structures, used widely in knitted garments, cause some problems,
because of their unbalanced structures. The most important problem of the single jersey structure is
fabric spirality, which affects all the fabric and creates big problems at the clothing step. It affects
the garment as the displacements of the side seams and this causes an important quality problem.
This problem is prevented during the finishing and dyeing processes by different methods, however
these preventions are temporary and after washing processes, on the clothes the displacement of
side seam is occurred.

In this study previous studies are examined. Different angles of spirality were measured at
different tightness factors on the fabrics, knitted by using open-end and ring yarns. After that, for
investigating the effects of the spirality on the garments, t-shirts are produced and after washing
processes, the displacements of side seams are measured.

2. Literature

Başer and Çeken [1] produced knitted fabrics on hand knitting machines to research the
effects of yarn properties on fabric spirality by using acrylic and cotton yarns with two different
yarn counts and four different twist factors at different tightness factors. As a result the most
important factor that affects the fabric spirality on acrylic and cotton knitted fabrics is observed as
twist liveliness. It is observed that the angle of spirality is decreasing on knitted fabrics, when yarns
are fixed with vapor.

At the same time by using two-ply yarns, the spirality is prevented, because the twist direction
of the two-ply yarn is opposite to the twist of one-ply yarn. On the other hand using fine yarns and
slack fabrics, it is observed that on knitted fabrics the angle of spirality is very high.

Araujo and Smith [2] investigated the spirality on single jersey fabrics, by using
Cotton/Polyester yarns with different yarn counts and twist factors, which are produced with
different spinning techniques. It is observed that the twist liveliness of %100 cotton is higher than
the 50/50 Co/PES knitted fabrics.

They observed that, 50/50 Ring Co/PES yarns have higher twist factor than the % 100 Cotton
yarns, for this reason the blended yarns have lower twist liveliness. 50/50 Co/PES yarns produced
with open-end technique and air jet spun technique have lower twist factor than the % 100 Cotton
yarns, so the fabrics with blended yarns have lower twist liveliness. In friction spinning %100
Cotton yarns’ twist factor reaches its maximum value.

Related with the spinning techniques, the angles of spirality from the biggest to the smallest
values in %100 Co knitted fabrics are observed in friction spinning, ring, open-end and air jet
spinning techniques respectively. The angles of spirality in 50/50 Co/PES knitted fabrics are
observed as the smallest in air jet end open-end spinning techniques.
Tao, Dhingra, Chan and Abbas [3] are investigated the spirality on single jersey fabrics. They
used ring yarns with four different yarn counts and four different twist factors. Before knitting
processes, they fixed yarn for 30 minutes with vapor. They observed a linear relation between the
spirality and the twist factor. The fabrics which are knitted with high twisted yarns have great
angles of spirality. At the same time they have high correlation coefficients between the spirality
and the tightness factors. At different twist factors, the angles of spirality are getting lower when the
tightness factor is getting higher.

After wet relaxation state, the angles of spirality are increased, after washing and drying state
the angles of spirality are increased more than the wet relaxation state.

3. Material and Method

3.1 Material

The properties of 30 Ne Open-end and ring cotton yarns are given on Table 1.

Open-End Ring
Yarn count(x = Ne) 28,67 29,66
Twist (x = T/m) 713,5 910,35
Tensile strength (x) 187,72 319,6
Extension (x = mm) 18,664 17,34
Elongation at break(x = %) 9,33 8,674
Twist liveliness* 9,04 24,7
%U 12,77 12,54
Thin places (-%50) 112,5 5
Thick places (+%50) 132,5 285
Neps (+%200) 60 387,5
* Twist liveliness: The tendency of a 1 meter yarn to turn on itself

Table 1. The properties of ring and open-end yarn

3.2 Method

These open-end and ring yarns are knitted on a single jersey knitting machine (72 systems,
24” diameter and 28 gauge).The knitted fabrics are first dry relaxed and then wet relaxed and first
washing (60 °C) process is applied. After washing process, four t-shirts are sewn from every fabric.
Totally 24 t-shirts are produced. Second washing process is applied to the t-shirts. This process is
repeated two times. After each relaxation and washing processes, the angles of fabric spirality are
measured. After the third washing cycle, no change is observed on the angle of spirality of the
fabrics. So the fabrics are assumed as relaxed.

3.2.1 Measurement of the Loop Length

100 wales are counted on each dry relaxed knitted sample. 10 courses were unraveled from
these samples and every courses average length was measured by putting a 10 gr weight on the
underside.

Smirfitt [3] determined that 10 gr load helps to open the curls of the unraveled yarns, but not
give an additional extension. These average lengths are divided by 100, which is the total wale
number and the loop length is calculated.
3.2.2 Measurement of the Angle of Spirality

Measuring the angle of spirality, firstly by using colored yarn on the knit courses, the
measuring areas are determined. It is taken into consider that for every fabric the measuring areas
should be in the same limits. Spirality is measured from 10 points (5 front and 5 back of the fabric).
The angle of spirality is measured by using a protractor between the specific course direction,
signed by using a colored yarn and the wale direction, which is followed from this course direction.
This test is applied according to the IWS276 test method. The angle of spirality (θ) method is
shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. Measurement of the angle of spirality Figure 2. The displacement of side seam of the
sewn knitted fabrics after washing.

After washing processes, the effect of the spirality to the side seams of the sewn goods is
observed. For this observation, first of all, the fabrics are cut on the dimensions of 34x40 cm, side
seaming are overlock stitches, and hem seaming are cover stitches. During the side seaming, it is
taken into consider that the direction of the stitches for every sample to be the same direction. In
Fig. 2, as it is shown that point A, 7.5 cm above the hem, is signed by a permanent pencil. Point B
is signed 25 cm above the point A, which is perpendicular to B. Then washing process is applied to
the sample. After this process, point A is displaced and point A′ takes place the point A. Measuring
AA′ distance with a ruler, it gives the effect of the spirality to the side seaming ‘see Fig. 2’.

4. Test Results and Discussion

After every relaxation type, the angles of spirality, which are measured on the fabrics knitted
by ring and open-end yarns, are given in Table 2 and 3.

Angle of Spirality (˚)
Dry relaxed Wet relaxed 1.Washing (60˚C) 2.Washing (80˚C) 3.Washing (80˚C)
(Sewn samples) (Sewn samples)
Ring (l=0,229cm) 4,68 4,1 4,9 7,9 7,9
Ring (l=0,262cm) 6,71 5,05 6,1 9,3 9,5
Ring (l=0,282cm) 8,07 10,25 10,9 10,95 11,0
l =loop length

Table 2. The measurement of the angle of spirality on the fabrics knitted with ring yarns.

Angle of Spirality (˚)
Dry relaxed Wet relaxed 1.Washing (60˚C) 2.Washing (80˚C) 3.Washing (80˚C)
(Sewn samples) (Sewn samples)
O.E (l=0,255cm) 4,78 4,3 5,0 5,5 5,65
O.E (l=0,279cm) 5,48 4,3 5,65 7,0 7,1
O.E (l=0,303cm) 5,7 4,5 5,05 9,0 9,05
l =loop length

Table 3. The measurement of the angle of spirality on the fabrics knitted with open-end yarns.
The correlation coefficients between the angles of spirality and the loop lengths are given in
Table 4 and 5.
Loop Length (l) Dry relaxed Wet relaxed 1.Washing (60˚C) 2.Washing (80˚C) 3.Washing (80˚C)
(Sewn samples) (Sewn samples)
0,229cm 4,68 4,1 4,9 7,9 7,9
0,262cm 6,71 5,05 6,1 9,3 9,5
0,282cm 8,07 10,25 10,9 10,95 11,0
Correlation 0,999634 0,867667 0,88968 0,982386 0,99256
Coefficient

Table 4. The correlation coefficients between the angles of spirality and the loop lengths for
the fabrics knitted with ring yarns

Loop Length (l) Dry relaxed Wet relaxed 1.Washing (60˚C) 2.Washing (80˚C) 3.Washing (80˚C)
(Sewn samples) (Sewn samples)
0,255cm 4,78 4,3 5,0 5,5 5,65
0,279cm 5,48 4,3 5,65 7,0 7,1
0,303cm 5,7 4,5 5,05 9,0 9,05
Correlation 0,957503 0,866025 0,069116 0,986616 0,996415
Coefficient

Table 5. The correlation coefficients between the angles of spirality and the loop lengths for
the fabrics knitted with open end yarns

4.1 The Relations between the Tightness Factors and the Angle of Spirality

The angle of spirality of the knitted fabrics at different tightness factors and at different
relaxations are shown in Fig. 3, 4, 5 6 and 7. In Fig. 3 there is a linear relationship between the
angle of spirality and the loop length in dry relaxed fabrics, produced with ring yarns. In this state
the correlation coefficient is calculated as r=0.99.

10
Spirality Angle (Degree)

8

6
Ring
4 Open-End
2

0
0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3 0,325

Loop Length (l=cm)

Figure 3. The angle of spirality of the dry relaxed, ring and open-end fabrics at different
tightness factors.

For open-end yarns, firstly the angle of spirality is increased with the increasing of the loop
length and there is not any change through excessive slack settings. The strength of open-end yarns
is not enough to knit at very tight fabric settings. If open-end yarns could be knitted at the tightest
fabric settings, then a linear relationship could be determined. However a high correlation
coefficient (r=0.95) is determined between the relationships of the angle of spirality and the loop
lengths of the dry relaxed fabrics, which are produced with open-end yarns. This state shows that, in
the slackest fabric structures, the loops can easily rotate, so the angle of spirality is getting higher.
Also the tightest and the medium tightness factors of the open-end knitted fabrics are almost the
same with the medium and the slackest tightness factors of the fabrics knitted with ring yarns. But
at different tightness factors the highest angles of spirality in fabrics knitted with ring yarns,
comparing with the open-end yarns shows the effect of twist liveliness on spirality, while the twist
liveliness values are higher in fabrics knitted with ring yarns than open-end yarns.

In general at all relaxed states linear relationships between the loop length and angles of
spirality are observed. Only in the single jersey fabrics knitted with open-end yarns, the angles of
spirality are not much changed in wet relaxation state. After first washing process, there is a little
decrease in fabrics with the slackest tightness factor. However after the second and the third
washing cycles at 80°C, it is observed that the angles of spirality are increasing with the increasing
loop length. We can conclude that open-end knitted fabrics try to reach the full relaxation state after
these washing processes.

12
12

Spirality Angle (Degree)
10
Spirality Angle (Degree)

10
8
8
Ring
Ring 6
6 Open-End
Open-End
4 4

2 2

0 0
0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3 0,325 0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3 0,325

Loop Length (l=cm) Loop Length (l=cm)

Figure 4. The angles of spirality of the wet Figure 5. After 1. washing process (80°C ),
relaxed, ring and open-end fabrics at the angles of spirality of the dry relaxed,
different tightness factors. ring and open-end fabrics at different
tightness factors.

12 12
Spirality Angle (Degree)
Spirality Angle (Degree)

10 10

8 8
Ring Ring
6 6
Open-End Open-End
4 4
2 2

0 0
0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3 0,325 0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3 0,325

Loop Length (l=cm) Loop Length (l=cm)

Figure 6. After 2. washing process (80°C ), Figure 7. After 3. washing process (80°C ),
the angles of spirality of the dry relaxed, the angles of spirality of the dry relaxed,
ring and open-end fabrics at different ring and open-end fabrics at different
tightness factors. tightness factors.

4.2. The Variations of the Angles of Spirality according to the Relaxation Type

In Fig. 8 and 9 the angle of spirality variations of the single jersey fabrics at three different
tightness factors with different relaxation methods are shown. In general after dry relaxation, when
first wet relaxation applied, there is a little change in the angles of spirality. This result verifies the
opinions of Banerjee, P.K and Alaiban [5], that the knitted structure are getting tighter, as the cotton
yarns are swelled in wet relaxation, so the angles of spirality are decreased. This decrease did not
seen only in the slackest fabrics knitted with ring yarns (A=0,282 cm). This state shows that ring
spun yarns having higher twist liveliness comparing to open-end yarn, have great spirality ability at
slack fabric construction. In single jersey fabric knitted in slack construction with high twisted yarn,
cotton fibers have enough space for spirality. But for open-end yarn, this state does not observed at
slack settings. It shows that there is twist liveliness factor effect on angle of spirality.
12 10
9
10
l = 0.229 cm
Spirality Angle (Degree)
8

Spirality Angle (Degree)
8 7
l = 0.262 cm
6 l = 0.255 cm
6 l = 0.282 cm 5 l = 0.279 cm
4 l = 0.303 cm
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3.
Relaxation Processes
Relaxation Processes

Figure 8.The variations of the angles of Figure 9. The variations of the angles of
spirality of the fabrics knitted with spirality of the fabrics knitted with
ring yarn according to the different open-end yarn according to the different
relaxation methods at different tightness relaxation methods at different tightness
factors factors

The wet relaxation process is not enough for reaching full relaxed states. As shown on figures,
increasing angles of spirality are observed in all samples by repeated washing processes at 60°C and
80°C. It can show that knitted fabrics could reach relaxed status after these repeated washing
processes.

4.3. The Variations of the Angles of Spirality and the Displacements of the Side Seams

After first washing process, in open-end and ring single jersey fabrics at three different
tightness factors, angle of spirality and also the displacement of the side seam values are
determined. The measurements are also repeated after second and third washing processes. In Table
6 the measured angle of spirality and also the displacement of the side seam values are given. After
the second washing process, it has been observed that the angles of spirality are increasing in open-
end and ring yarns. After the third washing process there is not much change.

After second washing process the relationships between the variations of the angles of
spirality and the displacements of the side seams are given in Fig. 10. After third washing, there is
not much difference between the values, so the figure of this process is not given.

Ring The angle of spirality variation Side seam value Open-End The angle of spirality variation Side seam
(l=cm) (between the 1. and 2.washing) X1 (mm) (l=cm) (between the 1. and 2. washing) value X1 (mm)
0,229 3 6,75 0,255 0,5 4,375
0,262 3,2 5,75 0,279 1,35 6,75
0,282 0,05 4,75 0,303 3,85 11,25
Correlation Coefficient 0,836284 Correlation Coefficient 0,994958

Table 6. After washing processes the variations in the angles of spirality and the displacement
of the side seam values
12

Side Seam Spirality Values
10
8

(mm)
6 Ring

4 Open-End

2
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4

The Variation of the Spirality Angle
Values (Degree)

Figure 10. After second washing process the relationships between the variations of the angle
of spirality and the displacements of the side seam

Regular increases at the displacements of the side seam of the single jersey fabrics, which are
knitted with open-end yarns at three different tightness factors, are observed. The same states are
also valid for the fabrics knitted with ring yarns for tight and medium tightness factors. While there
are no variations only at the angle of spirality (10.9 °C) of knitted fabric with the slackest tightness
factor and also after the second washing process (10.95 °C), the side seam value is also at the
lowest value (4.75 mm). Because of this, there is a little decrease at the last point of the Fig. 10.

5. Conclusion

In general the angle of spirality values are decreasing, when the tightness factor values are
getting tight (loop length is decreasing) in the all knitted fabric samples. In slack knitted fabric
structures, the loop can easily find an area to rotate, so spirality is increasing.

The spirality angle of the fabrics, knitted with ring yarns are very high comparing with the
fabrics knitted with open-end yarns. This shows the effect of the spirality on twist liveliness.
Because the twist liveliness of the ring yarns used in producing single jersey fabrics is higher than
the open-end yarns used in producing single jersey fabrics.

After wet relaxation process there is little decrease in the angles of spirality of the single
jersey fabrics, however after washing processes the angles of spirality are increased. After 3rd
washing process no change is observed. Namely the angles of spirality of the knitted fabrics are
increasing to reach the full relaxation state.

After 1st washing process, the spirality and the the displacement of side seam values of the
single jersey t-shirts are measured. In general the angle of spirality of all the samples is increased
with washing cycles and because of this the side seam spiralities are also increased. After 3rd
washing cycle, it has been observed that there is no change in the angle of spirality and also the
displacement of the side seams. This result shows us at full relaxed state, the displacement values of
side seam does not occur, because the similarity of the angle values of spirality between two
washing processes.

References:
[1] Başer, G. and Çeken, F., 1985, E.U. Müh. Fak. Dergisi, Volume:3, Page:2
[2] De Araujo, M.D. and Smith, G.W., 1989, Textile Research Journal, 59, 247-256.
[3] Tao, J., Dhingra, R., C., Chan, C., K., Abbas, M.,S., 1997, Tex. Res. Journal,67,57-68.
[4] Smirfitt, J.A., 1965, Journal of Textile Institute, 56, 248.
[5] Banerjee, P.K., Alaiban, 1988, Textile Research Journal, 58, 123-128.