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# Soalan Fokus SPM 2009 set 2

1. Diagram 4 shows a bar magnet is hung on a spring that attached to a retort stand. The bar magnet
is displaced downwards and released so it can oscillate through a solenoid which is connected to a
centre-zero galvanometer.
retot. Bar magnet itu disesarkan ke bawah dan dilepaskan supaya ia boleh berayun melalui satu
solenoid yang disambungkan kepada sebuah galvanometer pusat-sifar.

Spring

Bar magnet
Magnet bar

Solenoid
Centre-zero galvanometer
Gavanometer pusat-sifar

Diagram 4
Rajah 4

(a). What is meant by electromagnetic induction?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan aruhan elektromagnet?

The process where induced current in conductor when the conductor experiences a change in
………………….……………………………………………………………………………
magnetic flux. [1 mark]

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(b). When the bar magnet move towards the solenoid, the galvanometer pointer deflect for a
while.
Bila magnet bar bergerak mendekati solenoid, jarum galvanometer terpesong seketika.

(i). Explain why the galvanometer pointer deflects?
Terangkan mengapa jarum galvanometer terpesong?

Solenoid experiences a change in magnetic field. E.m.f induced in the solenoid
……………………………………………………………................

…………………………………………………………………........
[2 marks]
(ii). State the polarity of end A and end B of the solenoid.

A :North pole
………………………………......................... ………………..

B : South pole
……………………………........................................................
[2 marks]

(c). If the spring is replaced by a stiffer spring,
Jika spring itu diganti dengan spring yang lebih keras,

(i). state the change to the angle of deflection of the galvanometer pointer?
nyatakan perubahan pada sudut pesongan jarum galvanometer itu?
Increase
…………………………………………………………………........
[1 mark]
Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda.
The magnitude of induced current increases
………………….……………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]

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2. (a) Diagram 7.1 shows a resistance against temperature graph for a thermistor.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan graf rintangan melawan suhu untuk satu termistor.

Resistance / Ω
Rintangan / Ω

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5
-----------------------------------------

1.0

0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Temperature / o C
Diagram 7.1 Suhu / o C

(i) State how the resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature ?
Nyatakan bagaimana rintangan termistor berubah dengan suhu?
The resistance of the thermistor increases, when temperature increases
………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

(ii) What is the resistance of the thermistor at 30 oC . Show on the graph how you
determine the value of resistance.

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Apakah rintangan termistor pada suhu 30oC. Tunjukkan di atas graf bagaimana
rintangan ditentukan.
1.35 ohm
…………..…………………………………………………………..
[2 mark]

(b) A thermistor and a light dependence resistance (LDR) are used to make a simple switch
which control an air conditioner in a room as shown in Diagram 7.2.
Termistor dan perintang peka cahaya (PPC) digunakan untuk membina satu suis ringkas
yang m engawal penyaman udara di dalam sebuah bilik seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah
17.2.

0V
Thermistor
LDR
P AC ,240 V
R

Relay
Q Geganti
Air-conditioner
Penyaman

12V
Diagram 7.2

The air-conditioner is only activated either on a sunny day or at a hot night
Penyaman udara akan dihidupkan pada waktu siang dan pada malam yang panas.

Keys : Input P : during the day – logic “1”
Kunci : Input P : waktu siang – logik “1”

Input P: at night - logic “0”
Input P : waktu malam - logik “0”

Input Q : when hot - logic “1”
Input Q : apabila panas – logik “1”

Input Q : when cold - logic “0”
Input Q : apabila sejuk - logik “0”

Relay switch : switch on when output logic is “1”
Suis geganti : dihidupkan apabila logik output “1”

Relay switch : switch off when output logic “0”
Relay switch : dimatikan apabila logik“0”

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Table 7 shows a truth table operation indicates the logic gates which control the air-
conditioner system.
penyaman udara.

Input Output
Input Output
P Q R
0
0
0
0 1
1
1 1
0
1 1 1

Table 7

(i) Using the keys given, complete the table 7
Menggunakan kunci yang diberi, lengkapkan jadual 7.
[1 mark]

(ii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in Diagram 7.
Namakan get logik dalam litar pada Rajah 7.
OR gate
…………………………………………………………………........
[1 mark]

(iii) In the space below , draw a symbol of the logic gate in 7b(ii).
Dalam ruangan di bawah lukiskan simbol bagi get logic di 7b(ii).

[1 mark]

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(c) Diagram 7.3 shows a light dependent resistance, LDR, used in transistor circuit to control
a road lamp labeled 240 V. 100 W.
Rajah 7.3 menunjukkan perintang peka cahaya digunakan dalam litar transistor untuk
mengawal lampu jalan yang berlabel 240 V, 100 W
240 V

lamp
Relay
240V,100W

R1

6V

Diagram 7.3

At night the road lamp is switched on automatically.
Pada waktu malam lampu jalan dihidupkan secara automatik

(i) What is the function of resistor R1 ?
Apakah fungsi perintang R1 ?
To control the current flows into the base terminal
…………………………………………………………………........
[1mark]

(ii) Explain how the circuit function at night.
At night, no light fall on the LDR, resistance of LDR increases. As R
………………………………………………………………………
increases, the voltage of LDR increases. V Across the base circuit > Vmin,
this will switch on the transistor and collector circuit work.
………………………………………………………………………
[2 mark]

(iii) Why the lamp is not connected directly to the transistor circuit?
Mengapa lampu jalan itu tidak disambungkan terus pada litar transistor ?
The voltage 6 V in collector circuit will not light up the bulb.
……………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

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3. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows a relay used in an electrical circuit.
Rajah 8/1 menunjukkan satu geganti yang digunakan dalam satu litar elektrik.

Diagram 8.1

(i) What is the function of a relay?
Apakah fungsi geganti?
As an automatic switch to switch on the secondary circuit.
……………………………………………………………..…………………………
[1 mark]

(ii) Explain what will happen when an electric current flow in the main circuit?
Terangkan apakah yang akan berlaku apabila arus elektrik mengalir dalam litar
utama?

Relay coil will be an electromagnet attracts the soft iron coil armature. So the
………….…………………………………………………..…………………………
secondary circuit will be operated
………….…………………………………………………..…………………………
[2 mark]

(b) Diagram 8.2 shows a circuit consists of an automatic switch using a relay to switch on a
street light at night.
Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan satu litar yang terdiri daripada sau suis automatik menggunakan
geganti untuk menghidupkan satu lampu jalan pada waktu malam.

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Diagram 8.2
Rajah 8.2

(i) Name the component labeled Q.
Namakan komponen berlabel Q.

LDR
…………………………………………………..…………………………
[1 mark]

(ii) State the main characteristic for component Q.
Nyatakan ciri utama bagi komponen Q.
The resistance of LDR is low when the intensity of light is high.
…………………………………………………..…………………………
[1 mark]

(iii) Explain how the component Q light up the street light.
Terangkan bagaimana komponen Q menghidupkan lampu jalan.
At night, resistance, Q increases, voltage of Q increases.
…………………………………………………..…………………………
Ib increases, Ic increases. Relay is switch on.
…………………………………………………..…………………………

…………………………………………………..…………………………
[3 marks]

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(c) Diagram 8.3 shows a simple tsunami control system used to detect an earthquake and
eruption volcano at the sea bed which will produced tsunami.
Rajah 8.3 menunjukkan satu sistem kawalan tsunami ringkas yang digunakan untuk
mengesan gempa bumi dan letupan gunung berapi di dasar laut yang akan menghasilkan
tsunami.

Diagram 8.3
The circuit consists of vibration sensor, V, and water temperature sensor,T, at the sea bed.
The vibration and increase in temperature detected will produced signals which will be sent
to a logic gate and then to the tsunami operation detector room through the transmitter.
Litar adalah terdiri daripada pengesan gegaran, V, dan pengesan suhu air, T
di dasar laut. Gegaran dan kenaikan suhu air yang dikesan akan menghasilkan isyarat
yang akan dihantar kepada get logik dan seterusnya dihantar ke bilik operasi pengesan
tsunami melalui pemancar.

Keys ;
Kekunci;

Vibration sensor, V : With vibration Logic ‘1’
Pengesan gegaran, V : Dengan gegaran Logik ‘1’

Vibration sensor, V : Without vibration Logic ‘0’
Pengesan gegaran, V : Tiada gegaran Logik ‘0’

Water temperature sensor, T : High temperature Logik ‘1’
Pengesan suhu air, T : Suhu tinggi Logik ‘1’

Water temperature sensor, T : Low temperature Logik ‘0’
Pengesan suhu air, T : Suhu rendah Logik ‘0’

Output S : Radar is activated Logic ‘1’
Output S : Radar diaktifkan Logic ‘1’

Output S : Radar is deactivated Logic ‘0’
Output S : Radar is tidak diaktifkan Logic ‘0’

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Tsunami will occur when there is a vibration or change of high temperature at the sea bed.
Tsunami akan berlaku apabila terdapat gegaran atau perubahan suhu tinggi di dasar laut.

Table 8 is a truth table which shows the operation of the logic gate in the tsunami control
system.
kawalan tsunami.

V T S
0 0 0
0 1 1

1 0 1
1 1 1

Table 8

(i) Using the keys given, complete Table 8.
Menggunakan kekunci yang diberikan, lengkapkan jadual 8.
[2 marks]
(ii) Name the logic gate in the circuit in Diagram 8.3.
Namakan get logik dalam litar pada Rajah 8.3.
OR gate
…………………………………………………..…………………………
[1 mark]

(iii) In the space below, draw the logic gate symbol in 8 c(ii).
Pada ruangan di bawah, lukis simbol get logik dalam 8 c(ii).

[1 mark]
4. Diagram 3 shows a wet towel is placed on the forehead of a boy who has high fever.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan tuala yang basah diletakkan di atas dahi seorang budak lelaki yang
mengalami demam panas.

Diagram 3

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(a) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan terma?
Net heat flow is zero between two objects
……………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]
(b) Explain how a thermal equilibrium is achieved in Diagram 3.
Terangkan bagaimana keseimbangan terma tercapai dalam Rajah 3.
The initial temperature of cloth is lower than the body temperature. Heat
……………………………………………………………………………………..
energy is transferred until temperature is equal.
……………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks]
(c) The mass of water used to wet the towel is 0.3 kg and the specific heat capacity for water
is 4 200 J kg-1 oC-1 . The initial temperature of the towel is 30oC and the final temperature
is 38oC. Find the amount of heat energy from the boy is removed by the wet towel.
Jisim air yang digunakan untuk membasahkan tuala adalah 0.3 kg dan muatan haba tentu
air adalah 4 200 J kg-1 oC-1 . Suhu awal tuala adalah 30oC dan suhu akhir adalah 38oC.
Hitung jumlah tenaga haba yang telah dibebaskan daripada budak itu oleh tuala basah.

Heat energy, Q = mcθ
= 0.3 (4200) (38−30)
= 10080 J

[2 marks]
(d) What happens to the final temperature if the water used to wet the towel is mixed
with ice cubes?
Apakah yang berlaku kepada suhu akhir jika air yang digunakan untuk membasahkan
tuala dicampurkan dengan ketulan ais?

Decreases
……………………………………………………………………………………....
[1 mark]

5. Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two balloons A and B exerted with the same force .
Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan dua belon A dan B dikenakan daya yang sama.

Diagram 5.1 Diagram 5.2

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(a) What is meant by pressure ?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan tekanan ?

Perpendicular force acting on a unit area
………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark ]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2,
Berdasarkan Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2

(i) Which balloon will burst easily?
Belon manakah yang akan mudah pecah ?
Ballon B
………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark]

(ii) Compare the pressure exerted to the balloon
Bandingkan tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas belon.
Pressure needle is higher
……………………………………………………………………...............
[ 1 mark]
(iii) Compare the surface area of finger and needle which in contact with the balloon.
Bandingkan luas permukaan jari dan jarum yang bersentuh pada belon
The surface area of needle is smaller than finger
……………………………………………………………………………...
[ 1 mark]
(iv) Relate the pressure exerted on the balloon with the surface area
Hubungkaitkan antara tekanan yang dikenakan pada belon dengan luas
permukaan
The surface area decreases, the pressure increases
………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark]

(v) What happens to the pressure on the balloon if force exerted is increased?
Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas belon, jika daya
yang dikenakan bertambah ?
Increases
………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark]
(c) State the physics concept involved
Nyatakan konsep fizik yang terlibat dalam Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2
Pressure on force and surface
………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark]

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(d) State one application of physics’ concept in 5 (c) in our daily life
Nyatakan satu aplikasi konsep fizik dalam 5 (c) dalam kehidupan seharian kita

The handle of bag has large area/ The edge of knife's blade is small
………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark]

6. Diagram 2.1 shows a simple electromagnet.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan satu elektromagnet ringkas.

DIAGRAM 2.1

(a) What is the meaning of electromagnet?
Apakah maksud elektromagnet?
A temporary magnet when there is a flow of electric current.
……………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]

(b) When the switch is turned on ;
Bila suis dihidupkan ;

( i) draw the pattern of magnetic field on Diagram 2.1
lukis corak medan magnet pada Rajah 2.1
[1 mark]
(ii) state the magnetic pole at P
South pole
…………………………………………………………….......................
[1 mark]

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(iii) state what happens to the pin.
nyatakan apa yang berlaku kepada pin itu.
Attracted to iron nail
……………………………………………………………………………...
[1 mark]
(c) State one application of electromagnet.
Nyatakan satu kegunaan elektromagnet.
Magnetic lifting machine/ circuit breaker/ Electric bell
……………………………………………………………………………………...
[1 mark]

7. Diagram 8 shows an object, O with height 2 cm placed on the left side of a convex lens, X. The
focal length of the convex lens is 10 cm.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan satu objek,O dengan ketinggian 2 cm diletakkan di sebelah kiri kanta
cembung, X. Panjang fokus kanta cembung ini ialah 10 cm.

(a) In Diagram 8 draw the ray path from the object to form an image.
Pada Rajah 8 lukiskan lintasan sinar dari objek untuk membentuk imej.
[2 mark]

(b) State the characteristics of the image formed.
Nyatakan ciri-ciri imej yang terbentuk.
Inverted, diminished, real
………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

(c) If the object is placed at a distance 30 cm from the lens, calculate:
Jika objek diletakkan pada jarak 30 cm dari kanta, hitung:
(i) the image distance.
Jarak imej

1/f= 1/u+1/v
……………………………………………………………………………….
1/+10 =1/30 + 1/v [2 mark]
1/v = 1/15
v= 15 cm

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(ii) Linear magnification.
Pembesaran linear.
m = v/u =15/30 = 0.5
……………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(d) You are given another convex lens, Y with power 2 Diopter. You are required to create a
simple astronomical telescope using convex lenses X and Y.

Anda diberi satu kanta cembung yang lain, Y dengan kuasa 2 Diopter. Anda dikehendaki
mereka satu teleskop astronomi ringkas menggunakan kedua-dua kanta cembung X dan Y.

(i) Which lens is suitable to be objective lens and eyepiece?
Kanta manakah yang sesuai dijadikan kanta objek dan kanta mata?
convex lens Y
Objective lens: ………………………………
Kanta objek

Eyepiece convex lens X
: ………………………………
Kanta mata
[2 mark]

Berikan alasan bagi jawapan di ( d) (i).
Power of convex lens X higher than power of convex lens Y
………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

(e) Draw the arrangement of the lenses and sketch the ray path from distance object using
convex lenses X and Y to form a simple astronomical telescope.

Lukiskan susunan kanta dan lakarkan lintasan sinar dari satu objekyang jauh dengan
menggunakan kanta cembung X dan Y untuk membentuk satu teleskop astronomi ringkas.

[3 marks]

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8. Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show the parallel rays of light directed towards the convex lenses J
and K. Both the lenses produce real images. F is the focal point for each lens.
Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan sinar cahaya selari di tuju ke kanta-kanta cembung J dan
K. Kedua-dua kanta menghasilkan imej nyata. F ialah titik fokus untuk setiap kanta.

DIAGRAM 9.1

DIAGRAM 9.2

(a) (i) What is meant by focal length?
Apakah maksud panjang fokus? [1 mark]
Distance from the optical centre to a focal point
(ii) With reference to Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the thickness of the lenses and the
effects it has on the refracted rays to make a deduction regarding the relationship between the
thickness of the lenses and their focal length.
Merujuk kepada Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2, bandingkan ketebalan kanta dan kesan keatas
pembiasan cahaya untuk membuat satu kesimpulan tentang hubungan antara ketebalan dengan
panjang fokus.
[5 marks]
- Lens K is thicker than lens J.
- Light ray is refracted more in lens K than lens J.
- Focal length of lens K is shorter than lens J.
- Therefore the thicker the lens, the greater the refraction of light and with that, the shorter the focal
length of a lens will bee.
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(b) Diagram 9.3 shows the ray diagram of a simple microscope.
Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan gambar sinar bagi satu mikroskop ringkas.

Fe : Focal point of eyepiece.
Titik fokus kanta mata.
Fo : Focal point of objective lens.
Titik fokus kanta objektif.

DIAGRAM 9.3
RAJAH 9.3

(i) State the function of the eyepiece.
Nyatakan fungsi kanta mata. [1 mark]
As a magnifying glass
(ii) State the characteristics of the image formed by a microscope.
Nyatakan ciri-ciri imej yang dihasilkan oleh satu mikroskop.
Magnified, inverted, virtual [3 marks]
(c) You are given two convex lenses S and Q of different focal length. Lens S has a longer focal
length than lens Q.
Anda dibekalkan dua kanta cembung S dan Q yang berlainan panjang fokus. Kanta S mempunyai
panjang fokus yang lebih panjang daripada kanta Q.

(i) Using the two lenses above explain how are you would make a simple astronomical
telescope.
Dengan menggunakan dua kanta tersebut, terangkan bagaimana anda akan membina
sebuah teleskop astronomi ringkas. [4 marks]

(ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done on the telescope to produce clearer and bigger
images.
Answer c(i): menghasilkan imej yang lebih jelas dan lebih besar.
-Choose lens S as Objective lens Answer c(ii): [6 marks]
-Choose lens Q as eyepiece lens -Use low power convex lens as objective lens
-Lens S is placed in front of lens Q -The longer focal length, the bigger the magnification
-The two lenses are adjusted so that -Use high power convex lens as eye lens 17
they are in normal adjustment = fo + fe. -High power, lens has a shorter focal lens, fe, so magnification is high.
cont...
cont...
-Use bigger diameter of objective lens
-More light permitted to enter the telescope

9. Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show parallel rays are directed towards the lenses P and Q with
focal point F.
Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan sinar selari menuju permukaan kanta P dan Q dengan titik
fokus F.

Diagram 9.1 Diagram 9.2
Rajah 9.1 Rajah 9.2

(a) What is meant by focal point?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan titik fokus?
A point on principle axis where all parallel light ray will converge to it or diverge from it when through a lens[1 mark]
(b) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 , compare the thickness, the focal length and power of the
lens. Relate the thickness of the lens with the focal length to make a deduction regarding the
relationship between thickness of the lens and the power of lens.
Menggunakan Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2, bandingkan ketebalan, panjang focus dan kuasa
kanta tersebut. Hubungkaitkan ketebalan kanta dengan panjang fokus untuk membuat satu
deduksi tentang hubungan antara ketebalan dengan kuasa kanta.
[5 marks]
(c) Diagram 9.3 shows lens P is used as a magnifying glass.
Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan kanta P digunakan sebagai kanta pembesar.
-Lens in Diagram 9.2 is thicker
-Focal length in Diagram 9.1 is longer
-The power of lens in Diagram 9.1 is lower
-The thinner the lens, the longer the focal length
-The thinner the lens, the lower the power of lens.

Diagram 9.3
Rajah 9.3

(i) At which position the object should be placed so that lens P will acts as a magnifying
glass?
At object distance, u < focal length, f
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Pada kedudukan manakah objek patut diletakkan supaya kanta P bertindak sebagai
kanta pembesar?

(ii) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image formed by lens P in Diagram 9.3.
Lukiskan rajah sinar untuk menunjukkan pembentukan imej yang terbentuk oleh kanta P
dalam Rajah 9.3.
[4 marks]
(d) Diagram 9.4 shows a compound microscope.
Rajah 9.4 menunjukkan sebuah mikroskop majmuk.

Diagram 9.4

Using an appropriate physics concept, suggest and explain suitable modifications or ways to
enable the microscope to increase its efficiency and to form a brighter and clear image. Your
modifications can be emphasized on the following aspects;
Menggunakan konsep fizik yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau cara yang
boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan keberkesanannya bagi menghasilkan imej yang terang dan
jelas .. Pengubahsuaian anda boleh berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut:
• The selection of lens as objective lens and as an eyepiece
pemilihan kanta sebagai kanta objek dan kanta mata
• The position of the object
kedudukan objek
• The position of the eye piece
kedudukan kanta mata
• The distance between the objective lens and eyepiece
jarak antara kanta objek dan kanta mata
• Condition of the place to store the microscope

-Thin lens as objective lens and thick lens as eye lens
-So that focal length of objective lens is longer than eye lens
-Object must at 2f < u < f
-To produce real, inverted and magnified image
-Adjusted so that object distance, u < fe
-To produce virtual, inverted and bigger image
-Distance between lens > fo + fe
-To increase magnification
-Store in a cool and dry place
-To avoid formation of fungus at the lens
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10. Diagram 6.1 and 6.2 shows an experiment to determine the wavelength of monochromatic light
waves. Diagram 6.1 used a blue light source and Diagram 6.2 used a red light source.
Rajah 6.1 dan 6.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen dwicelah Young untuk menentukan panjang
gelombang cahaya monokromatik.
Rajah 6.1 menggunakan sumber cahaya berwarna biru manakala Rajah 6.2 menggunakan sumber
cahaya berwarna merah.

Blue fringe
Pinggir biru

Red fringe
Pinggir merah

screen
skrin

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The separation between two slits, a, and the distance between the double slit and the screen, D, in
both diagrams are constant. The dark and bright fringes are produced after the light passes through
the slit.
Pemisahan dua celah, a, dan jarak antara dwicelah dengan skrin dalam kedua-dua rajah, D,
dalam kedua-dua rajah adalah malar. Pinggir-pinggir gelap dan cerah dihasilkan setelah
cahaya merambat melalui celah.

(a). What is meant by monochromatic light?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan cahaya monokromatik?
The light which has one wavelength
………..………………………………………………………………………………
.[1 mark]

(b) Compare the wavelength of red light and blue light.
Tick (√ ) the correct answer in the box provided.
Bandingkan jarak gelombang cahaya merah dan cahaya biru.
Tanda (√ ) jawapan yang betul dalam petak yang disediakan.

_/ Wavelength of red light > wavelength of blue light
Jarak gelombang cahaya merah > Jarak gelombang cahaya biru

Wavelength of red light < wavelength of blue light
Jarak gelombang cahaya merah > Jarak gelombang cahaya biru

Wavelength of red light = wavelength of blue light
Jarak gelombang cahaya merah > Jarak gelombang cahaya biru

(c) Base on the pattern of fringes formed on the screen in Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2, state
two observations about the distance between consecutive fringes for red and blue light.
Berdasarkan corak pinggir-pinggir yang terbentuk pada skrin dalam Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah
6.2, nyatakan dua pemerhatian tentang jarak antara pinggir-pinggir berturutan bagi
cahaya merah dan cahaya biru.
- The distance between consecutive bright fringes for red light is more than blue light
……….………...............................................................................................................
- The distance between consecutive bright fringes for the same might are constant
........................................................................................................................................
[2 mark]

(d) State the relationship between the wavelength and the distance between consecutive bright
fringes in this experiment.
Nyatakan hubungan antara jarak gelombang dengan jarak di antara pinggir-pinggir
terang dalam eksperimen ini.
- The longer the wavelength, the longer the distance between consecutive bright fringes
………............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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(e) (i) What happen to the distance between two consecutive bright fringes if the
separation between two slits is increased? .
Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada jarak antara pinggir-pinggir terang jika
pemisahan antara dua celah ditambah?
Decrease
.......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda di (e) (i).
a is inversely proportional to x
……….............................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(f) State a wave phenomenon which occurs in this experiment.
Nyatakan satu fenomena gelombang yang berlaku dalam eksperimen ini.
Interference/diffraction
…………………………………………………………………………..................

…………………………………………………………………………...................
[2 marks]

11. (a) What is the meant by specific heat capacity?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan muatan haba tentu?
The amount of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg mass of substance by 1 oC[1 mark]

Diagram 11.1

(b) Diagram 11.1 shows phenomenon which occur in our daily life. Using a physics concept,
Rajah 11.1menunjukkan fenomena yang berlaku dalam kehidupan seharian kita.
Menggunakan konsep fizik,

(i) explain how the phenomenon occurs
terangkan bagaimana fenomena berlaku
[3 marks]

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(ii) Name the phenomenon that occurs
Namakan fenomena yang berlaku
Sea breeze [1 mark)
(c) Diagram 11.2 shows a graph of temperature against time taken for heating 500 g of a
liquid using an immersion heater of 48 W.
Rajah 11.2 menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa yang diambil untuk memanaskan 500 g
cecair dengan menggunakan pemanas rendam 48 W.

Diagram11.2

Calculate Q=Pt
Hitung = 48 x 5 x 60 = 14 400 J
Q= mcθ
(i) the specific heat capacity of the liquid 14 400 = 500 x 10-3 (c) (80 - 40)
muatan haba tentu cecair itu
c= 720 J kg-1°C-1
[3 marks]
(ii) the final temperature of the mixture, if after 5 minutes of heating, the liquid is
poured into a beaker that contains 1 kg of water at temperature of 25oC.

Suhu akhir campuran, jika selepas pemanasan selama 5 minit, cecair itu dituang ke
dalam sebuah bikar yang mengandungi 1 kg air pada suhu 25oC.

[2 marks]
Heat released by liquid = Heat absorb by water
mliquid cliquid ∆θ = mwater cwater ∆θ
(500 x 10-3)(400)(800 - θ ) = (1) (4200) ( θ- 25)
θ = 29.34 °C
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(d) Diagram 11.3 shows the arrangement of the apparatus to determine the specific heat
capacity of Aluminium block.
bongkah Aluminium.

Diagram 11.3

Table 11.1 shows the materials that are able to be use in the arrangement of the apparatus.
You are assigned to investigate the materials shown in Table 11.1.
Material
Set of Bahan
apparatus
Plate X Liquid Y Material Z Power of immersion heater
Kepingan X Cecair Y Bahan Z Kuasa immersion heater

Wood Water Tissue
P 12 W
Kayu Air Kertas tisu
Asbestos Alcohol Plain Paper
Q 48 W
Asbestos Alkohol Kertas biasa
Wood Oil Plain Paper
R 24 W
Kayu Minyak Kertas biasa
Asbestos Oil Tissue
S 48 W
Asbestos Minyak Kertas tisu
Copper Water Tissue
T 24 W
Kuprum Air Kertas tisu

Table 11.1

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Explain the suitability of each material in Table 11.1, then determine the most suitable set
of apparatus to be used to determine the specific heat capacity of Aluminium. State the
Terangkan kesesuaian setiap bahan dalam Jadual 11.1 dan seterusnya tentukan set radas
yang paling sesuai digunakan untuk menentukan muatan haba tentu pepejal Aluminium itu.
Beri sebab untuk jawapan anda.
[10 marks]

12. Diagram 8.1and Diagram 8.2 show a weightlifter is making trial to determine the suitable method
to lift a load of mass 60 kg for longer time.
Rajah 8.1 dan Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan seorang ahli angkat berat sedang membuat percubaan
bagi menentukan kaedah yang paling sesuai untuk menjulang beban berjisim 60 kg untuk masa
yang lebih lama.

DIAGRAM 8.1 DIAGRAM 8.2
(a) What is meant by equilibrium state?
Resultant force is zero
………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(b). What is the weight of the load?
Berapakah berat beban itu?
W = mg
= 60 x 10
= 600 N
[2 marks]

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(c) In the space below, draw the scale drawing of the triangle of forces to determine the value of T1.
[Use the scale 1 cm : 10N]
Pada ruang di bawah, lukis lukisan berskala segitiga keseimbangan daya untuk menentukan nilai
T1. [Gunakan skala 1cm : 10N]
[3 marks]

(d) Calculate the tension T2 in Diagram 8.2
Hitung ketegangan T2 dalam Rajah 8.2
2T2 = W
2T2 = 600
T2 = 300 N [2 marks]
(e) Based on the answer in (c ) and (d), state the suitable way to lift the load for a long time. Give one
Berdasarkan jawapan anda pada (c ) dan (d), nyatakan cara yang sesuai untuk menjulang beban
itu untuk masa yang lama. Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda.
Method in Diagram 8.2 because tension, T is lower
....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(e) If the weightlifter let go the load, calculate the final velocity of the load before it touches the
surface of the ground.
Jika ahli angkat berat itu melepaskan beban, hitung halaju akhir beban itu sebelum menyentuh
permukaan lantai.
[2 marks]
Gravitational potential energy = kinetic energy
mgh = 1/2mv2
v2 = 2 g h
= 2 x 10 x 2
= 40
v = 6.32 ms-1

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