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# BRIT.J. APPL. PHYS., 1962, VOL.

13

A deformed elastica
G. A. V. LEAF" and R. €3. BROMLEYT
*Hosiery and Allied Trades Research Association, Nottingham
?College of Technology and Commerce, Leicester

The simple inflexional elastica is formed by buckling a straight elastic rod by two equal
and opposite forces applied at its ends. This paper considers a rod which is further
deformed by two equal forces applied at points equidistant from its centre, acting in a
direction perpendicular to the initial line of the rod. Some special cases are investigated
and it is shown, for example, that the solution can be used to solve the problem of a
horizontal cantilever loaded at its free end by a force acting in any direction. A table of
calculated deflections is included.

1. Introduction = pU - qx,- xB), Q G 7T, eB e
(2)
A mathematical model of the plain-knitted loop can be where 8, is the value of 0 at A, etc., (xA,yA) are the co-
constructed by joining three inflexional elasticas end to end ordinates of A, etc., and dashes denote differentiation with
and laying the resulting structure on the surface of a cylinder respect to s.
whose cross section has the form of a sine-wave (Leaf 1960).
The problem considered in this paper arose during a n 2. The section AB (ea
G 8 Q Os)
investigation of the deformations produced in a knitted 2.1. The arc length s
fabric when it is stretched in a direction perpendicular t o
the rows of knitted loops. It is a generalization of the Differentiating ( I ) with respect to s and using the relations
simple inflexional elastica, and includes the latter as a special x' = cos 8, y' = sin 0 (3)
case.
A naturally straight elastic rod ABCDE of length 2L and we get B8" = P sin 8 - Fcos 8 which may be written in the
uniform flexural rigidity B is deformed by two equal and form
opposite forces P acting at its ends A and E, and directed bW' = sin (0 - y ) (4)
towards the initial position of the centre C. In addition,
forces of magnitude F, acting in a direction perpendicular to where
the original line of the rod, are applied at B and D, which b' = B/R, R' = P' - F', tan y = FjP. (5)
are on opposite sides of C and equidistant from it. The
ends of the rod are constrained to move along its initial line. Integrating (4) we obtain
Figure 1 shows the rod in its equilibrium position, together
with the system of forces acting on it. b'8'2 = '{cos (ea - y ) - cos (8 - 7))
= 4{COS' +(8A - y ) - COS' +(8 - y)},
since 8; = 0, as can be deduced from (1). If we now write
k = cos +(eA - y), k sin 4 = cos +:8 - y), (6)
so that
= +T, k sin C\$3 = cos +(eB - y ) , (7)
b8' = 2k COS 4. (8)
that as s increases from A, so also does 8 ; hence 8' > 0.
Since 0 < C\$ g +T, it follows that the positive sign should
be taken in (8).
Figure 1. From (6) and (8) we obtain

Take rectangillar axes Oxy as shown, with Ox along the
initial line of the rod, and let T be any point on AC, where
the arc length AT is s. Suppose the tangent at T makes an which leads to
angle f? with the positive direction of Ox.
Taking moments about T for the part AT of the rod we s = b{F(k,+T) - F(k, 4)}, (10)
obtain
where F(k, 4) is an elliptic integral of the first kind with
parameter k.
449
A D E F O R M E D ELASTICA

Let the arc AB be L , ; then from (IO) we find Using this value of 0, to find the integrating constant in (17)
we finally obtain
L, = b{F(k,+T) - F(k, d ~ ) } , ( 1 1)
b48” = 4b’ COS y(C0S’ 48s - COS2 io) - 1’ COS2 ( y - 6).
where dBis given by (7).
If we now put
2.2. The x coordinate of T p = cos +!IB, p sin + = COS +O, (19)
The first part of ( 3 ) may be written in the form
so that = +n,#c = 0, the above equation may be written
x~ = cos (e - - y). in the form
Expanding the right-hand side of this equation and sub- 8” = n?(~ - 17’ sin’ +),
stituting for d - from (6) we get where
x’= (2k’sin’ \$ - 1) cos y - 2k(l - k’ sin? +)I/’ sin 4 sin y . ni2b4 = 4p’b‘ COS y - 1’ COS’ (y - 8)
Combining this with (9) we obtain and ni’n2b2 = 4p2 cos y.
dX
-- = b{Zk sin y sin 4 - cos y(1 - k‘ sin‘ +)-Ii2 Hence 8‘ = 1 4 1 - n’ sin2 *)I”, the positive sign having been
4 chosen because 0’ > 0. From this and (19) we get

2 cos y(1 - k’ sin’ +)I/’},
ds -
24 - ~ I ( -
I n2 sin2 \$)’/‘(I
- 2p cos *
- p’ sin’ \$)‘/*’ (21)
xA - x = b[2k sin y cos 4 - {F(k,+T) - F(k, c)}COS y To integrate this equation we must consider three separate
- 2{E(k, 4.;) - E@, \$1) COS y ] , (12)
where E(k, d) is an elliptic integral of the second kind. Case I (n‘ ,p2): Put sin 4 = sin so that
This gives
xB = sin-’ n, x,
= 0. (22)
xA - X B = b[2k sin y COS 4 B - (F(k, 47)- F(k, \$B)} COS y
Equation (21) then reduces to
f 2{E(k, +T) - E(k, 4~))
COS 71. (13)

2.3. T h e y coordinate of T
Using a procedure similar to that adopted above we obtain which leads to

dy = b{- 2k cos y sin 4 - sin y(1 - k2 sin’ +)-‘I’
@
s=L--F 2 (54 - (23)
+ 2 sin y(1 - k‘ sin’
Since s = L, and x = sin-’ fz at the point B,fthis gives
which gives
y = b[2k COS y cos 4 - {F(k,\$E) - F(k, d)} sin y
- 2{E(k,+r)- E(k, \$)) sin y ] . (14)
From this we deduce that Case II (n’ <p2) : Put p sin 9 = sin x,whence
JJB = b [2k COS y COS 4~ - {F(k, +T) - F(k, 4~)) sin y xB = sin-lp, xC = 0. (25)
- 2{E(k, BE) - E(k, d ~ )sin
} y]. (15)
Equation (21) then becomes

3. The section BC (8 < 8 < x) !
!= -
dx 117
- \$ sin’ xj”’,
p-
3.1. The arr length s
from which we obtain
Using (5), equation (2) can be written in the form
b28‘ = y COS y L (xA - x B ) sin y. (16) (26)
Differentiating this with respect to s and substituting for y‘ and
from (3) we get b2d“ = sin d cos y , which on integration gives
b’8’2 = - 2 cos 8 cos y 4const. (17) (27)

Now at the point B, we have y = yB; thus from (16)
b’d; = yB

=I
cos y f (xA - XB) sin y
cos ( y - 8)
Case III (n2 = p2): In this case (21) reduces to
ds
@ = /n(t
- 2p cos
- p’ sin2 +)’
*
say, where which can be integrated immediately to give
I 2 = yB2 - (x, - xB)’ = AB’,

and tan 6 = (x, - xB)/YB.
450
A DEFORMED ELASTICA

and and
l i
1
L - L, = -ln
m
(-).
1-i-p
I-p
x, = - 4p - in -
m\
3.3. T h e y coordinate of T
(i
3.2. The x coordinate oy T
Writing the second of (3) in the form y' = 2 sin 46cos @
The first of (3) may be written in the form x' = 2 cos2 \$8- 1, and using (19) and (21) we obtain
dy = -4p2 sin #cos #
d# m2(l - n'sin? #)'I2'
y = yB - --{(I
4P2 - n2 sin2 +)'I2 - (1 - n2)lI2}, (37)
nin2
after using (19) and (21). Again we must consider the three where y , is given by (15). Since y = yc and # = 0 at the
separate cases. point C, it follows that
Case I (n2 > p'): In this case we have put n sin # = sin x yc = y , + -{1
4P2 - (1 - n2)1'2}.
so that (30) becomes mn2
dx p2 , ID p2 , - 1 q
4. Some special cases
- = 3{2(1- sin' x) - (1 - - sin2 x>
d x inn it' I' 4.1. The case when F = 0
from which it follows that When F = 0 the problem discussed above reduces to that
of the simple inflexional elastica, and the results of \$ 2
apply throughout AC. Putting F = 0 = y in the equations
2{2E(\$
x"= 17111 x) - FC;, x)). (31)
of Q 2 we obtain
At the point E, x = XB and x = xB = sin-' n ; hence s = b{F(k, \$ T ) - F(k, I\$)},
x = b{2E(k, 4)
- F(k, 411,
XB = 2 ( 2 E ( f , sin-' n ) - F(:, sin-' n)). (32) y = 2bk COS I\$,

From this and (13) it is possible to find .x, from which the results given by Southwell (1941) can easiiy
be deduced.
Case IZ (n2 < p') : Here we have put p sin \$ = sin x, and
(30) becomes 4.2. The case when P = 0
In this case equations (1) and (2) become
BO' = F(xA- x), 8, Q6 <8 ~ , (14

which may, after some manipulation, be written in the form F(x, - xg), 8, Q 8 < 'ii. (20)
Consider first the section AB of the rod (eA
< 8 Q 8,).
Differentiating ( l a ) with respect to s and putting x' = cos 8,
we obtain b28" = - cos 8 = sin (0 - +'ii)where b' is now
eqJal to B/F. This equation has the same form as (4);
hence the results of 3 2 apply, with y = 9.;.
<
For the section EC (8, 8 < T ) , equation (2a) can be
Integrating, we get written in the form b29' = x, - xB = 2bk cos I\$, after
substituting for x A - XB from (13). Hence
ds/d8 = b/2k COS 4, = h
say, where h is a constant. Integrating, we get
from which we deduce that

Case III (n' = pl): In this case (30) simplifies to Next, x' = cos 8, from which we deduce that

-
dx = 3 y 2 c o s # - dxjd8 = COS 8ds/d6 = h COS 8,
d# nz giving
x = h sin 8. (41)
from which we obtain
Furthermore, y' = sin 8 which yields dyld8 = h sin 8, and
(35) therefore
y = yc - h(1 cos e). + (42)
451
A D E F O R M E D ELASTICA

Eliminating 8 between (41) and (42) we obtain equilibrium position let the horizontal and vertical deflections
of the loaded end be and 6, respectively. Then
'X + ( y - y c + h)2 = h',
which shows that the section BC is an arc of a circle of 6, = L - XA, 6, = YB. (43)
radius h, with centre at the point (0, yc - h). Since B coincides with C, L , = L ; hence from (11)
4.3. The case when 8, = ' i ~ L b{F(k, - F(k, 4 ~ ) ) ~ (44)
In this case B coincides with C and we have the problem where now k sin 4B = sin t y . Also, from (13) we obtain
of an inflexional elastica further deformed by a load 2F
applied at its centre in a direction perpendicular to the xA = - L COS y - 2b[k sin y COS \$B - {E(k, +v)
initial line of the rod. The results of 5 2 apply throughout - E(k, 4,)) COS y ]
AC in this case. after putting xB = 0 and substituting from (44). Hence
8 h = L(l - COS y ) - 2b[k sin y COS 4,
+ {E(k, - E(k, 4,)) COS y ] . (45)
Finally, from (15) and (40) we find that
6, = L sin y T 2b[k cos y cos 4,
- {E(k, i n ) - E(k, 4,)) sin y ] . (46)
Equations (45) and (46) are equivalent to those given by
Frisch-Fay (1959).

5. Numerical calculations
The numerical values of the ratios RL'IB, xA/L,x,/L, YB/L,
yc/L, Lt/L have been calculated using the ZEBRA computer
Figure 2. installed at the Leicester College of Technology and
Commerce, for a range of values of BA, OB and y. The
An important application is the problem of a horizontal computer also calculated values of nz - p 2 , from which it
cantilever of length L fixed at C and loaded at its free end was possible to deduce which of the three cases considered
by a force of magnitude R acting in a direction making an in 6 3 was applicable. The results of the calculations are
angle y with the horizontal, as shown in figure 2. In the given in the accompanying table.

? BA OB RL+B XAIL XBIL YBL YciL LllL Case
10 20 40 12.4570 -0 ,4083 0.0403 0.2193 0.5971 0.5819 1
60 14.5493 -0.3915 0.1108 0 3065 0.6152 0.6001 I
80 16,1599 -0.3535 0.1591 0.3768 0.6228 0.6643 I
100 16.8360 -0.3177 0.1850 0.4359 0.6170 0.7180 I
120 16,9330 -0'2983 0.1841 0.4870 0,6030 0.7718 I
140 16.3802 -0.3073 0.1512 0.5335 0.5908 0.8349 I
160 15,2527 -0.3488 0,0852 0,5768 0.5919 0.9130 I
180 14.0178 -0.4061 0 0.6099 0 6099 1 '0000 -
40 60 6.8289 -0,1331 0.1636 0,3120 0.7479 0.4328 I
80 7.5889 -0.1 179 0,2166 0.4363 0.7525 0.5614 I
IO0 7.9087 -0.0974 0.2311 0,5331 0.7484 0,6562 I
120 7 . 8738 -0.091 5 0.2086 0,6154 0 ' 7420 0 ' 7442 I
140 7.6130 -0.1035 0.1528 0.6845 0.7412 0.8336 I
I60 7 8274 -0.1225 0.0772 0,7334 0.7471 0.9212 I
180 7.1695 --0.1346 0 0.7534 0.7534 1' 0000 -
60 80 4.9069 0.1 I29 0.2799 0.3850 O.SO52 0.4219 I
100 5.0710 O.il83 0'2844 0.5405 0.8046 0.5777 I
120 5,0425 0.1182 0.2438 0,6568 0.8037 0.7017 I
140 4.9510 0.1121 0.1725 0 7424 0.8062 0,8123 I
160 4.9003 0.1078 0.0876 0,7933 0.8088 0,9106 I
180 4.8945 0.1073 0 0.8092 0. SO92 1~0000 I
80 1GO 3.8349 0.3468 0.3724 0.4334 0.7925 0,4365 I
120 3 ' 7954 0,3449 0.3113 0.6037 0.7934 0.6179 I
140 3.7581 0.3424 0.2200 0.7335 0.7951 0,7605 I
160 3 ' 7459 0,3415 0.1144 0.7755 0.7957 0.8833 I
180 3.7171 0,3390 0 0.7982 0.7982 1 ' 0000 -
100 120 3.1120 0.5597 0.4242 0.4522 0.7189 0.4746 I
140 3.0610 0.5573 0,2927 0,6114 0,7209 0.6810 1
160 3.0401 0.5562
180 2.9941 0.5530
0.1509
0
0.6950
0,7261
0.7218
0.7261
0.8459
1~0000 -I
120 140 2.4968 0.7383 0,4096 0.4404 0,5963 0.5526 I
160 2.4823 0.7366 0.1977 0.5648 0.5999 0'7982 1
180 2,4917 0.7370 0 0.5994 0.5994 1 .oooo -
452
A DEFORMED E L A S T I C A

Y BA OB RL2IB XAIL XBiL YBiL YciL LllL Case
140 160 1.8803 0,8741
-I
0,2781 0.3897 0'4394 0.7160
180 2,0765 0.8790 0 0.4278 0.4278 1 .oooo
160 180 1,5731 0.9689 0 0.2238 0,2238 1' 0000 -

20 40 60 8,7061 -0.1633 0.1478 0.3258 0.7494 0.4528 I
80 10.1205 -0.1339 0.2060 0.4374 0.7559 0.5653 I
100 10.6837 -0~1000 0.2316 0.5237 0.7481 0.6487 I
120 10,5748 -0.0885 0.2183 0.6000 0.7355 0.7307 I
140 9.9719 -0.1083 0.1636 0.6708 0.7320 0.8217 I
160 9.2755 -0.1446 0.0818 0.7218 0.7423 0.9165 I
180 8,8520 -0.1712 0 0.7558 0,7558 1 .oooo -
60 80 5.5033 0.1027 0.2736 0.3931 0.8079 0.4309 I
100 5.7653 0.1119 0.2807 0.5439 0.8063 0.5816 I
120 5.6860 0.1109 0.2412 0.6592 0.8050 0.7047 I
140 5.4984 0.0996 0.1682 0.7471 0.8093 0.8170 I
160 5,3854 0.0909 0.0829 0.7998 0.8145 0.9154 I
180 5,3719 0.0898 0 0.8154 0.8154 1 .oooo -

80 100 4.0574 0.3445 0.3705 0.4363 0.7935 0.4394 I
120 3.9686 0.3404 0.3079 0.6082 0.7955 0.6223 I
140 3.8734 0.3339 0.2137 0.7209 0~8001 0.7674 I
160 3,8338 0.3307 0.1081 0.7838 0.8030 0.8897 I
180 3,8166 0,3292 0 0.8045 0 ' 8045 1 .oooo -

100 120 3.1566 0.5609 0.4262 0.4502 0.7176 0.4724 I
140 1.0135 0.5544 0.2595 0.6152 0.7233 0.6545 I
160 2.9485 0.5502 0.1450 0.7021 0,7278 0.8520 I
180 2.9095 0.5473 0 0.7318 0.7318 1~0000 -

120 140 2.4150 0 7404 0.4160 0.4352 0.5931 0'5457 I
160 2.2990 0.7347 0.1955 0.5677 0.6024 0.8004 I
180 2.2856 0.7339 0 0.6042 0.6042 1 foooo -

140 160 1.6867 0.8754 0.2889 0.3842 0.4358 0.7050 I
180 1.7668 0.8775 0 0.4314 0.4314 1 .oooo -

160 180 1.1765 C.9685 0 0.2257 0.2257 1.oooo -

30 40 60 14.0559 -0.2164 0.1098 0.3385 0.7551 0.4725 I
80 17.3277 -0.1613 0.1787 0.4257 0,7678 0.5556 I
100 18.7692 -0'0954 0.2319 0.4912 0.7544 0.6164 I
120 18.8646 -0.0533 0'2520 0.5494 0.7235 0.6783 I
140 17.3657 -0.0664 0.2167 0.6148 0.7002 0,7621 I
160 14.6642 -0.1473 0.1152 0.6956 0.7162 0.8S24 I
180 12,7154 -0.2306 0 0.7561 0.7561 1 ' 0000 -

60 80 6.5993 0.0904 0.2654 0.4014 0,8115 0,4403 I
100 7.0353 0.1064 0.2779 0.5447 0.8080 0.5831 I
120 6.8491 0.1048 0.2405 0.6590 0.8051 0,7051 I
140 6.4743 0.0858 0.1647 0.7509 0,8119 0.8208 I
160 6.2493 0.0708 0.0783 0.8067 0.8205 0.9201 I
180 6.2183 0.0686 0 0.8223 0.8223 1' 0000 -
80 100 4.4558 0,3418 0.3683 0.4396 0.7947 0.4427 I
120 4.2968 0.3351 0.3037 0.6135 0,7980 0 6276 I
140 4.1315 0.3243 0 2065 0.7292 0.8056 0.7752 I
160 4.0669 0.3192 0.1017 0.7926 0.8105 0.8962 I
180 4.0635 0.3189 0 0.8110 0.8110 1 ' 0000 -

100 120 3.3027 0.5621 0.4283 0.4483 0.7162 0.4703 I
140 3.0603 0.5514 0,2863 0.6190 0.7257 0.6881 I
160 2.9570 0.5445 0.1398 0.7087 0.7334 0,8573 I
180 2.9224 03419 0 0.7371 0.7371 1~0000 -
120 140 2.4180 0.7426 0.4228 0.4295 0.5897 0.5384 I
160 2.2106 0.7333 0.1946 0.5696 0.6041 0.8013 I
180 2.1755 0,7312 0 0.6082 0.6082 1.oooo -

140 160 1.5875 0.8770 0.3007 0.3781 0.4317 0.6930 I
180 1.5814 0.8764 0 0.4340 0.4340 1.oooo -

160 180 0.9640 0.9683 0 0.2268 0.2268 1 ' 0000 -
3* 453
A DEFORMED E L A S T I C A

RL2IB XAL XBIL YBL YCIL LlIL Case
40 60 so 8.8764 0.0735 0.2526 0.4085 0.8177 0.4484
100 9.7228 0.1041 0.2773 0.5379 0.8099 0.5768
120 9.2572 0.1039 0.2462 0.6504 0.8021 0.6969
140 8.3876 0.0716 0.1650 0,7509 0.8121 0.8204
160 7.8799 0.0448 0.0741 0.8137 0.8269 0.9243
180 7.7912 0.0395 0 0.8307 0,8307 1.0000

80 100 5.1234 0.3386 0.3656 0.4434 0.7961 0.4466
120 4.8474 0.3283 0.2984 0.6203 0.8012 0.6343
140 4.5828 0.3125 0.1976 0,7396 0.8126 0.7850
160 4.4939 0.3057 0.0943 0.8025 0.8192 0.9037
1so 4.5122 0.3070 0 0,8181 0.8181 1.0000

100 120 3.5701 0.5632 0.4302 0.4465 0.7149 0.4685
140 3.2038 0.5478 0.2822 0.6237 0.7286 0,6926
160 3.0635 0.5386 0.1343 0.7155 0.7393 0.8629
180 3.0344 0.5364 0 0.7423 0,7423 1.0000

120 140 2.5005 0.7450 0.4299 0.4236 0.5861 0.5308 1
160 2.1965 0.7321 0.1942 0.5710 0.6054 0.8018 1
180 2.1402 0.7288 0 0.6118 0.6118 1.0000 -

140 160
1so
1.5541
1 4729
0.8787
0.8756
0.3131
0
0.3714
0.4361
0.4272
0.4361
0.6803
1.0000 -1
160 180 0,8383 0,9681 0 0.2276 0.2276 1.0000

50 60 80 15.8421 0.0370 0.2168 0,4047 0.8347 0.4451
100 18.4411 0.1073 0.2758 0,5005 0.8196 0.5385
120 17.1536 0.1354 0.2815 0.6000 0.7878 0.6448
140 13.8567 0.0757 0.1912 0.7242 , 0,7963 0.7914
160 11,8691 0.0091 0.0765 0.8160 0,9295 0.9219
180 11.4178 --0’0099 0 0.8425 0.8425 1.0000

80 100 6.2749 0.3342 0.3622 0.4482 0.7981 0.4515 1
120 5,7680 0.3185 0,2907 0.6300 0,8058 0.6440
140 5.3424 0.2961 0.1853 0.7538 0.8221 0.7984
160 5.2317 0.2885 0.0852 0.8150 0.8301 0,9130
180 5.2904 0.2923 0 0,8267 0,8267 1.0000
100 120 4.0013 0.5642 0.4318 0.4454 0.7136 0.4672
140 3.4616 0.5429 0.2763 0,6303 0.7327 0,6992
160 3.2844 03318 0.1279 0.7234 0.7460 0.8695
180 3.2667 0.5305 0 0.7480 0.7480 1.0000
120 140 2.6707 0.7475 0,4372 0.4175 0.5824 0.5230 1
160 2.2505 0.1935 0.6069 0.8024
180 2.1735
0.7309
0.7264 0
0.5726
0.6153 0.6153 1.0000 -1
140 160 1.5760 0.8805 0.3262 0.3644 0.4225 0.6669 1
180 1.4195 0.8748 0 0.4380 0.4380 1.0000 -
160 180 0,7624 0.9680 0 0.2282 0.2282 1.0000

60 80 100 8.5137 0.3278 0.3571 0.4546 0.8011 0.4579 1
120 7.4343 0.3026 0.2783 0.6458 0.8134 0.6596 1
140 6.7060 0.2709 0.1666 0.7753 0.8365 0.8188 II
160 6.5886 0.2636 0.0728 0.8322 0,8451 0.9257 11
180 6.7323 0.2713 0 0.8381 0.8381 1.0000 -

100 120 4.6776 0.5646 0,4325 0.4458 0.7125 0.4674 1
140 3.8728 0.5356 0.2668 0.6407 0.7393 0.7097 1
160 3.6627 0.5231 0.1195 0.7335 0.7546 0.8781 11
180 3.6702 0.5235 0 0.7545 0.7545 1.0000
120 140 2.9512 0.7500 0.4446 0.4115 0.5784 0.5152 1
160 2.3778 0.7293 0.1920 0.5749 0.6089 0.8040 1
180 2.2811 0.7239 0 0.6189 0.6189 1.0000 -

140 160 1.6535 0.8824 0,3401 0.3569 0.4174 0.6528
180 1.4120 0.8740 0 0.4397 0.4397 1.0000
160 180 0.7193 0.9679 0 0.2287 0.2287 1.0000
454
A DEFORMED E L A S T I C A

7 BA 8~ RL2/B XA/L XSIL YB/L YCIL LlIL Case
70 80 100 14.5656 0.3170 0.3488 0.4607 0.8071 0.4642 I
120 11.2528 0.2708 0.2544 0.6758 0.8281 0.6894 I
140 9.7811 0.2244 0.1344 0.8128 0.8620 0.8539 I1
160 9.7291 0.2204 0.0544 0,8593 0.8689 0.9445 I1
180 10.0871 0.2340 0 0,8568 0,8568 1 .oooo
100 120 5.74238 0.5632 0.4304 0.4500 0.7124 0.4717 I
140 4.5167 0.5234 0 ' 2504 0.6583 0.7504 0.7277 I1
160 4.2979 0.5112 0.1076 0.7475 0.7665 0.8901 I1
180 4.3614 0.5145 0 0.7626 0.7626 1 '0000 -
120 140 3.3857 0.7525 0.4517 0.4058 0.5744 0.5079 I
160 2.5957 0.7269 0.1886 0.5787 0.6121 0 ' 8074 I
180 2.4830 0.721 1 0 0.6229 0.6229 1' 0000 -
140 160 1.7967 0.8845 0.3549 0.3490 0.4120 0.6377 r
-
180 1.4491 0,8733 0 0.4415 0.4415 1' 0000
160 180 0.7010 0.9678 0 0.2292 0.2292 1 ' 0000

80 100 120 7.4537 0.5554 0.4186 0.4672 0.7169 0.4894 I
140 5.5831 0.5010 0.2198 0.6906 0,7710 0.7611 I1
160 5.4514 0.4928 0.0900 0,7685 0.7844 0.9081 rr
180 5.6456 0.5012 0 0.7743 0.7743 1 ' 0000
I20 140 4.0495 0,7546 0.4573 0,4016 0.5707 0.5024 I
160 2.9410 0.7232 0.1819 0.5854 0.6175 0.8144 I1
180 2.8239 0.7177 0 0.6277 0,6277 1 '0000 -

-I
140 160 2.0286 0.8868 0.3709 0,3404 0.4064 0.6214
180 1.5370 0.8725 0 0.4434 0,4434 1 '0000
160 180 (3.7046 0.9577 0 0,2297 0.2297 1.oooo

90 100 120 15.3647 0.5776 0.4533 0.4320 0.6938 0.4519
140 9.9637 0,5082 0.2462 0.6689 0.7585 0.7326
160 8.8708 0.4820 0.1013 0.7696 0.7875 0.8966
180 8.6784 0.4764 0 0.7948 0.7948 1 .oooo
120 140 4,7335 0.7493 0.4421 0.4160 0.5769 0.5199
160 3.5630 0.7193 0.1770 0.5914 0,6226 0,8194
180 3,4962 0.7038 0 0.6255 0 6255 1 .oooo
140 160 1.9168 0.8787 0.3186 0.37CO 0.4261 0 6749
180 1.6922 0,8716 0 0'4455 0.4455 1 .oooo
160 180 0.730j 0.9676 0 0.2301 0.2301 1 ' 0000

Acknowledgments References
\?'e are grateful to the Principal of the Leicester College FRISCH-FAY, R., 1959, Aust. J. k p p l . Sei., 10, 418.
of Technology and to Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd. LEAF,G . A. V., 1960, J. Text. Inst., 51, T49.
for providing computing facilities. We also wish to thank SOUTHWELL, R. V., 1941, Elasticity (Oxford: University
the Director of Research and Council of the Hosiery and Press), p. 429.
Allied Trades Research Association for permission to
publish this paper.

455