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purchase and maintain equipment. Any conceivable type of REFERENCES
loading can be computed (some much more easily than (1) RICHARDSON, L. F. Philos. Trans. A , 210, p. 307 (1910).
others), but there may be practical difficulties in applying (2) TWM, A., and OR% J. proc. Roy. SOC. A , 131, P. 30 (1931).
some loads to a photo-elastic spechen. On the other hand, (3) CHRISTOPHERSON, D. G., and SOUTHWELL, R. v. p ~ c Roy. .
Soc. A , 165,p. 317 (1938).
where Of a large number Of similar but (4) Fox, L. Quarf. J. Mech. Appl. iMath., 1, p. 253 (1948).
complicated specimens is required I have no doubt that time (5) RICHARDSON, L. F.,and GAUNT, J. A. Philos. Trans. A , 226,
can be saved by the use of the experimental method.
In this paper I have tried to show that although in some of
the very difficult problems which have been shown to be
within the scope of the relaxation method, the computational
p. 299 (1927).
,i(8);;:;A:; z;:!,'$.
~ ~ ; f ~ $ l ~ $p. ~ (1948).
T U I O S ~ N KSO. , P.
(New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Inc., 1934).
~ , ;
Theory of Elasricity, 1st Ed., p. 248

work is necessarily very heavy, there are many problems of (9) SOLTHWELL, R. v. Hardy C m s symposiu~ ' ' A ~ ~ m e k a l
interest to the stress-analystin which by an appropriate choice Methods of Analysis in Engineering," p. 66 (MacMillan,
New York).
of method on points of detail, results Of Value can be obtained (10) G A ~ YR., w. G., and S~UTHWELL, R. V. Philos. nuns. A,
with relatively very little labour. 235, p. 453 (1940).

The elasticity and strength of paper and other fibrous materials
By H. L. Cox, M.A., F.R.Ae.S., A.M.I.Mech.E., The National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex
[Paper first received 18 May, 1951, and infinal f o r m 13 August, 19511
An analysis is made of the effect of orientation of the fibres on the stiffness and strength of
paper and other fibrous materials. It is shown that these effects may be represented com-
pletely by the first few coefficients of the distribution function for the fibres in respect of
orientation, the first three Fourier coefficients for a planar matrix and the first fifteen spherical
harmonics for a solid medium. For the planar case it is shown that all possible types of elastic
behaviour may be represented by composition of four sets of parallel fibres in appropriate
ratios. The means of transfer of load from fibre to fibre are considered and it is concluded
that the effect of short fibres may be represented merely by use of a reduced value for their
modulus of elasticity. The results of the analysis are applied to certain samples of resin
bonded fibrous filled materials and moderately good agreement with experimentalresults is found.
1. I N T R O D U C T I O N line throughout the whole body of the material and to
The elastic properties and strength of any materia] be loaded only a t its ends. The flexural stiffness of a
depend upon the detail of its structure, and analysis of Single fibre is assumed to be negligible, SO that the fibre
this structure should enable the strength and stiffness can transmit load only in tension, and the loading applied
of the whole to be correlated to that of its parts. This at the edges or free surfaces Of the material is assumed to
paper is concerned with those materials which derive fulfil this condition. If at the loaded edges the fibres are
their strength and stiffness wholely or mainly from thin all bonded rigidly together this condition is met auto-
fibres capable of transmitting high loads along their matically without consideration of the details of the
lengths but offering no great resistance to loading trans- applied loading, except that a check is needed to ascertain
verse to their lengths. The fist and main purpose of the that no fibre is thrown into compression; and the need
note is to consider how the properties of such materials for this check may be waded by assuming that initially
may depend upon the orientation of the fibres. For this the whole mat is subjected to uniform biaxial or triaxial
purpose the conception of an ideal mat of fibres is first tension SO that the initial tensile load (equal in every
propounded; the characteristic properties of such an fibre) is sufficient to annul any COmPreSSiVe COmPOnent
ideal mat are then established, and the extent to which of load afterwards applied, Or by assuming that the
these properties may be adjusted by suitably orienting fibres are otherwise supported so that they can carry
the fibres is explored. The application to practical compression. All the characteristics of the ideal mat
materials of the conclusions with regard to orientation of fibres may be illustrated by a pocket handkerchief
effects is, of course, affected by the differences between stretched between the hands, and the entire lack of
the ideal mat and the actual material. The effect of stiffness of this model to shear parallel to the warp and
some of these differences is partially explored and the weft demonstrates the utility of the ideal mat as a means
manner in which the behaviour of the actual material to represent the effects of fibre orientation.
may be modified is demonstrated.
3 . THE P L A N A R M A T O F F I B R E S
2. THE IDEAL M A T O F FIBRES If a planar mat of fibres is subjected to tensile strains
The considerations in this paper are based in the first e, and e, in two directions at right angles and to a shear
place on the conception of an ideal paper or fabric, strain 4 between these directions, the strain of a fibre
consisting of a perfectly homogeneous plane or solid inclined at angle 0 to the direction of el is e , cos2 8 +
mat of long straight thin fibres oriented either at random e, sin2 0 $- 4 cos 0 sin 0, and the load in the fibre will
or according to some definite law of statistical distribu- be assumed to be proportional to this strain. Then the
tion. Each fibre is assumed to extend in one straight contributions of this fibre to the loads in the directions
ci2 = C,,(WhiCh is one of Cauchy’s relations) +-
By substituting (0 a) for: 8 in the expansion for
f ( 8 ) and then choosing the direction 8 = 0 SO that
bl = 0, it may be shown that

effects of fibre orientation we may take = 1 without loss (The denominator A is, of course, invariant to change
of generality.
f The suffix 6 is used instead of 3 in order to conform to the
Of reference line for e’)
notation used in discussion of the three-dimensional case. These formulae (8) and (9) show that the moduli
VOL. 3, MARCH1952 73
H. L . cox
E = I/&, and G = 1/&6 are capable of varying with a imply certain other restrictive relations between the values
in a rather complex manner. of U,, a, and b,. It is uncertain whether these further
If the material were isotropic a,a,b, must all be zero restrictions apply also irrespective of the detail of the fibre
and Young’s modulus, E = l/S1, = K/3. distribution; but it is very probable that they do, and the
Shear modulus, G = 1/&6 = K:8. further argument will be developed on this assumption.
Poisson’s ratio, U = - SI2/Sll= 1/3. Thus it will be assumed that the elastic properties of
and, of course, E/G = 2(1 U). any fibre distribution whatsoever may be reproduced by
arranging X fibres at 0 = 0, Y at 8 = 712 and dividing
4. FIBRE DISTRIBUTIOKS REPRESEKTED BY the remainder 2 equally between the directions 0 = /3
and 0 = 4 2 8. For this system
So far as the elastic properties of the planar mat of a, = 2(X - Y),2 - a, = 22(1 - cos 4p)
fibres is concerned, the distribution of the fibres is com-
and b, = 2 2 sin 415 (16)
pletely represented by the kernel of the distribution
function 5. A S Y M M E T R I C A L F I B R E D I S T R I B U T I O N S
rf(8) = 1 a, cos 28 - a, cos 48 t b, sin 48 (10) The fibre distribution is asymmetrical unless the choice
but this form affords no clue as to the values which the of reference axis which eliminates b, also eliminates b,,
coefficients a,, a, and b, may assume. A clearer insight that is unless 415 = 0 or 7. The principal characteristic
into the structure of the distribution function is afforded of an asymmetrical system is naturally the asymmetry of
by representation of the distribution by systems of its properties, and such a system is unlikely to be chosen
parallel fibres. unless this specific characteristic is required. In such
If all the fibres were parallel to the direction 8 = p, cases, or in cases which may occur naturally, the elastic
the distribution function would be properties are best discussed in terms of formulae (j),
Tf(o) =1 + 2c0s 2(e - 15) 2 cos 4(8 - p) that is in terms of the coefficients cll, etc. Since the
- 2 COS 6(8 - p) + . . . (11) values of c , ~and c26 will probably be the subjects of
and by combining this with the system parallel to the stated requirements, the variations of the moduli E and G
direction 8 = ~ / 2 15, namely with orientation cc [formulae (8) and (9)] are then of
~f(8)= 1 - 2 COS 2(8 - 15) 2 COS 4(8 - p) secondary interest, and it seems unnecessary to attempt
- 2 COS 6(8 - p) . . . (12) to discuss formula (8) in detail. On the other hand, the
presence of the term b, does not complicate formula (9)
the crossed system composed of equal numbers of fibres
in the two directions 8 = /3 and 8 = 7712 15 is repre- so much, and it appears worth while to examine the
variation of G with 2 in the general case.
sented by
rf(0) = 1 2 COS 4(8 - p) + +
2 COS 8(8 - p) . . . (13)
From formula (9), by rearranging the denominator
C = ((4 - a:)’ - [(2a2 - U;)’
a result which follows also by substituting 2(8 - 15) for 4b:]}/32[(4- U?)
(8 - p) in (ll), so that the distribution previously +-
( 2 4 - a:) cos 4a 2b, sin 4a] (1 7)
repeated at intervals of r now repeats at intervals of ~ / 2 . of which the principal values are
B y taking together X fibre; of system (ll), with
,B = 0, Y fi‘ores of system (12), with ,l3 = 0 (at right
G = (1/32){4 - U: f [(2u2 - a:)’ + 4b;]L} (174
at tan 4% = 2b2/(2a,- a:) (the principal directions
angles to the X system), and Z(= 1 - X - Y)fibres of
system (13) distributed equally between the direction
being inclined at 7/4). Expanding the term (2u, - a;)’ +
0 = j3 and 8 = 4 2 p, the kernel of the complete 4bi and substituting for az and 6 , from (16), this term
may be written
distribution function becomes :
+ + +
~f(8)= 1 2 ( X - Y ) COS 20 2(X Y)COS 40 (4 - U?)’ - 8Z[4(1 - Z) - U ? ] ( I - COS 4 p )
+ 2 2 COS 4(8 - p) where
= 1 - 2 ( x - Y ) cos 28+ 2[1 - z(i - cos 4p)l +
4(1 - Z ) = 4(X Y ) > 4(X -t Y)’ > 4(X - Y)’ >
cos 48 f 2 2 sin 415 sin 48 (14) Therefore the greatest value of this term is when P = 0
Thus for any fibre distribution which may be represent- and is then (4 - U:)’ and its least value is when 8 = 7 / 4
able in this way and is (4 - a: - 82)’. Both these cases are symmetrical
a , = 2(X - Y ) , U, = 2[ 1 - Z(1 - cos 4P)] arrangements, and it therefore follows (infer alia) that
and b, = 2 2 sin 4 8 the highest possible value of G (see below, Section 6)
results from a symmetrical distribution. Moreover,
Then, since X,Y and 2 must all lie between 0 and 1, the from (17) it is apparent that the presence of b, increases
values of a, a, and b2 must also lie between - 2 and 2. the variation of G with a.
That the values of a,, etc., are so restricted, no matter Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that asym-
how the fibres are distributed, is at once apparent by metrical distributions offer no advantage in respect of
generalizing (1 1) in the form shear modulus. Similar discussion of formula (8) is not
+ +
rj(8) = EX 2(CXcos 213) cos 20 . . . (15) feasible because E is a function of both 2a and 4a; but
Under the conditions that all X are positive and that it appears unlikely that any real benefit would result
C X = 1, itisclearthat /CXcos2pi > 1; but theformulae from the use of an asymmetrical distribution.
The elasticity and strength of paper and other fibrous materials
6. S Y M M E T R I C A L F I B R E D I S T R I B U T I O N S X,Y and 2 ; and Fig. 2 shows contours of constant Go
When the fibre distribution is symmetrical j3 = 0 or and G,,,. The contours of Eo and Ex12are continuous
ii/4 and b, = 0; but we may also exclude the case j3 = 0, over the whole field, but the lines (26) and (27)
because it merely represents a two-axis system, which can divide the field into three parts and only in the central
be represented with j3 = 7i/4 by writing X+ 32 for X part do Eo and E,,2 represent the true maximum and
and Y 4Z for Y and 0 for Z . minimum values of the modulus. When more than
half the total number o f fibres is arranged at 2 ~ / 4 ,
a, = 2(X - Y), a2 = 2(1 - 2 Z ) (18) the distribution is highly resistant to shear at 0: = 0 or
v/2, but the modulus in these directions is low and the
and without loss o f generality we may assume X > Y. maximum modulus is developed in a direction between
(2 - a2)(2 a, - U:)
U = 0 and a = 714; this is represented in Fig. 1 by the
contours of E,,, which in the lower region deviate from
8[(4 - a:) i- (2a2 - a:) cos 4z] the contours o f Eo. Similarly when a high proportion o f
- Z[4(1 - Z ) - a:] the total number of fibres is arranged at 7;/2,the arrange-

2[(4 - a:) (4 - a; - 8 2 ) cos 4 ~ 1
(1 9) ment is not strongly resistant to shear and the true
minimum modulus is developed in a direction between
E = (2 - a2)(2 a, - a3/[(12 - 2 4 - ai a = 7;/4 and U = 7 / 2 ; this is represented in Fig. 1 by
- 4a,(2 - a2) cos 2a 2 ( 4 - 2a,) cos 4a] the contours of Elnin
from the contours of
which in the upper region deviate
In the middle region the
= 2Z[4(1 - Z ) - a:]/([(4 - a;) + SZ(1 - Z ) ] values of the modulus at all values of U lie between the
- 8a,Z COS 2~ - (4 - U: - 8 2 ) cos 4 ~ ) (20) values ofE0 and E,p.
The two principal values of G are In Fig. 2 the lines of constant Z also represent contours
of constant Go, but the contours of constant G7,'4 are
214 at c( = 0 (21) parabolas. At high values o f 2, Go> G,,, and the line
(1/4)[(1- Z) - ( X - Y ) 2 ]at CL = ~ / 4 (22) defined by Go = G,,, which is ( X - Y)2 = 1 - 2 2 lies
and the three principal values of E are wholly in the region in which Eo and E-,2 are the true
maximum and minimum values of the modulus. All
[(I - Z) - ( X - Y)2]/[(2- Z ) - 2(X - Y ) ] three limiting lines E, =E,,,, E,,, = Emill and Go =
at U = 0 (23) G,,, meet at the common point 2X = 2Y = Z = +,
z[(l - 2z) - (X- y)21/[(~ + z)(l - 2 2 ) - (X- y)21 which represent a state of complete isotropy.
(X - Y)Z
One feature of Fig. 1 is that, when Y = 0, Eo 4Go = 1.
a t a = $cos-1 - If the value of Go be specified, this condition gives the
[ ( X - Y ) * - 1 221 + (24) greatest possible value of Eo = 1 - 4Go. Although the
[(I - Z) - (X- Y)2]/[(2- Z ) + 2(X - Y ) ] I.0
valur oF Y

at a = 7712 (25)
If ](X-Y)Z] > I ( X - Y ) 2- 1 221, the
value of a corresponding to the intermediate
principal value of E is imaginary; in that case
the value of E at a = 0 is the maximum
value and the value of E at a = v / 2 is the o7
minimum. On the other hand, when the
value of a corresponding to the intermediate 06

principal value of E is real, this principal
value is either less than the value of E at :OS
cx = n/2 or greater than that at a = 0. The
necessary and sufficient condition that the o4
h e maximum value of E should exceed that
at E = 0 js
X < (1 - Y)(1 - 2Y)/(1 + 2Y) (26)
and the similar condition that the true
minimum value of E should be less than that
at z = ~ / is2
Y > (1 - X ) ( 1 - 2X)/(1 i2 X ) (27)
In Fig. 1 contours of constant Eo, E,,,, Fig. 1. Effect of fibre orientation Fig. 2. Effect of fibre orientation
'ma.? and Emin are shown plotted on a map on the principal values of Young's on the principal values of shear
representing all possible combinations of modulus modulus
3, MARCH1952 75
H. L. Cox
corresponding value of EZi2is not zero, it may be incon- It follows that
veniently low; by rotating a few fibres from a = 0 to 6 1 1
a = go", that is, by increasing Y slightly at the expense e, =R(P, - -p2
- -4 P3)
of X,the value of E::,, may be improved without serious
reduction of E,,; moreover, this change improves the and similarly for e, and e3. I n this case, therefore,
value of G,,,. This is illustrated by the comparison Young's modulus = K/6, Poisson's ratio = 1/4 and the
below : shear modulus = K/15.
X Y Z Eo E,,, Go G7,4 The condition of completely random orientation of
Case 1 0.60 0 0.40 0.600 0.086 0.100 0.060 fibres in a solid mat is not likely to be realized in a paper,
Case 2 0.54 0.06 0.40 0.577 0,144 0.100 0.092 SO that it appears worth while to attempt to represent a
compromise between the planar and the solid mat. This
may be done by assuming f(8, #) = sin 8 for a < 6 < 7112
7. T H E SOLID MAT O F FIBRES andf(8, +) = 0 for 8 < a. Then using the formula (29)
The case of the solid mat may be treated exactly as in and the corresponding forms for P2 and P3 it may be
Sections 3 to 6. It may be shown that the 21 elastic shown that
constants reduce to 15 by the automatic satisfaction of 3(15 - 10 cos2 a -i- 3 cos4 a )
the Cauchy relations, c12= c66, C14 = e563 etc., and that e, =
the elastic constants depend only on the first fifteen of 4K cos4 a
the coefficients of the expansion of the fibre distribution
function in spherical harmonics. Furthermore, the last
nine of these coefficients affect only the coefficients such and
cos2 a(5 - 3 cos2 a)
[ P I - 15 - 10 cos' + 3 cos4 '1 3')

as ~ 1 which
4 describe the effects of direct stress in causing 3(85 - 30 COS' a - 9 cos4 a)
shear strains and of shear stress in causing direct strains. e -
- 4K(15 - 10 cos2 a f 3 cos4 a)
However, here attention is restricted to highly sym-
5 - 30 cos2 +
[ '
metrical fibre distribution subjected to direct strains only, 9 COS^ CL
since these cases suffice to illustrate the modification of p2 85 - 30 cos2 a 9 cos4 + CL'^
the conclusions drawn for a planar mat when in fact
the fibres lie not entirely in one plane.
- (5 - 3 cos2 c()(15 - i o cos2 CL 3 cos4 a)P,] (30)
If a solid mat of fibres be subjected to strains e,, e, COS' a(85 - 30 COS' a +
9 cos4 a)
and e3 in three directions at right-angles, a fibre making and similarly for e3 with p2 and p3interchanged.
an angle 8 with the direction of ei and lying in a Plane These formulae reduce correctly to those appropriate
making an angle $ with the plane of e, and e, is subjected to the solid mat of random orientation when CC = 0
to a strain and they also reduce to those for the planar mat when
(e, cos2 6' e, sin2 6' cos2 ++
e3 sin2 8 sin2 #) U = 7712. This is because

The number of fibres crossing unit area perpendicular to 1
the direction of e, is f ( 8 , +) cos 8, where f ( 8 , #) is the
distribution function of the fibres according to their
angles B and +.* The average fibre load P, in the
& =:[el COS2 6
f -(5

and P tends to (K/6)(e2f e3) cos2 a, which itself tends
- 3 COS2 a)o(e2 4- e31

direction of e, is then to zero as a tends to 4 2 .

2: zj2
K(el cos2 6' f e, sin' 8 cos2 4 + e3 sin2 6' sin2 +) cos2 Of(8, $)d8d#
P, =
12: Zj2

;6(6 WW

If the fibres are orientated at random,f(O, $) = sin 8, On the other hand, if PI is made identically zero, as
and then a tends to 4 2 , e, tends to
17 1
+ r;jp3),
P, = d
K (e, cos2 8 f 3e2 sinZ8 A $e3 sin' 8) cos2 8 sin OdO 4E

sin Bd8
a result substantially different from the form
e, =E(P' - jp3)
K 1 1
= +jeZ je3) (29) obtained in Section 3.
The explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that,
and by symmetry the for2' and 3' are if the fibres are even to the slightest degree kinked out
6 As in the planar case, we assume that the lateral distribution
of the e2e, plane, tensile forces in this plane tend to
of fibres is statistically uniform. straighten them; there being no fibres in the direction
The elasticity and strerigth of plgper arid other fibrous materials
normal to the e2e3 plane, this straighening is resisted in balance. Whatever assumption is made in this respect
only by the fibres at right-angles to the direction of it is still necessary to consider how the loads may be
tension, the ends of which must approach or recede in transmitted from one fibre to another. This latter con-
accordance with the lateral motion in the direction e , . sideration is really the more important one, and a satis-
Since this secondary effect on the fibres at right-angles factory representation of the means by which the loads
is a toggle action, it is more than sufficient to counteract may be transmitted must itself virtually solve the problem
the usual contraction appropriate to a true planar mat of continuity of the fibre structure. The conception
and to result in lateral expansion, i.e. a negative value of developed here is one appropriate to resin-bonded fibrous
Poisson’s ratio. At the same time, of course, the filled materials, where each fibre may be considered as
Poisson’s ratio through the thickness must have a very embedded in the continuous solid medium of the resin.
high positive value (proportional to sec2 a). For this case it may be assumed that the resin matrix as
In practice the appropriate value of a may be expected a whole is strained homogeneously, but that locally this
to be well removed from both limits (a = 0 and E = state of uniform stress and strain is perturbed by the
$); values of the effective modulus in the plane e2e3 transfer of load to the fibres. If then it be assumed that
and of the two Poisson’s ratios (in the plane and through the lateral stiffness of the fibres is the same as that of the
the thickness of the paper) are shown in Fig. 3. It will resin matrix it is necessary to discuss only how the load
be seen that the variation of modulus with a is not great, in the direction of the length of the fibre is shared between
but that the variation of the Poisson’s ratios is very fibre and matrix in consequence of the greater stiffness
considerable. of the fibre in this direction.
If a straight fibre of length 1 is embedded in a solid
matrix, and if the whole matrix is subjected to a strain e
in the direction of the fibre, the rate of transfer of load
from matrix to fibre and vice versa will depend on the
relation between the displacement U in the direction of
the length of the fibre at distance x from one end and
w the displacement of the matrix at the same point, if
the fibre were absent. If we assume that dP/dx =
H(u - w), where P is the load in the fibre and H is a
constant, then since P = EA(du/dx),where A is the area
of section of the fibre and E is its modulus of elasticity,*
and since dv/dx = e = constant, we have d2P/dx2=
H(P/EA - e).
Then P = EAe + R sinh fix+ S cosh ,6x, where
p = .\/(H/EA) and R and S are constants. Taking into
cc cegrees account the end conditions, P = 0 at x = 0 and at
x = 1, we have finally
Fig. 3. Variation of elastic properties as structure varies
from solid to planar mat
(I) Young’s modulus (El/E).
P = E A e 1 - cosh
coshj3(1/2 - x)]
,B(1/2) (3 1)
(11) Poisson’sratio through thickness of paper.
(111) Poisson’s ratio in plane of paper. The mean load in the fibre is then
The effect of preferred orientation of the fibres in the
e,e3 plane may readily be superposed, e.g. by using a
function f(0, $) = sin 0 cos2 # in place of sin 8 only; so that its effective modulus is reduced in the ratio
but this extension of the analysis along the lines of tanh (191/2)
Sections 3 to 6 is not attempted here. 1- (33)
8. A P P L I C A T I O N O F T H E C O N C L U S I O N S T O If p1/2 is large, the value of this ratio approaches unity,
but if ,51/2 is small, it tends to zero; we have therefore to
consider the magnitude of +ld/(H/EA).
In seeking to apply the conchsions of Sections 3 to 7 If the fibre has the form of a round rod of radius yo,
10 actual materials consideration has to be given to the A = x r i ; if the mean separation of the fibres normal to
effect of departures from the conditions stated in Sec- their length is rl, and if the shear modulus of the matrix
tion 2; the fibres are not in practice very long and for is G, then
that reason and for others the distribution of fibres H = 2rG/Iog, (rl,’ro) (34)
cannot be quite homogeneous. In respect Of length it iS But approximately 2xr;/d(3)r; = relative fibre den-
not unreasonable to assume that individual short fibres sity = actual fibre density/1.57.7 Hence =
are disposed in continuous lines either end to end or
with a slight overlap, or that at each point of overlap * Strictly the excess of its modulus over that of the displaced
between fibres three or more are arranged at such angular t h ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ $ the h a t of the fibres
’ t packing is roughly
spacings that the forces at the joint are automatically hexagonal and taking the density of the (cellulose) fibre as 1.57.
VOL. 3, MARCH1952 77 ***
H . L. Cox
0*422/(fibre density). For a resin-bonded board of through the resin matrix might be improved, but else-
s.g. 1.40 containing 40% resin of s.g. 1 -26, the actual where the effective fibre density must be correspondingly
fibre density is 1.40 - 0 . 4 x 1.26 =0.896, so that reduced, so that the average degree of adhesion would
ro/rl = 0 * 4 and hence H 3 6 . 8 5 6 , and finally not be much affected.
+l(H/EA)*= $(l/r0)(6.85G/nE)* =about 0. 12(1/r0)taking
E = 10 x lo6 lb/in2 and G = 0.25 x lo6 lb/in2. We
may therefore conclude that 191/2 is of the order 0.2(l/d), 9. I L L U S T R A T I O N O F THE A P P L I C A T I O N O F
where d is the diameter of the fibre. THE CONCLUSIONS
Taking d = 0.01 mm, ,8112 is approximately 201 For one resin-bonded board made of 60% paper and
(I being measured in mm); values of the modulus ratio 40 % resin the specific moduli in two directions at right-
for various values of I are given below. angles were 1 370 km and 610 km.* The modulus of
1“) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 the resin was about 300 km, so that the moduli of the
Modulus ratio 0.518 0.750 0,833 0.875 0.900 paper alone were about 2 080 km and 820 km. From
formulae (23) and (25) of Section 6 , assuming X 1Y =
I(”) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Z =+I, we find X = 0.412, Y = 0.088, and the true
Modulus ratio 0.950 0.975 0.983 0.988 0.990
fibre modulus should exceed 4 480 km by the allowance
Although fibre lengths exceeding 1 mm are included to be made for imperfect adhesion. Actually in this
in the above table, it would at first sight appear that the paper the fibre length was long, so that the appropriate
condition that the fibre shall be straight, must restrict reduction is probably negligible, and the value 4 480 km
the application of the present results to fairly short is close to the modulus for cellulose (10 x lo6 lb/in2 for
fibres, say 1 mm or less in length. On the other hand, specific gravity 1 * 57).
suppose a long fibre of length l i s kinked at each half- The specific strengths of the resin-bonded board in the
millimetre, then each of these sub-lengths except the two two directions were 14 km and 54 km. The contribu-
end ones may be considered to be “grouted” into the tion of the resin per unit weight in the two cases may
matrix and to be subjected to the same uniform strain 300 300
as the matrix throughout its length. The two end lengths be estimated as ~ x 14 = 3.1 km and - x 5 . 5 =
1370 610
each 0.5” long, being rigidly held at one end and 2.7 km, and these values are certainly of the right order.
free a t the other, are by symmetry equivalent to one The strengths of the paper itself are then (14 - 0 . 4 x
fibre 1 mm long with both ends free. Accordingly the 3.1)/0.6 = 21.3 km and (5.5 - 0.4 x 2*7)/0.6=
mean modulus ratio for the whole fibre is 7.4 km. These values indicate a fibre strength of about
(1/1)(1 - 1 0.95) = 1 - (O.OS/l) 35-40 km on the basis of a planar mat. The actual
strength may be slightly greater because some allowance
but it will be seen that this ratio is exactly that given by for non-planar distribution should be made; but the
the table. Moreover, this conclusion is independent of difference indicated by the analysis of Section 7 is far
the “kink length” assumed, provided that this length too great, because the toggle action there described would
exceeds 0.1 mm (or more generally 10 times the fibre in this case be prevented by the resin.
diameter). Accordingly it is concluded that the restric- For any given combination of fibre and resin it is
tion that the fibre shall be straight is unnecessary, and easy to amend Section 7 to include the effect of the resin.
that the results are applicable to all fibre lengths. This has been done for the combination of 60% fibre
The derivation of the value of ro/rl from the value of and 40 % resin, taking the modulus of the resin as 300 km
the fibre density is, of course, far from precise, but at and its Poisson’s ratio as 0.40; these are measured values
the same time it is clear that (ro/rJ2must vary directly of one sample. The fibre is assumed to be laminated in
as the fibre density. The resulting dependence of /31/2 the form of paper or fabric and the orientation in the
on fibre density is only slight; reduction of the density plane of lamination is assumed to be random; the
from 1 to 3 reduces /31/2 by 15% only. Since the orientation out of the plane of lamination is represented
modulus ratio itself varies only slowly with p1/2, it by the limiting angle a as in Section 7. The variation of
appears that the error in the estimation of ,8 may seldom the modulus in the plane of lamination and of the two
be important. Poisson’s ratios, in this plane and through the thickness,
The general conclusion from this section is that transfer are shown below for values of n: from 90” (planar
of load from fibre to fibre reduces the effective modulus distribution) to 0” (completely random distribution).
of the fibre material, but that this reduction is important Measurements made on one or two samples of fabric-
only if the fibre length is less than 100 times the fibre filled, resin-bonded plastics gave values of the two
diameter. If the fibre length is about 10 times its Poisson’s ratios of about 0.25 and 0.45, indicating only
diameter the effective modulus may be reduced to about a slight degree of lamination of the fibres ( a =about
Moreover, the reasoning used for the deduction of the *. The specific modulus is the modulus divided by the density,
effective modulus of short fibres in effect covers the and this quantity has the dimenslons of a length. If a length Of
uncertainty in respect of the actual disposition of the the material equa1,to l / n of the specific modulus were suspended
vertically, the elastic strainat the upper end would be lln.
fibres. If a succession of fibres were arranged in line 7 Variation of the division between X - Y and 2 makes only
with a moderate overlap the adhesion between this group slight differences.
The elasticity and strength of paper and other fibrous materials
a 90” 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
(plane) (solid)
ModultlS (km) 1016 991 917 814 716 650 613 593 584 580
poisson’sIwidth 0.341 0.331 0.297 0.244 0.201 0.201 0.233 0.270 0.297 0.306
ratio ]thickness 0.440 0.478 0.584 0.692 0.710 0.616 0.487 0.385 0.325 0.306
30”; the stiffness of these materials was correspondingly fortunately similar data for paper-filled, resin-bonded
low (about 600 km). One sample of sliver-filled material materials are not available.
gave values of Poisson’s ratio 0.16 and 0.67 and this ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Laterial had a modulus of about 850km; but this The work described above was carried out in the
material had a resin content rather less than 40%. Engineering Division of the National Physical Laboratory
Except for the Poisson’s ratio in the plane of lamination, on behalf of the Ministry of Supply. This paper is
srhich seems rather low, these values are consistent with published by permission of the Director of the Laboratory
a high degree of lamination ( a = about 60’) as would and with the approval of the Chief Scientist, Ministry
be expected from the form of the fibre filling. Un- of Supply.

Temperature distribution with simultaneous platten and dielectric
By H. M. NELSON,BSc., A.M.I.E.E., Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Department of Supply,
Melbourne, Australia
[Paperfirst received 18 May, 1951, and in final form 2 July, 19511
The temperature distribution in a solid of infinite area bounded by two parallel planes in which
heat is being uniformly generated and the surfaces of which are maintained at an elevated
temperature is evaluated for the case in which the solid is initially at a uniform temperature
throughout. A comparison is made between platten and combined heating which shows that
the heating time can be divided by a factor which depends on the tolerable temperature variation,
but which is of the order of 10 for a variation of 19% and 2.5 for a variation of 1.2%. Some
consideration is given to the optimum conditions required for the setting of synthetic resins and
like materials for which the setting time is a function of the temperature. Practical considerations
which restrict the choice of some of the parameters are mentioned.
1. I K T R O D U C T I O N othed4) suggested a combination of hot plate and
The temperature distribution in a solid of infinite extent heating by dielectric loss. Two curves were published
bounded by two parallel planes, the temperature of which which show a “hump” in the temperature distribution
is initially uniform and the surfaces of which are main- curve near the heated plattens and they also claim that
tained at this initial temperature while heat is generated there is no combination of fixed plate temperature and
uniformly in the solid, has been determined by Brown,(’) heating rate which will result in a completely uniform
HerneQ)and Carslaw and Jaeger.c3) Numerical evalua- temperature. The results presented hereinafter sub-
tions have been made by Brown for a particular value of stantially confirm this statement.
diffusivity. In processes involving the curing of many thermo-
A configuration of this type is frequently encountered, setting resins the criterion for a satisfactory result is not
an example being the heating of materials by dielectric necessarily ultimate temperature uniformity, but uni-
loss. Even when the surfaces are curved the results of formity of setting, and, as the setting time is a function
the analysis can be applied with reasonable accuracy of temperature, the time-temperature relationship at
providing that the radius of curvature is everywhere large each layer of the slab must also be considered. The
compared with the thickness of the slab. The assumed latter part of this paper is devoted to this problem, and
boundary conditions will obtain if the electrodes are there it is shown that the combination of heating by
cooled or are of high thermal conductivity and mass so plattens and dielectric loss can lead under suitable
that they remain a t the initial temperature. Under these conditions to a substantially uniform result.
conditions the material near the surfaces must remain While it is shown that this heating method can produce
unheated, the thickness of this unheated layer depending a material which is satisfactorily cured, nevertheless the
on the heating rate. We shall see below that this layer most satisfactory heating system would be one which
is very thin when the rate of generation of internal heat raised the temperature at all points of the material at the
1s large. In the steady state (i.e. after a very long heating same rate. Among the methods which have been pro-
time) the temperature distribution is of parabolic form posed and used to achieve this result may be mentioned:
rising more slowly towards the centre of the slab. (1) the use of plattens the temperature of which is raised
It is clear that for many processes this type of distri- at the same rate as the body of the material; (2) the use
bution would not be satisfactory and various devices have of well insulated plattens of low thermal mass; (3) the
been suggested and some used in practice to obtain a use of “dummy boards” between the heated material and
more uniform temperature; for example Brown and the unheated press plattens.
VOL. 3, h‘iARCH 1952 79