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Th e object of this col umn is to enh ance our readers ' collecti on of interesting and novel problems

in chemic al engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to moti vate th e student by presenting

a particular principle in class, or in a newlight, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are

request ed as well as tho se that are more traditional in nature, which el ucidate dif f icult concepts.

Pl ease submi t th em toProfessorJam es o. Wil kes andProfessor T. c.Papon as tasiou, ChEDepartment,

Universit y of Michigan, Ann Arbor, M148109.

AMUNDSON'S MATRIX METHOD

FOR BINARY DISTILLATION REVISITED

J.J.J. CHEN

University ofAuckland

Auckland, New Zealand

Further, 1'1 and 1'2' t he root s of Eq. (3), will also

sat is fy Eq. (5). Th us

Eqs. (5) , (6), and (7) will be applied to binary distill a-

tion. However, fir st we need to formalize some of

Amundson 's treatment.

A mundson' !' expressed t he binary dist illat ion prob-

~ lem as a matrix difference equat ion. In t his

pa per, matrix power equations wi ll be used to solve

and simplify t he same problem, making it suitable

for illustrating t he ap plication of matrices in courses

of engineering math emat ics or separations processes.

rt = a.r

l

+ P

rJ = a.

r

2 + P

(6)

(7)

SOME RELATIONSHIPS IN MATRICES

Cons ider the matrix A of or de r 2:

A = [ a

l

a

2

] (1)

b

I

b

2

whose characteristic equation, IA - rIl = 0, is

l a ~ ~ r b : ~ rl= 0 (2)

or

r2 _(aI+ b2) r +( a Ib2- a2 bI)= 0 (3)

where I is the unit matrix of t he or der of A. From the

Cayley-Hamilto n t heorem, the matr ix A also satis-

fies its own characteristic equatio n. Thus

A

2

- (a

l

+ b2) A +(a Ib2 - a2 bl ) I = 0 (4)

where 0 is t he zero matrix of t he or der of A.

By using equations like Eq . (4) for higher powers

and substituting from t he lower power equations, it

can be shown t hat

(5)

where a an d p are numerical constants which de-

pend on the matrix A and expone nt p.

Copyr ight ChE Division. ASEE 1991

50

BINARY DISTILLATION

Following Amundson , by assu ming constant vola-

ti lity, the equilibri um line is

x

Y= - - (8)

A+Bx

and the operating line is

y = mx+ b (9)

Taking the top product composition as d, the us e of

a total conde nser gives YI = d. The plat e numbers are

counted from top to bottom. The liquid leaving plate

1 is obtained from Eq. (8). Thus

AYI

Xl = (10)

- BYl + l

and Y2' obtained from t he substitution of XI from Eq.

John J. Chen is an Associate Professor in chemical

and materials engineering at the University of Auck-

....... ... ; : ; ; ; ~ ........... land. New Zealand.

Chemi cal Engineering Edu cation

Simp lifying

I'I (Yn- Y

p

+n)+[Yp+ n(1- BYn)- (mA- Bb)Yn - b]

r2(Y

n

- Y

p

+n)+[Yp+ n(1- BYn}- (rnA- Bb)Yn - b]

(21)

and assumi ng constant vola t ility and molal over -

flow, t he only unknowns are a a nd B. Furthermore,

may be solved explicit ly in t erms of a by using Eq .

(18). Thus

[- BYnYp+n +Y

p+ n

- (rnA- Bb)Y

n

- b]a

P= (19)

Yn -Y

p

+

n

It is now possi ble to eli minat e a and in Eq s. (6) and

(7), and to evaluate p, the number of pl at es. The

factors 1'1 and 1'2 ar e t he roots of t he characteris tic

equation of t he square mat ri x given in Eq. (16), and

they may be readily shown t o be

1'],1'2 - 4mA] (20)

Dividing Eq. (6) and Eq. (7), substitut ing t he value

for fr om Eq . (19), and eliminat ing a

(13)

(12a)

(12b)

*

YI+

n

alY

n

+a2

YI+n

YI +

n

b

l

y

n

+b

2

where

(10) into t he operating line equation [Eq. (9)], is

Y2 = mXI +b (lla)

(rnA - Bb)YI + b (ll b)

Y2 = - By] +1

Now we can define y , t he composition of t he

vapour leavin g the as

The plate number from which we begin t he ste p-

ping-off process is n. The value of yp+n when p = 1

(i .e., Yl+)' is t hus given by

(18)

APPLICATION

(22)

Th e roots for the characteri stic equat ions for above

and below the feed are , r espectively

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26) 1'2 = 0.40920

I'

f n --!-

1'2

x

y =0.75x+ 0.249

Y=1.3773x+0.001886

1'] = 0.75130

Thus, t he number of pl at es p betwen t ray number

(p-i n) and n is given by

I'I (Yn- Y

p

+n)+ [Yp+

n

(1- By

n

)- (mA- Bb)Yn - b]

1'2(Y

n

- Yp+n)+ [Yp+ n(I - BYn)- (rnA- Bb)Yn - b]

p = - ----''--------'---'-----"--'------- - - ------'-

We shall now apply Eq. ( 22) to the same problem

considered by Amundson in solving the di stillation

of a 0.40 mole fr actio n benzen e mixed with toluen e

introduced at its bubble point. Th e equilibr ium curve

is give n by

Y=----

0.41+0.59x

The t op produce is 0.995 benzen e, and the bottom is

0. 005 benzen e. The operating lines above and below

t he feed are, respectively

and

[

Yp+n*]=[(rnA - Bb) b

1

]P[YIn] (16)

Y

p

+

n

<' - B

[

YP+n". ] = [ a (mA- Bb) ab] [Yn] +[P O] [ Yn] (17)

Y

p

+n' " -ab a 1 P 1

al = mA- Bb (14a)

a2 = b

(14b)

b

l

=- B (14c)

b

2

=1 (14d)

Thus

[ Y

1

1 ]

(15)

With referenc e t o Eq. (12b), it may be shown by

induction that

By comparing Eqs. (ll b) and (13), where p = 1 and

n = 1,

Applying Eq. (5), Eq . (16) may be r e-written as

The composit ion of vapour leaving the (p-m)" plate

may t hen be written in t erms of t he vapour leaving

the nthplate as

=[ Y

p

+n* l [a (mA-Bb)+p]Yn+ab

Yp+n

Yp+

n

"* -aBY

n

+a+ p

In Eq. (18), given a binary di stillation problem

Winter 1990 51

results in 9.54 plates above feed position.

Below t he feed position, Eq. (22) may be a pplied

by taking n =9.54, i.e., Y9fi4 =0.549. We obtain y ~ I f i 4

by subs t it ut ing values for A, B, m, and b from Eqs.

(23) and (25), and using 1'1 =0.99744 and 1'2 =0.56615.

We obtai n y +9.54 by substit uti ng x = 0.005 in to t he

equi librium fine to give yp+9fi 4=0.01 21. Thus

Applying Eq . (22) t o above the feed posi ti on,

n =1, y\ =0.995, inserting t he a ppropriate values for

A, B, m, and b from Eqs. (23) and (24) with referen ce

to Eqs. (10 ) and (11), and usi ng r

l

= 0.75130 and

1'2 =0.40920, we obtain Y

n

+\ by substitut ing t he feed

composition into the operating line as the feed is in-

troduced at it s bubble point. Thus Yn+l = 0.549 (or

0.553 using the lower operating lin e). ... '

..7 ,

1'1 = 0.99744

Appl ying the va lues

1'1 ~ 0.75130

YI = 0.995

B = 0.59

A = 0.4 1

1'1 = 0.99744

Y9, 54 = 0.549

B = 0.59

A = 0.41

1'2 =0.40920

Yp+l = 0.549

ill = 0.75

b = 0. 249

1'2 = 0.56615

Yp+9 .54 = 0.01 21

ill = 1.3773

b = 0.001886

(27)

POWER OF SPREADSHEETS

Conti nued from page 49.

stude nts. In sigh t into the rel ati ve importance of

va ria bles and sensitivity of r esult s to changes in t he

input can be gat her ed from such an exercise. The

ease of changi ng input data al so allows instructors

to efficient ly check calcula tio ns made wit h different

combinations of independen t va ria bles.

CONCLUSIONS

Our experience wit h spreadsheet computing has

proved to us t hat it is feasibl e to provide ins t ruction

on spreadsheet use as part of t he mass and ene rgy

bal ances class. Within a t ime-frame of approximate ly

t wo hours, st ude nts ca n learn sufficient funda me n-

t al s to use spreads heets as a tool for solving a va ri-

ety of probl ems in t he class. After solvi ng five to

eight problems , most of t hem have enough confi-

dence a nd exper ience to apply t he tec hniques in

future engi neer ing classes.

Th e use of spre ads heets also encourages organi-

zation in pr obl em solving which hopefull y will carry

t hrough to t he st udent's non-computer work. The

flexibil ity and conveni ence of spre adsheet s allows

students to solve more meaningful probl ems and to

examine t he solutions in detail by mani pula t ing in-

dependent va r iables t o determine t he ir effect . The

built-in gr a phics capability also helps to ti e together

gr aphical and al gebraic solution t echniques wh en

such alternate methods exist for a given probl em.

These values, when substituted int o Eq. (22) yield

9.91 plates below feed positi on.

CONCLUSIONS

Th e binary di stillation probl em considered by

Amundson wa s r e-examined, and a simpler method

involving powers of matrices has been give n a nd an

explicit solution obtained . This approach is suitable

for us e in engineer ing mathematics or separation

processes courses to illustrate the application of

matrices to engi neering problems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Th e author is grateful to his colleague, Kevin

Free, for improvements in the clarity of this paper.

REFERENCES

1. Amundson, N. , "Applicat ion of Matrices a nd Finite Differ-

ence Equations to Binary Dist ill ati on," Trans. AIChE, 42,

939(1946) 0

52

REFERENCES

1. Rosen , E.M., a nd R.N. Adams, "A Review of Spreads heet

Usage in Che mical En gin eering Ca lculat ions ," Computers

and Ch ern, Engg., 1U 6), 723 (1987 )

2. Gr ulke, E.A. , "Us ing Spreads heets for Teach ing Desi gn,"

Chern. Eng. Ed., 20 , 128 (1986)

3. Dijkstra, E.W., A Di scipline of" Programming, Prent ice-

Hall Inc., En glewood CIiITs, N.J (1976 )

4. Rosen , E.M., "The Use of Lot us 1-2-3 Macros in Engineer-

ing Ca lculat ions," Chern. Eng. s. 24 , 100 (1990)

5. Asp enplus, Asp en Technology Cor porat ion, Ca mbr idge,

MA

6. Himme lhlau, D.M., Basic Principles and Calculations in

Chemical Engineering, Pren ti ce-Hall , Inc., Eng lewoo d

curn, NJ (1982)

7. Felder, R.M. , and R.W. Rousseau, El ementary Prin ciples

of" Chemical Processes, .Joh n Wiley & So ns, New Yor k

(1986 )

8. Wankat, P. C., "Wha t Wi ll We Remove From t he Cu rr icu-

lum to Make Room for X?" Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 72 (J 98 7)

9. Lotus 1-2-3, Lot us Devel opment Corporation, Ca mbridge ,

MA

10. Supercalc, Compute r Associa t es Int ernati onal , San -Iose,

CA

11. Smartware, Infor mix Soft ware Inc. , Len exa , KS

12. McKean, R.A., a nd E.L. Ha nzevack, "The Hea rt of t he

Matter: Th e Engineer's Essenti al One-Page Memo," Chem.

Eng. Ed. , 23 , 102 (1989) ,'"

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