You are on page 1of 12



Departmentof Aerospace and MechanicalEngineering,University of Notre Game, Notre Dame, IN 46556,

Meceiwd 2 September 1977: in revised fan Zl Lkccmber 1977: r&ted for publication 15 F&wary 1978)

M&ad-This paper is conceme-d with the invest&ion of finite extension of a vkwekstk multipk
fikment and sin& kyered yirn subjected to axial forces and twistinftmoments.The &men1 in the yarn is
consideredas a Iii viscoekstic sknder curved rod with circukr cross scctkn and heiii uw&ra&
is approximately@tical. Ill our study, we have ako assumedthat thwe is sii@lIg~~~M!n~~
deformationof the yarn. Geometricalnonlbwuity in introducedby the reswnms
extensional retaxationmodulusof the Went is derived from a model of tlwee-ekwnt ‘s&d and Poisson3
ratioof the fikment is regardedas coostant.Exampks are preseotedfor the.extensioos of yarnswith tixedends
and yarns with free ends.

radii of iikments
eqn (51)
co&kknt of kinetic friction
sqn 01). FL. Mb)
tensik rekxation modulus
cqn 00)
componentsof the stress resultantvector
applied axial force
pitch of the helix
unit vectors
eqn (51)
kngths of yarns
lengths of 6kments
components of the moment vector
applied twistiw moment
eqn (51)
numberof fikments
const8nt force between lUaments
eqn (51)
radii coordinateof the fikment
wn (51)
reztangukr cartesian coordinates
Ft. l(c)
small increments
axial strainof the iikment
hetii an&s
unit vectors
eons (6) and (11)
Poisson’s ratio
pokr anek
eqn (51)

tThis research is supportedby the National Sciince Fotwktion Grant ENG7645775.

Ss VOL I4 NO. 7-D 519
580 N. C.HUNG
The mechanical behavior of most textile materials exhibits what is known as time-
sensitivity. For a yarn subjected to an axial load, creep deformation is observed following
instantaneous elastic response. In order to analyze the yarn problem in a more realistic manner,
the theory of viscoelasticity must be employed. The creep deformation of linearly viscoelastic
continuous filament yarn has been investigated by Jones[l]. His analysis is based on the small
deformation theory whereby geometrical nonlinearity is ignored. Also in Jones’ study, the yarn
material is considered to be incompressible; the normal stresses acting on any yarn element in
the transverse directions are assumed to be equal and the shearing stresses are neglected. The
finite extension of a linearly viscoelastic two-ply filament yarn has been analyzed by Huang[21
based on the theory- of slender curved rods(31. In Huang’s study, geometrical nonlinearity is
introduced as a result of reductions in helical angle and filament cross section.
In this paper, we shall study the problem of finite extension of multiple filament linearly
viscoelaatic yarns subjected to axial forces and twisting moments at both ends. Similar to the
case of the two-ply 5lament yarn, we shall treat the filament as a slender curved rod with
circular cross section and helical configuration. We shall assume that the curvature of the
filament is sufficiently small such that the cross section of the filament perpendicular to the yarn
axis is approximately elliptical. Also, we shall consider that there is siipping between filaments
during deformation of the yarn. It is found that the creep deformation of the yarn is governed
by two nonlinear integral equations which is solved numerically by a modified Newton’s
method. Two probkms have been selected for study, namely, the extension of a yarn with fixed
en& and the extension of a yarn with free ends. Effects of initial helical angle and the
superposition of a twisting moment on the axial extension of the yarn have also&en included
in the study.
Let us consider a long linearly viscoelastic n-ply filament yarn as shown in Fii. l(a).
(n = 2,3,4,. . .). The yarn consists of a single layer of Blaments which form a cylindrical tube.
The cross section of the filament in the undeformed state is considered to be circular with
radius u,,. The center line of the undeformed filament is prescribed by the following rectangular
Cartesian coordinates:

x~=r~cos&, x2=r0sin&, x3=&, (1)

where r. and & are the polar coordinates and &,,is a constant which is related to the length of
the filament of one turn of twist measured along the axis of the yarn /is by

The unit vectors in the tangential, principal normal and binormal directions of the center line of
the undeformed 6kment are

Ao= $(-r. sin hOi + r. cos &f + &&),
k;o= -(cos hi + sin f$&, (4)

- *

respectively, where i: I and k^are unit vectors in the xl, x2 and x&irections and

po = (rt + bz)ln.

Note that the principal normal of the filament is in the radial direction and toward the axis of the
yarn. The helical angk of the center line of the undeformed filament is

‘90= tan-’ 2.
Finite extension of a viscoclastic multipk filament yam 581

(b) Secttan A-A


Fii. 1. Geometry of the problem.

Let us define the curvature vector by dE/ds where dE is the iniktitesimal rotation vector of the
coordinate axes in i, i; and idirections in a distance ds along the center line of the filament.
The principal normal curvature of the center line of the’ undeformed @antent is then the
component of the curv&ure in the binormal diction. The torsion of the center line is the
component of the curvature in the tangential diiecti0n.t They are

1 .
Ko =-Los eo (8)
= POstn 4v 7o PO

respectively. The component of the curvature in the principal normal direction is xero.
Let us cut the yarn by a plane perpendicular to the axis of the yarn. The cross section is
shown in Pii. l(b). We shall follow Phillips and Costello[S] and assume th&thCCUWSltUl-COf
tbc filament is su&iently small such that the cross section of each tflament is elliitical. Hence
the cross section of the undeformed yarn consists of it ellipses tangent to each other with
center of ellipse at (fncos (2iw/n), r&n (2iw/n)) (i = 0, 1,. . . n - 1). We shag also assume that
the common tangent of any two kghboriqg ellipses passes through the center of the cross
ellipse is 2a&ko and the minor axis is 2a,+ By analytical geometry, we can easily show that

q = a& b1 sin*f - ao2cos’ f

Equation (9) agrees with the corresponding relation given in [4]. When n = 2, we obtain from
quation (9) that ro= 40 which agrees with the result of [2].
The yarn is subjected to an axial tension P and a twisting moment fi in the direction of the
original twist of the yarn. In the deformed state, as a result of contact deformation, the cross
section of the 6lament is no longer circular. Since the con&uration of 6lament is helical, the
analysis of this type of contact problem is extremely d&t&. In the following, we shall neglect
the contact deformation and assume that the cross section of the filament in the deformed state
remains circular with radius a. The center line of the filament in the deformed state remains
helical. Let r and 4 be the polar coordinates of any point on the deformed center line of the
t3ament. We have equivaknt equations identical to qns (l)-(9) with tBt s&cript 0 dekted.

K = f Sin 8, +ose, (10)

tin Love’s textI41. our torsion is refened to as the twist of the filament.
582 N. C. HUANG

p= (9 + k2p2, 8 = tan-’ f. (11)

Also, we have

k’sin’t-a2cos2f) . (12)

The distance from the center of the cross section of the yarn to the point of tangency of two
neighbori~ ellipses is found as


The line of contact of the deformed filament is helical with radius d.
Next. let us consider a cross section of the deformed filament as shown in Fii. l(c). To
determine the central angle 2s between the points of contact, let us first project the circular
cross section on the pkne perpendicuhu to the axis of the yarn. The projection is also an ellipse
with major axis 2a and minor axis 2uk/p as shown by dotted line in Fii. l(b). Note that the
projection of the helical tine of contact on the plane perpendicular to the axis of the yarn is a
circk with radius d and center at 0. The angle /3 can be determined from the intersection of the
projection of the cross section and the projection of the line of contact. similar approach for
the determination of @ has also been employed by Costello and PhiUips[61. It is found that

cos B = (p’- [p2(d2 + k2) - a2k2]'"}/(ar). (14)

Thus after d is calculated by eqn (13). fl can be determined by eqn (14). Note that for the
two-ply filament yams, n = 2, d = j3 = 0. Hence the filaments are in contact to each other at the
center line of the yearn. The same con&&n has also been drawn in (21.

In the following, we shall denote the components of any quantity in the tangential, principal
normal and binormal directions by subscripts A, p and Y respectively. Each filament will be
treated as a long sknder curved rod. The components of the stress resultant acting on the cross
section of the l&unent are denoted by F,, F,, and F, and the components of moment acting on
the cross section are denoted by M,, M,,and M, The components ,of the distributed force per
unit length of the filament are pA, p,, and p. and the components of the distribution moment per
unit length are rn*, m, and m,
Along the line of contact, there exist the normal distributed force P and tangential
distributed forces Q and R as shown in Fii. l(c). Hence

PA=O* pp =-2pcosB. pv=2Qcos@ (15)


mA -2Qa, m, = 2Ra sin @, m. = 0. (16)

If we treat the filament as a one-dimensional sknder body, we can obtain the equations of
equilibrium of all forces and moments acting on an element of the filament from the theory of
slender curved rods [31. Since the yarn is considered to be long, all derivatives of the stress
results and moments with respect to the arc length of the filament must vanish. The equations
of equilibrium can be written as

F&-PA =O. (17)
With eqns (15) and (16). eqns (17)-(22)become

In the fol~~wj~g.we shaff consider that during deformation of the yarn, tkre is sl~~pi~~
between filaments. Let us denote the coefficientaf kinetic friction between fikmcnts by c. We have

Here eqn 125)can be rewritten as

Let us set the local coordinates in the tangential,,principal normal and binarmal directions.
Under the assumption of small strains, the Clebsch-Basset momenticurva&tre relations far
elastic slender curved rodsf4] are

where EI is the bending stiffness, CJ is tk torsional stars and CTis P~~ss~~“sratio,
~~~~~ C29)is derived frrcptbat the c ~f~~~~~
normal direction is zero for both the undeformed and defamed fkments, In the viwFctutic
case, in view of the absence of data, we shaI1assume Poisson’s ratio to br: constant and treat
Young’s mudufus E in eqns (281 and (30) as an int@ operation ~~ to &e c&-
r~spunde~ee principle in v~s~~Iasti~it~.In the follQ~~, we ShaIluse the logon

where T is tk time. In the v~s~~lasti~ case tqns CJ81and ~~~ in


where E(T) is the axial tensile relaxation modulus of the filament. Equa&ion(29) still holds. By
584 N. C. WANG

eqns (HI), (24),(27),(32) and (331,we obtain

F, = a(p2+cak tan 8)” $ + cr;F, tan @ . (34)

The contact force between filament can be found from eqn {24)as

P =- #_F,7). (35)

Ia the elastic case, 8s a result of Poisson’s effect, the normal S&Z&Iin the t~sve~e
direction of the bunt is

--aI= -CT-.
Fn (36)
aa wa E

By IMDMof the correspo&nce principle, the tangential component of stressresultant in the
filament in the viscoehksticcase is

E = -$ E*da. (371

The overaNequilibrium of the internalforces and the appkd force P re@res that [3,5].

SimiIarly,the overall equiiihrium in moments requires

Witheqns (32) and (33),we can rewrite eqn (39) as

~s~~veiy* The u~~fu~ed and defo~ed length of the fil&rne~tare

10= zAi&j, 1=2u& (4%

respectiveiy, Hence the axisUstrain of the yarn is


and the axial strain of the giant is
Finite extension of a viscoclastic multiple filament yam 585

As a result of Poisson’s effect. we have

1=-m*. (45)

After elimination of lI and M/MO from eqns (43)-(4% we obtain

The angle of twist of the yarn per unit length is

Lo (A& )’

After elimination of eA and M/MOfrom eqns (44), (45) and (47). we obtain

Hence if the ends of the yarn are unconstrained, elongation of the yarn wili be coupled by a
twist. On the other hand, if the ends of the yarn are constrained such that fl= 0, we have an
additional constrained condition from eqn (48). It is


In this case, if a is known, p can be determined from eqn (49) and k can be found from the
relation derived from eqns (11) and (12).

Finally, 8 can be found from eqn (11).

Let us denote E(0) by E,J and introduce the following dimensionless quantities:

Em = EmEo, & = Mao, Fo= r0la0, PO=pola0, 6 = ah f= k/00,


For given values of n, eo, the initial geometry of the yam is &term&d from the following
&=csf (cotzeo+cos
) 2s
‘;; , (52)

Under given values of c, a, f and A and given function &‘I’), the viacoelostic deformation of
Finiteextensionof a viscocksticmultipktikmcntyarn 587
In our computation, we shall employ Lee and Roger’s method181to evaluate the hereditary
integral numerically. In our numericalscheme, we first divide t into N intervals with fl = 0’ and
tN+l = T. We have



and fO is the value of f in the undeformed state. Note that when time increases step by step, at
f=fN+lr&+I invoivesf(ti)fori=1,2,... N which have been determined in the previous time
steps. The only unknown in eqn (73) is f(fN+,). By using eqn (73). an integral equation of
Volterra’s type can be reduced to an algebraic equation.
In the following, we shall analyze the problem of finite extension of yarns with two types of
end conditions.

Yam with jixed ends
When the ends of the yarn are fixed, o = 0. The fixed-end twisting moment is determined by
eqn (69) for the instantaneous elastic response and by eqn (63) for the viscoelastic response.
For each time step, we assume a value for d and compute P and k by



The values of ?, & @,f&and f. are determined respectively by eqns (55). (57)-(a). The correct
value of d must fuBll the condition that the value of g as determined by eqn (68)or (62)is zero.
We shall use a modified Newton’s iterative method for t&edetermination of ‘i In this procedure
compute values of g which are denoted by 81, g2 and 83. The derivative dg/dG at d - 4 can be
approximated by the following central difference equations:

g’=dd I ali, =$b-ah

Hence, according to Newton’s iterative form-&, the new value of d in the iteration would be

di+,=isi- &,=6*- 24L m
8 h-82'

Our iterative procedure continues until the absolute value of g is smaller than a certain
prescribed value. It is noted that in our problem, t&erate of con- is fast.
Computations are first carried out for go= lP, n ‘4, ~“0.7, cmO.2 and ar0.45. Zn Fw.
2, the creep curves c,(r) are shown by solid lines for various values of fi The finite jumps at
asymptoticatly the value corresponding to the delayed elastiq mod&s B(m)- 0.7. The &cd end
3-88 N, C. HUNG

twisti~ moments 6(t) are aiso shown by dotted Iines. It is noted that the fixed end twisting
moment is nearly constant for this case. In order to show the geometrical nonline~ity, a( 11is
plotted against f’in FQ. 3. The Ql) curve as determined by the linear theory is also shown by a
dotted line for comparison. Note that the nonlinearity becomes evident when J is large. The
helical angl_eof the filament @(1)is plotted against fin Fig. 3. As we may expect, 6( 1)decreases with
irmeasing f. In Fig. 4, the dependenceof eY(l),fA{l) and G(l) on n are shown for j = 0.02. When n
increases, both q,(l) and f&(i) decrease. The value of fi(l) increases with n because the radial
distance F(l) increases with n. The dependence of & (1) and rii(l) on the initial helical angle & is
shown in Fig. 5 for n = 4 and r’ = 0.02. When 4 = 0, all &unents are straight. Hence, fk ( 1) = O.OOf
and S(l) = 0. It is found that both fA(l) and G(l) increase with do.

0 1 c 1 1 I 1 I
2 3 4 5 6 'z 8
Finite extension of a viscoclasticrnu~~k.~l~ent yarn 589

When the ends of the yarn are free, Si = 0 and of 0. In this case, we have two unknowns Z
and k’to be determined. Again, we sh& employ a modii Newton’s iterative method in our
computation. Fit, we try out a set of values a’= 4 and R= & and compute g and k according
to eqns (68) and (69) for the ins~ntaneous elastic response and eqns (62) and (63) for the
viscoetastic response. They are denoted by (g,, trl). Next, we select four sets of values for 6
and k’in the ne~~~~ of 6=iii and I--&. They are (&-A,&), (~~+A,~)~ f&&-S),
14, & + 6). WC have four additional sets of cakuiated vaIues of g and k. They are (gz,Itl),
(83,h3),(gr, h,) and (gs. tr$)respectively. The partial derivatives of g and h with respect to ii and
1 as evaluated at 0’= di and f = & can be approximated by the following central difference

The new set of a’ and k”can be determined by the folIo~ng equations given in Newton’s iterative
method for two variabIes:


The iterative procedure conti~~s until the value of a*+ Rzis smaller than 8 certain prescribed
value. It is found that the rate of convergence is ofso fast for the use of two variabks.
The creep curves, c,,(t), are shown by solid lines in Fig. 6 for 6J0
= lS”, II = 4,~ = 0.7, c = 0.2,
Q = 0.45 and diierent values of f In comparison with the creep curves shown in Fw. 2, it is
accompanied by an untwist of’the yarn. The an&s of untwist per unit Ien@ of the yarn,
- it, be also shown in Fii. 6 by dotted lines. Theesect of surest of a twisting moment on
the elongatian of the yarn is sbown in Fig. 7. It is noted that when rii increases,tbcbclicalangk
increases and consequently e,(f) decreases. When 1 is m!licidy bKgC,e,(l) can tamcame
negative. The fihunent stress fA(1)and the contact force p(f) are a&o plotted against rii in Fii. 7. It
is found rhat f,( 1)is essentia@ygoverned by f and the effect of the additional twisting mmmt on
fi(l) is ins~ffi~t. The contact force p(l) increases slightly with 6.

(1) The finite extension of elastic wire cables has been inves&ated by Costello and
Ph~lips[9]~ Their problem corresponds to our problem with T = 0. The concl&ons drawn in
their study are very much similar to what we have obtained here for the vkoelastic probkm.
(2) The mechanical behavior of a yarn is governed chietiy by three factors--time, tempera-
ture and humidity. In this paper, our investigation is focused on the time-dependent charac-
teristics of the yam and ignoredthe eifects of temperature and hi, Hence our problem is
restricted to the case of isothermal en~on~nt with constant humid&y. Shot&l the tempera~
ture and humidity also be time dependent the-relaxation modulus used in our analysis must be
mod&d to inch&e the effect of temperature and humidity.
(3) Our analysis is based on a model where the deformed cross section of tbe fllamcnt
remains circular. In reality, the contract of filaments are of Hertz’s type in both undeformed
590 N. C. HUANG

0 1 I I I 1 I I
0 0.5 1.0 I.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
t m
Fig.6. c,(Oand -ru(r)curvesfor &= IS”. 12 = O.(fret Fig.7. e.~I~./~(l~,o(l)andp(l)xl0vs~ccurvesfor
cuds). n = 4. 7 = 0.7. c = 0.2, p = 0.45 and various the case of free ends with 6,,= 15”. j=O.O?. n =p.
values of f. y = 0.7, c = 0.2 and Q = 0.45.

and deformed states. Additional geometrical nonlinearity can be introduced by the Hertz’s
contact deformation of the filament. The result given in this paper is valid if the width of
contact is small in compatjson with the diameter of the filament.
(4) It is noted that the actual cross sections of filaments are not perfectly circular. Also their
distribution is not entirely uniform. To analyze a yarn with nonuniform filaments, statistical
theory must be employed. However, our study would still provide a general feature of the finite
deformation of viscoeiastic multiple filament yarns.

I. N. JOTS. Elastic-pUic and viscoelastic behavior of a cootittuous filament yarn. hr. 1. Me& Sri. I& 679-687 (1974).
2. N. C. Htuttt#. Ott iittite e~tenrioa of a visco&atic two-ply fRantent yam. TextileRes. I. 48.61-67 (1978).
3. N. C. Huang.Theoriesof elastic skttder curved rods, J. A@. Math. whys. (ZAMP). U l-19 (1973).
4. A. E. H. Love. A Tnatise on the Mathematical Tkwy of Elasticity. Chap. 18. p. 397. Dover, New York.
5. J. W. Pbiltip and G. A. Cost&Jo. Contact stress in twisted wire cables. 1. Engng Mech. Du. Pnx. American Sot. Ciuil
Ertgrz. 99, E&G 331-34ltl973).
6. G. A. Costello attd J. W. Phillips. A more erect theory of twisted wire cables. /. Engng h&h. WV. Proc. American SW. Civil
Engrs, IU. EMS IO%-1099 (1974).
7. W. FlRgge. Viscocfasticity. Chap. 2. pp. 16-17. Blaisdell. Massachusetts (1%7).
8. E. H. Lee and T. G. Rogers, !Sohttiin of viscoelastic stress analysis probkms using measured creep or relaxation functions.
1. Appt. Mech. 33, 127-133 (1%3).
9. G. A. Costello and J. W. Phillips. Effective modulus of twisted wire cables. /. Engng Mech. Dir.. Proc. American SIX-. Cicil
Enqs. 102. EMI, 171-181 (1976).