ⓒ2013 Information Processing Society of Japan

Cow Disease Diagnosis Using Backpropagation Neural Networks

Moh.Alifuddin
1
, Billy Eden William Asrul
2
, Ery Muchyar H
3

Hamdan Gani
4
, Fadly Shabir
5

Abstract
Cow disease had a significant impact on reduction of meat production for cattle ranchers. To minimize the impact of the
disease needs to be done early detection and treatment to prevent high losses. Intelligent system can make it easier to
diagnose cattle ranchers independently. The author offers a solution in the form of an intelligent system that uses artificial
neural network can be used to help detect the disease of cattle ranchers cows and take action before the disease gets worse.
Artificial neural network will perform calculations and determine whether the cattle were exposed to the disease, based on
the attributes of the data entered into the system. This intelligent system will also update the assessment and calculation of
weight each time new data is inserted so that the intelligent system can make modifications to incorporate that. The data
being input is any kind of symptoms of the disease in cattle. Artificial neural networks are formed consisting of the input
layer is a representation of the symptoms found in cattle, the hidden layer is the result of the convergence process with the
smallest error and output layers is representative of expected output is known diseases suffered by cattle. Based on these
results, this study recommends the development of a neural network algorithm Backpropagation as an effective method in
the diagnosis of disease in cattle systems. used to test the program Matlab and Delphi 7 Program.

Keywords: cow disease, neural networks, backpropagation.

1. Introduction

The ranch is an attempt to inflate the taste scattered
through and cultivating farm animals to get the benefits
and results of such activities as well as one of the areas
of work of the man who used to meet the needs of
pangannya, one of which is the dairy farms. Through the
dairy farms had a wide variety of processed meat that
humans use to meet the needs of its nutrition value. On
the recommendation of the national food and nutrition
Widyakarya X (www.wpng.org, 2012)
[13]
, consumption
of protein is 52 grams/capita/day, protein consumption
and levels of Indonesia in 2005-2008 range already
comply with this recommendation. However in 2006 the
national consumption of protein is decreased quite
significantly, which is influenced also by the decline in
meat consumption. For it will have implications for the
meat supply fulfillment is positive towards the
fulfillment of the nutrition society. However, activities in
managing dairy farms has many obstacles that can reduce
the production of cattle, cattle spend even has been
treated. Based on susenas data in 2008, in the range of
2005-2008 revealed that there was a decrease in meat
production drastically, while the national population of
beef cattle which recorded increases. One that causes this
to happen is an issue as to the spread of mad cow disease
spread in that year, so many cattle were vaccinated and
not cut to take his flesh.




1 Dayanu Ikhsanuddin University
2 AMIK Rizky Makassar
3 STMIK Handayani Makassar
4 STMIK Tidore
5 AMIK Rizky Makassar
To maintain the health of the livestock, dairy cattle
expert will need to check the condition of the cattle is
very high, because breeders cannot justify their own
livestock conditions. However, due to the costs that must
be incurred not less then not all breeders are able to meet
the costs for consultation with experts of livestock.In
addition, the demand for meat and dairy supply for the
inhabitants of Indonesia are in the year 2010 amounted to
approximately 237,641 949,662 (www.bps.go.id, 2012)
[1]

need to be maintained. Therefore it needs a system which
is easily accessible by cattle farmers and its accuracy can
be trusted to perform diagnose conditions cattle.
System that can be applied is a smart system, which is
the development of an expert system can provide such
information as an expert based on the data entered by the
user, and is calculated based on the rule that has been
saved into the expert system (Negnevitsky, 2005)
[9]
. But
in this case the resulting smart systems are systems that
have such data base expert system and able to learn new
rules and detect the appropriate data entered into the
system. This system can eventually evolve and improve
the accuracy of predictions. The algorithm used to
construct this system is the Backpropagation Artificial
Neural network (ANN). ANN was chosen because it has
the advantage to learn and know the relationships of each
of the attributes of the data being used to diagnose the
disease.

2. Backpropagation Artifical Neural network
Artificial neural network is one of the most popular
approaches in machine learning, adaptive mechanisms
that can be used by the computer to learn from
experience, learn by example and learn by analogy.
Neural network can be defined as a model of reasoning
ⓒ2013 Information Processing Society of Japan

based on the human brain, consisting of interconnected
jaringanjaringan (Negnevitsky, 2005)
[9]
.
Artificial neural network's application has many layers
(multiple layers), starting from the input layer, hidden
layer and output layer Each node in the neural network of
inter-connected, from node to node output, input by the
network that has a weight. The process of learning of the
neural network is based off the looping process and the
change of weight of each node. For looping and changes
in weight, a neural network also requires activation
function to do the learning
[2][6]
.

Backpropagation Artificial Neural network have 2
processes in learning, namely Feewforward and
feedbackward propagation propagation
[9][7].

These are Artificial Neural Backpropagation algorithm
flowchart network that can be seen in Figure2.


Figure 2 Flowchart backpropagation ANN

2.1 Feewforward Propagation
Feewforward propagation is the process used to perform
calculations in Backpropagation Artificial Neural
network classification to search results based on the
value entered in the input layer. Process is conducted in
the following propagation Feewforward
[7][10]
.

2.1.1 The calculation of the input layer to hidden
layer.
On the input layer (1 .. i) to the hidden layer (1 ... j) do
the following calculation:
Output/output values from the input layer is
corresponding value input/input at the input layer itself:
output(i) = input(i) (2.1)

The value of input/input node (j) on a hidden layer is the
sum of all nodes of the input layer multiplication that
connected him with the weight which connects nodes in
the hidden layer to the nodes in the input layer is reduced
by a bias on nodes (j):
Input (J) =∑ ( () x ) − ⦵

=1
(2.2)
n = the number of nodes in the input layer.

Further calculation of the output/output node (j) is to
enter the input/input on node (j) into the sigmoid function
generator:
Output (j) = y
tan h
= (
1
1+
−(())

) (2.3)

2.1.2 Calculation from hidden layer to output layer
The hidden layer (1 ... j) to the output layer (1 .. k) do the
following calculation: the value of input/input node (k)
on the output layer is the number of nodes throughout the
multiplication hidden layer that connects him with the
weight which connects nodes in the output layer to nodes
in the hidden layer is reduced by the bias on the node (k):
Input(k) = ∑ (()

=1
x wjk (2.4)
m = the number of nodes in the hidden layer.

Further calculation of the output/output node (k) is the
input/input on node (k) into the sigmoid function
generator:
Output (j) = y
tan h
= (
1
1+
−(())

) (2.5)

2.1.3 Calculation error
Calculation error made when the output/output from the
output layer is obtained, i.e. the calculation as follows:
Error = (Output(asli) – Output(k)) (2.6)
After the error, system error calculation done gradient to
be used for the calculation of the propagation
feedbackward process to update the weight and bias in
the system, by using the following calculation:

k =(Output(asli)) x [ 1 - Output(k))] x (Output(asli) –
Output(k)) (2.7)

2.2 Feedbackward Propagation
Feedbackward propagation is the process used to make
the process of training/recount in Backpropagation
Artificial Neural network so that the value of the weight
and bias in the system can be updated and adjusted and if
done subsequent propagation Feewforward process so
that the resulting error value will be lower. The process is
done in Feedbackward propagation is the following
[7][10]
.

2.2.1 Calculation of the hidden layer to output layer
On the output layer (1 .. k) to the hidden layer (1 ... j) do
the following calculation: calculate the required weight
changes, by multiplying the learning rate, value of
output/output node in the hidden layer (j) and the value
of the error in the output layer:
wjk =  x Output(j) x k (2.8)
Updates with new weight weight:
wjk (baru) = wjk (lama) + wjk (2.9)
Calculate the refractive change on node (k) output layer:

⦵k =  x (-1) x k (2.10)

Update the old bias on the node (k) output layer with a
new bias:
⦵k(baru) = ⦵k(lama) + ⦵k (2.11)

2.2.2 Calculation from hidden layer to layer input
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The hidden layer (1 ... j) into layerinput (1 .. i) do the
following calculation: calculate error on hidden layer
which will be used to conduct the next process:

j = (Output(j)) x [1-Output(j)] x (∑ 
1
=1
) wjk (2.12)
Calculate the required weight changes, by multiplying
the learning rate, value of output/output node in the
hidden layer (j) and the value of the error in the output
layer:

 w ij = x Output (i) x  j (2.13)

Updates with new weight weight:
w ij(baru)= w ij(lama)+  w ij (2.14)

Calculate refractive changes in node output layer (j):

 ⦵=  x (- 1) x  j (2.15)

Update the old bias on the node (j) output layer with a
new bias:
⦵ j (baru)= ⦵ j (lama)+  ⦵ j (2.16)

2.3 Learning rate
Learning rate is the rate of learning a system of
intelligent, it means the level of adaptation of the system
to the changes that occur if the specified target is not
achieved. The range of learning rate used is between 0.0-
1.0. Use of the learning rate is at the stage where
propagation changes feedbackward the value of weight
and bias that exists in the system will be influenced also
by the values of the learning rate
[3][4][8][10]
.

2.4 Weight
Weight is a network that connects between the nodes
from one layer to another layer. Weight serves as
measuring the importance of the relationships between
nodes, so that later revealed the influence of each node
based on weight. This Weight will be updated in the
process feedbackward propagation
[8]
.

( -
2.4

, +
2.4

) (2.17)

Where Fi is the total variable/nodes of the input layer
(Haykin, 1999).

2.6 Function Generators
Function generators or known by the hard limit of
functions used to perform the rationalization values from
input that has a range of plus and minus infinity to be
acceptable based on the value of the function
pembangkitnya.

Generating function that is used in this research is the
unipolar sigmoid will return a value in the range 0 to 1.
The sigmoid function generator can be seen in graph
while formula generated by sigmoid itself can be seen in
Figure 3.

y
sigmoid
= (
1
1+


) (2.18)


Figure. 3 The Sigmoid Function Graph
2.7 Sum Squared Error
Sum squared error (SSE) is an indicator used to measure
the performance of the system. The initial value of the
SSE ditentunkan initialization to be achieved by the
system, in other words, what is the total value of the error
that can be accepted by the system. The smaller the SSE
is specified then the good performance of the system
after the in-training
[8]
.

SSE =∑ ( − ())

−1
(2.19)

The process of calculating the SSE is by squaring the
error values obtained from each row of the training, in
accordance with the equation 2.6, and sum it.

3. Cow Disease
Some types of disease of cows are used as a case study
on this journal is a disease that many occur in cattle, and
characteristics can be seen directly by cattle farmers so
that the cattle need not take kedokter animals to perform
laboratory tests. Disease in farm animals cows have a
great impact for the breeder, if economic cycle the spread
of his illness was not immediately dealt with well. The
following is an explanation of the types of diseases that
are used in this research[
12][5]
.
3.1. Septicemia Epizootica (SE) / Sapi Ngorok
The disease is an infectious disease primarily SE in
Buffalo, cows, pigs and occasionally on sheep, goats and
horses, caused by Pasteurella multocida was a specific
type of bacteria. The disease is usually acute, runs by
with a high mortality rate, especially in patients who
have shown clinical signs are evident. True to its name,
at Buffalo in the terminal stage will show ngorok
symptoms (snoring), besides the existence of
kebengkakan edema on submandibular area region and
the lower part of the neck. An overview section on
livestock rumination indicates changes in sepsis. The
disease causes the death of SE talking lust, reduced
feeding, weight loss and loss of manpower and hauling
farm helpers
[3][5].

3.2. Pink Eye Disease.
Pink Eye is acute infectious eye disease in cattle, sheep
and goats, is usually an epizootic and marked by his
reddened conjunctiva and cloudiness of the eye.
The disease is not to cause death, but can lead to
considerable losses for ranchers, because it will cause
blindness, weight loss and treatment costs are
expensive
[3][5][12]
.
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3.3. Radang Ambing (masititis)
Mastitis is a term used for inflammation that occurs in
the udder, both are acute, chronic, or subakut with the
increase of cells in the breast milk and physical changes
as well as the composition of breast milk, with or without
the presence of pathological changes in glands
(Subronto, 2003)
[12]
. Akoso (1996) stated that the cows,
mastitis often occurs in dairy cattle and is caused by
various types of bacteria.
Sorry et al. (2005) stated that losses among others:
mastitis cases loss of milk production, the quality and
quantity of milk decreases, many cow diculling.
Decrease milk production per kuartir could reach 30% or
15% per cow per lactation, so that it becomes a big
problem in the dairy industry
[3][5][12]
.
3.4. Penyakit Mulut dan Kuku (PMK)
Diseases of the mouth and nails (FMD) also known as
foot and mouth disease (FMD) or Aphtae Epizooticae
(AE). Oral diseases and acute illness and kuu highly
contagious that attacks cattle, water buffaloes, pigs,
goats, sheep and other animals, even-numbered. Ditadai
infection with the formation of blisters that later evolved
into the erosion on the mucous membranes of the mouth,
between the nails, the swell of the coroner's legs and
nipples
[3][5][12]
..
Cause of the FMD virus is RNA, with a diameter of 20
mu. This Virus very labit (antigenetisnya easy to
change), the virus was not resistant to acids and alkalis,
heat, ultraviolet light, some chemical substances and
disinfectant. However, the virus is resistant to life there
are ingredients that contain protein, resistant to drought
and cold resistant
[3][5][12]
.
4. Trial Application
Test scenarios conducted aiming to find out the best
architecture, i.e. that have SSE optimized when
implemented training based on data training and
diagnosis when performed upon data testing has the
output accuracy levels the best. Skeanrio test is carried
out based on the following criteria:

1. Compare the Sum Squared Error results accuracy
testing system and ANN using learning a different rate of
0.1, 0.3, and 0.6.












Figure 4. Window view diagnostic trials final 1

2. Compare the Sum Squared Error system and the
accuracy of the results of testing the number of nodes
that use ANN differently in the hidden layer, E 8 node,
node, node-10 12, 13, 14, 16 node node node node, and
18.

4.1 Test Scenario
From the trials that have been done was done in scenario
1 to 7, obtained the conclusion that the most optimal SSE
obtained in scenario 1 test 2 i.e. 0.25056 obtained by 8
nodes hidden layer and learning rate 0.1. Even so, the
results of the SSE which is produced by the learning rate
that others do not vary much. The whole screenplay trial
recap of the results can be seen in table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Recap of the results of scenario 1 to 7

SSE After the training epoch 5000X
Skena
rio
Node
Hidden
Learning rate
Uji 1 Uji 2 Uji 3
0.1 0.5 0.9
1 8 Node 0.26942 0.25056 0.25130
2 10 Node 0.26941 0.26851 0.25108
3 12 Node 0.26952 0.27036 0.26912
4 13 Node 0.26916 0.26959 0.26962
5 15 Node 0.26911 0.27049 0.2686
6 16 Node 0.27009 0.27 0.27023
7 18 Node 0.26939 0.27059 0.27024

This is the final trial test system with perform diagnosis
of 3 randomly selected data by using the number of
hidden layer nodes and learning rate which generate SSE
optimized test scenario before, IE 8 hidden layer nodes
and learning rate is 0.5.

4.2 Final Test 1
In the trials final 1 will do the process of diagnosis by
using the ngorok cow disease trait (SE) as follows:
• the Bull.
• Lazy move.
• appetite decreases.
• Removing sounds like dengkuran.
• mucus from the nose a lot.
• Mucus secreted form of froth.
• suffered Neck swelling.
• Kototran cow-shaped dry.
• flatulence.
• Eyes red cow.
• When it is the turn of the seasons.


Figure 5. the output Test Results final 1
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From Figure 6. It can be seen that the system of issuing
results correctly, the ngorok cow disease, with the level
of error-0.0055. System users can also see suggestions
that can be done to treat and prevent the occurrence of
the disease in the diagnosis.

4.3 Final test 2
In the final two tests will be done using the diagnosis
process characterize the disease mastitis as follows:
• cows.
• Lazy move.
• flatulence.
• Udders warm.
• Swayed violently.
• mixed milk produced pus.
• milk produced is white Pale or bluish.
• milk produced smelling unpleasant.

Figure 6. Window view diagnostic test 2 final

Figure 7. Results output final test 2

From Figure 8. It can be seen that the system of issuing
results correctly, i.e. disease mastitis, with this level of
error of-0.00051. System users can also see suggestions
that can be done to treat and prevent the occurrence of
the disease in the diagnosis.

4.4 Final test 3
In the final trial of 3 will be done using the diagnosis
process characteristic of ngorok cow mastitis and
diseases which are put together as follows:
• cows.
• Lazy move.
• appetite decreases.
• Removing sounds like dengkuran.
• mucus from the nose a lot.
• Mucus secreted form of froth.
• Mucus secreted mix pus.
• suffered Neck swelling.
• Kototran cow-shaped dry.
• flatulence.
• Eyes red cow.
• Udders warm.
• Swayed violently.
• the resulting Milk to clot.
• milk produced mixed blood.
• mixed milk produced pus.
• milk produced is white Pale or bluish.
• milk produced smelling unpleasant.
• milk produced taste bitter.
• When it is the turn of the seasons
• There is a pool of water in the enclosure.

It can be seen that the results of the system not properly
issued, the system of diagnosing the cow contracted the
disease, mouth nails with the value of output and the rate
of error of 0.0.61-mouth disease value of 0.049 nails.
This is because the position of the value of oral diseases
of nail (0.66) is between the cow disease ngorok (0.33)
and also diseases of mastitis (1.0) and causes the system
to issue a value that is between the cow disease and
ngorok disease, mastitis when earmarks inserted was a
feature of both of these diseases.

5. Conclusion
Comparative trial results of committed, obtained the
conclusion that:

1. Changes in the number of nodes in the hidden layer do
not affect significantly the performance of ANN,
because results of the SSE (Sum Squared Error)
obtained in each scenario are likely to close. If the
diagnosis is performed against the data testing will
also get 100% results with accuracy of data testing.
2. Changes to the learning rate do not affect significantly
the performance of ANN.
3. From the graph at the trial can be concluded that the
learning rate of the SSE changes will get larger in
every epoch of training, compared to learning rate is
small, this is because in the process of
backpropagation learning rate of weight and bias will
change significantly as well. But the big changes WE
will also slowed after the epoch to umpteen
hundred/thousand, so the end of the SSE also almost
the same.
4. ANN using architecture with 1 node output less nice
used to diagnose 2 values at the same time.
5. Based on the results of the test of accuracy of data
testing, then ANN made on this research can be used
to perform diagnosis on beef cattle, with a case study
of ngorok cow disease, mastitis, pink aye and diseases
of the mouth and nails.

6. Suggestions
Suggestions that can be considered for this research
is to develop an election. the disease will become a
case study, it is a disease that has similar
characteristics. Next up is the need for revamping the
system information of the output delivery system, so
it can be communicated to the user if the cattle
contracted the disease more than 1.

ⓒ2013 Information Processing Society of Japan

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