13 views

Uploaded by api-3733260

save

You are on page 1of 3

**The elastic modulus of drawn n/Ion 6 1/E R = (1 -- x)/EA + X/Ec, (3)
**

fibres

which is the well-known Reuss lower bound, or

Prevorsek and co-workers [1], in a previous paper the case of series connection. Here, the overall

on the structure and properties of nylon 6 fibres, compliance is the "weighted" sum of the individual

stated that analysis of mechanical properties of compliances. The result of Prevorsek and co-

fibres indicates strong lateral interactions between workers [ 1], ~ = 0.02, indicates that the material is

microfibrils. Using the Halpin-Tsai equation [2], behaving approximately in this way, i.e. the crystal

they found from the value of the parameter ~, that (C) and amorphous (A) regions are coupled in series,

the crystal aspect ratio (length/diameter) required and there are virtually no lateral constraints on the

to predict correctly the experimental modulus regions to prevent extension to the maximum

from the moduli and volume fractions of the possible amount. Hence, this is a lower bound on

constituent crystal and amorphous phases was the modulus. The result makes no assertions about

much smaller than the actual aspect ratio deter- the aspect ratio of the crystals.

mined by small-angle X-ray scattering and electron Let us now consider a hypothetical two-phase

microscopy, for a draw ratio of 3 : 1. The crystalline material in which very wide "C" and "A" platelets

regions were thus considered to be behaving are stacked alternately with their normals parallel

mechanically as wide platelets extending over to the specimen axis. Since the "C" regions are

several microfibrils. much stiffer than the "A" regions, we shall assume

The Halpin-Tsai equation predicts the overall here for the sake of simplicity that the crystal

material elastic modulus E from the moduli of inclusions are rigid, and also that the "A" regions

the matrix (amorphous, EA) and the inclusions are isotropic. In the limit as lid -~ 0, the modulus

(crystal, Ec) normal to the stack of platelets is then given by

E

[1 + ~r/• ] , with r/ - Ec/EA--1 (1 -- X) [(1 + VA)(1 -- 2VA)]

EA[ l- r ~ x J Ec/EA+~ l/E- -EA t (I_VA) ], (4)

(1)

where VA is Poisson's ratio of the "A" regions.

where X is the volume fraction of inclusions. The Only if vA = 0 will this equation be the same as

value of the parameter ~ is of an empirical nature Equation 3 (with Ee = oo). For vA = 0.5 (incom-

and depends on, for example, fibre geometry, pressibility condition) the modulus normal to the

packing geometry and loading conditions. Halpin platelets becomes infinite. In an actual platelet

and Kardos [3], for example, used Equation 1 to composite, as we imagine the aspect ratio to

estimate the modulus in the fibre direction of a decrease towards zero, the modulus normal to the

short-fibre reinforced composite for fibres of platelets will thus increase. For Poisson's ratio VA

various aspect ratios. They found for lid values approaching 0.5, this increase will be very marked,

from about 8 to 100 that ~ could be identified and large lateral forces will occur which constrain

with 21/d, where d is the fibre diameter. When the "A" regions and prevent their extension parallel

>> 1, Equation 1 approaches the well-known to the lamellar normals.

Voigt upper bound or parallel coupling case (also In conclusion to this section, there is no justifi-

called the rule of mixtures) cation for assuming that a small value of ~ can be

identified with a small aspect ratio of inclusions.

Ev = EA(1 -- X) + EeX, (2)

We shall now apply very simple series-parallel

Prevorsek etal. [1], having obtained a value for type coupling schemes to reassess the behaviour of

of about 0.02, also equated ~ to 2lid, and thus nylon 6 fibres, using the actual data given by

obtained a very small value for the effective Prevorsek etal. [1] (see Table I). From the table,

crystal aspect ratio. it can be seen that the modulus E increased from

It will now be shown in the simplest manner 4.80 to 5.50 x l0 s N cm -2 on drawing further

possible that, when ~ is small, it cannot generally from 3 to 5.35 times, even though the crystaUinity

be identified with 2lid. In the limit as ~-+ 0, X had decreased from 0.56 to 0.34. Representative

Equation 1 becomes volume elements (RVE) are shown (in two-

2324 0022-2461/81[082324-03502.30[0 9 1981 Chapman and Hall Ltd.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 16 ( 1 9 8 1 ) ' L E T T E R S

**T A B L E I Data for nylon6 (results adapted from Scheme 1: Paul's approximate method. Firstly, the
**

Prevorsek et al. [ 1 ] data is analysed by applying Paul's approximate

Parameter Draw ratio method [4] to evaluate the predicted modulus E.

3:1 5.35:1 The RVE is divided into infinitesimal slices with

normals parallel to the specimen direction Z. In

Microfibril diameter, d (A) 119 74

(or crystal width) each slice the strain is assumed to be uniform.

Crystal length, l~ (A) 59 61 The slices are then integrated in series to cover

Amorphous length, lA (A) 30 32 the RVE, i.e.

Long period, (le + IA) (A) 89 93

Crystal aspect ratio, Ic/d 0.48 0.8 1 az

Crystal modulus, Ec 25 25 E- = EA + (Ec--EA)Ac(Z) ' (S)

(10 s N cm -2)

Amorphous modulus, EA 2.34 3.26 where Ae(Z ) is the distribution of the crystaJline

(10 s N cm -2) "inclusion". For our case this type of coupling is

Crystal volume fraction, • 0.56 0.34 shown in Fig. 2.

Experimental modulus, Eexp 4.80 5.50

(10 s Ncm -2) Scheme2: Microfibrillar model. As a second

approach, the coupling scheme will be adopted

dimensions) in Fig. 1. The crystals (C) are lined up in which the C and A regions are coupled in series,

at equal heights in the microfibrils along the fibre and the I material is coupled in parallel to the

direction (Z) in accordance with Prevorsek and microfibril. The appropriate equation for the

co-workers [ 1 ]. '~ represents amorphous material modulus E is

between the crystals within the microfibrils, while

" I " represents the noncrystallized, intermicro- E=-~- A+ I--

fibrillar matter. The volume fractions of the three

regions can be calculated from the data given in VA -l

Table I for the two draw ratios considered. In

what follows, it is assumed that the modulus of X - - +

EA Ee '

the I regions is the same as that of the A regions.

where VI, VA, Vc and V are the volumes of I, A, C

and total material in the RYE, respectively.

IZ It is important to note that, although these

models appear to resemble the model of

Takayanagi, Imada and Kajiyama [5], they differ

in a major way. In the Takayanagi model, the

i Ii. parameters ~ and X indicate the extent to which

I

the material is showing series or parallel coupling,

C rather like the parameter ~ in the Halpin-Tsai

I

I equation. The parameters r and X bear no direct

link to the geometry of the individual phases in

the RVE, except that r 9 X = 1 -- X.

4 In the models described here, definite regions

of the RVE have been assumed to couple so as to

satisfy one or the other of the series or parallel

I I

bounds.

1 I The predictions of these models are shown in

i I

I Table II. It appears that the coupling Scheme 2

micror agrees best with the experimental results. It is

inferred from this finding that each microfibril

RVE Nylon 6

should be regarded as a series connection of

Figure 1 Representative volume element for nylon 6 fibre. crystal and amorphous components with relatively

2325

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 16 ( 1 9 8 1 ) 9 L E T T E R S

**T A B L E I I Elastic modulus predictions
**

Predicted modulus (10 s N cm-2) Draw Ratio

3:1 5.35:1

Halpin-Tsai equation 6.34 6.02

(with measured aspect ratios)

r I

_/

Scheme 1: Paul's approximate

method 5.71 6.65

Scheme 2: Microfibril model 5.31 5.50

Scheme 1 Experimental value 4.80 5.50

I

the Voigt upper bound, as expected for long,

,4/i parallel constituents. These considerations seem to

argue against being able to describe drawn nylon 6

fibres as a composite material where the crystals are

embedded in a homogeneous amorphous matrix.

Acknowledgement

The author wishes to thank the Deutsche

Forschungsgemeinschaft for financial support for

this work.

References

1. D.C. PREVORSEK, Y.D. KWON and R.K.

C SHARMA,J. Mater. Sci. 12 (1977) 2310.

Scheme 2 2. R.L. McCULLOUGH, "Concepts of Fibre-Resin

Composites" (MarcelDekker Inc., New York, 1971).

3. J.C. HALPIN and J. L. KARDOS, J. Appl. Phys.

I 43, 5 (1972) 2235.

4. B. PAUL, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 218 (1960) 36.

A 5. M. TAKAYANAGI, K. IMADA and T. KAJIYAMA,

J. Polymer Sci. C 15 (1966) 263.

[

Received 26 November

and accepted 12 December 1980

Figure 2 Coupling schemes used in the analysis.

A. J. OWEN

Fachbereich Physik,

little lateral constraint, such that its behaviour Universiti# Regensburg,

approaches the Reuss lower bound. The assembly Universitiz"tsstraJ3e 31,

of long microfibrils is interspersed with intermicro- 8400 Regensburg,

fibrillar regions, the behaviour of which approaches West Germany

2326

- 15070COMPRESSION FAILURE MODES OF CARBON FIBER FABRIC SCRAPS - EPOXY LAMINATESUploaded byCarlosOpelt
- t28Uploaded byHuynh Phuc Phung
- som-ii me Assg-1.docUploaded byharichand005
- IRJET-A Study on Tensile, Hardness and Impact Strength using Al 7075 as Matrix Material and by using Different Reinforcement: A ReviewUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Composite Material-overviewUploaded byAthith D
- PRC-6501_REV-CUploaded byrotero_pujol
- Handout Booklet_Composite Materials_ 2013.pdfUploaded byEduardo Nascimento
- 200609Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Research Scientist or Project EngineerUploaded byapi-121630834
- Optimal Parameter Design by Taguchi Method for Mechanical Properties of Al6061 Hybrid Composite Reinforced With Fly Ash/Graphite/CopperUploaded byMilon Selvam
- UK Composites Supply Chain Scoping StudyUploaded bytestes
- Composites FormingUploaded bySachin Jadhav
- Research PaperUploaded byraghavram10
- mod04lec01Uploaded byMathew John
- Project managementUploaded byspencersimoyi
- Woven Technical TextilesUploaded byskul9822222142
- Impact Damage on Fibre-reinforced Polymer Matrix CompositesUploaded byranjithkraj
- CHAPTER 2Uploaded byचन्दनप्रसाद
- Modeling of Resin Transfer Molding 89pUploaded byALVARO LUIS SAAVEDRA RIVEROS
- Use of RCP pipesUploaded byshafeeqm3086
- Alucobest Data SheetUploaded byALI ZHANG
- Sisal FiberUploaded bySelase Kwame Mantey
- 543 Specimen SizesUploaded byMohammed Khalid
- LECTURE 6-Forming and Shaping of Plastics and CompositesUploaded byM.k. Varma
- LONG FIBER COMPOUNDSUploaded byspoorthiprasanna
- Senior Design_Spring 14 Final (1)Uploaded byMatthew Welton
- Frp Ndt InspUploaded byPrabhakar Kattula
- Jaeschke-2008-Architectural_Design.pdfUploaded byCarmine Russo
- A Review of Explicit Finite ElementUploaded byJan Scar
- Additive_Manufacturing I.pdfUploaded byanand

- wortmannUploaded byapi-3733260
- zeronianUploaded byapi-3733260
- yearsUploaded byapi-3733260
- yannasUploaded byapi-3733260
- Anne_Hooper_s_Kama_Sutra._Classic_Lovemaking_techniques_reinterpeted_for_today_s_loversUploaded byapi-3733260
- YESIMUploaded byapi-3733260
- weiUploaded byapi-3733260
- wangUploaded byapi-3733260
- warwickerUploaded byapi-3733260
- yangUploaded byapi-3733260
- WETTONUploaded byapi-3733260
- yeoUploaded byapi-3733260
- WOOLUploaded byapi-3733260
- wortUploaded byapi-3733260
- whiteUploaded byapi-3733260
- vershUploaded byapi-3733260
- stattonUploaded byapi-3733260
- strUploaded byapi-3733260
- treloarUploaded byapi-3733260
- tereneUploaded byapi-3733260
- ugbolueUploaded byapi-3733260
- VSUBRAMUploaded byapi-3733260
- tsurUploaded byapi-3733260
- stearneUploaded byapi-3733260
- vijayanUploaded byapi-3733260
- stressUploaded byapi-3733260
- vinisUploaded byapi-3733260
- taborUploaded byapi-3733260
- ULLMANUploaded byapi-3733260
- t6Uploaded byapi-3733260