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Digital re-print - January | February 2009

Feature: Proteins & oils
Feature title: Maximising plant proteins and oils in Atlantic salmon diets

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Proteins & oils Proteins & oils
one of 35 percent
their most vegetable
recent mar- oils in the feed. In other words, a good net based diet, 3.4kg of wild fish was required
and 80 percent plant proteins,
ket developments; in fact over the past70 percent production of high quality fish protein is to produce 1kg Atlantic salmon.
two years.oils and 40this
Despite percent
such proteins
a new obtained from plant proteins. Hence, 2.5kg of wild fish was saved by
or 70 percent vegetable oils and
area for Biomin, they have developed 80 percent replacing high levels of fish oil and fishmeal with
truly innovative products. Biomin Less than a kg wild fish high levels of plant raw materials. In experimen-
The fish were fed for 12 months until
plans to make aquafeed a focal point
they reached 3.9kg. The salmon which had
is required to produce
for 2009, and will be increasing trials for a kg Atlantic salmon
received feed containing the highest mix-
both new and existing products.
ture of plant raw material - 70 percent
Biomin’s vision is expressed in their
When producing fishmeal and "The steady increase in production
vegetable oils and 80 percent plant proteins fish oil from wild fish, the recovery
slogan ‘We care for health in animal nutri-
- experienced a 12 percent lower growth of fishmeal is about 23 percent volumes in aquaculture of 8-10%

tion’, and their vision is now active in over
during the first three months compared to whereas as the recovery of fish
100 different countries worldwide. Biomin
the control group. oil varies between 5-12 percent a year has resulted in increasing
only use natural products, and believe this cated exclusively
There was no corresponding weight dependent on fishto species
and offering been report upon in our magazine previ-
is the way forward as the ban of antibiotics
reduction in the other groups during the specific
season. solutions to the industry. use ously.
of alternative
The program has plant proteins
been designed
in many European countries is unlikely to “Themeansdemand thatforit more sustainable to support the scientific education of
first three months. Over the entire period
be reversed. The quality of their products
That requires
more wild fish to produce fish oil as aqua
solutions is continually increasing
and oils in aquafeeds"
today’s young talents who will become
of the study, the fish fed the highest propor-
is the key priority and they are proud to feedfishmeal.
than producers seek safer and more tomorrow’s animal health nutritionists.
tion of plant raw material experienced a
tell their customers of that productscompared
labelled economical alternatives,”
levels of fishsaid
oil Florian It is vital to support individuals studying

plant proteins and oils
weight reduction 17 percent Based on the
Biomin, only contain Biomin. Zehner. Its research
to the control group. The weight reduction and fishmeal used incentre is recognised
the different diets tal animal nutrition
diet the amount to fish
of wild insure theyforhave
required fish
largely have
due putto aa lower
huge amount of
feed intake as astate-of-the-art
and feed efficiency ofand 1.1,internationally
producing 1kg oil the
was knowledge and was
higher than what the required
know how to
for the
resources into researching and develop-
during the first three months of the study. ofacknowledged
Atlantic salmon andrequires
0.9kg wild fish betterof products
amount fishmeal infortheanimal
diets. health in the
ingA nutritional products,70and recently

in Atlantic salmon diets
fish diet comprising percent plant whenBiomin has also
70 percent of recently
the fish introduced
oil and 80 future,
Hence,and this program
to save even more offers
fish the
opened a new research
oils and 80 percent vegetable proteinscentre in the B.R.A.I.N.
percent of the program
fishmeal(Biomin Research
was replaced by grounds
level of fish to
oil support
should bethis industry.further
Bangkok, Thailand. This centre
means that two kilos of salmon protein areis dedi- And raw
plant Innovation
materials. Network);
When thewhich has
fish were ratherBiomin
than manufactures
concentrating many products
on replacing
produced for every kilo of fishmeal protein fed the 100 percent fish oil and fishmeal more fishmeal.

by Dr Bente E Torstensen

or the first time, a study alternative plant proteins and oils in EU-funded project
aquafeeds. The natural way.
has examined how feeding Aquamax investigates the
Atlantic salmon high levels The use of fishmeal and oil, representing
maximum replacement The event that
will energize
of both plant proteins and 3-5kg fresh fish per kg farmed fish have
vegetable oils affect the fish. been criticised both for exploitation of the of fish oil and fishmeal

global fishery resources and the misuse Studies have shown that Atlantic salmon
This experiment resulted in two kilos of
salmon protein generated per kilo of fish-
of high quality marine protein and lipid
sources that could be directly used for
can be given a feed containing 100 percent
vegetable oils without any reduction in your buSiNeSS
human consumption. fish growth when the source of protein in
Specific Action – Effective Solutions
meal protein in the feed. The study showed
In this respect, vegetable oils (VO) have the feed is fishmeal (EU-project RAFOA
a slight reduction in salmon growth, even Contacto:
been proposed as sustainable alternatives Q5RS-2000-30058).
though all known nutrient requirements of • Patricia Gómez - Tel (56-2) 7565404 - Con el respaldo
Espe and co-workers (2006) has previ-
the fish were covered by the feed. to fish oil. VOs are, however, devoid of n-3
PUFAs (EPA, DPA and DHA) while the ously shown that 90 percent of the fishmeal
• Francesca Massa - Tel (56-65) 348912
- High -
performance probiotic
Mycofix®, the most complete strategy
Con el respaldo
Farmed Atlantic salmon have tradi- • Patricia Gómez - Tel (56-2) 7565404 -
tionally been fed diets containing fish levels of 18:2n-6 and monoene fatty acids in the feed can be replaced by plant proteins
without affecting the growth of the salmon
• Francesca Massa - Tto enhance348912
el (56-65) gut and- pond environment. for counteracting mycotoxins. TechnoPress
oil and fishmeal. The steady increase are usually high, resulting in low dietary 3RD INTERNATIONAL
in production volumes in aquaculture n-3/n-6 ratios. as long as the source of fat in the fish diet is HEPAprotect - an effective solution Biomin® P.E.P. forFISHERIES
fish oil. One of the aims of the IP-EU project MARCH 25TH TO 28TH
of eight-to-10 percent a year (Tacon, Likewise, sustainable alternatives to to support and protect liver metabolism. digestion & feed conversion.
fishmeal have included various plant pro- ‘Aquamax’ (016249-2) is to find out how CONCEpCION / CHILE
2004; Tacon et al., 2006)
much of the fish oil and fishmeal that can
has resulted in tein sources, such as vegetable meals with Contacto:
Biotronic®, the acid spice for fish feed.
Con el respaldo
crude protein content of 20 to 50 percent be replaced with plant ingredients simul- • Patricia Gómez - Tel (56-2) 7565404 -
use of (Hertrampf and Piedad-Pascual, 2000). taneously in Atlantic salmon diets without Contacto:
• Francesca Massa - Tel (56-65) 348912 - TechnoPress
Con el respaldo
However, the indispensable amino acid compromising fish growth, performance, • Patricia Gómez - Tel (56-2) 7565404 -
(IAA) profile in plant proteins differs from health or product quality. • Francesca Massa - Tel (56-65) 348912 -
fishmeal. Sensible blending of different pro- CONCEpCION

Reduced feed intake and
tein sources are necessary to balance the
IAA composition, while low levels of growth in the first period
certain crystalline AAs may have to be Atlantic salmon in seawater weighing Contact: Organizer:
added to fulfil AA requirements (NRC, 0.35kg was fed feed containing either 100 María
ForPaz Fernández
enquiry, del Ríoe-mail
1993; Halver and Hardy, 2002). percent fishmeal and 100 percent fish oil Phone (56-2) 756 5402 • Mobile (56-9) 9886 5654 •
bi i t
22 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 09 Ad_IntAquafeed_FZE_12_08_190x132.indd
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Fish feed that not only fish rave about. Buhler is the global technology partner for

Proteins & oils companies producing fish feed on a commercial scale. With good reason: From
raw material processing to extrusion and drying, only leading technologies are
reduction in growth of approximately nine
percent was observed during the produc-
utilised. Buhler specialists having an intimate understanding of all process stages
tion phase in sea. The growth retardation – mastering them with passion, combine these technologies into clever overall
"Replacing dietary fish oil and was related to the reduced feed intake
during the early feeding stages, due to an solutions. The result: superior-quality micro-pellets or flakes, shrimp pellets,
fishmeal with plant raw materials interaction effect of high plant protein
and VO replacement. Possible metabolic floating and sinking feeds that not only fish rave about.
had very few significant effects on interactions between dietary lipid and
protein will be addressed in future scien-
nutrient digestibility and nutrient tific papers.
utilisation including total protein,
lipid, energy, fatty acid and amino ess
Espe, M., Lemme, A., Petri, A., El-Mowafi, A. 2006.
e y o u r succ e
Shar f th
acid digestibility as well as protein Can Atlantic salmon grow on diets devoid of fish
t h e rest o n
wi t h i
. Send es
meal? Aquaculture 255, 255-262.
u s t r y
and lipid utilisation" ind leas
Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. 2002. Fish Nutrition.
u r p r ess re s and
Elsevier Science, San Diego, 824 pp. yo ct
n e w produ s.
Hertrampf, J.W., Piedad-Pascual, F., 2000. o n pment
Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds.
ADVERT develo
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The
Netherlands, 573 pp. Reach ke
y industry
Krogdahl, Å., Hemre, G.-I., Mommsen T.P., 2005. decision
Carbohydrates in fish nutrition: digestion and through t
absorption in postlarval stages. Aquacult. Nutr., he pages
Internatio of
11, 103-122. nal Aquafe
magazine ed
Tacon, A.G.J., 2004. Use of fish meal and fish oil
in aquaculture: a global perspective. Aquatic Res.
Cult. Dev. 1, 3-14.

Tacon, A.G.J., Hasan, M.R., Subasinghe, R.P., 2006.
in our
Use of fishery resources as feed inputs for
aquaculture development: trends and policy
gazine and
printed ma
t will also
implications. FAO Fish. Circ. 1018, 99 pp.

N.R.C, Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National your adver online
Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1993. appear in th
ver n
s io

No significant effects plant protein diets will contain higher levels of
indigestible matter.
on nutrient digestibility
This did however, not influence the
and retention protein, lipid or energy digestibility of the
Replacing dietary fish oil and fishmeal high plant About the author
with plant raw materials had very few Dr Bente E Torstensen achieved the Bachelor
significant effects on nutrient digestibil- And finally of Science (Cand mag.) in 1994, and the
ity and nutrient utilisation including total In conclusion, the results demonstrate Master of Science (Cand scient) in Nutrition
protein, lipid, energy, fatty acid and amino net production of Atlantic salmon from biology in 1996, at the University of Bergen
acid digestibility as well as protein and lipid wild fish with 1kg farmed Atlantic salmon (Norway). Her PhD studies at the Institute of
utilisation. produced per 0.9kg wild fish, as well as a Nutrition, Directorate of Fisheries, (achieved
Starch digestibility, however, was significantly net production of protein with 2kg of fish at the University of Bergen, 2000) focused on
lower in the high plant protein dietary groups. protein produced per 1kg fish meal protein transport and metabolism of lipids in Atlantic
Starch digestibility studies have identified a used. salmon (Salmo salar L.).
correlation between the presence of indigest- However, by replacing 80 percent of For more information email:
ible matter and reduced digestibility of starch fishmeal with plant proteins and 70 percent
and lipids (Krogdahl et al. 2005). And the high of the fish oil replaced with a VO blend, a
The solution behind the solution.
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