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Power Plant Performance Reporting and Improvement
under the Provision of the
Indian Energy Conservation Act

Output 1.1

Best practice performance monitoring, analysis of
performance procedures, software and analytical tools,
measuring instrumentation, guidelines or best practice
manuals and newest trends

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Table of Contents

1. General.................................................................................................. 14

1.1 Survey 'best practise' with basic Definition of Efficiency Indicators ................... 15

1.2 Analysis including Tools for Efficiency Indicators.............................................. 15

1.3 Instrumentation on Efficiency Indicators ........................................................... 16

1.4 Guidelines for basic Definition of Efficiency Indicators...................................... 16

1.5 Energy Audit ..................................................................................................... 16

1.6 Performance/ Benchmarking Analysis ............................................................... 16

1.7 Strategic Outlook (newest Trends & Research) .................................................. 17

2. Power Scenario in Europe....................................................................... 18

2.1 Development of European & Global Electricity Demand..................................... 18

2.2 Availability, coverage and import dependency of Energy Sources ..................... 19

2.3 Primary Energy Saving through efficient use of Electricity ................................. 20

2.4 Power Plant portfolio in EU................................................................................ 21

2.5 Power Plant projects in Europe .......................................................................... 21

2.6 Pros & Cons of relevant Energy Generation Options .......................................... 23

2.7 Requirement of efficient coal and gas Power Plants .......................................... 25

3. Directives Applicable to Large Combustion Plants.................................. 27

3.1 Legal basis in the EU ......................................................................................... 27

3.2 Underlying information ..................................................................................... 27

3.3 Document organisation..................................................................................... 28

3.4 The European Energy Industry........................................................................... 28

3.5 Applied technologies ........................................................................................ 28

3.6 Ecological issues ............................................................................................... 29

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3.7 Conditions ........................................................................................................ 29

3.8 Unloading, storage and transport of fuels and additives ................................... 30

3.9 Pre-treatment of fuel ........................................................................................ 32

3.10 Fine dust emissions .......................................................................................... 33

3.11 Heavy metals..................................................................................................... 34

3.12 SO2 emissions................................................................................................... 35

3.13 NOx emissions................................................................................................... 36

4. Best Available Techniques to increase Efficiency and reduce Emissions.. 39

5. State of the Art -Reference Power Plant (Source VGB)............................. 40

5.1 Brief Overview ................................................................................................... 40

5.2 Details of the Study ........................................................................................... 41

5.3 Innovations ....................................................................................................... 41

5.4 Layout Planning................................................................................................. 42

5.5 Thermodynamic Design .................................................................................... 42

5.6 Steam Turbine Plant (Turbine, Generator) ......................................................... 44

5.7 High-Pressure Turbine section.......................................................................... 44

5.8 Intermediate-Pressure Turbine section ............................................................. 45

5.9 Low-Pressure Turbine section........................................................................... 46

5.10 Generator Plant ................................................................................................. 47

5.11 Boilers ............................................................................................................... 48

5.12 Water and Steam Cycle ...................................................................................... 50

5.13 Cooling Water Systems...................................................................................... 51

5.14 Technological Options ...................................................................................... 52

5.15 Summary ........................................................................................................... 55

6. Role of 700°C Technology for the Carbon-free Power Supply ................. 61

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6.1 Introduction and Background ............................................................................ 61

6.2 Status 700°C Technology .................................................................................. 62

6.3 Current and Coming Activities of the 700°C Technology ................................... 66

6.4 Perspectives of the 700°C Technology............................................................... 69

6.5 Regulatory and Political Framework .................................................................. 70

7. Road Map to High Efficiency Power Plant................................................ 72

8. Technology Platform for Zero Emission Power Plants by 2020................ 73

9. Definition of Efficiency Parameters - Basics ........................................... 74

9.1 Efficiency........................................................................................................... 74

9.2 Losses of Efficiency in Combustion Plants......................................................... 75

9.3 Generic Technical Measures to improve Large Combustion Plant's Efficiency.... 76
9.3.1 Combustion ...................................................................................................... 76
9.3.2 Unburned Carbon in Ash................................................................................... 77
9.3.3 Air Excess ......................................................................................................... 77
9.3.4 Steam ................................................................................................................ 77
9.3.5 Flue-Gas Temperature ...................................................................................... 78
9.3.6 Vacuum in the Condenser ................................................................................. 78
9.3.7 Variable Pressure and fixed Pressure Operation ................................................ 78
9.3.8 Condensate and Feed-Water Preheating ........................................................... 79

10. Energy Balance ...................................................................................... 80

10.1 Efficiency of German Power Plants..................................................................... 81

10.2 Efficiency Degradation ...................................................................................... 82

10.3 Energy Balance of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Unit ............................................... 82

10.4 Operating efficiency in European Power Plants.................................................. 84

10.5 Operating Efficiency of typical Indian Power Plants compared to German Power

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Plants ................................................................................................................ 87

10.6 Comparison of published efficiencies ............................................................... 88

11. Key parameters and basis for measurements ......................................... 91

11.1 Key operating parameters ................................................................................. 91

11.2 Fuel Parameter .................................................................................................. 92

11.3 Air & Flue Gas Parameters ................................................................................. 93

11.4 Data required .................................................................................................... 93

12. Official Statistics for Efficiency Indicator and Plant Reliability ................. 95

12.1 Reports on Analysis and Tools for Efficiency Indicators .................................... 95

12.2 Excerpts from Eurostat-Document.................................................................... 96

13. Performance Indicators & Monitoring ..................................................... 97

13.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 97

14. Software and Analytical Tools for Efficiency and Plant Reliability –Online and
Offline ................................................................................................. 102

14.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 102

14.2 Software Analytical Tools / Modules ............................................................... 103

14.3 Data Collection for the Performance Monitoring ............................................. 103

14.4 Analysis for Performance Monitoring .............................................................. 104

14.5 K I S S Y........................................................................................................... 105

14.6 Systems for Optimized Operation ................................................................... 107

14.7 Lifetime Monitoring System............................................................................. 114

14.8 Data Management System ............................................................................... 116

14.9 Thermodynamic Cycle Calculation Program – Offline Tool .............................. 117

15. Benchmarking of Power Plant Operation & Management ...................... 121

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15.1 General ........................................................................................................... 121

15.2 Basics of Benchmarking .................................................................................. 121

15.3 Benchmarking of Thermal Power Plants .......................................................... 122

15.4 Benchmarking Methodology............................................................................ 123

15.5 Project Organization ....................................................................................... 129

16. Energy Audit – Situation in the EU respectively Germany ...................... 131

16.1 Status.............................................................................................................. 131

17. Overview on Regulations, Guidelines Efficiency/Plant Performance ...... 148

18. Example: Computerized Plant and Energy Management Systems at the
Evonik Steag Voerde Power Plant ......................................................... 153

19. Latest (state of the art) technologies and status................................... 155

19.1 Technology Perspectives – Availability vs. State of the Art .............................. 155

19.2 Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Firing System........................................................ 155

19.3 Pressurized Fluidized Bed Firing System ......................................................... 156

19.4 Gasification of Coal (IGCC) .............................................................................. 159

19.5 Turbulent Pulverised-Coal Burner ................................................................... 160

19.6 Supercritical Technology ................................................................................. 163

19.7 Six Sigma Concept .......................................................................................... 164

20. Operating Efficiency of EU Power Plants and Efforts initiated for
Improvement ....................................................................................... 165

20.1 Rationale ......................................................................................................... 165

21. Best Practices Applicable to Indian Scenario......................................... 166

21.1 Online monitoring System............................................................................... 166

21.2 Statistical Process Control Process Detection .................................................. 166

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21.3 Simulator Training on Power Plant Operation .................................................. 166

21.4 Maintenance Management Systems ................................................................. 167

21.5 Benchmarking Practices .................................................................................. 167

22. Miscellaneous ...................................................................................... 168

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Abbreviations
an Analysis moisture
BAT Best Available Technique
BDEW Verband der Deutschen Energie-, Gas-, und Wasserwirtschaft
CCS Carbon capture and storage
CFBF Circulating fluidised bed firing system
dai Dry adsorbent injection (flue gas desulphurisation)
DIN Deutsche Industrienorm (German DIN Standard)
ESS Electrostatic separator
EU European Union
FBF Fluidised bed firing
FF Fibrous filter
FGD Flue gas desulphurisation
GCV Gross caloric value
hd Half-dry (flue gas desulphurisation)
HHV Higher heat value
HP High pressure
kWh Kilo Watt hour
LCP Directive on Large Combustion Plants
lftraf Air-dry and ash-free
LHV Lower heat value
LP Low pressure
MP Medium pressure
NCV Net caloric value
PFBF Pressure fluidised bed firing system
Pm Primary measures reducing the NOx
raw Raw
SCR Selective catalytic NOx reduction
SF Dust combustion
SFBF Stationary fluidised bed firing system
SNCR Selective non-catalytic NOx reduction
TWh Tera watt-hours
VDI Vereinigung der deutschen Industrie (Association of German Engineers,

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www.vdi.de)
VGB European Association for Generation of Heat and Power, www.vgb.org)
waf Water and ash-free
wf Water-free
wmf Water and mineral-compound free

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Terms and Definitions
Dimension
e Proportional auxiliary consumption -
f Specific fuel consumption kg/kWh
Ho Upper heating value kJ/kg
Hu Lower heating value kJ/kg
kt Time availability h
kW Energy avalability -
&f
m Mass flow of the fuel kg/s, kg/h
&s
m Mass flow of the steam kg/s, kg/h
nt Time utilisation -
nw Energy utilisation -
Pe Net generator output kW
Pgen Generator capacity kW
Pi Gross generator output kW
PN Nominal capacity MWel
Pnet High-voltage side net generator output kW
Pown Electrical auxiliary consumption kW
qe Specific net heat consumption kJ/kWh, kJ/kWs
Qf Average fuel heat kg/s, kg/h, kg/month
Q FW Feed water heat capacity supplied to the kg/s
boiler
Q nRH Heat quantity without reheating supplied to kg/s
the boiler
Q RH Reheated heat quantity supplied to the kg/s
machine
Q SG Useful thermal quantity input into the kg/s
process
Q SS Superheated steam heat quantity input into kg/s
the machine
se Number of successful start-ups -
sn Number of unsuccessful start-ups -
tB Operating time h

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Dimension
tN Reference period h
tv Available time h
WB Energy generated MWh
WN Nominal energy MWh
Wv Unavailable energy MWH
z Start-up reliability -
&
Q Useful thermal heat kJ/kg
heat

η Efficiency -
ηbe Boiler efficiency -
η cl Losses of thermodynamic cycle -
η el Electrical efficiency -
η fu Degree of fuel use -
η th Thermal efficiency of the turbine -
η tr Efficiency of machine transformer -
ηtot Total efficiency -

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List of Annexures

Annexure I LCP Directive 2001 /80/ EC
Annexure II 13. BImSchV –Ordinance of implementation of Federal immission
control act (English version)
Annexure III Best Available Techniques
Annexure IV State of the Art Reference Power Plant incl. its appendices I to VIII
Annexure V The Evonik Steag Road to the high efficiency power plant

Annexure VIa Roadmap for low carbon power supply ETP ZEP SRA and SDD study

Annexure VIb Roadmap for low carbon power supply ETP ZEP SRA and Strategic
Research Agenda
Annexure VII Definition of Efficiency parameters
Annexure VIII The complexity of thermal power plant efficiencies reporting in India
and Germany” (By Dr. Kaupp, GTZ) Best available techniques to increase
efficiency and reduce emissions
Annexure IX Basis for measurements and parameters to be monitored
Annexure X Analysis and tools for efficiency indicator
Annexure XI Excerpts from Eurostat Document
Annexure XII KISSY instructions & Excerpts from performance report
Annexure XIII IGCC technology
Annexure XIV Supercritical and ultra super critical technology
Annexure XV CFBC technology
Annexure XVI Six sigma process
Annexure XVII PFBC technology
Annexure XVIII Advanced Technologies of Preventive Maintenance for Thermal Power
Plants-write up by Hitachi
Annexure XIX Oxyfuel technology for fossil fuel-fired power plants – Dresden
University of Technology, Germany
Annexure XX Results of oxy-fuel combustion for power plants- Dresden University of
Technology, Germany
Annexure XXI Actual efficiency of thermal power plants in Europe, efficiency
improvement over a period of time

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Annexure XXII On line Monitoring System
Annexure XXIII Statistical Process Control – Fault Detection
Annexure XXIV Simulator Training
Annexure XXV Maintenance Management Systems
Annexure XXVI Monitoring and Controlling of power plants
Annexure XXVII Maintenance Practices
Annexure XXVIII Design Criteria of Thermal Power Plants
Annexure XXIX Stores Inventory and Procurement System

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1. General

A detailed survey on best practice power plant performance monitoring and was
undertaken primarily in Germany/Europe by VGB and EESG. After the survey detailed
report is prepared which covers the following outputs:

• survey 'best practise power plant performance monitoring in Germany/
Europe' with basic definition of efficiency indicators including samples of
reporting
• basic definition of efficiency indicators
• software and analytical tools including tools for efficiency indicators used
online and offline
• instrumentation on efficiency indicators
• guidelines/best practice manuals including VGB
• energy auditing practise
• analysis of performance procedure
• strategic outlook (newest trends & research)

With a view the cover the above activities, the report is structured in to two parts:

PART I:

The initial part of the report gives an overall report about the electric power market in
Europe including a compilation of the power plant projects in Europe. Further a description
of the state of the art for electric power technologies as well as the perspective for future
developments and the legal prescription for the emission limits according to the EU
regulations is given. The intention of this general introduction is to give a better
understanding to the specific situation in Europe and Germany in particular.

• power scenario in Europe
• directives in the EU applicable to large combustion plants
• best available techniques for large combustion plants
• best practices to increase efficiency and reduce the emissions
• state of the art – Reference power plant

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• new trends – Role of 700 °C technology
• future perspectives – Carbon Capture & Storage

PART II

The later part of the report describes the best practise power plant performance
monitoring in Germany/Europe.

• efficiency parameters definitions
• energy balance
• basics for the measurements and parameters
• overview of regulations and guidelines for efficiency and plant performance
• performance indicators and monitoring of power plants
• software and analytical tools for efficiency indicators and plant optimisation
– Online & Offline
• benchmarking in thermal power plants as part of performance indicator
• energy Audit
• other relevant papers and reports

1.1 Survey 'best practise' with basic Definition of Efficiency Indicators

This document summarizes the technical and physical basis for plant performance
indicators - oriented on the indicators needed and the necessary measurement devices.
The report covers the definitions of the plant technical indicators as well as the correlated
physical measurement units.

1.2 Analysis including Tools for Efficiency Indicators

Based on the selected and described indicators samples for standard reports used in the
EU are given. These official reports are published by national authorities as well as
industrial organisations like the VGB.

The key tool is the control system on the plant process consisting of a measurement
device, software transferring the physical unit into a plant indicator and an analysis tool in

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order to be able to react

1.3 Instrumentation on Efficiency Indicators

The plant measurement system is part of control & instrumentation system; the plant
process control system is also part of the above-mentioned system.

1.4 Guidelines for basic Definition of Efficiency Indicators

A distinction is drawn between legal and industrial regulations in the EU. Concerning the
industrial regulations the VDI-guidelines are irrelevant for the report on hand; their main
focus is on the design area. The main focus of the VGB-guidelines is on the operation area
which has to be considered in this report.

1.5 Energy Audit

In the EU are a wide-spread set of directives (to be transposed into national law) targeting
the energy sector. There are no regulations for the efficiency of electric power generation.
In the past in the EU we had discussions to implement regulations, but at the end the
conclusion was that market-driven mechanism are more effective. This position was
supported by the fact that the electric power generation in the EU is the most efficient
worldwide.

1.6 Performance/ Benchmarking Analysis

Benchmarking of power plant involves development of essential technical and
organizational elements for the long-term commercial sustainability of the power plant
operation.

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1.7 Strategic Outlook (newest Trends & Research)

The state of the art in the EU is a consistent system covering the whole chain of
measurement, algorithm and analysis tools, available by all the suppliers. Prerequisite for
the successful use of these instruments is to raise the awareness of the staff in applying
these tools.

Research work is mainly concentrating on a closer intercommunication of the technical
tools with the business tools like SAP.

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PART I
2. Power Scenario in Europe

2.1 Development of European & Global Electricity Demand

(Source: VGB Power Tech –Facts and Figures –Electricity generation 2007,
http://www.vgb.org/en/data_powergeneration.html)

The global population is increasing by 78 million people per year. Consequently, the
population has doubled during the last five decades.

At present, approximately one quarter of the global population of 6.5 billion do not have
access to electricity. As a result, electricity consumption is growing faster than any other
form of energy. It is expected that present global electricity consumption of 16,595 TWh is
expected to double to roughly 30,673 TWh by the year 2030.

One-fifth of the electricity generated globally – roughly 3,300 TWh – is required in the
European Union (EU). A 30 % rise in demand is expected by 2030. Experts estimate that
fossil fuels will continue to cover most of the extra demand. Fossil fuels will still account
for roughly 70 % of electricity generated worldwide in 2030. About 60 % of electricity
generated in the EU will come from fossil fuels by that time.

Renewable energy sources will play increased role in the global primary energy
consumption structure. Likewise, nuclear power will maintain an important position in
global electricity generation and will even grow in some countries.

Expected growth in electricity generation in EU by the year 2030 is 30 % (ie expected
requirement is 4,300x109 kWh). While worldwide growth in electricity generation by the
year 2030 is 85 % (i.e, expected requirement is 31,673 x 109 kWh)

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2.2 Availability, coverage and import dependency of Energy Sources

Existing primary energy reserves and resources, after including renewable energy sources,
are adequate in terms of fossil fuels and uranium around the world. Hard coal and Lignite
as well as uranium are the most widespread.
However, energy sources have an uneven geographical distribution, which means that
some countries and regions, including the European Union, are becoming increasingly
dependent on imports.

The EU’s fossil fuel reserves amount to approximately by 75,000 million tonnes of coal
equivalent, accounting for only 5% of the known reserves worldwide, and consist mainly of
lignite and hard coal. The natural gas and oil reserves amount to approximately 5,000
million tonnes of coal equivalent.

Europe’s dependency on imported coal will grow from approximately by 30 % today to
more than 60% by the year 2030. An import dependency of 81 % is expected for natural
gas and of as much as 88 % for oil. Overall, the share of imported energy will increase from
approximately from 50% today to roughly 70% by 2030. The causes of this are the nuclear
phase-out chosen by some countries, along with the decreasing of cost-effectively
exploitable European energy reserves. Only lignite will still be extractable from open cast
mines at competitive costs in some countries in the long term.

Figure 2-1 gives the development of dependence of imports of EU from 1990 to 2030.

Figure 2-1: Dependence of Imports of EU

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100 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

90 86 88
81 81 81
80 77 75

70 66 67
61 62
Perc entage

60
53
50 48 50
50 45 47

40 37
30
30
18
20

10

0
Solid fuels Oil Natural gas Total

2.3 Primary Energy Saving through efficient use of Electricity

The link between growth in gross domestic product and primary energy consumption has
become weaker in many developed nations in the last few years, due to increased
application of electricity facilitating many rationalisation processes.

On the one hand, this development reflects the trend towards a service based society; on
the other hand, the progress in energy production and its use, for example more efficient
power plants, tailored energy application through electronic control or even heat pumps, is
playing an important role. The expected use of electric vehicles in the future may reinforce
this trend even more. Saving primary energy will therefore require more electricity. There is
a risk that forced electricity savings will impair the balance of primary energy and emission
cuts unnecessarily.

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2.4 Power Plant portfolio in EU

Total installed capacity of power plants in EU is 752,060 MW, which includes 27 countries.
Of which Germany accounts for 18 % of the total EU. Figure 2-2 shows a break up of power
plants' installed capacity in the EU.

Figure 2-2: Power plant portfolio in EU

Power Plant Portfolio in EU (2005)- Total 752060 MW
132265

115500

140000
120000
86762

81800

100000
75953

80000

37435
60000
33212

32077

21544

19013

17412

16997

40000
16595

16352

13645

13320

12623

9555
20000
MW

0
Sweden

Portugal
France

UK

Greece
Austria

Bulgaria
CR
Poland

Finland
Spain
Italy

Nederlands

Others
Denmark
Belgium
Romania
Germany

2.5 Power Plant projects in Europe

The replacement demand for old power plants and the increase in electricity consumption
in Europe have led many utilities and other investors to make plans for new projects. In
addition, taking into account also the CO2 emission trading and a worldwide increase in
energy demand, coal, natural gas and nuclear power will continue to be the most
important primary energy sources for electricity generation.

Currently, around 67,000 MW of new build projects based on natural gas have been
announced. New build projects based on lignite, hard coal and peat have a combined plant
capacity of around 37,300 MW today.

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Two new nuclear power plants with a total capacity of around 3,200 MW are being
constructed in the EU in Finland (Olkiluoto) and France (Flamanville), and nuclear power
plants with a total capacity of a further 4,082 MW are being planned in Bulgaria, Romania
and the Slovak Republic. In addition, output is being increased at existing plants.

New power plant capacity of roughly 52,780 MW is currently being planned based on
renewable energy sources such as wind, hydropower and biomass. In total, projects with a
joint capacity of roughly 167,395 MW have been announced.

Whether all of the announced new build projects will actually be realised will depend
greatly on future primary energy price trends and political conditions (country-specific
bonus/malus regulations) due to CO2 reduction strategies.

Figure 2-3 gives break up of proposed (or planned) power plants with regard to the energy
source.

Figure 2-3: Planned power projects in EU

Planned Power Projec ts in EU (total 167395 MW)

80000
67005
70000
60000 48805
50000
40000 33263
30000
20000
7770
2500 4075 3233
10000 469 187 88
MW 0
Lignite &
Oil

Biomass

Residues
Nuclear

Other
Wind
Hydro
Gas

power
Hard

& waste
coal

RES
Peat

It is shown that renewable energies (including wind power) have taken a major share of
32 % (i.e, 52,782 MW).

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2.6 Pros & Cons of relevant Energy Generation Options

At present 46% of the total electricity is generated in Eurpoe is CO2 free. The following
Figure 2-4 gives the break up of the power generation.

Figure 2-4: Break up of power generation
Nuclear
30%

Biomass,
waste, oil, etc
7% Coal
Wind
31%
2%

Hydro
10%
Gas
20%

The following Table 2-1 gives pros and cons of relevant electricity generation projects

Table 2-1: Pros and cons of power generation options

Energy Source Pros Cons
Nuclear • Climate-protecting • Social acceptance problem
electricity generation with in some European
no CO2 emissions countries

• Cost-effective and reliable • Long licensing process
supply with no critical under nuclear law
import dependency • Extensive effort and cost
• High safety standard at required for safety

western nuclear power • Disposal and final storage
plants of nuclear fuel not yet
resolved politically

Coal • Hard coal can be procured • Growing demand for hard
cost-effectively by many coal (predominantly from
providers on the world China and India) and

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Energy Source Pros Cons
market limited transport capacities
• Brown coal in Europe is a entail price risks
readily available domestic • CO2 emissions higher than

raw material for natural gas
• Power plant technology • Flue gas require cleaning
has great potential for with corresponding cost
efficiency improvement and effort for plants
Gas • Most environmentally • Volatile natural gas prices
friendly fossil fuel are leading to large

relatively low CO2 fluctuations in electricity
emissions generation costs
• Electricity generation in • Dependency on imports
highly efficient power from a possible supply risk

plants • Increasing concentration of
• Short erection times and export sources in
low investment costs for politically unstable regions
new plants
Wind • Climate-protecting • Serious obstacles imposed

electricity generation with by new environmental
no CO2 emissions protection targets
• High plant efficiency • Expansion of existing
• Cost-effective operation potential is problematic for

• Network services are environmental policy
available extremely quickly reasons
• Flood protection support • High investment costs for
new plants due to

extensive compensatory
measures not relating to
electricity generation
Hydro • Climate-protecting • Serious obstacles imposed
• Electricity generation with by new environmental
no CO2 emissions protection targets

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Energy Source Pros Cons
• High plant efficiency • Expansion of existing
• Cost-effective operation potential is problematic for
• Network services are environmental policy

available extremely quickly reasons
• Flood protection support • High investment costs for
new plants due to
extensive compensatory

measures not relating to
electricity generation

2.7 Requirement of efficient coal and gas Power Plants

CO2 emissions can be reduced gradually through technological development. The volume
of CO2 produced from hard coal electricity generation can be reduced by around 35 %
worldwide if low-efficiency power plants (the average global efficiency factor currently
stands at 30 %) were replaced by power plants with a 46 % efficiency factor (current state of
the art power plants). Therefore, the gradual reduction of CO2 emissions by technological
development is the first option. It would result in profitable on three counts:

• resource protection, as less fuel is required for generating the same amount
of electricity
• substantial reduction in CO2 emissions
• increased electricity generation from the same fuel amount

In the long term, electricity generation from fossil fuels could take place virtually CO2-free
through capture and underground storage of CO2.

The potential for CO2-reduction of coal-fired power plants is shown in the following Figure
2-5 (Source VGB).

Figure 2-5: Reduction potential in CO2

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1. Efficiency
2. CO2 Emissions gram of CO2 per kWh
3. Fuel consumption g/kWh
Average
Worldwide
EU
Steam power plant
1. 30% 700oC technology
State of the
1. 38%
2. 1.116
art
2. 881
3. 480 1. >50 %
1. 45%
3. 480
2. 669
2. 743
3. 320
3. 288 CCS technology

2010 2020 Year

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3. Directives Applicable to Large Combustion Plants

3.1 Legal basis in the EU

The European LCP-Directive 2001/80/EC (see annexure I) applies to combustion plants,
the rated thermal input of which is equal to or greater than 50 MW, irrespective of the type
of fuel used (solid, liquid or gaseous). In addition to this it shall apply only to combustion
plants designed for production of energy with the exception of those, which make direct
use of the products of combustion in manufacturing processes.

The LCP-Directive defines emission limit values for the discharge of substances from the
combustion plant into the air. These emission limit values define the permissible quantity
of a substance contained in the waste gases from the combustion plant which may be
discharged into the air during a given period; it shall be calculated in terms of mass per
volume of the waste gases expressed in mg/Nm3, assuming an oxygen content by volume
in the waste gas of 3% in the case of liquid and gaseous fuels, of 6% in the case of solid
fuels and 15% for gas turbines.

Member States of the EU should bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative
provisions necessary to comply with the LCP-Directive. Germany had brought into force
the 13. BImSchV, it implements the regulations of the LCP-Directive (English version of
13. BimSchV see annexure II).

3.2 Underlying information

Numerous documents, reports and information from member states, the industry, plant
operators and authorities, as well as equipment suppliers and institutions active in
environmental protection, have been called on. Further information was gathered during
site visits in various European member states and in personal discussions on issues
regarding the choice of technology and experiences during the application of reduction
techniques.

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3.3 Document organisation

In Europe, the Power and/or Heat Generation sector is a heterogeneous industrial sector.
The energy generation is based on numerous fuels, generally to be divided according to
their state of aggregation into solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. Therefore this document has
been vertically organised so that the individual fuels are listed successively, where joint
aspects and techniques are described together, however, in the three introductory
chapters.

3.4 The European Energy Industry

Within the European Union every available type of energy source is used for the generation
of power and heat. In individual EU member states the selection of the fuel used for energy
generation is largely based on the national fuel resources, e.g. on the local or national
availability of hard coal, brown coal, biomass, peat, crude oil and natural gas. Since 1990,
the share in electric power generated from fossil fuel energy sources has increased by
approximately 16 %, while the demand increased by approx. 14 %. The share of the electric
power generated from renewable energy sources (including hydroelectric power and
biomass) increased by almost 20 %, which is higher than average.

Combustion plants are operated either as large supply plants or as industrial combustion
plants providing driving power (e.g. in the form of electric power, mechanical energy),
steam or heat for industrial production processes.

3.5 Applied technologies

A variety of combustion techniques are applied to the energy generation overall. For the
combustion of solid fuels, dust combustion, fluidised bed firing systems and grate firing
are all considered conceivable (published by the EU in the BAT data sheet: "Reference
Document on Best Available Techniques for Large Combustion Plants", on the conditions
described in this document. The possible status of liquid and gaseous fuels corresponds to
appropriate boilers, engines and gas turbines on the conditions described in this
document.

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The system to be used is selected on the basis of the economic, technical, ecological and
local requirements such as availability of the fuels, operational requirements, market
conditions and requirements of the mains. Electric power is mainly generated by
generating steam in a boiler fired with the selected fuel. This steam is supplied to a turbine
that drives a generator, generating electric power. The degree of efficiency of the steam
cycle is limited by the requirement to liquefy the steam after it leaves the turbine.

Some liquid and gaseous fuels can be fired directly in order to drive turbines with
combustion gas or they can be used in internal combustion engines driving the generator.
Every technology offers certain advantages to the plant operator, especially regarding its
operational suitability with regard to variable energy requirements.

3.6 Ecological issues

Most combustion plants use fuels and other raw materials mined from the Earth’s natural
resources, in order to convert them into useable energy. Fossil fuels are the most widely
available energy source currently used. However, their combustion leads to an important
and sometimes significant burden for the environment as a whole. The combustion
process causes the development of emissions into the air, water and soil, with air pollution
considered one of the most severe ecological burdens.

The most significant emissions developing during the combustion of fossil fuels are SO2,
NOx, CO, fine dust (PM10) and greenhouse gases such as N2O and CO2. Further substances
such as heavy metals, halogenated compounds and dioxins are discharged in smaller
quantities.

3.7 Conditions

The possible emission values are based on daily average values, standard conditions and
an O2 content of 6 % / 3 % / 15 % (solid fuels / liquid and gaseous fuels / gas turbines),
and refer to a typical burden situation. Brief peak values during peak loads, start-up and
shutdown processes and operational malfunctions of the exhaust gas cleaning systems,

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which might be higher, must be reckoned with.

3.8 Unloading, storage and transport of fuels and additives

In Table 3-1 some options are summarised for avoiding emissions during unloading,
storage and transport of fuels and additives such as lime, limestone, ammonia etc.

Table 3-1: Some options to avoid emissions during unloading, storage and transport of fuels
and additives

Best possible technology
Fine dust • Using loading and unloading equipment
with as small a drop to the storage heap
as possible to reduce the development
of diffuse emissions (solid fuels).
• Using water spray systems in countries
with no risk of frost to reduce the
development of diffuse emissions
during the storage of solid fuels (solid
fuels).
• Arranging transfer conveyors in safe
surface areas outdoors so that damage
by vehicles and other equipment can be
avoided (solid fuels).
• Using enclosed conveyors with well
designed, robust ventilation and filter
equipment at conveyor transfer
locations to avoid dust emission (solid
fuels).
• Optimising the transport systems to
minimise dust development and
transport on location (solid fuels).
• Applying the principles of excellent

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Best possible technology
design and construction practice and
appropriate maintenance (all fuels).
• Storing lime or limestone in silos with
well designed, robust ventilation and
filter equipment (all fuels).
Water contamination • Storage on sealed, drained surfaces,
collection of drained water and water
treatment in settling tanks (solid fuels).
• Using storage systems for liquid fuels
with impermeable protective walls able
to hold 75 % of the maximum capacity
of all tanks or at least the maximum
contents of the largest tank.
• The content of the tank should be
indicated and an appropriate alarm
system used; in order to avoid
overfilling the storage tank, automatic
control systems can be used (solid
fuels).
• Installing pipelines in safe surface areas
outdoors so that leaks can be
determined quickly and damage by
vehicles and other equipment avoided.
For inaccessible pipelines, double-
walled pipes can be used with an
automatic gap control (liquid and
gaseous fuels).
• Collecting the runoff water (rain water)
from fuel stores and treating this
collected flow (settling tanks or waste
water treatment plant) prior to
discharging waste water (solid fuels).

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Best possible technology
Fire protection • Monitoring the storage areas for solid
fuels with automatic systems, in order
to detect spontaneous combustion and
determine danger zones (solid fuels).
Diffuse emissions • Using leak detection systems for burner
gas and alarm systems (liquid and
gaseous fuels).
Efficient use of natural resources • Using expansion turbines for the
recovery of the energy contents of the
pressurised burner gases (natural gas
supplied via pressure pipes) (liquid and
gaseous fuels).
• Preheating the burner gas by using the
waste heat of the boiler or gas turbine
(liquid and gaseous fuels).
Health and safety risk due to ammonia • For the transport and storage of pure
liquid ammonia: pressure vessels for
pure liquid ammonia > 100 m3 should
be designed with a double wall and
located below ground; vessels with a
capacity not exceeding 100 m3 should
be manufactured applying the
annealing treatment (all fuels).
• Considering the safety aspect, using
aqueous ammonia is less dangerous
than storing and handling pure liquid
ammonia (all fuels).

3.9 Pre-treatment of fuel

For solid fuels, the pre-treatment of the fuel mainly consists in blending and mixing in
order to ensure stable combustion conditions and to reduce emission peaks.

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3.10 Fine dust emissions

The fine dust discharged during the combustion of solid or liquid fuels is almost
exclusively composed of the mineral components. During the combustion of liquid fuels,
poor combustion conditions lead to the development of soot. The combustion of natural
gas does not constitute a significant dust emission source. In this case, the dust emission
values are usually far less than 5 mg/Nm3, without the application of additional technical
measures.

Table 3-2: Options regarding the reduction of fine dust emissions in fossil fired combustion
plants, excepting gas combustion plants (excerpt from LCP-Directive)

Thermal Dust emission values (mg/Nm3) Option
combustion achieving
output Hard coal Liquid boiler fuels these values

(MWth) New plants Existing New plants Existing
plants plants

50 – 100 5 - 20 5 - 30 5 - 20 5 – 30 ESS or FF

ESS or FF in
100 – 300 5 - 20 5 - 25 5 - 20 5 – 25 combination
with FGD
(wet, hd or
dai) for SF,
> 300 5 - 10 5 - 20 5 - 10 5 – 20 ESS or FF for
FBF

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Abbreviations:
Dai dry adsorbent injection
ESS electrostatic separator
FBF fluidised bed firing
FF fibrous filter
FGD flue gas desulphurisation
Hd half-dry
SF dust combustion

For the dedusting of exhaust gases in new and existing combustion plants, the applicable
state of technology is the use of an electrostatic separator (ESS) or a fibrous filter (FF),
where emission values below 5 mg/Nm3 are usually achieved by using a fibrous filter.
Cyclone separators and mechanical dedusters alone cannot be considered sufficient;
however, they can be used as a prepurification stage within the exhaust gas process.
The possible state of technology regarding dedusting and the corresponding emission
values are compiled in the table below. For combustion plants exceeding 100 MWth, and
especially exceeding 300 MWth, the dust values are lower because flue gas
desulphurisation processes, which are already state of the art for desulphurisation in
Germany and the EU, also achieve a reduction of the fine dust.

3.11 Heavy metals

The emission of heavy metals results from their occurrence as a natural component in
fossil fuels. Most of the heavy metals to be considered (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V,
Zn) are usually released in the form of compounds (e.g. oxides, chlorides) together with
dust. Therefore it is usually possible to reduce the heavy metal emissions by installing
high-efficiency dedusting plants such as electrostatic separators or fibrous filters.

Only Hg and Se occur at least partially in the steam phase. At the typical operating
temperatures of separation plants, mercury indicates a high steam pressure and its
separation with fine dust reduction facilities fluctuates significantly. With electrostatic
separators or fibrous filters operated in combination with exhaust gas desulphurisation
processes such as the limestone wash process, the spray absorption process or the dry
adsorbent injection, the average Hg separation level is 75 % (50 % for electrostatic
separators and 50 % for exhaust gas desulphurisation plants), and with an additionally

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available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in high-dust arrangement (arrangement
between boiler and dust separator), it is possible to achieve 90 %.

3.12 SO2 emissions

Emissions of sulphur oxides mainly result from the sulphur occurring in the fuel. In
general, natural gas is considered sulphur-free. With certain technical gases this is not the
case, and in these cases desulphurisation of the gaseous fuel may be necessary. For
combustion plants fired with solid and liquid fuels, the use of low-sulphur fuels and/or
desulphurisation is usually an option.

Table below (Table 3-3) gives various options regarding the reduction of SO2 emissions in
hard and brown coal combustion plants (excerpt from LCP-Directive).

Table 3-3: Options regarding the reduction of SO2 emissions in hard and brown coal combustion
plants (excerpt from LCP-Directive)

Thermal SO2 emission values (mg/Nm3) Option achieving
combustion these values
Hard and brown coal
output

(MWth) New plants Existing plants

50 – 100 200 - 400* 200 - 400* Low-sulphur fuel
150 - 400* 150 - 400* or/and FGD (dai) or
(FBF) (FBF) FGD (hd) or FGD (wet)
(depending on the
100 – 300 100 - 200 100 - 250*
plant size). Cleaners
using seawater.
Combined process
> 300 20 - 150* 20 - 200* reducing NOx and
100 - 200 100 - 200* SO2. limestone
(CFBF/PFBF) (CFBF/PFBF) injection (FBF).

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Abbreviations:
CFBF circulating fluidised bed firing system
dai dry adsorbent injection
FBF fluidised bed firing system
FGD flue gas desulphurisation
hd half-dry
PFBF pressure fluidised bed firing system

In most cases for plants exceeding 100 MWth, however, the use of low-sulphur fuel can
only be taken into account as a supplementary measure in combination with other
measures reducing the SO2 emissions. In addition to using low-sulphur fuels,
desulphurisation by means of a wet cleaner (reduction rate 92 – 98 %) and the spray
absorption process (reduction rate 85 – 92 %) are mainly considered applicable techniques,
with a market share of more than 90 % already.

Dry exhaust gas desulphurisation processes such as dry adsorbent injection are mainly
used for plants with a thermal output of less than 300 MWth. The advantage of the wet
cleaner is that it also reduces emissions of HCl, HF, dust and heavy metals. For plants with
an output of less than 100 MWth, the wet cleaning process is not considered ideal due to
high costs.

3.13 NOx emissions

The most significant nitrogen oxides discharged during combustion are nitrogen
monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), with common designation NOx.

For hard coal dust combustion plants, it is possible to reduce the NOx emissions with
primary and secondary measures such as selective catalytic reaction (SCR), where the
reduction rate of the SCR system is between 80 % and 95 %. The disadvantage of the
application of SCR or SNCR is possible emissions of unconverted ammonia ("ammonia
leak"). For small plants without major load fluctuations fired with solid fuels and with a
stable fuel quality, the SNCR process is also considered a possible application to reduce
NOx emissions.

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This means the use of sophisticated low-NOx burners in combination with other primary
measures such as exhaust air return, staged combustion (air grading), fuel grading, etc.
The application of primary measures tends to encourage incomplete combustion, causing
a higher concentration of unburned carbon within the fly ash and a certain amount of
carbon monoxide emissions.

For boilers with a fluidised bed firing system firing solid fuels, a reduction of the NOx
emission is possible by distributing the air or returning the exhaust gas. The NOx
emissions from stationary and circulating fluidised bed firing systems differ slightly.

Table 3-4 shown below enables conclusions regarding the minimisation of the NOx
emissions and the corresponding emission values for hard coal.

Table 3-4: Options regarding the reduction of NOx emissions in hard coal combustion plants
using different combustion techniques (excerpt from LCP-Directive)

Thermal Combustion NOx emission values (mg/Nm3) Option achieving
combustion technique these values
output New plants Existing plants

(MWth)

50 – 100 grate firing 200 - 300 200 - 300 Pm and/or SNCR

SF 90 - 300 90 - 300 Combination of Pm
and SNCR or SCR

SFBF & PFBF 200 - 300 200 - 300 Combination of Pm

Combination of Pm
100 – 300 SF 90 - 200 90 - 200
together with SCR
or combined
process
Combination of Pm
SFBF, CFBF & 100 - 200 100 - 200
together with
PFBF
SNCR

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Thermal Combustion NOx emission values (mg/Nm3) Option achieving
combustion technique these values
output New plants Existing plants

(MWth)
Combination of Pm
> 300 SF 90 - 150 90 - 200
together with SCR
or combined
process
Combination of Pm
SFBF, CFBF & 50 - 150 50 - 200
PFBF

Abbreviations:
CFBF circulating fluidised bed firing system
PFBF pressure fluidised bed firing system
Pm Primary measures reducing the NOx
SCR selective catalytic NOx reduction
SF dust combustion
SFBF stationary fluidised bed firing system
SNCR selective non-catalytic NOx reduction

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4. Best Available Techniques to increase Efficiency and reduce
Emissions

For clean and new boilers, it can be stated that the efficiency levels around 86 % - 94 %
(LHV), are currently recorded for solid fuel, The main losses are associated with flue-gas
waste heat via the stack, unburned carbon, waste heat in ash and radiation losses. The
effect of fuel is important, assuming boilers with identical performance (same ambient and
flue-gas temperature, same excess air, etc.) different boiler efficiencies are obtained
depending on the nature of fuel as the following examples illustrate (LHV basis):

Fuel Efficiency [%]
International coal 94
Lignite 92
Low grade lignite 86

The best practices/best available techniques to increase efficiency and reduce the
emissions are given in annexure
III.

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5. State of the Art -Reference Power Plant (Source VGB)

5.1 Brief Overview

The study on the "Reference Power Plant" has been produced with the aim of developing a
600 MW capacity hard-coal fired power plant operating at efficiency of 45.9%, concept that
is sustainable in the future and will meet these challenges. The main aims of the concept
study are to examine the feasibility of a modern power plant with sharply reduced
emissions, taking account of the economic conditions that prevail in the deregulated
energy market, and also to demonstrate the opportunities for North Rhine-Westphalia
(Germany) as an industrial location.

Operating on a hard coal Efficiency of over 48% could also be achieved with certain
technical measures, which would require different site conditions and different economic
boundary conditions.

With efficiency of 45.9%, this power plant clearly above average of hard coal power plants
currently in operation in Germany where average efficiency is around 38%. The study has
shown that technically, economically and ecologically optimised power plant technologies
based on hard coal provide good opportunities

A number of innovative proposals have been included in the plant design. These
innovations were selected according to the criteria of their profitability and feasibility using
the materials and technologies currently available on the market.

This study brings together the planning performance requirements of the plant operators,
the planning work undertaken by the plant manufacturers and the results of the academic
institutions.

The following gives a brief description, details are given in the annexure IV.

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5.2 Details of the Study

The first phase of the study involved the collection of innovations and an evaluation. Here
innovative ideas in the fields of plant planning, process technology, boilers, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation and control and generators were
collected and each individual concept evaluated.

The decision on whether to incorporate such an innovation into the reference power plant
was taken jointly by plant operators and plant constructors. Parallel to this, the innovation
evaluation phase was used to investigate the economic feasibility of the different options
of improving efficiency. Evaluation factors such as those for improving efficiency, reducing
auxiliary station power requirements and increasing availability have been defined for
these studies, based on existing market boundary conditions. Plant operators and plant
constructors added their experience to these evaluation factors and together they were
used to optimise the plant as a whole.

5.3 Innovations

The study started with a brainstorming phase to gather and evaluate ideas. In total, over
eighty innovative concepts relating to plant planning, process engineering, boilers,
mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation & control, and the
generator were raised and their technical and economic feasibility evaluated. The technical
concepts were discussed in engineering meetings. The decision as to which of these ideas
was to be incorporated in the preferred variant was prepared following a discussion of the
findings in the project management group.

The following innovative concepts that have been considered in the course of this study
should be emphasized in particular:

• With the aim of maximizing power conversion in the turbine and also taking
the other economic evaluation factors into account, the exhaust cross-
section of the low-pressure turbine section is specified as 16 m2. Because of
the high centrifugal forces, the exhaust blades must be made of titanium

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alloys.
• With the aim of minimizing capital expenditure, various concepts were
studied for installation of the turbine. In the course of this study, a low-level
foundation design, i.e. a turbine tabletop at an elevation of around 8 m was
compared to conventional design with a tabletop at an elevation of around
16 m. Use of an elevated-level design of foundation for the turbine-
generator at 60 m was also considered.
• Standard designs (tower-type and two-pass boilers) were also examined
and evaluated, as was the concept of the horizontally fired boiler, the aim
being to minimize investment costs.

5.4 Layout Planning

Layout planning was conducted with the aim of designing a compact and efficient plant,
using as a basis existing project experience gained from standard reference power plants
and hard-coal-fired power plants that have already been built. The in-line arrangement
selected for the steam turbine-generator and boiler results in short steam lines and at the
same time gives a short length of bus ducting and power transmission line to the outdoor
switchyard. This feature minimizes cost. The side-by-side arrangement of the cooling
tower and electrostatic precipitator allows efficient design of the flue-gas discharge
system via the cooling tower, while achieving optimum routing of the circulating water
system at the same time.

5.5 Thermodynamic Design

As part of the optimization process a thermodynamic study was made of the different
variants. Below is an overview summarizing the findings:

• Utilization of hot mill air or flue gas waste heat by transferring the heat to
the HP feed water-heating line.
• Use of an external de-superheater to increase final feed water temperature
up to 320°C.

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• Reduction of pressure drop in the extraction lines for the HP feed water
heaters.
• Reduction in terminal temperature differences for HP feed water heaters.
• Consideration of use of an additional LP feed water heater (9th feed water
heater).
• Thermo compression in the area of the LP feed water heaters.
• Concepts for reheat temperature control (control within boiler or by spray
attemperation or by allowing reheat temperature to slide).
• Consideration of use of an HP feed water heater bypass for mobilization of
short-term peak output.
• Study of a feed water pump drive concept (turbine drive vs. electric drives
with various designs).
• Optimization of the cold end (LP turbine exhaust cross-section and size of
cooling tower).

The power plant concept, which has been optimized for technical and economic factors,
produces the following technical data:

• Gross capacity: 600 MW
• Type of boiler: Tower-type boiler with vertical tubes and steam coil air
heater
• Heat recovery: Utilization of mill air heat recuperation
• Flue gas discharge: Discharge via cooling tower
• Turbine model: H30-40 / M30-63 / N30-2 x 16 m²
• Main steam parameters: 285 bar / 600°C / 620°C
• Condenser pressure: 45 mbar
• Generator: Water/hydrogen cooling
• Feed water heating stages: 8 feed water heaters + external de-superheater
• Feed water final temperature: 303.4°C
• Feed water pump concept: 3 x 50 % electric motor-driven feed water pumps,
variable-speed drive with planetary gearing

In addition to the preferred variant, the following additional requirements for enhancing
flexibility have been grouped together in the "flexibility package" option:

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• Fast activation of primary frequency control system, as required in the DVG
Grid Code "Network and System Rules of the German Transmission System
Operators"), 1998 edition.
• Option of providing additional power by partly bypassing the HP feed water
heaters and
• Use of header-type HP feed water heater instead of tube-sheet design type.

The flexibility package thus takes into account the plant operators' desire to be able to
match the power plant’s mode of operation to the requirements of a volatile electricity
market, over and beyond straight base load operation.

5.6 Steam Turbine Plant (Turbine, Generator)

The turbine modules used belong to the Siemens steam turbine product line named HMN
with best reliability and availability values over the last decades. It is a turboset with
separate HP, IP and LP turbine sections.

A rigid connection (via so-called push rods) is implemented between the intermediate-
pressure outer casing and the low-pressure inner casing. This push rod concept for the
HMN series turbine allows thermal axial expansion of the rotor system (moving blades) and
that of the casing (stationary blades) to be matched. The result of this is a reduction in the
axial clearances for the sealing elements between rotor and casing, and thus an
improvement in the efficiency of the turbine-generator.

5.7 High-Pressure Turbine section

As high-pressure turbine the module H30-40 will be used. It’s a barrel-type design best
suited for sophisticated steam conditions and assigned power output demand. The inlet
parameters for the main steam entering the high-pressure turbine section are 600°C at
285 bar.

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The high-pressure turbine section has a barrel-type design. The radial joint is located in
the middle of the barrel casing. An HP turbine is equipped with an inner casing due to the
high steam parameters of 600°C/285 bar.

The HP turbine blading consists of a diagonal stage, which is designed with a low degree
of reaction and 17 stages of type 3DSTM (3D design with reduced secondary losses).

The entire blading system is designed using the 3DVTM design principle (3DVTM: 3D
design with variable stage reaction) so as to optimize blade efficiency.

The materials used for the moving and stationary blades are exclusively high-alloy
chromium steels with a chromium content of 10 % - 12 %.

5.8 Intermediate-Pressure Turbine section

As intermediate-pressure turbine the module M30-63 will be used. It’s a double flow
turbine with inner casing design to cope best with highest reheat temperatures. The inlet
parameters for the single-reheat steam entering the IP turbine are 620°C at 60 bar.

The model M30-63 IP turbine is a double-flow, dual-shell turbine section. The materials
for the shaft and inner casing are high-alloy chromium steels. The outer casing is made of
nodular cast iron. This IP turbine module is designed for maximum reheat temperatures.
As a outstanding reference the power plant "Isogo", Japan with a reheat temperature of
610°C can be stated. A further increase in reheat temperature to 620°C, affects the creep-
rupture strength of the shaft material.

The use of a slightly modified alloy content for the 10 % chromium shaft material can
increase the material strength. The use of 10 % chromium steel with boron shows
promising results.

Tests of creep-rupture strength for a shaft-like body are available from a German research
project (VGB 158). The results are in alignment with the expected increase of creep rupture
strength (time frame > 30,000 hours).

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Active, external steam cooling in the steam inlet area is not required. Vortex cooling is
used in the inlet flow area.

The first blade stage of the IP turbine consists of a diagonal stage, which is designed with
a low degree of reaction.

At both the generator and turbine ends the blading of the turbine features 18 stages, these
including 13 3DSTM blade profiles and four "tapered twisted" profiles.

The first three moving blade stages of both flows are fabricated of Nimonic alloys (nickel-
based alloys) on account of the high temperatures to which they are exposed. The other
moving and stationary blades are fabricated of high-alloy chromium steels with a
chromium content of 10 to 12%. In addition, a double T-head design is used for the blade
roots of the first and second moving blade stages. This allows the high loading of
centrifugal force on the blade roots and root fixing region. The acting centrifugal force is
distributed between all blade contact surfaces and thus reduced.

5.9 Low-Pressure Turbine section

The newly developed turbine section N30-2 x 16m2 is planned as the low-pressure turbine
section, a double-flow, dual-shell turbine section. The inlet parameters for the crossover
steam are 269°C at 5.5 bar. The condenser pressure is 45 mbar.

The inner casing features a welded design housing the stationary blade carrier. The low-
pressure inner casing rests on the bearing pedestal base plates by means of support arms.
The inner casing rests on a sliding plate and can allow axial movements transferred from
the intermediate-pressure outer casing by the rigidly connected push rods.

The points where the support arms penetrate the low-pressure outer casing are sealed by
expansion joints. The LP outer casing and LP inner casing are thus completely decoupled.

The N30-2 x 16 m2 features three drum stages and three standard stages per flow. The
exhaust cross section of the final stage is 16 m2 per flow. Steel cannot be used to fabricate

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this size of blades due to the high centrifugal force loading produced by peak blade
speeds of Mach 2. A titanium alloy therefore has to be used. The titanium final stage
blades feature a three-dimensional profile with integral shrouding, with a snubber in the
middle of the profile. Gap losses at the blade tip are reduced by the integral shrouding.

At rated speed the integral shroud and the snubber in the middle of the blade constitute in
effect a rigid structure together with the adjacent blades, thereby forming a low-vibration
blade assembly.

5.10 Generator Plant

The generator plant consists of a two-pole hydrogen-cooled turbo generator, which is
rigidly coupled to the turbine. It has a direct water-cooled stator winding, a static exciter,
a two-channel digital automatic voltage regulator and the necessary supply systems i.e.
seal oil, hydrogen and primary water units.

The stator winding is cooled directly by water, and the rotor is cooled directly by hydrogen.

Losses occurring in the other components such as core losses, frictional losses and
additional losses are dissipated directly by hydrogen. A large number of radial cooling
slots ensure uniform dissipation of heat in the laminated core.

The hydrogen is circulated in the closed cooling circuit inside the gas-tight and pressure-
proof generator frame by a radial blower fitted at the exciter end. The hydrogen coolers
are installed in the generator frame. The water (primary water) treated for cooling the
stator winding is circulated in the closed circuit by a pump and transfers the heat absorbed
in the primary water cooler to the secondary water.

The excitation energy is supplied to the rotor winding by a static exciter via slip rings. The
excitation unit consists of an exciter transformer and a thyristor assembly in a three-phase
bridge circuit.

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5.11 Boilers

Comparison of various boiler designs
In order to find the most favorable boiler design for the reference power plant, three
different boiler designs were examined. A tower boiler, a two-pass boiler and the
innovative horizontally fired boiler were designed and compared with each other in respect
of their costs and operational reliability.

The aim of establishing specific advantages for each of the types of boiler resulted in
different concepts of solution in respect of furnace and the pressure section. MPS mills and
low-emission DS burners were used in all variants. The variant comparison is based on a
data record for a power plant unit with a gross installed capacity of 550 MW. The fact that
in the course of optimising the plant the decision was made that the gross installed
capacity of the "preferred variant" would be 600 MW does not affect the conclusions
arrived at when comparing the concepts.

In order to achieve boiler efficiency of 95%, areas such as the cold end of the flue gas and
the furnace were optimised.

Innovations in boiler
The greatest improvement in efficiency is achieved by raising the steam parameters to the
high steam conditions at the boiler outlet (600°C/620°C/292.5 bar). A further improvement
in plant efficiency has been achieved by optimizing the economizer section and raising the
feed water temperature. These temperature and pressure increases make it necessary to
use new material for the walls (7 CrMoVTiB 10 10) and new super heater materials (high-
temperature austenitic materials such as TP347HFG).

The efficiency of the boiler is improved to 95% by keeping to the very low excess air
coefficients of 1.15 and exhaust gas temperatures of 115°C. The distance to the dew point
temperature for flue gas ducts and the electrostatic precipitator is achieved by the
specified guaranteed coal with a sulphur content of only 0.6%. As a result of the low air
ratio and the flue gas temperature window specified by the DENOX plant upstream of the
air heater, the air alone is no longer adequate as the only heat sink because a partial flow
of cold air must be routed past the air heater on account of the pulveriser mill air

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temperature control system. A mill air heat exchanger, one of the innovations, removes the
excess heat from the mills’ hot air so that application to the air heater is almost 100%. As a
result of transferring this excess heat to the feed water economiser (parallel to the HP
preheater section) an exhaust gas temperature of 115°C downstream of the air heater can
be achieved.

The vertical evaporator tubing in a Benson boiler is a further innovation. The spiral-wound
plain tubing is state of the art here, as is a correspondingly high mass flow density to
provide adequate cooling of the furnace encompassing walls that are exposed to a high
thermal load. The advantages of vertical evaporator tubes pertain more to the design.
There is a small advantage as regards auxiliary station power technique since slightly less
power is required from the feed pump. From the point of view of production engineering,
vertical tubing is easier to manufacture and to assemble. The tie-bars used for the spiral-
wound tubing are dispensed with. A flatter angle can be used on the hopper, thus allowing
the height of the furnace to be reduced and also generating a cost benefit. The Benson
range can be extended to a part load of 20%. This results in advantages when later on the
RPP will be operated at intermediate load.

The vertical evaporator tubing operates with mass flow densities approximately equivalent
to a naturally recirculation boiler. For this reason, optimised inner ribs are required in
order to provide adequate cooling. A swirl is created in the flow because of the inner ribs,
extending the time the inner walls remain wet. The area of the boiling crisis is thus shifted
into zones exposed to less heat flux, thus ensuring that the sudden jump in the
temperatures of materials is considerably reduced. Heat flux profiles are largely balanced
out as a result of the effect of natural circulation that applies with lower mass flow
densities. Where it is known that excess heating occurs, this can be corrected by
geometrical adjustments - for instance, larger tubes can be used around the burner.

Efficiency can be enhanced further by operating the plant with a variable reheater outlet
temperature. In the design point at 100% load, there is no injection during steady-state
operation. Although the reheater outlet temperature drops with any movement away from
the 100% load point, this proved to be the most economically efficient method for, initially,
base-load operation and for when subsequently the plant will be operated at intermediate
load.

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The partition pitch of 480 mm must also be seen as an innovation. There is no record to
date of this kind of spacing becoming blocked. Apart from being able to reduce the height
of the boiler by about 1 m, it is also easier to clean by overhead soot blowers.

The materials selected for the boiler are:

• Evaporator/superheater - vertical tubing 7CrMoVTiB 10 10
• Superheater 1 support tube partition HCM 12
• Superheater 2 Super 304 H or TP 347 HFG
• Superheater 3 HR3C or AC 66
• HP outlet header P92
• Reheater 1 Outlet 7CrMoVTiB 10 10, HCM 12
• Reheater 2 HR3C or AC66
• Reheater outlet header P92

5.12 Water and Steam Cycle

The water/steam cycle essentially consists of the supercritical steam generator, the steam
turbine-generator with the condenser, the main condensate pumps, the low-pressure (LP)
feed water heaters, the feed water tank, the feed water pumps, the high-pressure (HP) feed
water heaters and the connecting pipes.

The superheated steam produced in the steam generator is supplied to the turbine which
drives the generator. After the steam has driven the HP turbine section and thus released
part of its energy, it is passed to the reheater where it is heated up again and then routed
to the IP turbine section.

The steam flows directly from the IP turbine section to the LP turbine section, where it is
expanded to condenser pressure. Finally the steam is condensed in the condenser. The
heat of condensation is dissipated via the circulating water system.

The condensate produced is collected in the condenser hotwell. The main condensate
pumps pump the condensate from there through the LP feed water heaters into the feed

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water tank. The feed water pumps are then used to pump the water from the feed water
tank through the HP feed water heaters and back to the steam generator. The LP feed
water heating line, the feed water tank and the HP feed water heaters are heated with
steam extracted from the turbine.

• The condenser is a two-casing surface condenser with water boxes
positioned at both sides. The steam dome, steam shell and the hotwell are
welded structures, as are the water boxes. The following materials are used:
Tubes of stainless steel (14401), tube sheets made of stainless steel
(14571). The water boxes are made of Carbon steel.
• Primary frequency control by means of condensate throttling: As the hotwell
serves as a condensate storage vessel, there is no need here for an
additional cold condensate storage tank.
• 2 x 100 % main condensate pumps: Only one pump operates during normal
operation. Following condensate throttling, the second pump is cut in to
pump to the feed water tank the condensate that has accumulated in the
condenser hotwell in this process. This serves to return the system to its
initial status.
• Bypass cleaning of condensate using a separate 1 x 100% capacity
condensate cleaning pump: A 2 x 50% capacity bypass cleaning system for
condensate is implemented to satisfy the stringent water quality
requirements of the Benson boiler for feed water that is low in salt and low
in corrosion products. As a result of this configuration, condensate cleaning
can be designed for comparatively low pressure levels and the unit can be
operated completely independently of the condensate polishing system.

5.13 Cooling Water Systems

The cooling water systems essentially consist of the natural-draft wet cooling tower, the
circulating water system with a make-up water supply system, the auxiliary cooling water
system and the closed cooling water system.

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The circulating water pumps supply the condenser with circulating water from the cooling
tower basin. Once the heat of condensation rejected to the condenser has been transferred
to the circulating water, this water is routed to the natural-draft wet cooling tower. The
heat is ultimately dissipated to the atmosphere via the cooling tower. To ensure the
requisite cooling water quality, part of the cooling water is blown down. The system is
topped up with make-up water to compensate for losses caused by evaporation and
blowdown.

The auxiliary cooling water is taken from the circulating water system upstream of the
condenser. After it has absorbed the heat from the closed cooling water system, it is
returned to the circulating water system downstream of the condenser.

The closed cooling water system dissipates the heat from the individual cooling loads via
the closed cooling water heat exchanger to the auxiliary cooling water system.

5.14 Technological Options

If the market boundary conditions result in higher economic evaluation factors, this
signifies that technical solutions requiring higher specific investments to increase
efficiency are then cost-effective. In a marginal case the specific additional investment may
exactly match the "economic evaluation factor". If the additional investment is higher, the
economics of the entire project are reduced. If additional investment is lower, the projects
economics would increase accordingly.

Assuming that the economic evaluation factors are higher than in the preferred option, as
a result of changing boundary conditions (e.g. CO2 emission costs), the enhancement
options summarized might then be of interest. In this context, the preferred option with all
its boundary conditions would be the basis for option A. Option A, in turn, would be the
basis for option B, etc. Details are shown in Table 5-1 and Figure 5-1 below.

Turbine driven boiler feed-water pumps were not investigated, due to the fact that the
increase of efficiency in comparison to feed-water pumps with frequency-converter is
marginal and the capital cost are much higher than the advantage.

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Table 5-1: Preferred option vs. additional options for boosting efficiency

Description Preferred variant Variant A Variant B Variant C Variant D

Plus using
of fluegas heat
Plus frequency
transfer
Converter BFP Plus 320oC feed Plus cond pressure
system with low
Specification Basic +9 stage preheating Water end- 40 mbar with
temperature- heat
+optimized Temperature LP-Turbine 4×10m2
transfer
Preheaters
+cond . pressure
35mbar
Live steam 3285bar/600oC/62 3285bar/600oC/62 3285bar/600oC/62 3285bar/600oC/62 3285bar/600oC/62
parameter 0o C 0oC 0o C 0oC 0o C
Feed water
end- 303.4oC 303.4oC 320oC 320.4oC 320.4oC
temperature
Number of
3HP/FWT/4LP 3HP/FWT/5LP 3HP/FWT/5LP 3HP/FWT/5LP 3HP/FWT/5LP
preheaters
External
desuperheat Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
er
Steam air
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
heater
Use of mill
air heat Yes,HP Preheating Yes, HP Preheating Yes, HP Preheating Yes, HP Preheating Yes, HP Preheating
recuperation
Sliding
reheat Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
temperature
Condenser
45mbar 45mbar 45mbar 40mbar 35mbar
pressure
Low
pressure N30-2×16m2 N30-2×16m2 N30-2×16m2 N30-4×10m2 N30-4×10m2
turbine
9..stage
No yes Yes yes yes
preheating
Frequency –
converter
for boiler
No yes Yes yes yes
feed – water
pump (BFB)
drive
Feed water
end –
No no yes yes yes
temperature
320oC
Condenser
pressure 40 No no no yes no
mbar
Condenser
pressure 35 No no no no yes
mbar
Condenser
No no no no no
pressure 25

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Description Preferred variant Variant A Variant B Variant C Variant D

mbar
Flue gas
heat transfer
system with
low No no no no yes
temperature
– heat
transfer
Frequency
converter
for No no no no no
condensate
- pump

Figure 5-1: Efficiency chart
47.5 47.3

47
46.5
46.5 46.2
46.1
45.9
46

45.5

45
Preferred Variant A Variant B Variant C Variant D
variant***
App. 30 EUR/kW Above 35
App. 20 EUR/kW App. 25 EUR/kW
798 Eur/kW gross EUR/kW gross
gross gross
per% Point per% Point
per% Point** per% Point

Effic ien c y ( %) Vs Ev aluatio n F ac to r *

Power output for all 600 MW at generator terminals
* Increase in efficiency in Eur/kWwgross per % point
** The increase of efficiency in varient A considers also reduced aux. power which require
additional investment of amount 8 EUR/kW gross
*** In the concept study the Preferred Variant was investigated in detail; the Variants A-D have
been derived.

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"Increase in efficiency" as an economic evaluation factor of the variant under review (e.g.
Variant A: 20 €/kWgross per % point) then represents the additional investment that can be
justified in economic terms relative to both the gross installed capacity of the power plant
and an efficiency increase of 1 % point net. The respective predecessor variant is the basis
for each case. For Variant A that would be the preferred variant, for Variant B it would be
Variant A and so on. The increase in efficiency of Variant A compared to the preferred
variant also includes the efficiency effect that results from a reduction in the auxiliary
power requirement (by changing the feed water pump drive). This reduction in the
auxiliary power requirement increases the specific investment for Variant A by an
additional 8 €/kW (gross) and corresponds to a parallel rise in the "auxiliary power
requirement economic evaluation factor".

Independently of the measures presented above, a further increase in efficiency to over
47.3 % is possible by further reducing condenser pressure or by increasing the main steam
parameters. If the overall concept is changed, by in example considering dual reheat,
additional enhancement options are then available. However, all measures require
considerable additional investments.

5.15 Summary

The principle challenges of the power supply industry today are security of supply, low-
cost generation of electricity, environmental protection and conservation of available
resources. This study on the "Reference Power Plant" has been produced with the aim of
developing a hard-coal fired power plant concept that is sustainable in the future and will
meet these challenges. The main aims of the concept study are to examine the feasibility
of a modern power plant with sharply reduced emissions, taking account of the economic
conditions that prevail in the deregulated energy market.

The first phase of the study involved the collection of innovations and an evaluation. Here
innovative ideas in the fields of plant planning, process technology, boilers, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation and control and generators were
collected and each individual concept evaluated. The decision on whether to incorporate
such an innovation into the reference power plant was taken jointly by plant operators and

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plant constructors.

Parallel to this, the innovation evaluation phase was used to investigate the economic
feasibility of the different options of improving efficiency. Evaluation factors such as those
for improving efficiency, reducing auxiliary station power requirements and increasing
availability have been defined for these studies, based on existing market boundary
conditions. Plant operators and plant constructors added their experience to these
evaluation factors and together they were used to optimise the plant as a whole.

In this study the power plant concept which is optimized for technical and economic
aspects is called the "Preferred variant" and is characterized by the following data:

• Gross installed capacity 600 MW
• Net Installed capacity 555 MW
• Net efficiency 45.9 %
• Main steam parameters 285 bar / 600°C / 620°C
• Feed water end temperature 303.4°C
• Condenser pressure 45 mbar, wet closed-circuit cooling
via draft cooling tower
• Price of the plant 478 mill €
• Specific plant price 797 € / kW gross
• Boiler type Benson tower boiler with vertical
tubes
• Utilization of waste heat Use of mill air heat
• Flue gas cleaning SCR-DENOX, electrostatic precipitator,
flue gas desulphurization unit using
limestone
• Flue gas discharge Discharge via cooling tower
• Steam turbine three-casing steam turbine with
simple intermediate heating and low
pressure stages made of titanium
alloy
• Generator cooled by water/hydrogen

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• Economiser stages Eight economizers + external
desuperheater
• Feed water pump concept 3 x 50% electric motor-driven feed
water Pumps, variable -speed drive
with planetary gearing

The efficiency of the optimum power plant concept "Preferred variant" for the prevailing
market conditions is 45.9 %. At less than 800 € gross of installed capacity, the price of the
plant is in a range where the RPP is an extremely competitive method of generating energy
as compared to the alternatives. The process parameters are crucial for the high efficiency.
These include parameters such as high steam pressure and high steam temperatures (285
bar/600°C/620°C), which in certain areas require the use of materials that have only
recently been shown to be operationally reliable.

As it is practically impossible nowadays to use river water for cooling, closed-circuit
cooling via a cooling tower is planned for the reference power plant. The cooling tower is
also used to discharge the flue gases produced during combustion. Sulphur and nitrogen
are removed from these gases before handling in a separate part of the plant. The
standard of flue gas cleaning complies with the strict reference values recently adopted for
the European Union.

If river water could be used for cooling, it would increase the net efficiency of the plant by
a further percentage point to approximately 47 %. Certain technical measures could also be
applied to achieve efficiency of over 48 % but these would require different economic
boundary conditions than could be assumed at the present time. The effects of double
reheating have not been included in this study because the additional investment required
would be considerably higher than could be justified by the resulting increased efficiency
of about half a percentage point.

The efficiency of 45.9 % achieved by the RPP far exceeds the average efficiency currently
achieved by hard-coal-fired power plants in Germany. Taking the average efficiency of
38 % (Germany) as a reference point, the increased efficiency of around 8 percentage
points reduces the amount of fuel used and consequently also CO2 emissions by around
20 %.

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If the power generated in coal-fired power plants in 2020 were only to be generated in
plants with efficiency of at least 46%, the CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants of
9.1 billion t (average efficiency of 34%, worldwide) forecast for 2020 could be reduced by a
further 2.3 billion t to 6.8 billion t (average efficiency 46%). The forecast increase of world-
wide CO2 emissions attributable to coal-fired power generation in the period between
2000 and 2020 would thus be reduced from 63 % to 21 %.

The studies of economic feasibility for this concept show that the RPP is more efficient
than all options for hard-coal-fired power plants that are currently being examined in
detail, providing that CO2 emissions entitlements do not have a considerable cost impact.
The only solutions that are comparable in economic terms in the fossil-fuelled large power
plant sector are modern lignite fired power plants (MLP) and combined cycle power plants
using natural gas. In terms of economic feasibility, when these two alternative power
plants are compared only the modern lignite fired power plant is slightly more cost-
effective than the RPP , primarily on account of its extremely low fuel costs, which can also
safely be considered to remain at a constant level in real terms over the entire operating
period.

However, this type of plant can only be operated by companies that have appropriate
access to lignite. Nevertheless, this type of plant is extremely relevant to those utilities in
terms of covering base-load requirement reliably and cost-effectively in the long term. The
time when a plant of the same type as the reference power plant can be used to supply to
the grid purely on the basis of commercial decisions depends crucially on the trends that
can be expected in the intervening period in respect of the revenues that can be generated
on the wholesale market. Currently these are not adequate to justify an investment on
business grounds.

Overall, the figure for power generation costs based on assumptions made on an individual
basis for the new base-load plants that need to be built and which after 17 years will be
changed over to intermediate load operation indicate a figure of around 3.3 and
3.5 €ct/kWh.

With the planned mode of operation, the RPP is more cost effective than the gas-fired
combined-cycle plant, in spite of the considerably higher efficiency of this latter type of

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plant and its substantially lower investment costs. The main reason for this is that a hard
coal price of 41 €/t (heating value for coal to the design specification = 25 GJ/t, purchase
price per tce = 48 €) can be assumed.

In view of the very considerable reserves available across the world, the low market access
barriers and the market structure characterized by intense competition, hard coal prices
will at most increase marginally after being adjusted for inflation over the entire period of
operation. This result is comparatively robust because the price of natural gas must not
increase by more than 0.5 %/year in real terms in order to make up for the cost advantage
of hard coal under these conditions. This is unlikely in view of the increase in demand
world-wide for gas as a source of energy and its undeniable environmental advantages,
which have been documented in the corresponding asking price. Only if - against all
expectations - the price of hard coal were to increase in real terms by more than 1 %/year
(and the price of gas did not increase at more than this rate over the same period) would
the combined cycle plant produce better economic results than the hard-coal-fired
reference power plant.

However, these economic advantages only apply if possible cost impacts resulting from
measures to reduce CO2 are not taken into account. If the impact of CO2 is only 5 € in real
terms per ton of CO2 emitted overall, the hard-coal-fired reference power plant would be
considerably less viable economically than the gas-fired combined cycle power plant. The
same applies even if the gas price rises by up to 1.2 %/year in real terms and the price
increase for hard coal is limited to 0% /year. Thus, apart from the usual market risks, plant
operators have to deal with the additional unforeseeable business situations that arise
from the political aim of CO2 entitlement trading and the actual national arrangements for
this as it affects fossil-fuelled power plants.

Coal-fired power plants using the latest designs, which are extremely efficient in terms
climate protection and conserving resources, can only be built if the suitable political
framework conditions are developed for them. The objectives cannot be met under any
circumstances if additional costs for CO2 entitlements were to be loaded onto an efficient
hard-coal-fired power plant for reasons of climate protection.

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This would only make investment in this technology more difficult and at the same time
promote one-sided building of additional gas-fired power plants, with the result that
security of supply would be impaired in the long term and dependency on this fuel would
lead to increased (price) dependency.

In view of the fact that it is expected that hard coal will be extremely significant as an
alternative fuel for power generation - on a global scale as well - in the longer term, the
successful implementation of the reference power plant in Germany would have
considerable export potential, which would contribute to maintaining the expertise of
power plant vendors.

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6. Role of 700°C Technology for the Carbon-free Power Supply
1) 2) 3)
Dr. Franz Bauer , Dr. Dariush Hourfar , Helmut Tschaffon
1)
VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen
2)
E.ON Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen
3)
E.ON Energie AG, München

6.1 Introduction and Background

In face of the climate change and the necessary carbon abatement strategy the
requirements for the future power supply are carbon-free technologies. Any scenario
analysis provided by the IEA Energy Outlook or the publications of the European
Commission on this field show the absolute need for carbon-based primary resources for
the coming decades. The consequences are the development of carbon-free technologies.
The outcome of the Technology Platform ZEP "Zero Emission fossil-fuelled Power Plants" is
three major paths for carbon-free technologies:

• post-combustion – capture of CO2 out of the flue gas
• pre-combustion – integrated gasification of coal in combination with a CO
shift
• oxy-fuel – combustion of fossil fuel under oxygen atmosphere

Clear position of any institution analysing in depth the constraints and opportunities for a
carbon free power supply like the TP ZEP or the Eurelectric study ´Role of Electricity´ is
that all technological options are needed.

Having in mind that climate protection is a global issue the relevance of global competition
is evident. As well as the availability of competitive technologies will be decisive for the
capability to cope with the challenges and finally to succeed in providing a clean and
secure and affordable power supply in the future.

The intention of this paper is to point out the strategic role of the 700°C technology,
starting with the intention in considering the thermodynamic of the Carnot process and the

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materials needed to achieve high process parameters leading to high efficient power
plants.

It is clearly to emphasize: The 700°C technology is the pre-requisite for the successful
implementation of two of the described technology paths - post-combustion and oxy-fuel
- based on a high-efficient basic process.

Consequently we will deal with the status, the current and coming activities and the
perspectives of the 700°C technology. Concerning the overall strategic and political context
a position referring the necessity for the coherent regulatory framework and a consistent
deployment strategy will be given.

6.2 Status 700°C Technology

The beginning of activities concentrating on the development of materials able to bear
700°C steam parameters lies in the early 90´s, leading to the AD700 project, phase I and
II, which were finished end of 2006. AD 700 was co-funded by the European Commission
within FP5 launched in 1998 by the Commissioner and supported by about 40
stakeholders from equipment suppliers, power generators and the scientific community.

The key objective of AD 700 was the development of innovative turbine and boiler designs,
identifying and developing material for the components in the high temperature regions
and assessment of the economic viability.

A broad range of materials - Ni-based alloys have - been investigated, analysed and tested
in small samples. Parallel comprehensive studies have been performed in order to work out
a basic power plant concept. The goal was to achieve efficiency figures of more than 50 %
net and to give first indications about the economic feasibility of this concept. The
necessity of carbon-free technology was not yet on the agenda.

The main issue was identification and selection of appropriate materials and testing. The
targets set out for the boiler materials with respect to mechanical strength were:

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• Martensitic materials 100 N/mm2 at 650 °C/100,000 hours
• Austenitic materials 100 N/mm2 at 700 °C/100,000 hours
• Nickel-based alloys 100 N/mm2 at 750 °C/100,000 hours

These targets were met for the austenitic materials and the superalloys but not for the
martensitic materials. It was not possible to find a better steel type than P92. Sandvik
developed the austenitic superheater tube material with the trade name Sanicro 25, and
Special Metals developed a superalloy for superheater tubes with the trade name
Inconel 740.

The nickel-based alloys identified for the boiler and steam lines are materials such as
Inconel 617 and Nimonic 263. For the turbine components Inconel 617, 625 and
Waspalloy, respectively are foreseen for rotors, castings and blade and bolts.

A large number of long term creep tests have been carried out both on bar, tube and
forged material, and they are still in progress.

Table 6-1: Composition of AD 700 materials (alloys)

Element Ni Cr Co Mo Other

Material

A 625 63.5 21.5 0 9 Al, Ti, Nb

A 617 52 22 12 9.5 Al, Ti

A C263 51 20 20 6 Al, Ti

A 740 50 24 20 0.5 Al, Ti, Nm

Sanicro 25 (A 174) 25 22 1.5 0 W, Cu, Fe

The result of both phases of AD 700 was a preference set of materials covering all
requirements for boiler materials consisting of membrane wall, headers, pipe-work and
valves and for turbine materials with shaft, blades, pipe-work and valves. As important as
the material development was the outcome of the plant concept studies demonstrating the
principal possibility of both – high efficiency and promising cost figures.

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In the following the key issues are presented. The thermodynamic of the Carnot process
with relevance for the plant concept is shown in Figure 6-1.

Figure 6-1: Carnot efficiency and efficiencies of some seawater-cooled plants

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Consequently the thermodynamic scheme for 700°C concept is described in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2: AD 700 thermodynamic cycle

As the nickel-based alloys are extremely expensive, the concept of compact design was
studied. The aim is to minimize the amount of these materials – e.g. by making the steam
lines as short as possible. These studies identified considerable room for savings, which
also will be valuable for more conventional plants.

For the turbine, a turbine inlet valve, forged rotor, welded rotor, moving blades, stationary
blades, bolting and welding of pressure containment parts were considered. Also
innovative designs with the aim of reduced need for the nickel-based alloys have been
studied.

Considerable effort has been made to establish business plans for a full-scale
demonstration plant. The studies included a detailed risk assessment and again a check on
the feasibility taking the latest material strength values and prices into consideration. The
technology is still feasible even when a moderate price for CO2 quotas is used.

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Parallel national projects have been initiated, particularly MARCKO I and II covering both
material design and tests in small samples.

Emax Initiative
Based on these encouraging results of AD 700 an industry funded strategy study was
started with the goal to make a comprehensive evaluation in general and to define the
steps necessary to bring this technology to real application under market conditions. The
work was done under the umbrella of the Emax Initiative - an industry group driven by the
generators coordinated by VGB.

The clear result was the confirmation that this concept offers the potential to cover both
high efficiency and the fundamental basis for a carbon-free power supply on fossil fuels
and before entering into the erection of a demo plant two steps are stringently needed:

• a component test under realistic operation conditions with the experience of
design and fabrication of the near full scale components and
• out of this learning process a pre-engineering study for the specifications
for a demo plant covering material concept, design and fabrication, balance
of plant consisting of process figures necessary for 50% efficiency,
component design and operation requirements.

At the end one will get reliable figures in terms of actions to be done, the realistic time
schedule and the financial means needed for realisation – ready for a sound assessment of
the contribution for a carbon abatement strategy, of the market opportunities, of the
funding requirements - public and industry - and the time and cost risks aligned with.

6.3 Current and Coming Activities of the 700°C Technology

COMTES700
First step of the study was the design, construction, erection and operation of the
component test facility (CTF) COMTES 700; i.e. a facility implemented into an operating
boiler consisting the key components of a boiler like evaporator membrane wall,
superheater, pipe-work, headers and valves, additionally with a turbine control valve and

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referring ducts.

Due to the fact that under FP a continuation in terms of funding was not possible the
resources of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel were taken, an occasion to thank for the
co-operative support of the DG RTD. The project has been co-ordinated by VGB
integrating partners from the equipment suppliers and the generators, i.e. 9 European
generators are working together in terms of financing and exchanging experience and
pursuing this technology with the goal of implementation in due time.

The work started in spring 2004, the component test facility went into operation in July
2005 and until now more than 10.000 operating hours could be achieved.

The CTF represented a considerable challenge. The principle diagram may look relatively
simple, but the integration in the power plant with all necessary steam-, drain-, vent lines,
instrumentation and control equipment represent a really big task, which in this case was
made even bigger because the time from the official start to actual operation was only one
year and delivery times for the tube and pipe material were long. E.ON has been
responsible for the integration and operation of COMTES700 in Scholven F (see Figure
6-3).

Figure 6-3: Principle diagram COMTES700

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Generally one can state that the learning process was very interesting, but very useful and
has given clear indications what has to be analysed and investigated within the pre-
engineering study as the next step. Parallel to COMTES700 a test rig in the Esbjerg power
plant was installed with a certain precursor function, meaning testing in advance design
and material as a kind of accelerating process and to take preventive measures.

PP 700 – pre-engineering study
The project has been conceived as a cross-border transnational project. To date, 10
European energy utilities (E.ON Energie AG, Electricité de France, France, Electrabel
European Generation, Belgium, EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Germany, EVN AG, Austria, DONG
Energy Generation, Denmark, RWE Power AG, Germany, STEAG AG, Germany, Vattenfall
Europe Mining & Generation AG & Co. KG, Germany, Vattenfall A/S Nordic Generation,
Denmark) have joined together with the aim of developing this sustainable European
concept for generating power on the basis of fossil fuels. In the context of the envisaged
pre-engineering study the European energy utilities involved will determine viable
technical and economic decision-making principles for power plants with a live steam
condition of 700°C.

The European Generators are working together supported by a European regional fund
(local government of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia) in pursuing the issue of pre-
engineering. The equipment suppliers are integrated by orders placed by VGB the co-
ordinator.

Goal is to perform an innovative pre-engineering study in order to be ready for a more
detailed evaluation of the opportunities of the technology at the end. The necessity and
political will of a convincing carbon abatement strategy is on the agenda now. In the mean
time the TP ZEP was launched strongly developed and pushed by the stakeholders from the
electric power industry lead by VGB.

The work of the pre-engineering study has started and is terminated for autumn of 2008 -
an exciting time is lying ahead.

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6.4 Perspectives of the 700°C Technology

As stated before the necessity for a CO2 free power supply technology is on the political
agenda; having in mind the results of the scenario analysis from IEA and EC DG TREN
postulating a major share of power supply will be on fossil resources - there is no other
way if security of supply and competitiveness are taken into account.

The technological development of fossil-fired power plants, with a marked increase in
efficiency levels to around 50 %, is at the forefront. In the phase of power plant renewal in
the medium term, i.e. in the years from around 2015 to 2020, it could thus be ensured if
the project is concluded successfully that the European CO2 reduction targets can be
achieved by means of efficient, economically viable power plant solutions. A reduction in
specific CO2 emissions per MWh generated of around 25 % compared with power plants
currently in operation (mean efficiency 38 %) is associated with 700°C technology.

The proportional reduction in the fuel mass flow used can also partly offset rising fuel
prices. The competitiveness of the European energy industry and also of the capital goods
industry that is to be supplied with electricity and process heat can thus be stabilized. In
the long term, i.e. in the new construction period after 2020, the realization and safe
operation of a power plant using 700°C technology represents together with other
technologies like Oxyfuel and IGCC an essential prerequisite for flushing CO2 economically
out of the flue gases and transferring it to suitable deposits.

E.ON has announced to build and to operate a demonstration plant based on the 700°C
technology. This is an important step towards carbon free technologies. The power output
was fixed in the before mentioned pre-engineering study with 550 MW gross. The process
will be a single reheat cycle. E.ON plans to erect the demo plant in the northern part of
Germany. The operation is scheduled for 2014. To realise this ambitious plan a lot of
additional R&D work has to be done. Only to mention one example: It´s necessary to
produce reheat pipes out of Alloy 617 with an outer diameter of about 500 mm and a wall
thickness of 30 mm. A COORETEC associated project with participation of VGB, several
German electric utilities and manufacturers was launched in this year to produce a
longitudinal welded pipe. In the beginning of 2008 the pipe will be produced. Afterwards
the pipe will be examined and a creep test follows.

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6.5 Regulatory and Political Framework

The 700°C technology is of even higher relevance than before. Two paths out of three
major routes are requesting a high-efficient basic plant concept respectively highly
efficient components in order to master the technical challenge of resource saving, carbon
capturing and affordable generation technologies. This can be provided by the 700°C
technology.

The key characteristics of the post-combustion process as well the oxy-fuel process are
components demanding process heat in form of steam or water or flue gas. In spite of the
fact that for determining exact figures intensive research work has to be done. But the first
results are showing very clearly that only by a high temperature thermodynamic cycle
combined with an optimal integration of the additional steps of carbon capture out of the
flue gas - post-combustion - or air separation for delivering oxygen for the combustion -
oxy-fuel - the goal of a resource saving carbon-free power supply at affordable costs can
be achieved. Efficiency of any process step is the key for success.

Another important opportunity of the 700°C technology is the one for synergies; synergies
in a sense that the key characteristics of components of different power plant concepts are
based on the same principles of laws of nature. The design, the construction, the test and
the operation of components - even for a specific concept - delivers worthwhile results for
other concept using the physical or chemical processes. By respecting and supporting this
effect a more efficient and successful development of new power plant concept will be
ensured - the key argument for pursuing different promising power plant concept in
parallel. This helps essentially to reduce the unavoidable risks of technical development.

The strategic context is determined by the following facts:

• Evidence of climate change
• Access to primary resources
• Worldwide competition and
• Necessity to develop Carbon-free technologies for fossil based plants.

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The consequences for the European Union, but the other global players also are to find the
right political measures respectively regulatory framework in order to enable to develop
the appropriate technologies in due time with the available resources - human and
financial one. The supply with energy or power is at the end a question with a huge social
background even potential for explosive stresses.

The past and the evident future challenge has shown that it is necessary to reflect on the

• goal and approach for public funded research programme
• balance between basic and industrial research and application
• relation between public and industry funded research and development and
• role of political and regulatory framework.

It is time now to intensify a broad and open discussion between all involved parties now
with the aim to draw coherent conclusions and to initiate a stringent action plan. The
initiative of the European Commission to establish a Strategic Energy Technology Plan, SET
plan, has been appreciated. At the end huge investments have to done, but investments
are only possible if a level playing field is in place covering the above-mentioned topics.

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7. Road Map to High Efficiency Power Plant

Efficiency refers in this context not only to the choice of the power plant process and its
parameters, but also to operation and maintenance and the efficiencies attained in daily
operation. The planning, construction and project handling for such power plants also
must be efficient if the projects are to be successful. Finally, the term "efficiency" as
applied to net efficiency must be regarded in relation to the power plant efficiencies
possible and attainable in each country. The high-efficiency power plant by itself or as an
element of Carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes represents an important
contribution to the conservation of fuel resources, but also to climate protection.

The European Road to build high efficiency power plants is given in the annexure V,
exemplarily Evonik Steag.

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8. Technology Platform for Zero Emission Power Plants by 2020

Following developments in clean power generation and the priority given to "zero emission
power generation" in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) industrial stakeholders and the
research community had several meetings which resulted in the creation of a technology
platform for zero emission fossil fuel power plants. The strategic deployment document
and the strategic research agenda as well as more details are given in annexures VI(a) and
VI(b).

The Experts agree that CO2 capture and storage technology (CCS), together with improved
energy conversion efficiency, is a near-term solution to reducing CO2 emissions from fossil
fuel power generation on a massive scale. Its immediate deployment is therefore vital if we
are to avoid the catastrophic consequences of climate change we are facing today.

Yet despite most of the technology elements being available, CCS is still not deployed for
two key reasons:

1. The costs and risks still outweigh the commercial benefits
2. The regulatory framework for CO2 storage is not sufficiently defined.

The Strategic Research Agenda therefore describes a collaborative programme of
technology development for reducing the costs and risks of deployment; while the
Strategic Deployment Document outlines how we can accelerate the market to achieve zero
emission power production by 2020.

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PART II
9. Definition of Efficiency Parameters - Basics

9.1 Efficiency

There are different ways of describing the efficiency of a combustion installation. There are
also a number of national guidelines describing acceptance tests and the measurements of
certain efficiencies.

The efficiencies defined in this report as well as in the annexures to this report are to be
understood as efficiencies at a certain electrical output and normal operating mode, i.e. as
the power station is operated in daily generation mode.

They are calculated from averaged measured values attained from the values recorded over
a certain period of time.

This section gives the brief details of various types of efficiencies dealing with the power
plants and other related parameters such as:

• Carnot efficiency: The ideal efficiency of a thermal process or ‘Carnot’
efficiency is a measure of the quality of the conversion of heat into work
• thermal efficiency: thermal efficiency considers only the actual cycle process
used in the power station. The efficiency is then the ratio of the useful
mechanical output to the heat flow transferred to the cycle process media
(as a rule, air or water)
• the degree of fuel efficiency: The degree of fuel efficiency is defined for
cogeneration plants, which generate and emit electrical and thermal energy
(heat). For these plants, the useful output consists of the sum of the
generated electrical energy and the generated thermal energy
• proportional auxiliary station service
• high voltage net capacity
• heat consumption of generating unit
• overall efficiency of power plant
• fuel consumption

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• specific fuel consumption
• unit efficiency: Unit efficiency is then the ratio of the net electrical output to
the energy supplied with the fuel. The electrical output according to this
definition is the output on the high voltage side of the main transformer.
• unit efficiency for steam withdrawal: If, in a power station unit, steam is
extracted for heating or process purposes, then this steam is no longer
available for power generation. In order to be able to compare the unit
efficiency in this case with the efficiency of pure power generation, the
electrical output which could be obtained from the extracted heating steam
if it were to expand to the condenser pressure, has to be added to the
electrical output.
• exergy concept and exergy efficiency
• influence of climate conditions on efficiency
• relationship between efficiency and environmental issues

Details on this are given in annexure VII.

9.2 Losses of Efficiency in Combustion Plants

The heat energy resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels is transferred to the working
medium (steam). During this process, part of the energy is lost in the flue-gas. The total
losses from the generation of steam depend on the fuel (ash and water content, calorific
value); the capacity and operation of the steam generator; the air-fuel mix; the final
temperature of the flue gas; and the mode of operation.

The operation of the steam generator requires continuous surveillance. The heat losses
from the steam generator can be categorised as:

• losses via the off-gas. These depend on the flue-gas temperature, air mix,
fuel composition and the level of fouling of the boiler
• losses through unburned fuel, the chemical energy of which is not
converted. Incomplete combustion causes CO and hydrocarbons to occur in
the flue-gas

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• losses through unburned material in the residues, such as carbon in bottom
and fly ash
• losses via the bottom and fly ash from a DBB and the slag and fly ash from a
WBB
• losses through conduction and radiation. These mainly depend on the
quality of insulation of the steam generator.

In addition to the heat losses, the energy consumption needed for the operation of
auxiliary machinery (fuel transport equipment, coal mills, pumps and fans, ash removal
systems, cleaning of the heating surfaces, etc.) also has to be taken into consideration.

Poor combustion lowers the economic viability, increases the environmental impacts and is
detrimental to the safety of the plant. The following parameters affect the viability of the
plant and may, therefore, be monitored to keep the plant’s efficiency as high as possible:

• fuel composition
• fineness of grind
• flue-gas composition (O2, CO2, CO)
• air mix and flue-gas volume flow
• air leaking into the combustor
• boiler fouling
• temperatures of the combustion air and flue-gases
• temperature behaviour within the heating surfaces
• reduction of draught
• flame profile
• combustible proportion of residue (annealing loss)

9.3 Generic Technical Measures to improve Large Combustion Plant's Efficiency

9.3.1 Combustion

The fuel is mixed with air and burned in the boiler. It is not possible to obtain an ideal mix
between the fuel and air, and therefore, more air than is necessary for stoichiometric

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combustion is supplied to the boiler. Furthermore, a small percentage of the fuel does not
fully combust. The flue-gas temperature must be kept high enough to prevent
condensation of acid substances on the heating surfaces.

9.3.2 Unburned Carbon in Ash

Optimisation of the combustion leads to less unburned carbon-in-ash. It should be noted
that NOX abatement technologies using combustion modification (primary measures) show
a tendency of increased unburned carbon. Increased unburned carbon could also worsen
and harm the quality of the coal fly ash and make it difficult, or even prevent, their
utilisation for certain applications, with the risk that they may not comply with the
specifications and requirements laid down in relevant national and European standards.

9.3.3 Air Excess

The amount of excess air used depends on the type of boiler and on the nature of the fuel.
Typically, 12 – 20 % excess air is used for a pulverised coal-fired boiler with a dry bottom.
For reasons of combustion quality (related to CO and unburned carbon formation), and for
corrosion and safety reasons (e.g. risk of explosion in the boiler) it is often not possible to
reduce the excess air levels further.

9.3.4 Steam

The most important factors in increasing efficiency are the highest possible temperature
and pressure of the working medium. In modern plants the partially expended steam is
reheated by one or more reheating stages.

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9.3.5 Flue-Gas Temperature

The flue-gas temperature leaving the clean boiler (depends on the fuel type) is traditionally
between 120°C and 170°C, due to risks of acid corrosion by the condensation of sulphuric
acid.

However, some designs sometimes incorporate a second stage of air heaters to lower this
temperature below 100°C, but with special claddings on the air heater and the stack, which
makes this reduction economically unprofitable. By power plants designed without stacks,
the flue-gas temperature is between 65 and 70°C.

9.3.6 Vacuum in the Condenser

After leaving the low-pressure section of the steam turbine, the steam is condensed in
condensers and the heat released into the cooling water. In order to ensure the maximum
pressure drop over the steam turbines, it is desirable to reduce the vacuum to a minimum.
In general, the temperature of the cooling water dictates the vacuum, which is lower with
once-through cooling systems than with a cooling tower. The best electrical efficiency is
possible by seawater or fresh water-cooling and a condenser-pressure with approximately
3.0 kPa. The preferred option is to use seawater or river water if this available.

9.3.7 Variable Pressure and fixed Pressure Operation

In fixed pressure operations, the pressure before the turbines at all load levels is kept
more or less constant by changes in the flow cross-section at the turbine inlet. In variable
pressure operations with the turbine inlet cross-section at its maximum, the power output
is regulated by changes in the pressure before the turbines.

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9.3.8 Condensate and Feed-Water Preheating

The condensate coming out of the condenser and the boiler feed-water are heated by
steam to just under the saturation temperature of the extracted steam. The thermal energy
from the condensing process thus feeds back into the system, reducing the amount of
heat otherwise released from the condenser, therefore improving the efficiency.

The optimisation measures taken to improve the efficiency of power plants between 1993
and 2000 which resulted in a CO2 reduction of 11.0 million tonnes per year as shown
below:

Steam generator 39 %
Process optimization 14 %
Turbine 25 %
Auxiliary power 14 %

The reduction of emissions from large combustion plants can be carried out in different
ways.

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10. Energy Balance

Following figure shows an energy flow chart (Sankey diagram) of the individual losses
within the heat flow of a condensation power plant.

Figure 10-1: Sankey diagram of individual losses

E ner gy flo w in a 200 MW po wer u n it, lay o u t des ig n :
Mass flow live steam ( m
& ) 167.8 kg/s; 245 bar/520 °C
s
First intermediate superheating 78.5 bar/530 °C
Second intermediate superheating 22 bar/540 °C
Condenser pressure approx. 0.0235 bar
Feed water end preheating 303.6 °C (nine preheater stages)

a) Flue gas – air preheating H) Circulation losses (water and steam)
b) Feed water preheating I) Turbine losses
c) Fresh air K) Thermodynamic cycle (water & steam)
d) Make-up water L) Losses of generator
e) Feed pump turbo set M) Auxiliary consumption, overall
A) Fuel energy input N) Auxiliary consumption of the turbine installation
B) Losses due to radiation and unburnt material O) Auxiliary consumption of the steam generators
C) Exhaust gas loss P) Steam generator output
D) Ash losses Q) Turbine output
E) Pipe losses R) Generator output
F) Loss of the feed pump turbo set S) Effective useful output
G) Heat loss of the preheating installation

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When analysing the efficiency of conventional power plants, it must be taken into account
that the fuel costs amount to approximately 75 % of the total average production costs,
which clearly shows the necessity of operating the plant at optimum efficiencies. Not only
cost-effectiveness is required, but also the reduction of the emission of air-polluting
substances by saving fuel.

10.1 Efficiency of German Power Plants

Efficiencies in German power plants vary widely and keep increasing due to enhancements
of the power plant technology. At present, the data summarised in the following Table
10-1 can be assumed.

Table 10-1: Efficiency of German Power Plants

Power plant type Net electrical efficiencies in %

Current optimum Target
values values

Natural gas and steam power plant with condensation 55 – 58 60

Fossil fuel steam power plant with condensation 40 – 48 50

Natural gas turbine power plant 30 – 36 40

Closely connected to the efficiency of a condensation power plant are the process losses,
also called cooling water losses or condensation losses. For physical reasons it is
impossible to avoid them in a condensation power plant. They are the biggest losses and
therefore strongly reduce the power plant efficiency. They are determined by the type of
steam power cycle:

1. the design of the water-steam circuit (e.g. with or without intermediate
superheating)
2. the pressures and temperatures of the live steam and superheated steam

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3. the cooling water temperature and, connected to it, the condensation
pressure
4. main condensate and feed water pre-heating

One practical solution for the exact determination of the losses or efficiencies is to monitor
the heat output and the generated effective output (kW). The heat capacity (kJ/s, MJ/s) is
the heat input into the process for a certain time unit.

10.2 Efficiency Degradation

The degradation of the plant efficiency is a normal process, but a permanent challenge to
minimise the degree of degradation.

State of the art of plant operation and maintenance is to keep the degradation level
between the ranges of +/- 0.1 % net efficiency. This impressive figure is the outcome of a
well equipped plant in terms of monitoring and cleaning system. The major components of
the monitoring system are stress gauges, temperatures measuring and vibration control
devices and software tools to calculate heat balance, frequency analysis etc.: The major
cleaning systems are water conditioning, condenser cleaning and soot blowing systems.
The backbone of these systems is a state of the art process control & instrumentation
system allowing the record of any relevant data.

The targeted systems respectively indicators are heat transfer decrease in the boiler
caused by ash deposits, heat transfer decrease in the condenser caused by fouling effects,
air control of the boiler island, avoidance of corrosion in the boiler and pipe system by the
well suited operation of the Electrostatic Precipitator and last but not least the turbine
island – vibration and frequency control.

10.3 Energy Balance of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Unit

As an example, two energy balances are drawn up for a German coal-fired power plant
with a useful output of 830 MW. In one case the steam generator forms the balance limit,

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in the other one it is the boiler house. The energy balances were drawn up by means of
measured values, which were found in a field test for the determination of the unit heat
consumption.

During the measurements, 100% of the combustion air was taken from the boiler house
(internal suction) at a temperature of 55°C. Preheating of the combustion air in relation to
the ambient air amounted to 45°C, which corresponds to a heat quantity of 18.5 MW. Yet
the radiation and pipe losses at the steam generator according to DIN EN 12952-15
amount to only 2.43 MW. The examination of the supplied heat flows for both energy
balances shows a difference of 15.5 MW. This difference is based on the difference
between the actual radiation and pipe losses and the radiation and pipe losses as
determined according to DIN EN 12952-15.

This means that the choice of different balance limits leads to differing at the time of
calculating the heat flow input of the fuel heat input. These differences directly influence
the calculation of the boiler efficiency and the unit efficiency, where the error amounts to
approximately 0.5 % points for the unit efficiency.

The radiation and pipe losses of the respective steam generators are included as lump-
sum figures in the "indirect method" according to DIN EN 12952-15, depending on the
maximum useful heat output. As the measurement results of the different coal-fired power
plant units show, the amounts of losses determined that way do not correspond to the
actual radiation and pipe losses of the steam generators. If this method is applied in
practice, the following consequences result from it:

• Especially for steam generators operated with internal suction, it is not
possible to draw up conclusive balance limits. For heating up the
combustion air within the steam generation building, the amount of
"recovered" energy is much bigger than that which is radiated by the boiler
according to the current regulations.
• The choice of different balance limits around the steam generator leads to
differences in the calculation of the fuel heat input. The deviations resulting
from this directly affect the unit efficiency.

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Figure 10-2: Energy balance for the steam generator

Boiler house

(QSt+QV)back = 15,5 MW

tL,env = 10,0 °C tsupply = 25,0 °C tL,sb = 55,0 °C
mLhL = -6,0 MW mLhL = 12,5 MW QSt,tot = 13,5 MW

QV = 3,0 MW

Pfan = 3,0 MW QN,sb = 831,0 MW

Steam generator

Pcomill = 2,0 MW Pcomill = 2,0 MW QA = 53,0 MW

mB(Hu+hB) = 891,0 MW mB(Hu+hB) = 891,0 MW QS,F = 8,0 MW

supplied heat flows supplied heat flows dissipated heat flows
-6,0 MW 12,5 MW 13,5 MW

+ 3,0 MW + 831,0 MW
+ 2,0 MW + 2,0 MW + 53,0 MW
+ 891,0 MW + 891,0 MW + 8,0 MW
total 890,0 MW total 905,5 MW total 905,5 MW

Efficiency, limit of balance steam generator 91,77%
Efficiency, limit of balance boiler house 93,03%

10.4 Operating efficiency in European Power Plants

The following Figure 10-3, Figure 10-4 and Figure 10-5 show the attainable efficiency of
power plants and comparison of various technologies such as IGCC, super critical, nuclear,
gas turbine etc in addition to technology perspectives and incremental efficiency
improvement in power plants.

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Figure 10-3: Comparison of efficiency of various types of power plants (Source VGB)

Figure 10-4: Technology perspective in terms of efficiency (Source VGB)

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Figure 10-5: Efficiency improvement of coal fired boilers (Source VGB)

The efficiencies are evaluated based on the following formula:

Net kWh
Efficiency =
Energy Input as NCV

The complexity of thermal power plant efficiencies reporting in India and Germany are
given in annexure VIII.

The various formulas used for estimation of thermal power plants are given below:

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10.5 Operating Efficiency of typical Indian Power Plants compared to German Power
Plants

The following gives the variation in efficiency figures due to evaluation criteria for a typical
Indian power plant of 500 MW.

Basis for calculation (typical design values)

• Gross rating of the plant 500.15 MW
• Turbine gross heat rate 1944.6 kcal/kWh
• Auxiliary power 8.00 %
• Auxiliary power 40.012 MW
• Net power output 460.138 MW
• Coal consumption 278.5 t/h
• Coal GCV 4,000 kcal/kg
• Coal NCV 3,758 kcal/kg

Coal analysis

• Fixed carbon 28 %
• Volatile matter 22 %
• Moisture 20 %
• Ash 30 %

The efficiencies, as described in chapter 10.4 could be determined as follows:

• Efficiency # 1 (based on net kWh & GCV) 35.52%
• Efficiency # 2 (based net kWh & NCV) 37.81 %
• Efficiency # 3 (based on gross kWh & GCV) 38.61%
• Efficiency # 4 (based on gross kWh/NCV) 41.10%

For comparison the typical efficiency of German power plant is given to

• Gross rating of the plant 500 MW

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• Turbine gross heat rate 1,944.6 kcal/kWh
• Auxiliary power 10.80 %
• Auxiliary power 54 MW
• Net power output 446 MW
• Coal consumption 189.7 t/h
• Coal GCV 5,615 kcal/kg
• Coal NCV 5,386 kcal/kg

The efficiencies, as described in chapter 10.4 could be determined as follows:

• Efficiency # 1 (based on Net kWh & GCV) 36.01 %
• Efficiency # 2 (based Net kWh & NCV) 37.54 %
• Efficiency # 3 (based on Gross kWh & GCV) 40.37 %
• Efficiency # 4 (based on Gross kWh/NCV) 42.09 %

10.6 Comparison of published efficiencies

Comparison of published efficiency values for different types of power plant is difficult for
several reasons:

• Differences in the calculation of the heating value of the fuel
• Differences in site conditions and especially condenser pressure
• Differences in plant design, such as single or double stage reheat at
otherwise a similar plant design
• Consideration of gross or net efficiencies (and plant output), use of add-on
equipment such as for example a flue gas desulphurisation

The condenser pressure is commonly the most important factor, and going from a
condenser pressure of 0.05 bar, which requires a cooling water temperature of 27-28°C, to
0.02 bar, with a cooling water temperature of 14-15ºC, produces an extra three
percentage points. Thus, for proper comparisons, all actual plant efficiencies ought to be
recalculated to 'standard conditions' in order to be meaningful.

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In Europe, efficiencies are expressed on the basis of lower heating value (LHV), which is the
difference between the higher heating value (HHV which is the total amount of energy
contained in the fuel) and the latent heat of evaporation of the water contained in the
products of combustion.

In Europe, evaluating efficiency by considering the LHV is considered accurate assessment
of the 'useful' energy of the fuel for plant where this water goes to the atmosphere in the
flue gas stream. The ratio of HHV to LHV depends on coal composition and its heat
content. For fuels such as natural gas and biomass with higher hydrogen content, this ratio
will be much higher. This complicates comparisons between different technologies and
fuels.

When generating efficiencies are quoted as based on HHV, the electricity output is divided
by the HHV of the fuel used. When they are quoted on an LHV basis, the output is instead
divided by the LHV value of the fuel.

Consequently, HHV generating efficiencies are lower than LHV generating efficiencies. For
example, a coal-fired steam plant with an HHV efficiency of 40% has an LHV efficiency of
approximately 42 %, provided plant design and site conditions are the same.

A broad understanding of the current status of coal-based power plant can be gained from
a comparison of several state-of-the-art steam plants around the world, as illustrated
below (Table 10-2):

Table 10-2: Differences in efficiency based on HHV and LHV
(Source: www.berr.gov.uk/files/file30703.pdf)

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The Japanese and US plants have relatively high condenser pressures compared to the
Danish plant. The Niederaussem plant burns a lower grade lignite, whereas the others are
fuelled with bituminous 'trading' coals.

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11. Key parameters and basis for measurements

11.1 Key operating parameters

Coal fired power plants built are based on the proven and fully developed engineering. The
major key operating parameters of power plants are main steam pressure, main steam
pressure and condenser vacuum. The hard coal fired power plants, designed for net
efficiency in the region of 45%. The following table (Table 11-1) shows the development of
boiler efficiency based on the improvement in main steam pressures and temperatures
along with related operating parameters.

Table 11-1: Development of boiler efficiency based on improvement in steam pressures,
temperatures and other parameters

Parameter Unit #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9
Efficiency % 41.0 41.2 41.5 41.6 42.5 42.6 42.8 43.7 44.3

Improvement % 0 0.5 0.8 0.25 2.0 0.3 0.5 2.0 1.3
Main steam bar 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 300
pressure
Feed water °C 260 280 280 280 280 280 300 300 300
temperature
Main steam °C 530 530 540 540 540 540 540 580 580
temperature
Reheater steam °C 540 540 560 560 560 560 560 600 600
temperature
Condenser bar 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.04
pressure
Exhaust gas °C 130 130 125 125 125 125 125 125 125
temperature

It can be seen that the efficiency is raised as steam pressures and temperatures are raised
while the flue gas exhaust temperature and condenser vacuum lowered. Similarly, the
following table (Table 11-2) gives the parameters for lignite based power plants.

Table 11-2: Typical boilers operating parameters

Parameter Dim. Neurath Schwarze Boxberg Lippen Niederaussem

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Unit E Pumpe dorf Unit K
Efficiency % 35.5 40.6 41.7 42.3 45.2
Improvement in efficiency % 14.4 2.7 1.4 6.9
Main steam pressure bar 165 262 266 267 269
Feed water temperature °C 235 274 270 295
Main steam temperature °C 525 547 545 554 580
Reheater temperature °C 525 565 581 583 600
Condenser pressure bar 0.66 0.035/0.046 0.041 0.038 0.028/0.034

In addition to the above the following Table 11-3 summarizes key operating parameters of
different power plants in Europe.

Table 11-3: Key operating parameters of the power plants in Europe

11.2 Fuel Parameter

Coal is a natural product. For this reasons its chemical, physical and technological
properties depend on the herbal starting substances and the geometrical conditions during
carbonisation. The knowledge of chemical, physical and technological properties of coal is
of utmost importance for its use as fuel in combustion plants. A German Standard,
DIN 51700, defines the most important analysis procedures for the uniform description of
properties of solid fuels.

To assess the coal, a distinction is made between the pit coal as delivered and the water

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and ash-free substance (waf). The moisture and ash-free substance contains only the
burnable parts of the solid and volatile elements. Prerequisite for smooth operation are the
knowledge of and information about these characteristics and properties.

The following overview shows the most important characteristics:

• Calorific value
• Ash content
• Water content
• Volatile elements
• Sulphur content
• Elementary analysis of the ash
• Melting behaviour of the ash
• Mineral size fraction of the pit coal
• Composition of the mixture
• Elementary analysis of the coal
• Apparent weight
• Grinding fineness of the pulverised fuel
• Grindability of the coal

The details of the above listed characteristics are given in annexure IX.

11.3 Air & Flue Gas Parameters

The detailed parameters under this category need to be measured/monitored are given as
well in the annexure IX.

To determine the individual efficiency, the following parameters have to be measured in
individual systems: electrical power, pressure, temperature, mass flow, differential
pressure and oxygen content. When the measuring data are determined, wear, pollution
and leakages have to be taken into account; at least they should be documented.
11.4 Data required

The data required for assessing the effeminacy, output, performance etc given in the

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annexure IX.

• Table 1: Parameters required for efficiency determination by energy
balance method (Source ASME PTC 4)
• Table 2: Parameters required for efficiency determination by input-
output method
• Table 3: Parameter required for capacity determination
• Table 4: Parameters required for steam temperature /control range
determination
• Table 5: Parameters required for excess air determination
• Table 6: Parameters required for water / steam pressure drop
determination
• Table 7: Parameters required for air / flue gas pressure drop
determination
• Table 8: Parameters required for air infiltration determination
• Table 9: Parameters required for fuel, air and flue gas flow determination

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12. Official Statistics for Efficiency Indicator and Plant Reliability

Each member state of the European Union is obliged to deliver statistical data. The energy
sector takes an essential part in the statistics. Special focus is laid on plant efficiency and
plant reliability. Special investigations are often made in order to allow an in depth analysis
of specific topics. An example is the report of the EU Joint Research Centre, JRC.

In addition to the basics the analysis and tools are essential elements to judge a power
plant process and appraise it in the whole complexity.

With this knowledge and the fact that the single component or single systems have to be
measured prepared can a basic measurement be accomplished. But at first specific data
are essential. To furnish single countries in Europe, and the very different regions over
there, with energy, it is important to be aware of a few facts about the development,
afforded power amount and coal consumption.

The details about the common technical processes, general fuel heat conversion in boilers,
typical elements of a steam cycle are given in annexure X.

12.1 Reports on Analysis and Tools for Efficiency Indicators

Based on the selected and described indicators samples for standard reports used in the
EU are given. These official reports are published by national authorities as well as

1. Eurostat (the Statistical Office of the EU), "Energy, Transport and
Environment Indicators"
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=0,1136052&_dad=
portal&_schema=PORTAL
2. EU Joint Research Centre, "Reference Document on Best Available
Techniques for Energy Efficiency", and download possible under
http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm
(scroll down to "Energy Efficiency" and download the draft document)

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12.2 Excerpts from Eurostat-Document

As official statistics Eurostat has published newest energy indicators for example on
energy intensity, gross inland consumption per capita et al. The extracts are given in the
annexure XI.

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13. Performance Indicators & Monitoring

13.1 Introduction

In the liberalized energy market the evaluation of the performance of an own power plant
compared to other power pants (benchmarking) is of great importance. To optimise the
performance of a power plant in competition:

• the compilation of availability data and evaluation of performance indicators
and
• the comparison of indicators of a single plant with the indicators of peer
groups

are strategic tools for many VGB-member-companies.

In performance indicators and monitoring of the power plants VGB is very active and is
collecting data and information from members' power plants since 1970. The data provide
the information about the availability and utilisation of the thermal power plants in order
to compare the quality of the power plants and to assess plants behaviour in daily
operation.

The basic tasks involved in the performance monitoring are

• Collecting of power plant performance indicators with the help of the VGB
online power plant information system KISSY (KISSY is power plant
information system which include collection and evaluation of performance
indicators) As these as these strategic tools were of great importance for
power plant operators during the last thirty years the hitherto used old
dBase related tool was replaced by a new modern online-power-plant-
information-system KISSY, which is discussed more in detail. With the aid of
KISSY, benchmarking can be carried out efficiently.
• Determination of conventions for the publication of performance data of
power plants
• Preparation of availability- and unavailability reports

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• Definition of new performance indicators for comparative assessment of the
performance of power plants in the liberalized power market
• Management of road shows for performance indicators and power plant
benchmarks
• Appropriate guideline updating

The major parameters monitored for performance of power plants in Europe are:

• Time availability
• Energy availability
• Time utilisation
• Energy utilisation
• Start-up reliability

Time availability
The time availability is the quotient of the available time and the reference period (calendar
time). The available time is the difference between the reference period and the unavailable
time.

tv
kt =
tN

Dimension
kt Time availability h
tv Available time h
tN Reference Period h

Energy Availability
The energy availability is the quotient of the available energy and the nominal energy.

The available energy is the difference between the nominal energy and the unavailable
energy. The nominal energy is the product of the nominal capacity and the reference
period (calendar time).

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Wv
kW =
WN

WN − Wv
kw =
PN ⋅ tN

Dimension
kW Energy availability -
Wv Unavailable energy MWh
WN Nominal energy MWh
PN Nominal capacity MWel
tN Reference Period h

Time utilisation
The time utilization is the quotient of the operating time and the reference period
(calendar time).

The time utilization is a measure for the real temporal use of a plant. It is independent of
the level of the corresponding operating capacity.

tB
nt =
tN

Dimension
nt Time utilisation -
tB Operating time h
tN Reference period h

Energy utilisation
The energy utilization is the quotient of the energy generated and the nominal energy.
The nominal energy is the product of the nominal capacity and the reference period
(calendar time). The energy generated is the product of operating capacity and operating
time (numerator).

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The energy utilization is a measure for the energy, which a plant has really generated.
Frequently used are also the equivalent definitions "utilization duration" or "full load
utilization hours" The correlation between energy utilization and utilization duration

WB WB
nw = =
WN PN ⋅ tN

WB
tN = = n w ⋅ tN
PN

Dimension
nw Energy utilisation -
WB Energy generated MWh
WN Nominal energy MWh
PN Nominal capacity MWel
tN Reference period h

Start-up reliability
The start-up reliability is the quotient of the number of successful start-ups (se) and the
sum of successful (se) and unsuccessful start-ups (sn).

The start-up reliability is used for the evaluation of units whose service life depends
essentially on the number of start-ups, e.g. gas turbines, emergency aggregates.

se
z=
se + sn

Dimension
z Start-up reliability -
se Number of successful start-ups -
sn Number of unsuccessful start-ups -

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Classification of unavailability (NV)
Planned unavailability: The beginning and duration of the unavailability have to be
determined more than 4 weeks before commencement.

Unplanned unavailability: The beginning of unavailability cannot be postponed or only up
to 4 weeks.

Post-ponable unavailability: The beginning of unavailability can be postponed more than
12 hours up to 4 weeks.

Not post-ponable unavailability: The beginning of unavailability cannot be postponed or
only up to 12 hours.

These performance indicators are also basics of any benchmarking approaches (see
chapter 15).

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14. Software and Analytical Tools for Efficiency and Plant Reliability –
Online and Offline

14.1 Introduction

The cost pressures in the power generation business force the power plant operators to
take specific measures to improve the operating efficiency and reduce cost. Intelligent
evaluation of existing in-service measured data using online and off line analytical tools is
one efficient way to recognize the current potential for optimisation by assessing the
processes and components.

The benefits of online & offline software analytical tools are

• enhance the efficiency of your power plant operation,
• arrive at maximum electric output that can be generated at the moment
taking into account operational and technical constraints
• computation of ratios and key figures (efficiencies, electric energy from
cogeneration, start up cost, etc.)
• comparison of performance indicators
• component evaluation (steam generator, heat recovery steam generator,
steam/gas turbine, steam- water cycle, condenser, pumps, flue gas circuit,
etc.) for optimum and efficient operation
• optimisation (example: soot-blowing, gas turbine compressor washing, cold
end, etc.)
• forecast (unit efficiency, maximum unit output, etc.)
• measured-data reconciliation featuring neuronal plausibility checking
• central alarm-signalling service system
• individual "what if" process simulation
• closed-loop operation
• Individual daily, monthly reports, statistics
• diagnosis and analysis
• several others

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14.2 Software Analytical Tools / Modules

Several software analytical modules are available in EU, which are specifically designed for
power plant for plant monitoring and optimisation. The typical systems, which are
predominant in EU, are:

• General statistics for official use
• Specific industry driven data collection and compilation tools
• Systems for optimum operation (Which cover energy management systems /
plant optimisation system /system services/systems integration – all in a
single module package or individual modules)
• Lifetime monitoring system
• Data management system -including subprograms
• Thermodynamic cycle calculation program – offline monitoring system

The above systems can be installed separately or as a combination with others. The details
of these systems are given below:

14.3 Data Collection for the Performance Monitoring

For detailed analysis required data pertain to the above parameters from the power plants
are collected very meticulously by VGB: More than 471 power plants across Europe is
covered. The data were considered will be fed to the KISSY for the detailed analysis and
review.

The performance monitoring is carried out by data collection for various types of power
plants such as:

• Fossil-fired units
• Nuclear power plants
• Combined cycle units
• Gas turbine units
• Capacity type

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ƒ Until 99 MW
ƒ 100-199 MW
ƒ 200-399 MW
ƒ 400-500 MW
ƒ 600 and above
ƒ All units
• Fuel type by capacity
ƒ Bituminous coal fired units
ƒ Lignite fired units
ƒ Oil /Gas fired units
• Furnace type by capacity
ƒ Bituminous coal fired units with dry bottom firing
ƒ Bituminous coal fired units with slap top firing
• Units by single or dual boilers
• Units by subcritical or supercritical pressure

The above units will be considered as total Europe, in addition the entire exercise will also
be carried out for Germany Units.

14.4 Analysis for Performance Monitoring

The analysis covers about 217 power plants for the operating period po1997 to 2006. The
information analysed for various parameters such as:

• Failure with out damage
• Damage
• Check/condition check
• Lubrication
• Maintenance
• Inspection\
• Preventive maintenance
• Cleaning
• Revision

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• Refuelling
• Reconstruction/refurbishment
• Test/functional tests
• Official test/measure
• Other incidents

The above analysis is carried out for unavailability incidents per block and year and also for
energy unavailability.

The analysis will also include on equipment basis such as:

• Power transmission
• Distribution of solid fuels
• Pressure system, feed water and steam sections
• Support structure, enclosure, steam generator interior
• Ash and slag removal, particulate removal
• Bunker, feeder and pulverising systems
• Main firing system
• Combustion air system (primary and secondary)
• Flue gas exhaust
• Chemical flue gas treatment system including residual removal
• Feed water system
• Steam system
• Steam turbine plant
• Generator plant
• Circulating water system

14.5 KISSY

KISSY is Power-Plant-Information-System is a relational data base system on an oracle
platform. It currently covers availability data and performance indicators of over 9760 unit
years of German and other European power plants. Every full member of VGB can feed data
to KISSY data base and at any time read the complete data of his own power plants online

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via internet.

The relevant availability data and performance indicators, which have to be collected and
analysed for benchmarking are defined and explained in VGB-guidelines.

The new kind of operating power plants initiated by the liberalised market requires the
consideration of further performance indicators as for instance

• indicators for commercial availability
• damage- and condition-oriented indicators

which will be incorporated with the next planned enhancement of KISSY.

Every full member of VGB which wants to feed availability data can get access to the
KISSY database.

Members will get username and password by VGB. Then they can feed, change and read
data for their own power plants online via a secure access (SSL-encryption).
Data of other power plants are not visible to them via internet. The System will guide on,
which availability data and which data for reporting unavailability incidents have to be
collected.

Additionally the basic data of the power plant units (see attachment E) have to be fed once
into the database by VGB in order to assign the units to their peer groups for analysis and
reporting. The analysis of the anonymous data is done for peer groups by VGB.

The data fed by members via internet into the KISSY data base will be transformed
anonymous by VGB and related to peer groups for benchmarking.

Peer groups cover data of power plants with similar characteristic attributes which
therefore can be compared (anonymously) with respect to their performance.
Main peer groups for standard reports are:

• fossil-fired units
• nuclear units

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• combined cycle units
• gas turbine units

Arranged by:

• capacity
• fuel
• type of firing
• single/dual boiler
• sub- / supercritical

Analysis is done for:

• time availability
• time utilization
• energy availability
• energy unavailability
• energy utilization

All members, which feed data into the KISSY data base get for free the standard reports for
the above mentioned peer groups with analysis of key figures of availability and
unavailability of components (for the previous 10-years period) annually.

Current reports are available for downloading on VGB`s website within a closed user group
area for VGB-members only. These reports will be updated every 3 months. For other
parties the standard reports are available at VGB Power Tech Services.

The detailed procedure in using KISSY is given in annexure XII.

14.6 Systems for Optimized Operation

These are online tools to cover energy management systems / plant optimisation system /
system services/systems integration.

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These online analytical tools continuously assess plant operation, comparing it with a
current calculated optimum so that the unit can be run at maximum efficiency. These tools
are normally based on a three-tiered concept – evaluation, optimisation and forecast for
cost-relevant power plant sections. Potential for optimisation is indicated, and even
minimal reductions in efficiency are pinpointed. All results are evaluated at cost so that the
effects of different operating parameters can be directly compared.

The most important task of the plant optimisation system is to monitor the current plant
operation and to compare it with the currently possible optimum on a continuous basis.
The calculations needed for this are executed automatically on the basis of the current
mean values of this time class. The results are saved in the related time archive in the Data
Management System and can thus be visualized in the same way as all other data.

Two different concepts are followed for the plant diagnosis is

• The optimisation of the plant operation and
• The monitoring of the components or parameters.

For further details please refer to annexure XXII.

A. Plant Optimisation Systems
The plant optimisation system combines and presents thermodynamic models of the Plant
components with economic parameters, specifically variable operation costs, to determine
the current deviation between actual and the corresponding optimum plant operation. The
thermodynamic modelling takes into account limiting constraints of operation.
The plant optimisation also includes an off line manual (what if) analysis tool that enables
the user to conduct model-based analysis of plant operation. Plant optimisation system
includes the following:

• Thermal cycle optimisation. This computes the entire turbine and
regenerative cycle heat balance and simulates the plant so that operator can
examine the improvements in heat rate and can change individual cycle
parameter.

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• Computes the boiler efficiency and simulates boiler parameters such that
operator can examine the improvements in boiler efficiency.
• Boiler tube life fractions and stress calculations.

The features of standard graphical representation of the complete package based on
Process Flow Diagram and the P&ID are included. The graphic screen is developed in order
to enable that the user to conduct model-based analysis of Plant operation and get the
results in an understandable manner.

The tool includes all required drawings and graphical representation of the total plant
system covers all equipment and drives related to the Optimisation package.

Process graphic displays will be developed by the power plant operator to have a complete
overview of the package indicating the display of equipment of boiler and turbine
auxiliaries. The dynamic data is clearly being indicated such that the operator need not
refer to multiple diagrams to assess system operation. Arbitrary continuation break points
between displays are not used in such systems.

B. Functional Requirements
The plant optimisation functions are based on model-based software. The system
computes controllable losses related to plant parameters not being maintained at their
design points based on actual loads. The model is also including option to identify
equipment cleanliness for various heat transfer sections within the plant. The optimisation
software also identifies the actual sequence of soot blowing so that costs of heat loss due
to unclean heat transfer sections and the costs of soot blowing can be minimized. Typical
Plant Optimisation System will perform the following functional requirements.

C. Boiler Stage Optimisation
The system incorporates complete thermal design. This provides a continuous on-line,
cost-benefit assessment of where and when i.e., the actual sequence, to blow soot from
individual boiler stage surface areas. The boiler optimisation calculations take into account
the following factors:

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• Main steam conditions
• Hot reheat conditions
• Fuel inlet conditions
• Ambient air conditions
• Soot blowing usage
• Gas exit temperature
• Leakage of air pre-heater
• Boiler efficiency
• Heat rate

With boiler optimisation model, operators can obtain a ranking of cost/benefit of soot
blowing on monitored boiler stages.

The boiler optimisation model will be developed for the following sections: -

• Economizer
• Water walls
• Super heaters
• Reheaters
• Air heaters

The radiative heat transfers, convective heat transfers and heat & mass balance equations
are used to generate the above models. High degree of boiler cleanliness shall thus be
ensured.

D. Soot Blowing Optimisation
Soot blowing optimisation advises operators to clean boiler stages at appropriate time and
location to optimise soot-blowing operation. The high quality boiler calculation advises the
operator judicious soot blowing of boiler stages. The boiler cycle monitoring calculations
provide the following results: -

• Cleanliness factors on boiler stages
• Furnace exit gas temperature
• Flue gas temperatures between boiler stages

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• Actual heat transfer coefficients for each boiler stages
• Theoretical heat transfer coefficients for each boiler stages
• Flue gas cross-flow velocities
• Stage heat absorption
• Stage average metal temperatures
• Specific heat of both air and gas
• Excess air
• Stage cross flow velocities

Normally a suitable combustion model will be included in the software.

E. Thermal Cycle Optimisation
This module computes the entire turbine and regenerative cycle heat balance and
simulates the section of the plant so that operator can examine the improvements in heat
rate attainable by changing a cycle parameter. The turbine and regeneration cycle is
modelled such that any change of boiler parameters can be examined in relation to the
overall heat rate of the plant for what if-scenarios.

The turbine optimisation model is normally developed for the following sections: -

1. Turbine HP/IP/LP
2. Condenser
3. Deaerator
4. Feed water heaters
5. Pumps (Condensate, Boiler feed)

For turbine performance optimisation standards such as ASME PTC6 "Enthalpy Drop"
efficiency calculations for determining turbine efficiency will be applied.

In monitoring turbine cycle performance the following parameters are calculated:

• Main steam flow
• Reheat flow
• Condenser steam flow

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• Turbine stage flow
• Individual turbine stage efficiencies
• Overall HP, IP, LP turbine efficiencies
• Turbine calculated wheel power
• Turbine calculated exhaust enthalpies
• Turbine calculated exhaust velocities
• Cold reheat steam approach to saturation temperature
• Superheat spray outlet approach to saturation temperature
• Expansion line end point at condenser pressure
• Used energy end point

The power plant personnel provides component degradation tool package, which evaluates
heat rate and cost effect of the components detailed below. The calculable losses identify
the losses associated with equipment degradation and those associated with non-
maintenance of design parameters independently.

• HP Turbine, IP Turbine, LP Turbine
• Feed Water Heaters,
• Condenser
• Boiler Feed Pumps
• Deaerator
• Boiler
• Turbine Extraction line
• Condensate pumps
• Heat Exchanger

In these packages, the turbine stages are considered as long as the steam is still dry at the
respective outlet. Since the tools contain a thermodynamic model of the process, losses of
the generator cannot be determined. For the same reason steam seal regulators cannot be
modelled. However, if necessary, the leakage through the steam seal may be considered as
boundary condition.

In addition, overall system degradation can be evaluated. Graphical presentation of results
will be furnished as a part of the optimisation guides provided to the operator. These will

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be in the form of bar charts, X-Y plots, and plant mimics.

Predictive and diagnostic tools package is adopted in the form of ‘What if’ for diagnosing
plant degradation. Those included in the ‘What if’ analysis are the following items, which
can be modified by the user to see the effects on plant generation, heat rate and boiler
efficiency: -

• Throttle pressure
• Throttle temperature
• Reheat temperature
• Condenser backpressure
• Superheat spray flow
• Reheat spray flow
• Final feed water temperature
• Boiler excess air
• Flue gas exit temperature
• Heater bypass
• Feed water flow
• Boiler feed pump efficiency
• Boiler feed pump discharge pressure
• Feed water heater terminal temperature differences
• Feed water heater drain cooler approach
• Turbine stage efficiencies
• Condenser cleanliness factors
• Condenser circulating water inlet temperature
• Circulating water flow
• Fuel ultimate analysis and heat content
• Fuel firing rate
• Boiler stage cleanliness factors
• Gas re-circulation and tempering
• Unburned carbon
• Bottom ash and top ash removal
• Air heater leakage
• Ambient air condition

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This package can also be used to evaluate the effects of the following:

• Changing operating conditions and load
• Comparing test data to best attainable and evaluating the results after ASME
correction
• Changing boiler stage geometry to evaluate the effects on steam and exit
temperatures

14.7 Lifetime Monitoring System

The basic objectives of this type of tool are:

• Improved maintenance planning
• Faster connection to grid
• Better exploitation of material

Components of power plants exposed to high temperatures and pressures suffer serious
material degradation during their lifetime. The appearance of the first cracks in the
material indicates the need for component exchange or at least its repair. The degradation
originates either from creep of the material caused by pressure induced stress or from
fatigue caused by fluctuations of temperature and pressure in the component wall. Under
certain stress conditions material creep increases strongly with temperature and decreases
with wall thickness. On the other hand fatigue due to temperature induced stress increases
with wall thickness. During the design of the component both types of stress are taken
into account, leading to an optimum compromise in accordance with the respective design
rules. Because the actual plant operation deviates more or less from design conditions, the
accumulated material degradation is not proportional to operating time; that is why a
regular monitoring of plant operation is recommended. The best way to carry out such
monitoring is by continuously operating a data logger together with a data evaluation
system.

The Lifetime monitoring software system continuously records operating temperatures and
pressures around all critical components of a power plant and from that calculate the

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resulting contributions due to creep and fatigue. Thus the operator is kept well informed
about the current status of the plant, especially about the remaining lifetime of the vital
components. The mathematical algorithms follow the European standards. The systematic
and continuous application of tool reduces the cost for routine maintenance inspections as
well as additional tests.

Because degradation of component parts is a long-time effect, it is permissible and, in
case of malfunction, not avoidable that from time to time component degradation
increases disproportionately. However, the operator should keep in mind that
disproportionate degradation increases must be compensated by way of plant operation
generating less than proportionate degradation increases, if the planned components
lifetimes shall be maintained. Therefore, using SR1 the operator has an instrument suitable
for well-aimed influencing the remaining lifetime at his disposal. For example, if the live
steam temperature is willingly increased within the admissible range to improve the unit’s
heat rate, the corresponding higher creep damage at least partly consumes the free margin
possibly accumulated during previous operation, or the planned remaining operation time
must be reduced. Analogously, by willingly shortening the start-up time of a boiler – thus
saving start-up costs and connecting to the grid faster –increased lifetime consumption
due to cyclic fatigue will be recorded. Accordingly the accumulated free margin will be
reduced.

The respective allowable curves are specific for each component. These curves will be
adjusted automatically to the operation pattern recorded in the past. This dynamic
adaptation provides the operator with a clear indication on the permissible operations for
each monitored component.

This type of tools can be employed successfully in many different power plant units either
as stand-alone application or in combination with other modules like data reconciliation or
optimisation of power plant operation.

Normally such systems are designed to run on Windows NT as a client/server system. It
includes a specific data management systems as well as a powerful visualisation module.
The required data are exchanged with the process control system or with external data
management systems via standard interfaces. For system handling and visualisation of

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calculation results on the customer owned LAN/WAN licence free clients in any number are
available.

14.8 Data Management System

The central component of all online systems is the data management system. In
annexure XXII a detailed description of the important features of such system is provided.

The essential task of this tool is the cyclic import and archiving of measurement values
from the control system or from other data sources. Other data sources can be bus
systems or online databases. A corresponding interface is provided for each type of data
exchange.

All other tools installed access this data through an internal interface, evaluate this data
and save the results. This tool enables the automatic integration of data to higher time
classes. The data is read by default in minute-cycles and integrated internally to 5’-mean
values. All the optimisation calculations are done in this time class. Other integration levels
are, for example, 15’-values, hourly values, daily values, weekly values, monthly values
and yearly values. According to the respective system configuration, these or even other
time classes are available. The entire data is saved in the related time-oriented archives.

The system has subprograms for visualizing the archived data or for configuring the data
management system. The data visualization enables the representation of any time series
in diagrams as well as the representation of a point of time in a flow diagram. Diagrams
can represent a maximum of 24 data points in up to 6 ordinates. The displayed time
period as well as the time class (minute values or daily values, etc) can be selected freely.
Along with the chronological display, ordered output curves or x-y-diagrams can also be
selected. Along with line charts, bar charts are also possible. Special events or violations of
limiting values can be signalled in the flow diagrams through automatic display of texts or
through a corresponding colouring.

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14.9 Thermodynamic Cycle Calculation Program – Offline Tool

All the optimisation and evaluation calculations described above require a detailed
thermodynamic model of the boiler and of the corresponding power plant process. This
model is configured graphically with the help of the Cycle Calculation Program. This can be
as offline tool. This tool provides a lot of components of power plants, which not only
permit the modelling of the entire water-steam cycle, but also the detailed modelling of
the steam generator. Similarly, essential components of the air and flue gas path can also
be included in the modelling.

Depending on the respective monitoring or optimisation task the required details of the
model can be adjusted accordingly. This means that the boiler can be represented by an
individual component within the water-steam cycle or it can be constructed from the main
components heating surfaces, injections, combustion chamber as well as the connecting
pipes. The water-steam cycle itself is constructed from the main components turbine,
condenser, pre-heater and pumps as well as the connecting pipes. Especially the turbines
are typically modelled as a combination of the individual turbine stages.

This tool is a powerful tool to help the Power Plants/define areas of inefficiency component
wise and total plant as a whole.

The entire plant is first "mapped" by the Software to establish consistency of online data
and compare with design parameters of the plant. The outcome of this exercise give a
complete mapping of Power Plant configuration including equipment specification into a
software that can simulate certain conditions and identify partial mismatches as well as
wrong instrumentation display data.

The power plant provides the data, which is used to do the mapping of the Power Plant.
The Power Plant is mapped based on data input and validate data input by trial runs. This
approach is interactive since initial power plant data provided will usually not match due to
hidden or known instrumentation errors as well as inaccurate equipment and fuel
specification.

The objective is to demonstrate more innovative methods to conduct a baseline

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performance assessment and map the results into software for further analysis and
simulation for the benefit of the plant operators.

This professional software is a mass and energy balance cycle calculation program – highly
integrated into Windows. It is suitable for nearly all-stationary thermodynamic model
requests coming out of energy cycles or plant schemes. The mathematical kernel of
EBSILON is well known for its extreme convergence stability and for the high calculation
velocity (see also annexure XXII).

Not at least the last reason for several customers to use software is the user-friendliness
which is ensured by 100 % Microsoft-conform, intuitive handling. Therefore it is – for this
purpose – the most used software at several small and large companies as nearly a lot of
manufacturers and utility companies in the German speaking Europe. Such software
program is fully available also in English and French and there are customers in
Netherlands, Poland, and Denmark and in China.

The modelling is done by using a component library, which in the moment exists of all
components as e.g. turbines, heat exchangers, boiler, pumps, generators, gas turbines,
combustion chambers, tanks, gasifier, FBC, fuel cell, cooling towers dryer, filters,
separators, fans, control elements, calculation modules, text fields, buttons, alarm fields
etc. A customer programmable component allows by the use of C-knowledge the fully
integration of self generated components.

First the cycle is modelled topologically by using the component toolbox and the
positioned components are then parameterized. All components are equipped with sets of
default values. he sets are taken from a library, which can be modified and enlarged by the
user. From this library also total and parts of cycles are eligible. Also a gas turbine library
is available.

For media properties different tables are available. Fuels (bituminous coal, lignite, gas, oil,
hydrogen, biomass etc.) can also be used from a library. Flue gases etc. are nearly
unlimited elementary definable or selectable from default compositions. This professional
tool is so powerful that in one model also several power plants may be connected by power
lines or steam and a district heating system still in a high detail can be calculated in one

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model in some seconds.

The Import and Export of data and results is possible via variety of Excel or ASCII interfaces
as via DLL.

All adjustments as visualization topics, physical dimensions (or British Units), are
components dependent or general (also or fly) eligible.

A very comfortable error analysis tool leads the user through this model to the error
source. Beside exists a calculable example for every component as an online
documentation for general questions.

Figure 14-1: Typical mapping of a power plant

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In principle, this software does not restrict the detailing depth of the modelling. The
characteristic lines or the characteristic fields for describing the thermodynamic behaviour
of the individual components are determined on the basis of the design calculations or by
evaluating the measurement values. In this way, the characteristics of the components for
the entire load range can be determined. Typical mapping carried out by such typical
software is given below (Figure 14-1).

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15. Benchmarking of Power Plant Operation & Management

15.1 General

Re-organisation of the power industry has progressed and has put pressure on heat and
power production cost with the import of electricity from neighboring regions possible. In
this context, many power plants have taken up several mid-term programs of efficiency
and competitiveness improvement (strategic cost management program).

A competitive power generation might only be reached by cost cutting what means
technically and cost efficient power and heat generation.

In thermal power plants the following subjects are preconditions for this:

• low operation cost
• low maintenance cost
• high technical efficiency in plant operation
• effective management organization
• compliance with surrounding regulations.

Benchmarking of power plant involves development of essential technical and
organizational elements for the long-term commercial sustainability of the power plant
operation.

15.2 Basics of Benchmarking

The competitive energy market in EU demands that power generation companies must
have a critical look on their business policy.

"Benchmarking" provides a chance to compare a company, a plant or a production unit
with another or a "Best Practice"-company, plant or unit, to find out its own ranking in a
competitive market. The own position in the competitive market will be given by means of
indicators, which will be defined at the beginning of the process.

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Measures for a better economical efficiency of the company / power plant / unit focused
on, are to be derived from the results. For example "cost/kWinstalled" is such an indicator in
the power sector (Figure 15-1).

Figure 15-1: Finding out a position in a competitive market by Benchmarking

What is benchmarking?
Why do we need benchmarking?

What? Comparison of ........
.......... a process or a company with other competing processes
or companies with specific indicators
(cost, €/kWi in thermal and hydro power plants or WMO in hydro
power plants)

Why? Ranking.............
.......... of your own company in the market

Conclusions and development of
measures

15.3 Benchmarking of Thermal Power Plants

The total cost will be divided into different groups of cost (Figure 15-2) and then analyzed
and compared with other, similar power plants. The greatest attention will turn on the total
operating cost.

Numerous measures to improve efficiency and production cost have to be elaborated,
evaluated, compared and finally best options need to be introduced. This gives the

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advantage to judge benchmark key indicators versus the background of practical
operations.

Figure 15-2: In thermal power plants the focus of the analysis is on cost of operation

Fuel cost Operation
€/kWh €/kWinstalled

Total
Maintenance
operating cost €/kWinstalled
€/kWinstalled
Total cost
€/kWh
Capital cost Other
€/kWinstalled €/kWinstalled

Administrative
cost Focus of
€/kWinstalled
analysis

15.4 Benchmarking Methodology

It is useful to conduct at first an internal and secondly an international Benchmarking to
compare these units and to show their ranking compared to the international market. After
this analysis the experts can point out cost intensive areas of operation.

Measures to realise a cost effective operation of the analyzed power plants will be
elaborated in an initial stage and can be suggested to the plants. The benchmarking
exercise consists of a pre-phase and additional three project phases (Figure 15-3).

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Figure 15-3: Phases in a successful Benchmarking process

Development of concept to increase efficiency Implementation

Introduction to Drawing up of
Determination of
methodology measures and
potential for
and selection of Data collection creation of Implementation
efficiency
subjects to scheme of
increase
benchmark implementation

Pre-Phase Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV

In Phase I an extensive and detailed data collection on the subjects to be considered will be
performed. This data collection will build the essential basis for all following phases.

In the following Phase II the technical and organizational performance will be compared in
a way that the determination of potential for efficiency increase will be possible. Following
this in a Phase III there will be the focus on drawing up a strategic concept to improve
technical efficiency and establish a cost efficient operation.

Phase IV encompasses the realization and the implementation of measures and is not part
of this proposal.

Pre-Phase Introduction to the methodology of benchmarking processes
It is very important to get acceptance and support for the Benchmarking process on all
levels of power plant, because data acquisition, identification of potential improvements
and first of all realization of measures to improve need to be accepted by all stakeholders

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within the company. Therefore, a team representing top level and working level of Power
plant should be created to work on this process. A steering committee is required to take
decisions according to the timetable of the project. All parties need to get a general
understanding of the process and will be introduced to the methodology of Benchmarking.

Phase I: Comprehensive technical economical, administrative and organizational data
collection
By means of an extensive and detailed data collection in this Phase I the basis for the
comparison of technical and organizational performance as well as for the definition of
goals and the development of measures in the following phases will be provided (Figure
15-4).

Figure 15-4: Overview data collection

Data
Data sheets
sheets Other
Other(insurance,
(insurance,etc.)
etc.)
Purchasing
Purchasing//Materials
Materialsmanagement
management
Organisation
Organisation//Processes
Processes
AA comprehensive
comprehensive data
data Employees
Employees
collection
collection …….
……. Cost
Cost
1a.
1a. Fuel
Fuel (TPP)
(TPP) Technical
Technicaldata
data
1b.
1b. Scheduling
Scheduling (HPP)
(HPP) Basic
Basicdata
datasite
site
2.
2. Operation
Operation
3. ••installed
installedcapacity
capacity
3. Maintenance
Maintenance
4.
4. Administration
Administration ••number
number ofunits
of units
… ••generation
generation
… is
is the
the basis
basis for
for aa
comparison
comparison of of cost
cost for
for aa ••specific
specific technical
technical features
features
sucessful
sucessful benchmarking
benchmarking ••...
...

Reference year: Last year

Data collected and evaluated will include (e.g.):

• fuel supply in TPP
• process organization (structure, cost, etc.)
• management organization (hierarchical structure, cost, etc.)

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• technical and economical data on power generation (operation and
maintenance, overhauls, degree of automation, etc.)
• administrative data (overhead, personnel, etc.).

For a basic year of investigation as well as from following years available data will be taken
into account. Total operating cost will be divided into various cost components such as
operation cost, maintenance cost and other cost (see chapter 15.3 and Figure 15-2).

Maintenance cost themselves will be divided into cost for routine maintenance (cover cost
for regular maintenance and other repair expenses) and cost for maintenance projects
(cover cost for inspections and scheduled overhauls, cost for individual measures and cost
for other measures).

Depending on the maintenance cycle annual maintenance cost may vary more or less. It is
important to determine a representative mean value for the basic year, preferably the
running year. Concentrate on technical issues and consider their economic influence
including the following topics:

• Heat and power production efficiency (production equipment efficiency)
• Heat supply systems efficiency (efficiency of the heat supply infrastructure)
• Fuel supply efficiency (fuel purchase and storage efficiency)
• Material and technical supply efficiency (material and technical resources
purchase and storage efficiency).

At the end of Phase I the data collected will be presented to the Client and, if required,
additional information input from the Client will be discussed.

Phase II: Determination of potential for efficiency increase
The methodology of Phase II for thermal power and heat generating plants is described
below. The results where an efficiency increase seems to be successful and feasible in
short term as well as in long-term measures will be presented to the Client at the end of
Phase II.

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The data collected in Phase I will be evaluated and key performance indicators and site-
specific correction factors will be elaborated and defined. The site-specific correction
factors will be discussed with the responsible power plant personnel. Correction factors
are essential to compare power plants. They will be introduced to adjust location and type
of a power plant. Site correction factors e.g. consider different levels of wages, different
annual working hours or different cost of materials.

Correction factors for technical differences will be determined in a multi-step elaboration.
Important parameters of the power plant will be determined; by analysis and discussions
with the local experts the correction factors will be set up. In addition to general technical
differences, other peculiarities having influence on the power plant cost will be considered.

Based on the data a comparable gap will be defined, including the international
comparable gaps for both units. Results of the comparison will show the power plant’s /
unit’s ranking with respect to the category it is operating in. This comparison will be made
with international power stations. By comparison with the "Best-Practice" power plants /
units savings potential for the power generation units under consideration will be
determined and the data assessment of the current situation will allow the definition and
suggestion of cost saving measures in Phase III.

The collected but non-corrected data do not show differences in cost or efficiency against
other power plants. Only the introduction of correction factors allows the demonstration of
advantages or disadvantages of the power plant considered versus international power
plants. In Figure 15-5 the potential for improvements worth striving for is outlined.

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Figure 15-5: Evaluation of correction factors in thermal power plants

Data comparison
Definition of Development Realisation of
Data collection Data correction
goals of measures measures
Benchmark

Power Plant 1 Power Plant 2

Fuel Fuel

To compare power plants,
Operation corrective factors need to be Operation
applied to make adjustments
Power generating Power generating
for sites / power plants types.
costs costs

Capital Capital

Administration Administration

Figure 15-6: The value of a benchmarking project is not the contest but performance
improvement opportunities

advantages
versus improvements
best practise PP worth striving for
disadvantage
versus
best practise PP

PP 1 corrections PP 1 potential Best
non corrected corrected data for Practice
data improvements

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Phase III: Drawing up of measures and creation of scheme of implementation
During Phase III first draft measures are drawn up and suggested in the process. The
implementation of these measures will be schematically described. Technical,
organizational and economic measures to increase the efficiency and saving costs will be
developed, suggested and discussed with the management of the power plant branch
management and the company management. Points of start, where first measures could be
introduced will be found out. The measures elaborated and the implementation scheme
will be presented to the Client.

After the specific cost reduction measures for the thermal power plants are identified and
the required level of investigation for each measure is known, the Consultant will prepare a
separate tender for the related services.

15.5 Project Organization

A successful co-operation between Consultant’s and plant's experts is a precondition to
elaborate immediate measures, which will lead to comparatively quick results.

It is required to establish one project team guided by a steering committee. Plant
engineers will be the local engineering partners to the team. The responsible plant and
administrative personnel will join the teams, each for the different topics (typical
organization (Figure 15-7), and support the benchmarking team.

By this the detailed knowledge on the thermal heat and power generating plants is going
to be combined with external experience in efficient power plant operation in the
liberalized energy market according to the state of the art.

To ensure an overall evaluation concerning administrative, management and economic
assets, experts will closely work together, exchange their information and discuss the
analyses with their power plant's counterparts.

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Figure 15-7: Typical project organization for a benchmarking process

Steering
Steering Committee
Committee

Member
Member ofof the
the Board
Board
Power
Power Plant
Plant Director
Director
Evonik
Evonik Energy
Energy Services
Services

Project
Project Director
Director
N.
N. N.
N. (Power
(Power Plant)
Plant)
N.
N. N.
N. (Evonik
(Evonik Energy
Energy Services)
Services)

Core
Core Team
Team Production
Production Core
Core Team
Team Maintenance
Maintenance Core
Core Team
Team Others
Others
N.
N. N.
N. (Power
(Power Plant)
Plant) N.
N. N.
N. (Power
(Power Plant)
Plant) N.
N. N.
N. (Power
(Power Plant)
Plant)

… …
… …

N.
N. N.
N. (Evonik
(Evonik Energy
Energy Services)
Services) N.
N. N.
N. (Evonik
(Evonik Energy
Energy Services)
Services) N.
N. N.
N. (Evonik
(Evonik Energy
Energy Services)
Services)

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16. Energy Audit – Situation in the EU respectively Germany

16.1 Status

In the EU are a wide-spread set of directives (to be transposed into national law) targeting
the energy sector. There are directives for:

• emission limits (large combustion directive)
• emission trading
• utilisation of water (water framework)
• emission ceiling
• co-generation of heat and power
• use of renewables
• efficiency of transport (vehicles)
• efficiency of households

But there are no regulations for the efficiency of electric power generation. In the past in
the EU we had discussions to implement regulations, but at the end the conclusion was
that market-driven mechanism are more effective. This position was supported by the fact
that the electric power generation in the EU is the most efficient worldwide.

In the following one will explain why and how this impressive result has been achieved. As
well as it will be shown how the efficiency is monitored. This offers the possibility to build
a bridge for this experience referring the energy auditing procedure to the Indian situation.

A simple key reason is: the more efficient a power plant works the most economic it is!

Electric Power Market
This statement is outcome of a development lasting for several decades; i.e. non-
liberalised and competitive markets. For the pre-competitive area the driving force was –
at the end – high cost of the domestic primary resources and/or the lack of domestic
primary resources, which have to be bought from elsewhere. Consequence of this
experience was a well established culture in improving the technologies needed to achieve
high efficiency figures.

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With the opening of the electricity market for competition this culture and state of the art
of technology was an excellent basis for the challenges out of competition.

The increasing concern about climate change and the necessity to improve efficiency and
reduce emissions on one side and the explosion of fuel prices for fossil primary resources
had enforced the pressure for further improvements.

Practice
Based on the given constraints - presented above - the practical use and application
respectively installed technologies will be described.

Philosophy
The existing philosophy is determined by the competition driven constraint to be market
feasible. Market feasibility means to do anything improving the competitiveness.

The competitiveness is a function of

• well established customer relations in terms of prices and services,
• well positioned power fleet consisting of
ƒ base, intermediate and peak load plants and of
ƒ balanced fuel portfolio
• state of the art technology
• skilled staff in mastering technology & market requirements as pre-requisite

In the following the major focus will be given to the technology sector respectively their
solutions.

Technical Solutions
The efficient operation is determined by an appropriate design of the plant and its
components, realised quality and the corresponding monitoring tools. The key element for
pursuing the efficiency of power plant operation is the instrumentation and control system
(I&C). By means of the I&C system the staff is able to follow the timely behaviour of key
figures defining the efficiency as the case may be the performance.

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The accuracy of the measurement devices does not reach the accuracy of the specific
installations for the final approval tests, but it allows a trend analysis of selected operation
plant parameters. State of the art plant process control systems are delivering the overall
plant efficiency as well as the efficiency of systems and even components.

Examples are the effectiveness of

• feed water pre-heating system
indicators are the heat transfer factor, the terminal temperature difference
and the temperature increase of each high-pressure pre-heater
• heat transfer of the boiler tubes
indicators are the heat transfer factors of each bundle significantly
influenced by ash deposits to be removed by the soot blowers
• air pre-heater
indicators are the pressure loss and the leakage of the air pre-heater
• condenser
indicator is the heat transfer factor of the condenser

Specific systems are available supporting the process control system. The goal is to
facilitate the complex optimisation process with often contrary influence factors. Based on
the process control system the optimisation process will be guided ensuring both optimal
and safe operation (see Figure 16-1).

In addition to this the minimization of outages, shortening scheduled overhauls and
increasing efficiency by detailed planed outages are very important from environmental
point of view.

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Figure 16-1: Performance monitoring of power stations

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Experience and Application
IT-systems which provide the above mentioned monitoring functions are used in many
German power plant units.

The results of the technical and economical evaluation of the power plant are updated
every 5 minutes and saved in a data historian. Thus, the trend of the performance of each
unit can be monitored on any time scale. Hence plant components are evaluated online
and planning data for condition based maintenance are provided. Furthermore optimum
modes of operation from economic and ecological aspects are suggested, the impact of
different, changing environmental conditions is evaluated and last but not least the unit's
operation is optimized coming along with an efficiency enhancement.

In addition to the efficient operation the role of the process control system is also the
provide information concerning the life time of components and hints necessary for
maintenance to be done.

Figure 16-2 and Figure 16-3 give an overview the plant monitoring system is shown:

• terminal output (Figure 16-2: 151.5 MW)
• unit efficiency (Figure 16-2: 42.28 %)
• boiler efficiency (Figure 16-2: 94.52 %)
• specific heat consumption (Figure 16-2: 2,184 kJ/kWh)
• auxiliary consumption (Figure 16-2: 6.58 MW)

Losses are calculated in monetary value (here in DM)

• heating surface, economizer/reheater (Figure 16-2: 62 DM/h)
• reheat spray flow (Figure 16-2: 19 DM/h)
• leakage in economizer (Figure 16-2: 25 DM/h)
• live steam parameter (Figure 16-2: 4 DM/h)
• condenser pressure (Figure 16-2: 8 DM/h)
• pre-heater (Figure 16-2: 10 DM/h)
• current consumption (Figure 16-2: 0 DM/h)

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Figure 16-2: Screenshot 1 of the plant monitoring system (Evonik power plant)

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Figure 16-3: Screenshot 2 of the plant monitoring system (Evonik power plant)

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In the following Figure 16-4 to Figure 16-12 in more detail a lignite power station is
described as an example.

Figure 16-4: Unit overview
Figure 16-5: Combustion freeboard including burners
Figure 16-6: Soot blowing system
Figure 16-7: Soot blowing system and boiler reforming data
Figure 16-8: Boiler scheme
Figure 16-9: Operation regime of soot blowing
Figure 16-10: Thermodynamic scheme
Figure 16-11: Boiler air supply system, burner and overhead air
Figure 16-12: Combustion Air Control

Conclusions
The general conclusion is that in spite of the fact that there are no legal obligations the
efficiency culture is part of any power plant operation. Basis is the plant design and
process control system. An indirect indicator for energy auditing are the performance
indicators for availability respectively unavailability.

Finally one can quote that energy auditing is essential part of an efficient electric power
generation in respecting the limitations of laws of nature and coping with the challenge of
a competitive market.

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Figure 16-4: Unit overview

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Figure 16-5: Combustion freeboard including burners

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Figure 16-6: Soot blowing system

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Figure 16-7: Soot blowing system and boiler reforming data

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Figure 16-8: Boiler scheme

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Figure 16-9: Operation regime of soot blowing

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Figure 16-10: Thermodynamic scheme

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Figure 16-11: Boiler air supply system, burner and overhead air

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Figure 16-12: Combustion Air Control

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17. Overview on Regulations, Guidelines Efficiency/Plant Performance

Best practice System part Indications Source Page Remarks
items for the
analysis

Fuel Fuel analysis DIN 51700 Analysis of solid fuels
DIN 51701-2 Carrying out the analysis
Volatile
elements
Hardgrove Thermal LCP-Directive,
Index efficiency 13. BImSchV 8
Sulphur Water pollution LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 13
DIN 51724-1 2 to 6 Determination of sulphur
amount
DIN 51724-2 2 to 5 Determination of sulphur in
the fuel
Silicon Co- LCP-Directive,
combustion & 13. BImSchV 13
refuse derived
fuels
Calcium
Ash Technology for Primary LCP-Directive, Determination of the ash
avoiding measurements 13. BImSchV 109 content
sulphur for avoidance
emissions
Carbon
proportion
Coal supply VGB M 211e Power plant coal feeding
Use of low- LCP-Directive,
sulphur fuels 13. BImSchV 109
Boiler Steam boiler Flow -through VGB R 450 L 10
boiler / drum Guideline for feed water,
boiler (water boiler water and steam
processing) quality
Water / vapour Interactions VGB R 450 L 13 - 16
circulation
Evaporator
Combustion VGB M 224 SiC - Melting chamber
chamber lining
Superheater
Intermediate
heating -
heating
surfaces
Accumulator

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Best practice System part Indications Source Page Remarks
items for the
analysis

Hot
components
Mills VGB R 123
C/2.9e
VGB M 213 Coal dust measurements
with the pendular zero-
probe coal milling plants
Separators Temperature VGB R 200 77 GW vapour deposition and
measurement disconnection is to be
behind allowed
separator
Coal dust VGB R 108 Fire protection in the power
bunker plant
TRBS 2152 Assessment of the danger
of explosion
Burner
Deashing VGB R 201e Directive on and operation
of deashing plants
Purification VGB R 313e Internal cleaning of
VGB M 221 waterpipe steam
generators. Process-
engineering influences on
the cleaning of heating
surfaces and optimisation
of use
Combustion Firing Combustion LCP-Directive,
conduct modification 13. BImSchV 97
VGB R 200 Dimensioning and
operation of power plant
firings
VGB TW 216 Primary measurements for
the NOx reduction of dust
firings for mineral coal
Reduction of LCP-Directive,
excess air 13. BImSchV 140
Sorbens - LCP-Directive, "
injection 13. BImSchV 125 to
127
Sorbens - LCP-Directive,
Injection for 13. BImSchV 127 to
dry flue gas 129
conduct
Reduced air LCP-Directive,
preheating 13. BImSchV 141

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Best practice System part Indications Source Page Remarks
items for the
analysis

Fresh air Maximum KWS Training 104
ventilator pressure book no. 8
increase
Induced draft KWS Training 104
Ventilator book no. 8
design VGB R 102 Order of ventilators for
thermal power plants
Pumps
Air Preheater
(air flow rate)
Heavy metals LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 10
Dust-avoiding LCP-Directive,
techniques 13. BImSchV 98
Electrostatic LCP-Directive,
filter 13. BImSchV 99
Electrostatic LCP-Directive,
wet separators 13. BImSchV 101
Fabric filters LCP-Directive,
(bag filters) 13. BImSchV 101
Centrifuge LCP-Directive,
separator 13. BImSchV 104
Wet separator LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 105
to108
Turbine Types of Condensing Vapour purity/ VGB R 103e Directive on monitoring
construction turbine/ back- conditioning and protection of steam
pressure turbines
turbine VGB R 105e The thermal behaviour of
steam turbines refer to IEC
Technical Specification TS
61370 (page 12)
Turbine VGB R 504e Test of big forgings and
pressure pieces
Turbine VGB R 127 VGB Directive on turbine
operation drives
VGB M 101 Rec. on how to avoid
damages at steam turbo
units
VGB M 114 Efficiency changes at steam
turbines
High-pressure
part
Low-pressure
part

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Best practice System part Indications Source Page Remarks
items for the
analysis

Fitting VGB R 107 Order and design of fittings
tappings in thermal power plants
Preheater
Piping VGB R 503e Directive on internal
pipings of the turbo unit
Connecting VGB R 505e Directive on screws in
elements high-temperature areas
Condenser Types of VGB R 450 Le Directive on the quality of
construction feed water, boiler water
and steam for copper
materials
VGB R 106e Directive on condensators
and other heat exchangers,
part A copper alloys
VGB R 113Le Directive on condensators
and other heat exchangers,
stainless steel
VGB R 114Le Directive on condensators
and other heat exchangers,
Ti material
Cleanability Condensation
system
Flue gas DeNOx VGB R 305 Directive on planning and
cleaning ordering of installations for
the reduction of NOx
emissions
E - filter Emission of LCP-Directive,
particulate 13. BImSchV 9
matter VGB R 301 Planning and ordering of
installations for the
reduction of dust
emissions
Heavy metals LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 10
NOx emission LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 11
Wet scrubber LCP-Directive,
13. BImSchV 111
Types of LCP-Directive,
absorbers 13. BImSchV 117
Sea water LCP-Directive,
scrubber 13. BImSchV 119
Magnesium
wet scrubber 121

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Best practice System part Indications Source Page Remarks
items for the
analysis

Ammonia wet
scrubber 121
Spray dry
scrubber 121 to
124
Electrical Volumetric VGB R 123 Collection of
and flow recommendations on the
control measurements control technology
technology Pressure
measurements
Temperature
measurements
Control VGB R 170 BO- Design standards for
technology B6e instrumentation and
control equipment
VGB R170 A1e Measures for the avoidance
and control of control
technology failures
Technical unit VGB R 117 Technical unit protection
protection for thermal power plants
Auxiliary VGB R161 Auxiliary power and
power protection of auxiliary
power in power plants
General Material for VGB R 109
pressure- d+e
carrying
devices
Availability VGB Rv 808 Availability of thermal
power plants
Losses DIN - EN Determination of radiation
12952 - 15 losses
DIN - EN General losses
12952 - 11
VGB R 123C Losses in start-up and
shut-down processes
Dangers TRBS 2152, Assessment of the danger
TRBS 2152-1, of explosion
TRBS 2152-2
TRBS 2141, Assessment of the danger
TRBS 2141-1 of steam and pressure

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18. Example: Computerized Plant and Energy Management Systems
at the Evonik Steag Voerde Power Plant

Evonik Steag Voerde Power Plant has total installed capacity of 2,120 MW. Hard coal is
used as fuel. The total power generation is about 10 billion kWh/a

The plant has adopted the latest computerized management systems for effective
operation & maintenance of the power plants and improving the performance of the unit.
The following computerized systems have been adopted

• Energy Management system
• Plant management system.

Energy Management System
The energy management system evaluates the existing on line measured data and
recognizes the potential for optimization by assessing the processes and components. The
system continuously assesses the plant operation, comparing it with the current calculated
optimum, so that the unit can be run at maximum efficiency. The energy management
system estimates the potential for optimization and even minimal reduction in operating
efficiency is identified and pinpointed.

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The energy management system is based on a three-tiered concept – evaluation,
Optimization and forecast for cost relevant power plant sections. All results are evaluated
at cost so that the effects of different operating parameters on cost can be directly
compared.

• Computation of ratios and key figures such as efficiencies, electric energy
from cogeneration, start up cost etc.
• Component evaluation (steam generator, steam water cycle, condenser,
pumps, flue gas circuit etc)
• Optimizing (soot blowing, gas turbine compressor washing etc)
• Fore cast (unit efficiency, maximum unit output etc)

Plant Management System
Integrated plant management system, makes all operating processes rational and
transparent right from shift planning to component use. The plant management system
helps the plant team to detect weak spots early and optimize operating procedures. In
addition it gives up to date information with all organizational, technical & commercial
details.

Based on master data and timely operating data acquisition, the plant management system
supports the plant team in the following areas of operation:

• Minimizing of the administrative effort invested in plant management
• Efficient job scheduling and control along with performance recording and
documentation
• Cost optimized shift planning with integral payroll data acquisition
• Optimizing and reporting of the use of operating supplies and the stocks of
supplies
• Daily cost status, availability data and official requirements compliance
information
• Assurance of compliance with processing and quality standards
• Subject related control of information flow and authorizations
• Dependable safety disconnection process with conflict check and switch in
warning

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19. Latest (state of the art) technologies and status

19.1 Technology Perspectives – Availability vs. State of the Art

The technical development is a permanent process and the key attitude is the requirement
for patience and perseverance in order to accept the un-evitable errors, to sustain the
motivation for searching in new solutions and convince the financing instances to spend
money.

With these general remarks in mind one can quote that there is always a gap between state
of the art and the commercial available technology. One characteristic feature of a
commercial available technology is the market viability, i.e. several suppliers offer a
technology at competitive conditions. The aspects of local affects for the technologies are
of minor relevance in a global world.

As a conclusion it is to state clear that the 600°C technology is fully commercial available.
There are several suppliers of the raw materials – forging, casting, etc., as well as there are
several manufactures able to master the specific requirements of the austenitic materials.
At the end there is enough experience driven by some front-runners in order to know what
kind of difficulties can occur or preventive measures are reasonable. Parallel to the placing
orders, erecting of plants and commissioning of new plants an intensive consolidation
programme is launched. It's key purpose is to broaden the range of materials, to gain
better understanding of the design specifics and to open the horizon for new ideas.

19.2 Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Firing System

The fluidized bed firing is a firing that takes place in a fluidized bed made up of sand, fuel
reduced to small particles (fuel portion of about 2 %) and hot combustion air (primary air
through the nozzle bottom).

The fuel is kept hovering above the nozzle bed and fluidizes. The small fuel particles have
a large surface enabling a thorough burnout. The strong eddying flow results in a most
favorable impulse and heat exchange so that a constant temperature is kept up in the
fluidized bed. The combustion temperature is determined by the fuel mass flow supplied.

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The temperature is adjusted such that the generation of detrimental gases (CO, NOx) is as
low as possible. With fluidized bed firing it is possible to keep the nitrogen oxide
emissions low as it allows to operate at a relatively low combustion temperature without
temperature peaks.

We distinguish between the stationary and the circulating fluidized bed:

• In case of a stationary fluidized bed the ash discharged from the
combustion chamber is removed.
• The circulating fluidized bed is designed with a cyclone downstream of the
combustion chamber which serves to return the discharged sand with a
certain portion of ash and unburned fuel back into the combustion chamber.

For fluidized bed firing in coal-fired power plants the coal is charged with lime to bind the
sulphur contained in the coal.

With today's state of technology a power enhancement to 1,000 MWth is feasible with
circulating fluidized bed plants and this is currently being implemented in Poland.

The principal field of application for atmospheric fluidized bed plants is considered to be
the combined production of electric current and heat – i.e. combined heating and power
plants. The limitation of the power capacity is of rather low importance here. In addition,
this design permits to utilize a broad scope of fuels ranging from coal via biomass through
to residual materials.

19.3 Pressurized Fluidized Bed Firing System

Similar to the development of the gas and steam turbine plants (combined cycle turbine
facilities) fuelled with natural gas, in the 1950's there was a desire to implement also for
power plants fuelled with hard coal such cogeneration power plants consisting of a gas
turbine process and a steam turbine process to reach maximum plant efficiency levels. The
first large-scale plants with a pressurized fluidized bed firing system were then
commissioned in the 1980's. For these systems, the conventional combustion chamber of

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a gas turbine plant was replaced by a combustion chamber fuelled with coal. As the
combustion chamber needs to be operated under increased pressure (approximately
12 bar – 16 bar) to obtain a large efficiency, it became necessary to accommodate it in a
cylindrical or spherical pressure vessel (diameter approx. 22 m for a projected 300 MW
plant).

Based on the pressurized fluidized bed firing system, various testing facilities and pilot
plants were erected:

• Testing power plant Grimethorpe, Great Britain
• Pilot power plant TIDD Ohio, USA
• Pilot power plant Värtan, Stockholm, Sweden
• Pilot power plant Escatron, Spain
• Combined heating and power plant Stadtwerke (public utility company of)
Cottbus, Germany

Efficiency
The operating experience gained up to date has shown that the pressurized fluidized bed
firing has a limited efficiency potential. Owing to the combustion chamber temperature
being limited in the fluidized bed to 850 – 900°C, the upper process temperature deter-
mining the efficiency is restricted such that maximum plant efficiency values of a mere
45 % can be expected. In practical operation, it was possible to reach an efficiency of about
42 %. Apart from the limited efficiency potential, the experience gained in practical
operation has particularly lead to the fact that pressurized fluidized bed firing became less
important in modern power plant technology world-wide.

Coal supply
In a pressurized steam generator the fuel needs to be fed in either via a lockage system or
in the form of a coal/water suspension.

Drawbacks:
• Considerable wear at the lock fittings has continually entailed system
malfunctions.
• To feed the coal without difficulty it had to be dried to a water content of

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< 2 % involving a high energetic expenditure.
• To prevent explosions in the lock chambers, the locking process had to be
laboriously carried out under an inert gas atmosphere.
• When supplied as a coal/water suspension the slurry pumps used for the
process had an inadequate service life.

De-ashing system
The ash produced in the coal firing process needs to be discharged from a pressurised
pressure vessel via a lockage system.

Drawbacks:
• Considerable wear in the pneumatically operated conveying lines
• Frequent failures of the lock fittings at an ash temperature of 850 °C

Steam generator
To provide a combined process, the steam generator is accommodated in a pressure
vessel.

Drawbacks:
• Poor accessibility for maintenance work
• Restricted possibility to timely detect malfunctions in the steam generator
area.

Purification of the flue gas and gas turbine
The flue gases are first cleaned by passing through a cyclone cascade and subsequently
further cleaned by means of a ceramic hot gas filter, before they are fed into the gas
turbine.

Drawbacks:
• Fractures of the ceramic filter cartridges resulted in frequent plant
standstills.
• High residual dust content led to a destruction of the gas turbine blading.
• Exhaust gases from the gas turbine require another purification downstream
of the gas turbine in order to observe the currently applicable dust emission

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levels.

19.4 Gasification of Coal (IGCC)

Another power plant process for the use of coal in combined gas and steam turbine
processes is provided by the gasification of coal and the subsequent combustion of the
produced synthetic coal gas in a downstream gas and steam turbine plant (IGCC proc-ess
or Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle).

In the gasifier proper, which is operated at a high gasside pressure of 40 bar, the coal is
mostly converted with pure oxygen to become a synthesis gas predominantly consisting of
hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide portion is converted into carbon
dioxide and additional hydrogen by adding water steam in a so-called shift reaction. The
hydrogen can then be used for power generation in the gas turbine plant of the combined
power plant downstream of the coal gasification. In this process the hot flue gases of the
gas turbine are fed into the integrated water/steam circulation via a heat-recovery steam
generator.

Compared to other power plant designs the IGCC technology has the advantage that the
carbon dioxide present in the synthesis gas can favorably be precipitated from the process
at relatively high pressure, for instance by a Rectisol flue-gas purification process. In the
long run, after developing underground storage deposits, this could lead to an
implementation of a CO2-poor power plant technology on a coal basis. Furthermore, it is
possible to produce synthetic fuels and chemicals from the synthesis gas, which provides
new attractive application options for this process in the long term.

Since the 1980s, several pilot plants with entrained-phase gasification and fluidized bed
gasification have been operated for testing purposes. Today, various processes are offered
by Shell, UHDE, General Electric and Siemens.

The following pilot plants have since been erected for power generation:

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• Pilot plant Cool Water, USA, operation 1984 – 1998
• Pilot plant Buggenum, NL, currently operating
• Pilot plant Puertollanno, SP, currently operating

Although the IGCC technology has a high development potential, an economically
reasonable application in large-scale plants could not be realised to date. The service
experiences available today show that there is a continued need for development in the
fields of the gas turbine, the hot-gas purification as well as the coal supply and the slag
discharge.

If ultimately a reliable plant operation with a high availability and a high efficiency is to be
implemented, it will be necessary to further optimise the plant components currently being
developed and to have them tested in pilot plants.

In Germany a first pilot plant is envisaged to be commissioned in 2014. After several years
of testing operation a reliable commercial plant engineering will then possibly be available
around the year 2020.

19.5 Turbulent Pulverised-Coal Burner

In above comparison of the pulverised coal firing with other firing types and coal
conversion methods, it has been demonstrated that none of the techniques that are
comparable to pulverised coal firing is able to exceed a thermal power of 1,000 MW.
Accordingly, the thermal power required ranging far above 2,000 MW can be generated
only when using a pulverised coal firing process.

Pulverised coal preparation
In the power generation industry, fan mills have become widely accepted for the
preparation of brown coal and bowl mills have established themselves for the preparation
of hard coal. Essentially, the required preparation comprises the crushing (surface-area
amplification), drying and screening. The screen sorting of pulverised coal formerly
performed with static separators is increasingly since the 1990's being effected using
speed-controlled dynamic separators as shown in Figure 19-1.

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Figure 19-1: Bowl mill with dynamic separator

Burner description
In an almost 100-year development of the pulverized coal burners the so-called jet and
swirl stage burners (DS burners) have established themselves; they differ only marginally in
terms of burnout and emissions.

The swirl stage burners intended of the power plant are arranged at two opposing
combustion chamber walls (in a height-offset arrangement, 3 or 2 levels). Each burner
consists of a core air tube surrounded by several concentric tubes (refer to Figure 19-2).
accommodated in the core air tube there is the ignition and supporting burner (designed
as an oil firing), which – only for start-up and supporting load operation is driven forward
to the operating position near the combustion chamber wall; usually the ignition and sup-
porting burner is kept in a retracted position in order to have it as little as possible
exposed to the heat radiated in the combustion chamber so that the core air tube will re-
quire relatively few cooling air.

Figure 19-2: Pulverised coal burner (with out ignition and supporting burner)

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The first concentric annular space surrounding the core air tube serves for conveying the
pulverized coal / air mixture and is also designated as primary air. For a stable, complete
and environmentally friendly combustion, the pulverized coal is to flow into the
combustion chamber most uniformly distributed across the burner ring cross section. This
is supported by a symmetrical line arrangement, a sufficient primary air velocity and a ring
gear at the outer pulverized-coal ring main. The ring gear serves not only to stabilize the
flame but also to disintegrate the chunks of pulverized coal. To have all chunks get
reached and contacted by the ring gear, the annular flow of pulverized coal around the
ring gear is given a slight angular momentum by swirling blades.

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The burner ring cross sections serve for a staged allocation of the combustion air and they
can provide their through-flowing air not only with a variable impulse (velocity and
volume) but also with different swirl stages. The different swirl stages can be generated by
adjustable and fixed swirl blades and supplement the required flame stability, if the
stability produced by the ring gear is not sufficient. The flame stability is essentially
determined by the portion of volatiles in the coal and the comminution, the fine grain
portion of the pulverised coal. The portion of unburned carbon in the electrostatic
precipitator ash is required to range below 5%, so that the ash can be further utilised in the
cement industry. This is primarily reached by a low coarse grain portion in the pulverised
coal, which in turn results from the high grinding performance and a strict grain-size
screening in the separator.

Turbulent burner aspects:
With the NOx primary measures (see BAT measures) harmonised accordingly, it is possible
for today's use of "steamcoal" from South Africa or Colombia to reach nitrogen oxide
concentrations ranging between 400 mg/Nm³ and 500 mg/Nm³ in the flue gas at the
discharge end of the radiation chamber (in front of the bulkhead). Here, the excess air may
fluctuate around the Lambda value 1.15 and the unburned matter in the electrostatic
precipitator ash can be kept well below 5 % when run at the "optimum operation point".

We have explained and commented on the NOx primary measures relating to the BAT
measures demonstrating that these requirements are fulfilled for the swirl stage burners.

Consequently, today's best available technology is the pulverized coal technology.

19.6 Supercritical Technology

Supercritical (SC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants operate at higher temperatures
and greater steam pressures than conventional systems. They require less coal per
megawatt-hour, leading to lower emissions per megawatt (including carbon dioxide and
mercury), and lower fuel costs per megawatt, leading to higher efficiency and lower fuel
costs.

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19.7 Six Sigma Concept

Six Sigma is a powerful data driven, customer focused management methodology that
delivers validated improvements in profitability and productivity. Six Sigma implementation
will guide organization to:

• improve Customer Satisfaction
• Increase Profitability
• Increase Productivity

In most companies today, the cost of poor quality represents 20 % to 30 % of total
revenues.

The Six Sigma approach implements the proven methodologies for minimizing these costs
while reaching world-class quality levels by focusing on breakthrough performance
(improvements of 50% or more).

For more details on technological perspectives, please refer the following Annexures XIII to
XX.

Annexure XIII IGCC technology
Annexure XIV Supercritical and ultra super critical technology
Annexure XV CFBC technology
Annexure XVI Six sigma process
Annexure XVII PFBC technology
Annexure XVIII Advanced Technologies of Preventive Maintenance for Thermal Power
Plants-write up by Hitachi
Annexure XIX Oxyfuel technology for fossil fuel-fired power plants – Dresden
University of Technology, Germany
Annexure XX Results of oxy-fuel combustion for power plants- Dresden University of
Technology, Germany

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20. Operating Efficiency of EU Power Plants and Efforts initiated for
Improvement

The efficiency of both electricity, and combined electricity and heat production from
conventional thermal power plants improved steadily between 1990 and 2004. This was
due to the closure of old inefficient plants, improvements in existing technologies and the
installation of new, more efficient technologies, often combined with a switch from coal
power plants to more efficient combined cycle gas-turbines. This trend is expected to
continue in the future.

However, the rapid growth in fossil-fuel based electricity production outweighs some of
the environmental benefits of the efficiency improvements.

20.1 Rationale

The majority of thermal generation is produced using fossil fuels with associated
environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, but can also include biomass,
wastes and geothermal. Whilst the level of environmental impact depends upon factors
such as the particular type of fuel and the extent to which abatement technologies are
used, all else being equal, the greater the efficiency the lower the environmental impact for
each unit of electricity produced.

Annexure XXI shows the actual efficiency of thermal power plants in Europe, efficiency
improvement over a period of time (paper published by European Environmental Agency)
and corrective actions taken for improvement.

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21. Best Practices Applicable to Indian Scenario

The following best practices which can be applicable are discussed in this section:

• Online monitoring system
• Statistical process control for fault detection
• Maintenance management system
• Pooling of inventories
• Benchmarking of component efficiencies
• Training including simulator training

21.1 Online monitoring System

This system is now gaining wide popularity and being used for all new power plants and
also being introduced during retrofit of existing systems. The details of this system is
given in annexure XXII.

21.2 Statistical Process Control Process Detection

Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an effective method of monitoring a process through the
use of control charts. Control charts enable the use of objective criteria for distinguishing
background variation from events of significance based on statistical techniques. Much of
its power lies in the ability to monitor both process centre and its variation about that
centre. The details are described in annexure XXIII.

21.3 Simulator Training on Power Plant Operation

Simulator training is the best option now available to power plants, which gives the feeling
of operating a real Power Plant without incurring any generation loss or damaging any
plant equipments.

Simulator includes advanced training tools and features, which are as important as the

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simulator itself in successfully achieving training goals. By integrating these tools into the
simulators, which delivers not only training simulators but comprehensive training
"systems". As a result, operator training becomes significantly more productive, and the
need for intensive instructor involvement is minimized.

The detailed write up on the simulator is given in annexure XXIV.

21.4 Maintenance Management Systems

The Maintenance Management Systems is a part of Integral Plant Management aided by
sophisticated software. These systems are very popular in Europe and have significant
potential of applications in developing countries. The details of such system are given in
annexure XXV.

21.5 Benchmarking Practices

The benchmarking practices are described in chapter 15.

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22. Miscellaneous

The report provides the brief write up on the following

• Monitoring and controlling of power plants (refer to annexure XXVI)
• Maintenance practices (refer to annexure XXVII)
• Sizing criteria of thermal power plants (refer to annexure XXVIII)
• Stores inventory and procurement systems (refer to annexure XXIX)
• Key operating parameters of power station (refer to chapter 11)

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