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Feature heading: Sustainability
Feature title: Sustainability - an enduring trend in aquaculture
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
information published.
©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
Sustainability Sustainability

the sustainability of aquaculture, decrease Aqua feed is a key example of how the The use of unpelleted or poor
the need for chemicals and medicine and correct application of technology and good quality pelleted fish feed can lead to
maintain the health and optimal growth of management can decrease the negative inefficient fish growth and uneaten feed
the fish population. effect of pollution from aqua farming. material. Uneaten fish feed becomes
by Heather Lenz, Buhler, Uzwil Obstacles to growth feed and residues of pesticides and veteri-
Wenger_PF_Ad_90x132mm 6/23/09 11:28 AM Page 1

However, an obstacle stands in the path nary drugs.
quaculture will play a of aquaculture’s future success. Aquaculture also contributes to envi-
critical role in supplying Ineffective fish and crustacean farming ronmental degradation of 50 percent
the growing demand for practices result in pollution of the local of mangrove forests, which serve as
protein by populations
worldwide. According to the FAO
environment and disease in the fish popula-
tions. Intensive fish farming currently takes
natural coastal protectors from storms.
Aquaculture populations, who require
World Agriculture Toward 2015-30,
consumption of fish will increase 150
place in select countries worldwide and is
contributing to a backlash from non profit
fresh water to grow, have been given
often-illegal antibiotics and pesticides by MADE IN HOLLAND Processing
to 160 million tonnes, or 19-20kg per
person and aquaculture will be the
organizations, governments and end consum-
ers concerned with aquaculture’s contribu-
fish farmers.
When residues from the antibiotics and Systems
critical source of supply as ocean fish tion to the destabilising and degradation of pesticides are discovered in the fish, the
stocks continue to be over fished and local ecosystems. aquaculture industry cannot sell their prod-
mismanaged. Unsustainable fish ucts to foreign markets as import bans are
farming produces put in place to protect consumers.
waste water Sustainable aquaculture is a trend that
filled with will need to be embraced by the industry or
fish feces, negative repercussions will follow.
fish Consumer consciousness worldwide is
already being raised to fear eating con-
taminated fish from fish farms. Activists and
governments could yet be pushed to limit
the expansion of the industry. Worse yet,
without protection of local ecosystems by AL30O
good aquaculture management, there
may not be enough clean water for fish High capacity extruders and expanders.
farming. This would inhibit expansion
of the industry and its ability to meet
the need of a growing population Superior Technology.
reliant on fish and crustaceans as a Unparalleled Service.
key source of protein.
Almex b.v., Verlengde Ooyerhoekseweg 29, 7207 BJ Zutphen SABETHA, KANSAS USA 785-284-2133
Sustainable aquaculture The Netherlands, tel. +31 (0)575 572666, fax +31 (0)575 572727 INFO@WENGER.COM WWW.WENGER.COM
Good management and the correct E-mail, USA BELGIUM TAIWAN BRASIL CHINA TURKEY
application of technology can increase

10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 09 July-august 09 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
Sustainability ame
Ne w N li a ble
r e
- s ame s p a rt ne r !
b us in e s

waste in the aquaculture system, pol- fat contents with a good water absorption and continuously optimised on the basis Two-stage drying and process steps
luting the water. rate and high water stability to sink slowly of commercial and nutritional criteria. The hot and steaming product very enable high per-
Buhler supplies technology to the aqua feed in saline water. A fine grinding system reduces the raw rapidly releases the free surface moisture formance aqua feed

industry to decrease the amount of uneaten Fish, such as sturgeons, yellow tail, component blend to an average particle to the hot air stream. Once the surface has to be produced
and sea bass size smaller than 250 microns. The blend been dried, the drying action is limited by by feed millers
can be fed is then conveyed pneumatically to the the diffusion rate inside the product, and worldwide.

sinking pellets. control sifter. the air stream can be reduced. But this is just
Shrimp pellets Such a multi-stage drying process con- one step towards
are fast sinking Control sifting sists of a hot air conveying system and the future sustain-
and retain their
elastic structure
A sifter especially suitable for processing
finely ground, fatty fish feed formulations is
a fluid-bed dryer, followed by a belt or
counter current dryer.
ability of aquac-
ulture. There is
Conditioning up to 95°C
even after hours
in the water.
required to eliminate insoluble substances
such as bones, scales, sand, and fibres, which
This process allows very fast, gentle, and a rising need for and cost-effective pelleting
nondeforming drying to the necessary final more awareness
might clog die holes smaller than 1.5 - moisture content of eight to 10 percent even and training of CM conditioner
Steps to 2mm. Buhler recommends a mesh aperture of soft and sticky products. in-farm feed and
sustainable smaller than about 70 percent of the die
water management
aqua feed hole diameter. Coating/cooling strategies for fish
Buhler has Usually, the dried extrudates are coated farms in developing
three critical Extrusion process while still warm directly after the dryer. countries.
goals for its aqua The extrusion process is essentially a During this stage, it is possible to add
feed production cooking process during which the starch- Leading feed
fats, flavorings, attractants, colors, and even
technology. The containing components are decomposed millers, academics
powdered ingredients.
technology must and the proteins are denatured. and other members
Depending on the temperature and the
enable aqua feed Together with the other ingredients, a specific surface area of the extrudates, up of the aquaculture
millers to create hydrophil yet water stable matrix is created. to 12 percent liquids can be absorbed in the industry have an
feed, maximize the feed conversion rate and a complete diet, which the animal can ingest The required heat is added mainly coating drum and the subsequent cooler. important and Feed Expander
increase the health of the entire fish population and assimilate optimally, maintaining the in the form of direct steam in the For higher oil quantities up to 40 percent, continuing role to
while lowering pollution of water outflow. animal’s health. preconditioner. In the extruder, the it is common practice to apply vacuum play in transferring
The ideal feed for each fish type can be Extrusion technology should maximise mass preheated to about 95°C is fur- coaters/mixers. research and good
produced via Buhler’s extrusion technology the conversion rate and the meat qual- ther heated by mechanical processing management prac-
to maximise feed digestibility and conver- ity while minimizing the costs. Last of all, so that temperatures of about 120 One-step in the value chain tices to developing
sion rates while minimising water pollution. Buhler supports good management and to 140°C are achieved. The patented In the production of aqua feed, it is countries to ensure
Micro pellets are very small, accurately cut the sustainability of the aqua feed with ‘Density Control System’ allows the important to ensure the ideal formula- the advancement of
and for feeding all species whether as float- technology that reduces the need for steam pressure of the hot dough mass tion and production. Buhler’s technology the entire industry.
ing or sinking. Floating feeds are pellets overfeeding. to be controlled while the mass is still
with moderate protein and fat content inside the extruder. This enables the
for feeding warm-water species such as Blending and mixing, grinding sinking or floating characteristics to be Other related companies:
tilapia and eels. Sinking feed The raw materials, which account controlled across a wide range without Clextral, 1 Rue du Colonel Riez, Firminy, F-42700 FR, France
are pellets with for over 80 percent of the total compromising on the cooking degree. Tel: +33 477 402484 / Fax: +33 477 403123
high protein and production cost, are formulated Email: / Website: Pellet mill PM717
The die hole geometry is crucial in the
process, as the hot product melt has to be Belt driven or gear driven The correct conditioning of
depressurised, shaped, and cut. Especially
small die holes up to 0.6mm require
an optimised number of
Compact profile, small
a feed compound for pelleting/
extrusion is necessary in order
footprint easy installation. to obtain a good pellet quality
holes and a wear-resistant DO YOUAquafeed
Modular design for ease of and an effective utilization
die plate. AQUACULTURE
both online and in print. INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS...
upgrade to higher capacity of the pelleting/extrusion
A correct die selec- In the online version you will find
...Then international aquafeed is the publication for you! and comprehensive range of installation.
tion achieves high pellet
VO L U M E 1 2 I S S U E 4 2 0 0 9

everything that the print version
quality and the right expan- Sustainability options. ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL
Contact our
contains Marketingin-depth
including, team today to find out Anwhat we
enduring trend can do
in aquaculture

sion.The cutter speed can be varied to increase
features, news the book
reports, exposure of your company
Marine phospholipids provides conditioning at high
- A new generation of omega-3lipids
to change the length of the extruded pellets. Get your
reveiews, products
events and services infront of our readers
& more. in our temperatures - up to 95°C.
The benefits of
Since a considerable volume of moisture is next issue. oregano essential oil
Please click here to view the full for aquaculture production

evaporated at this point, hot air addition and Contact Caroline Wearn:
online version completely free or
European Focus:
High time to unlock the potential of
a good aspiration are needed in order to or call: +44 1242 267706 EU aquaculture
visit the online issue pages on our
prevent condensation and agglomeration of website:
For more information visit: its application and potential

the products. Denmark · Netherlands · Germany · France · UK · USA
Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association

IAF0904.indd 1
and the International Aquafeed Association

06/07/2009 09:12

Venezuela · Brazil · Chile · Mexico · Australia · P.R. China

12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 09 July-august 09 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13