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CONTENTS
Unit 1........................................................................................................................................................................7
Pre-Reading Tasks.......................................................................................................................................7
Reading.........................................................................................................................................................7
Everyday English..........................................................................................................................................8
Ways with Words..........................................................................................................................................8
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................11
The Verb To Be.....................................................................................................................................11
The Demonstrative Pronoun and Adjective..........................................................................................12
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................12
Question Forms....................................................................................................................................13
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................14
Unit 2......................................................................................................................................................................15
Pre-Reading Tasks.....................................................................................................................................15
Reading.......................................................................................................................................................15
Ways with Words........................................................................................................................................16
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................19
The Personal Pronoun..........................................................................................................................19
Controlled practice:...............................................................................................................................20
Mood, Tense and Aspect......................................................................................................................21
Present Simple......................................................................................................................................21
Present Continuous..............................................................................................................................22
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................24
Unit 3......................................................................................................................................................................27
Pre-Reading Tasks.....................................................................................................................................27
Reading.......................................................................................................................................................27
Ways with words:........................................................................................................................................28
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................29
Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English......................................................................29
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................30
The Imperative......................................................................................................................................31
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................31
The Possessive Pronoun and the Posessive Adjective........................................................................33
Controlled Practice................................................................................................................................33
Unit 4......................................................................................................................................................................35
Pre-Reading Tasks:....................................................................................................................................35
Reading 1....................................................................................................................................................35
Ways with words:........................................................................................................................................36
Reading 2....................................................................................................................................................37
Ways with words:........................................................................................................................................38
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................43
Classification of Nouns.........................................................................................................................43

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Number of Nouns:................................................................................................................................ 44
The Genitive......................................................................................................................................... 45
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 45
Test........................................................................................................................................................................ 47
Unit 5...................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Pre-Reading Tasks.................................................................................................................................... 49
Reading...................................................................................................................................................... 49
Ways with words........................................................................................................................................ 50
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................. 52
Past Simple.......................................................................................................................................... 52
Past Continuous................................................................................................................................... 53
Past Simple and Past Continuous....................................................................................................... 55
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 55
Expressions of Quantity....................................................................................................................... 57
Controlled Practice............................................................................................................................... 58
The Adjective....................................................................................................................................... 59
The Order of adjectives in a series...................................................................................................... 59
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 60
Unit 6...................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Pre-Reading Tasks.................................................................................................................................... 63
Reading...................................................................................................................................................... 63
Ways with words........................................................................................................................................ 64
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................. 65
Present Perfect Simple........................................................................................................................ 65
Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple............................................................................................. 67
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 67
The Preposition.................................................................................................................................... 71
Prepositions of Time............................................................................................................................ 72
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 72
Unit 7...................................................................................................................................................................... 77
Pre-Reading Tasks.................................................................................................................................... 77
Reading...................................................................................................................................................... 77
Ways with words: ....................................................................................................................................... 78
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................. 79
Present Perfect Continuous................................................................................................................. 79
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 81
Modal Verbs......................................................................................................................................... 83
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 84
Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place.............................................................................. 87
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................. 87
Unit 8...................................................................................................................................................................... 89
Pre-Reading Task...................................................................................................................................... 89

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Reading.......................................................................................................................................................89
Ways with words.........................................................................................................................................90
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................92
The Cardinal Numeral...........................................................................................................................92
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................93
Past Perfect Simple..............................................................................................................................93
Past Perfect Continuous.......................................................................................................................94
Controlled Practice:...............................................................................................................................95
Unit 9................................................................................................................................................................99
Pre-Reading Task.......................................................................................................................................99
Reading.......................................................................................................................................................99
Ways with words.......................................................................................................................................100
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................101
Future Simple......................................................................................................................................101
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................103
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives............................................................................................104
Comparative Sentences......................................................................................................................106
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................106
Test.......................................................................................................................................................................109
Unit 10..................................................................................................................................................................111
Pre-reading task........................................................................................................................................111
Reading.....................................................................................................................................................111
Ways with words.......................................................................................................................................112
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................114
Be going to Future..............................................................................................................................114
Future Simple or Be Going To?..........................................................................................................115
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................115
First Conditional ..................................................................................................................................116
Controlled Practice..............................................................................................................................116
Unit 11..................................................................................................................................................................119
Pre-Reading Task.....................................................................................................................................119
Reading.....................................................................................................................................................119
Ways with words.......................................................................................................................................120
Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................................121
The Ordinal Numeral...........................................................................................................................121
The Fractional Numeral ......................................................................................................................121
The Multiplicative Numeral..................................................................................................................121
Second Conditional.............................................................................................................................122
Controlled Practice:.............................................................................................................................123
Unit 12..................................................................................................................................................................125
Pre-Reading Tasks...................................................................................................................................125
Reading.....................................................................................................................................................125

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Ways with words...................................................................................................................................... 126
Grammar Reference................................................................................................................................ 127
The Article.......................................................................................................................................... 127
Controlled Practice:............................................................................................................................ 129
Third Conditional ................................................................................................................................ 131
Controlled Practice:............................................................................................................................ 132
Unit 13.................................................................................................................................................................. 135
Pre-Reading Tasks.................................................................................................................................. 135
Reading.................................................................................................................................................... 135
Ways with words...................................................................................................................................... 136
Grammar Reference................................................................................................................................ 139
The Adverb......................................................................................................................................... 139
Controlled Practice............................................................................................................................. 140
The Passive Voice............................................................................................................................. 141
Controlled Practice:............................................................................................................................ 142
Unit 14.................................................................................................................................................................. 145
Reading.................................................................................................................................................... 145
Grammar Reference................................................................................................................................ 147
Punctuation........................................................................................................................................ 147
The Infinitive....................................................................................................................................... 152
The Participle..................................................................................................................................... 152
The Gerund........................................................................................................................................ 153
Controlled Practice:............................................................................................................................ 153
Unit 15.................................................................................................................................................................. 155
Reading and Practice..................................................................................................................................... 155
Ways with words............................................................................................................................................ 160
Grammar Reference...................................................................................................................................... 161
The Conjunction....................................................................................................................................... 161
Coordinating Conjunctions....................................................................................................................... 161
Subordinating Conjunctions..................................................................................................................... 161
Controlled Practice................................................................................................................................... 162
Test...................................................................................................................................................................... 165
Evaluation............................................................................................................................................................ 167
Appendix 1........................................................................................................................................................... 169
Appendix 2........................................................................................................................................................... 179
Appendix 3........................................................................................................................................................... 189
Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................... 191

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Unit 1


In this unit you will learn:
Social English
The English Alphabet
The Verb to be
The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective
Question forms

Pre-Reading Tasks
Whats your name?
How old are you?
Where do you live?
What do you specialize in?
Reading
Read the following text about
George Ionescu, a student in
Romania:
My name is George Ionescu and I
am a student in the Faculty of
Drilling-Production at
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti. I come from Oradea, a town in the
North-West of Romania. I came here to study because this is the most
important petroleum university in the country, and even if I am very far
away from home, I want to learn many things here.
Im studying French and English, and I can speak French well and a little
English. I intend to improve my English, as, on the one hand, it is very


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useful to speak foreign languages and on the other hand, I might need it for
my future job. In Romania there are lots of Romanian-American,
Romanian-Canadian or Romanian-British companies.
Im enjoying my course a lot, but its very hard work! I live in the
university-hostel with three other students. They are older than me: Steve is
in the third year, Brian is in the second year and John is the oldest one: he is
in the fourth year. The courses started two weeks ago, so Im what the other
hostel-mates call me - a freshman. After the course I want to work for a big
petroleum company but I dont know which yet.
Everyday English
Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds:

/ei/ /i:/ /e/ /ai/ /u/ /u:/ /a:/
a b f i o q r
h c l y u
j d m w
l e n
k g s
p x
t z
v

Ways with Words
1. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three
minutes? Choose a partner who you dont know well, or imagine your
partner is a stranger. Work in small groups and find out things about your
partner.
2. Spell the name of George Ionescu. Then work in pairs. Spell your name
in English to your deskmate. Then find out how to spell his/her name.

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3. Find synonyms in the text for the following words: to study, to arrive,
class.
4. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings
from A and suitable endings from B. There are many possible answers:
A good language learner:
A B
borrows books without a teacher.
writes things down in every way possible.
guesses words without being told to.
tries to study in real situations.
tries to learn every day possible.
practises speaking from films, TV and records.
5. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. Choose
from the phrases in column B:
A B
answers the phone? Get well soon!
knocks on the door? Cheers!
says you are late? Excuse me!
is in danger? Dont mention it!
gets married? Well done!
passes an exam? Congratulations!
drinks with you? Sorry!
is in your way? Bless you!
says Good morning! Thanks.
says How do you do! Look out!
thanks you? How do you do!
is ill? Hello?
sneezes? Sleep well!
says Good night. Good morning.
says Make yourself at home. Come in!
says Have a good weekend. Thanks. Same to you.

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6. In the text about George Ionescu, you learned the expression on the one
hand .... on the other hand which means pe de o parte ... pe de alt parte.
Lets learn more expressions containing the preposition on:
to be on duty = a fi de serviciu;
on account of = pe baza, din cauz c, lund n consideraie c;
on and on = fr ntrerupere, la nesfrit;
and so on = i aa mai departe;
on this ground = din acest motiv;
to turn on/ to switch on (the light, the radio, etc.) = a deschide/ a aprinde
(lumina, radioul,etc.);
on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri;
on the basis of = pe baza;
on behalf of sb. = n numele cuiva, din partea cuiva;
on the contrary = din contr;
on a large/small scale = pe scar mare/mic;
on record = cunoscut;
on the score of = ca rezultat;
on the verge of = pe punctul de, pe cale, n pragul;
on the whole = n general, n ntregime;
on demand = la cerere;
on condition that = cu condiia;
on purpose = dinadins, intenionat;
on principle = din principiu;
on the first attempt = la prima ncercare;
on a sudden = brusc, deodat, pe neateptate;
on trial = de prob.
7. Look at the last simple sentence in the text about George Ionescu. The
sentence is: I dont know yet. Depending on the context in which it appears,
yet may be translated in different ways: nc, mai, n afar de aceasta, pn
n prezent, acum, totui, etc.
Lets learn some expressions containing the word yet.

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not yet = nu nc;
nor yet = nici mcar;
as yet = pn acum;
it is strange and yet true = e ciudat i totui e adevrat.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.
Grammar Reference
The Verb To Be
Form
Affirmative and negative
I am (m)
am (m) not
a student.
You
We
They
are (re)
are not (arent)

He
She
is (s)
is not (isnt)


Interrogative
Where am I?
are you?
we?
they?
is he?
she?
it?

Short answer
Are you a student in Drilling?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Is she an engineer?
Yes, she is. No, she isnt.

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The Demonstrative Pronoun and Adjective
Form
Reference Singular Plural
near reference this these
distant reference that those

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Eu sunt inginer. El este englez.
b. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu, acestea sunt colegele mele, Monica i
Andra.
c. Acesta este un televizor.
d. Acela este un aparat de radio.
e. Noi suntem tehnicieni.
f. Sunt ei specialiti francezi? Nu, nu sunt.
g. Suntei voi ingineri mecanici? Nu, noi nu suntem, noi suntem fizicieni.
h. Cine este aici? John este aici. El este cel mai bun student din grupa
noastr. El are note foarte mari.
i. Cine nu este aici? Maria nu este aici i nici George nu este.
j. Ele sunt chimiste. Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor. Acestea sunt cursurile
mele.
2. Read the following article on mobile rigs. Use your dictionary. Then fill
in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to be:
Why mobile rigs can make reliable production units
Conversion of early generation MODUs into production units.. a bold
step for operators of North Sea and other marginal field developments. Sea
and other severe environments, where maximum utilization.. the
primary concern of the designer, can equal the performance of conventional
platforms. We.. able today to know more about effects of wind, waves,

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and currents on vessel motion and mooring systems; people .. ready to
use new risers and subsea equipment designs.
4. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns:
a. .... is Adams pencil. It must be his because its got his name on it.
b. Are ... tools yours, John? Yes, they are. Thanks. They havent got my
name on them, but they belong to me.
c. . is a mill. Its over here. . is a generator. Its over there.
d. Is . an electric heater? No, that is an electric generator. . is an
electric heater.
e. ... are metals. Those are substances.

Question Forms
Look at the following question words:
What do you do for a living? - Im a chemist.
Who is your teacher of English? - Sandra Brown is.
Where is Paris? - In France.
When do you start the conference? - On Wednesday, April, 3rd.
Why are you learning English? - Because I need it for my job.
How do you come to Ploieti? - By train.
Whose are these tools? - They are Peters.

What and which can be followed by a noun.
What time is it?
What kind of chemistry do you study?
Which pen do you want, the blue one or the green one?
How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb.
How old are you?
How often do you play football?


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Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following text into English:
a. De unde eti? Sunt din Timioara.
b. Cnd ai venit prima oar n Ploieti? Anul trecut.
c. Ci ani ai? Douzeci i ase.
d. Ce mai faci? Sunt bine, mulumesc.
e. De ce te grbeti?
2. Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences:
a. What/Which time is the train due to arrive?
b. What/ How are you today?
c. Where/ When are you going now?
d. Who/How are you? I am John Smith.
e. What/ Which of these paintings do you like best?
3. Ask short questions on these statements, using who, what, where:
e.g. Ive just received a letter./ Who from?
a. I want to take this book with me. (for)
b. Will you please open this box? (with)
c. Im going to England next week. (by)
d. Please, get me a screwdriver. (from)
e. John is very angry. (with).

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Unit 2


In this unit you will learn:
English as a world language
The Personal Pronoun
Present Simple
Present Continuous

Pre-Reading Tasks
Try to think of the English-speaking countries in the world.
How many are they?
Do you know any countries in which English is used as the second
language?
What about countries in which English is spoken by many people?

Reading
Read the following text on English as a
world language. Try to find the personal
pronouns in the text:
Today, when English is one of the major
languages in the world, it doesnt require
too much effort of our imagination to
realize that this is a relatively recent
thing - that in Shakespeares time, for

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example, only a few million people spoke English, and this was not thought
to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and it was unknown to
the rest of the world.
English has become a world language because of its establishment as a
mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. People
started to import English in the seventeenth century, with the first
settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population
in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present status in
the world. As I could read in an article, one person in seven of the worlds
entire population speak English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent
in it. Incredibly enough, due to the extension of computerized systems and
softs which are mostly in English, 75% of the worlds mail and 60% of the
worlds telephone calls are in English. Again incredibly, yet true is the fact
that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty
million beginners. International literary or scientific publications are
generally printed in English and other languages such as German, Spanish
or French, yet again English is the predominant language. So, the quicker
you learn it, the more opportunities you may have to read interesting
materials connected to your field.
Ways with Words
1. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our
achievements and successes. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions
about English:
Model: Have you improved your accent?
Yes, I think I have.
Have you:
a. been to an English-speaking country?
b. passed any exams in English?
c. managed to translate anything into English?

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d. had any conversations with English native speakers?
e. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people?
f. used English in your studies or work?
g. read a scientific article in English?
h. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists?
i. learned any songs in English?
j. discovered any differences between English and your own language?
2. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a
foreign language.
Example:
You dont have to be serious to learn English, you have to be co-operative.

confident energetic
determined well-organised
independent patient
courageous enthusiastic
serious charming
handsome steady
ambitious intelligent
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
3. Choose the word which best completes each sentence:
a. If you want to become ... when you speak, you should forget about
making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible.
A. practical; B. fluent; C. handy; D. skillful.

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b. If you dont understand everything you hear, then listening to a tape is a
... of time.
A. matter; B. problem; C. waste; D. loss.
c. If youre not ... certain what someone has said, you should pretend that
you have understood.
A. very; B. fairly; C. surely; D. quite.
d. If you want to practise speaking a good idea is to tell a story or a ... to
someone.
A. joke; B. tale; C. laughter; D. fool.
e. When you ... an oral exam, it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after
each word.
A. make; B. take; C. speak; D. go.
4. In this unit you learned about English as a world language. Lets learn
some expressions containing the word as:
as compared with = n comparaie cu;
as a consequence of = ca o consecin a;
as if/ as though = ca i cum;
as far as = ntruct, pe ct, n msura n care;
as far as it goes = n ceea ce privete;
as follows = precum/ dup cum urmeaz;
as long as = att timp ct;
as regards = n ceea ce privete;
as a rule = de regul, n principiu;
as seen = dup cum se vede;
as shown in Fig. 2 = cum s-a artat n Fig. 2;
as such = ca atare;
as well = deopotriv, de asemenea;
as well as = ct i, tot aa ca;
as when = ca atunci cnd, ca n cazul n care;
as yet/ so far/ up to now. up to the present = pn n prezent;
such as = astfel ca, ca de exemplu.

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5. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: English has
become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue
outside England, in all the continents of the world.
How do you translate in all the continents of the world? Now learn some
expressions with the adjective all.
beyond all doubt = n afar de orice ndoial;
all at once = dintr-o dat;
all the better = cu att mai bine;
all in all = n ntregime, cu totul;
all in good time = toate la timpul lor;
all the more as = cu att mai mult cu ct;
all over = peste tot;
all worn out = complet uzat;
first of all = nainte de toate;
of all kinds = de toate felurile;
that is about all = ca, asta-i tot;
it is all one to them = le este tot una;
once for all = o dat pentru totdeauna.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Personal Pronoun
The nominative. Form
Person Singular Plural
First person I we
Second person you you
Third person he
she
it
they
The accusative/The dative. Form

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Person Singular Plural
First person (to) me (to) us
Second person (to) you (to)
you
Third person (to) him
(to) her
(to) it
(to)
them
Controlled practice:
1. Translate the folowing sentences into English:
a. El este inginer la o fabric de ciment.
b. Ei nu vorbesc engleza, dar noi i putem ajuta.
c. L-am vzut pe el la curs, dar pe ea n-am vzut-o.
d. Mi-a druit o carte de geologie, pentru c el avea dou exemplare.
e. l strig pe John, dar nu m aude.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun:
a. He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American petroleum
company.
b. I gave her/him that book as he needed it.
c. She told me/ to me that she needed a day off.
d. I think I saw him/ he in the street yesterday.
e. Have you told they/ them the news?

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Mood, Tense and Aspect
Look at the first complex sentence in the text. Try to find the form of the
verb to require. Doesnt require is a verb in the indicative mood. Its tense is
present and its aspect is simple.
Mood, tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. Roughly
speaking, mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a
state expressed by the verb, tense gives an indication of when the action
happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration, result,
etc.

Present Simple
Present Simple is used to express:
a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency
such as: always, constantly, continually, ever, frequently, forever,
hardly, never, normally, occasionally, often, rarely, regularly, seldom,
sometimes, usually, etc.):
I usually get up at 8.30.
Romanian people like to travel.
Most evenings we go out.
a fact which is always true (general truths and states):
Wood floats on water.
The Earth moves round the Sun.
The Danube flows into the Black Sea.
a fact which is true for a long time
I live in Ploiesti.
She works in a petroleum company.
Present Simple is used in explanations, demonstrations and stage directions:
Her drawing shows two parts of a hypebolic curve.
I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven.

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The door bell rings. She listens quietly. A window opens and a masked man
enters the room.

Form
Affirmative and negative
I work
do not (dont) work
in a university.
You
We
They
work
do not (dont) work

He
She
works
does not (doesnt)
work


Interrogative
Where do I work?
do you
we
they

does he
she
it


Short answer
Do you like summer?
Yes, I do.
Does she speak Italian?
No, she doesnt.

Present Continuous
Present Continuous is used to express:

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an activity happening now or around now
They are playing in their bedroom now.
I am designing a helix this week.
a planned future arrangement:
Im meeting you at 10 oclock tomorrow.

Form
Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be
followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing).
Affirmative and negative
I am (m)
am not (m)
not
working.
You
We
They
are (re)
are not
(arent)

He
She
It
is (s)
is not (isnt)

Interrogative
What am I doing?
are you
we
they

is he
she
it

Short answer
Are you coming?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Is she watching TV?

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Yes, she is. No, she isnt.

Controlled Practice:
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous:
a. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.
b. It (rain) now. It often (rain) in summer.
c. He (come) to see me tonight; we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we
(want) to make plans for it.
d. I (live) in Ploiesti, but this week, as I (attend) a course in Bucharest, I
(stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca.
e. Pardon me, sir, but I (think) you (stand) on my feet.
f. Maria (come) from Spain this week.
g. She (speak) French, English and Italian.
h. I (cut) a cone now and she (draw) an asymptote.
i. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses.
j. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right:
Greetings from Scotland! John and I .....
something different this year. Were at the
do
Edinburgh Activity Centre, where we .. a
good time and at the same time we ..
different things. People.. here every
have
learn

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summer to learn more about their hobbies and
interests.
come
I .. photography and tennis this week do
and John .. about computers. We .. up
at half past eight every morning
learn, get
and .. lessons from ten to half past twelve.
We .. lunch at one, and then there are more
lessons.
do
have
So its hard work. But I .. it here. We .....
a post-office in front of the Centre. The weather
is good. See you soon.
Love, Kate
like, have
3. What do you do in these situations?
a. When you miss a bus or a train, do you:
A. wait happily for the next one?;
B. shout angrily?;
C. blame someone else?
b. When you think about the future, do you:
A. dream of impossible success or wealth?;
B. plan your future career carefully?;
C. worry about what will go wrong?
c. When someone asks you a questions and youre not sure of the answer,
do you:
A. admit you dont know?;
B. give an answer you think may be right?;
C. try to change the subject?

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26
d. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of
your family, do you:
A. hope they wont notice?;
B. try to do something else for them?;
C. feel guilty?
e. When your boss or teacher is away, do you:
A. start laughing and joking?;
B. work hard as usual?;
C. do not work at all?
If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person. If
you chose mostly B, it means you are an ambitious person, and if you chose
mostly C, it means you are a pessimistic person.


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27
Unit 3


In this unit you will learn:
Getting a job
Verbs which do not take a Continuous Aspect in English
The Imperative
The possessive pronoun and adjective

Pre-Reading Tasks
What do you need in order to get a job?
Have you ever applied for a job? Has a friend of yours ever applied for a
job? Talk about the way you should introduce yourself or any other
problems you think may occur.
Reading
Read the following text on getting a job. Can
you notice the imperatives in the text?
A job starts with an application, but so many
of the application letters end up in the
wastepaper basket, as for example you may
feel frustrated if you use cheap, lined notepaper. You should know that you
are supposed to use A
4
, and preferably to type your CV and the
accompanying letter. The CV needs to be clear and not too long: one page is
enough. Dont include all your personal details (such as for example
whether you are married or not, your hobbies, etc.). In the letter that you
send with the CV, show some enthusiasm for the job, and demonstrate that
you have read the job advertisement thoroughly. Stress how suitable you
consider you are for that job, but dont write something which contradicts


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28
the data you offered them in your CV! Then, good luck with the interview
itself!
Ways with words:
1. In the sentences below, use one suitable word from the list that follows.
Not all the words are possible:
a. I sent in my ...... to the the address given in the advertisement.
b. They told me I lacked ...... as I had never had that kind of job before.
c. The manager told me he couldnt wait as he had ...... to do.
d. Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an ...... all day long.
e. Before I left that oil company, I handed in my ......
f. When I applied for this position, I asked my previous boss for a ......
g. You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an ......
h. My first ...... was helping in a shop at weekends.
i. In our company every ...... receives a months salary.
j. You could ...... over 2,000 a month as a sales representative in this
company.
qualifications; reference; experiences; application; work; employer;
interview; gain; resignation; job; diploma; department; applicant; earn;
wages; office; gain; desk; salary; employee.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Read the sentence A job starts with an application again. Now learn some
expressions containing the preposition with:
with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit;
with an eye to = urmrind, fr a pierde din vedere;

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29
with the exception of = cu excepia c;
with full steam on = cu toat viteza nainte;
with reason = pe drept, pe bun dreptate;
with reference/ respect to = n privina, referitor, cu privire la;
with a view of = n scopul de a;
as with = la fel ca i;
together with = mpreun cu;
to do away with = a nltura, a termina cu.
3. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: You should know
that you are supposed to ...; In the letter that you send with the CV, show
some enthusiasm for ...
As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. In the first sentence
it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative
clause. Here are some expressions containing the word that:
that far = att de departe;
that is the point = aceasta-i problema;
that much = cam att;
thats how it happened = aa s-a ntmplat;
that is why (thats why) = de aceea, din aceast cauz;
that is to say = adic;
but for that = dac nu ar fi fost asta;
for all that = cu toate acestea;
in order that = pentru ca, s;
like that (just like that) = aa;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English
There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continuous
aspect:

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30
verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see, hear, smell, taste, notice,
recognize, etc.
I smell gas.
verbs of thinking: think, realize, know, understand, suppose, expect,
remember, forget, mind, etc.
I dont remember your name.
verbs of having and being: have, own, owe, belong to, possess, be,
contain, matter, hold, etc.
The house belongs to my mother.
I have a very good lathe.
verbs of emotion: love, hate, like, dislike, refuse, want, wish, forgive,
etc.
I hate people calling me late at night.
He wants to buy a new tool.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Aceast sticl conine acid boric.
b. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei.
c. Ursc s mi se cear s fac o lucrare de azi pe mine.
d. Ea are doar un curs de chimie i dou de fizic.
e. Acest curs conine 14 capitole.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following
sentences:

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31
a. Im thinking/ I think of you.
b. She smells/ is smelling gas.
c. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt.
d. We have/ are having dinner now.
e. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath
right now.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

The Imperative
The imperative is a mood which expresses an order, a command, a wish, a
greeting, a piece of advice, a threat:
Come here!
Leave me alone!
Watch your step!
Lets go!
Form
The imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural.
Affirmative Negative
Get ready!
Start working!
Dont get ready!
Dont start working!

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following into English:
a. Servete-te i servete-i i pe ceilali!

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32
b. Vino, te rog, la noi s ne ajui s rezolvm o problem de chimie
organic.
c. i dai un deget i i ia toat mna!
d. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator, pentru c dup aceea trebuie s-l folosesc
i eu.
e. Luai loc, v rog, doamn!
f. Nu pleca, pentru c nu am terminat proiectul!
g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru c sunt sub tensiune.
h. Nu ncerca s m faci s m rzgndesc, pentru c o faci degeaba.
i. Du-te i vezi dac au terminat cursul.
j. Grbete-te, mai ai doar cinci minute!
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Make the following sentences negative:
a. Come here!
b. Get ready as we are in a hurry!
c. Be on time, because English people are never late.
d. Go home and well finish this tomorrow.
e. Work faster as we need to finish this uuntil two oclock.

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_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

The Possessive Pronoun and the Posessive Adjective
The possessive pronoun. Form
Person Singular Plural
First person mine ours
Second person yours yours
Third person his
hers
its
theirs

The possesive adjective. Form
Person Singular Plural
First person my our
Second person your your
Third person his
her
its
their
Controlled Practice
1. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives:
a. My/ mine fathers car is new. Mine/my is very old and ugly.
b. We have been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from
your/our room. They belong to us Were using the pictures for a project of
ours/yours.
c. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different
corners ot it.

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34
d. This is her/hers car. She bought it two months ago.
e. My results are better than yours/your.
f. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw you when you lent it to your/yours
friend, Tom.
g. I dont think this is one of Emmas pens. I know she has lost her/hers
calculator, but I havent heard her say she has lost a pen . What do you
think?
h. My/mine speciality is paleontology. I have specialized in the study of
prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils.
i. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil industry and the
kind of work that is involved, we will prove ours/our knowledge later.
j. Your/yours article on drilling wells in blazing deserts is a good one.
_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


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35
Unit 4


In this unit you will learn:
Writing a CV
Writing a letter of application
Classification of Nouns
Number of Nouns
The Genitive


Pre-Reading Tasks:
What information should your CV contain?
What information should your letter of application contain?

Reading 1

Read the following CV. Can you find any improvements? Work with your
mates and report your findings to the rest of the class:

CURRICULUM VITAE
PERSONAL DETAILS
Name: Radu IONESCU
Address: 23 Bvd. Bucureti
Ploieti 2000 Prahova
Telephone: 044165342

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36
Date of birth: 1 January 1974
Nationality: Romanian
Languages: Fluent English; Conversational French
Computer literacy: Wordperfect, Lotus 1-2-3, Windows 2000, Math-Cad;
Math-Lab.
EDUCATION
2001-2000: Master of Science - Drilling - Petroleum-Gas University of
Ploieti
1995-2000: Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti- Faculty of Well
Drilling and Production
A levels: Mathematics, Drilling, Recovery, Chemistry, Technical
Drawing
WORK HISTORY
Sept. 2000-Sept. 2001: drilling engineer at GPS Arad
Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts
Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services - assistant
Summer 1997: Videle Well Drilling - technician
INTERESTS: aerobics, cinema, theatre, reading
REFERENCES: available on request.

Ways with words:
1. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV:
a. Bold is used selectively. Your name is obviously important, so you
should make sure it stands out.
b. When you state the languages you can speak, conversational and fluent
are the only words to use about them. Dont use qualifications such as well,

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37
very well, etc. If they really want to find out about your language skills, they
will surely test you.
c. Education and qualifications should be listed together. The A levels are
important, as they may show that you are suitable for that job, as you had
the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your
future job.
d. For the Work History section, it is vital to highlight your student
activities.
e. Dont make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section.
You should mention references only if they are very impressive.

Reading 2
Here is the letter of application Radu Ionescu has written. Skim through the
letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself:
23 Bvd Bucureti
Ploieti 200 Prahova
Mr A. D. Vlad
Personnel Manager
Petrom Bucureti
Dear Mr. A. D. Vlad
Ref.: drilling engineer vacancy
I am writing to apply for the position of drilling enginner that you advertised
in Bursa on 5 October 2001, as I believe it offers the carrer challenge which
I am seeking.
As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae, I graduated from
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti last year, then I have had a
successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad.
I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add
value to your organization:
Organizational skills - developed in my current job with GPS Arad.

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38
Accounting skills - developed in my role as university officer where I
prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of
1,000,000,000 lei per annum.
Interpersonal skills - developed through working in a team environment in
my current role and through a number of holiday positionswhen I was a
student.
I have a keen interest in drilling engineering and would appreciate the
opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for
your requirements.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely, Radu Ionescu

Ways with words:
1. Here are some lines from different letters of application of several
candidates for this job. Choose the most appropriate and convincing
sentence in each group. What do you think is wrong with some of the
sentences listed below?
a. I am familiar with this type of work./ I am totally knowledgeable about
this type of work./ I know this type of work.
b. I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I can maintain
friendly relationships with people./ I am a friendly and tactful person.
c. I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very
responsive./ I always make the best decisions in my office, as I am a reliable
person./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary.
d. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job./ I hope I am right for
this sort of work./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job.
e. I am quite interested in this kind of work./ I have a genuine interest in this
kind of work./ I am extremely interested in this type of work.

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39
2. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001.
Look at it and write your CV. Then write the letter to cover your CV
applying for the vacancy:


CONSTRUCT Ltd.
Romanian-Canadian company providing
expertise, human resources and equipment
for the construction industry
requires
Human Resource Officers

Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Bussiness
Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy, or
company management.
Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet
deadlines. Applicants should be fluent in English and French.
Please enclose a current CV and letter of application addressed to Mr
Ion Pop, Human Resources Manager, Construct (Romania) Ltd., 13,
Piaa Roman, Bucharest.
3. Read the following presentation of Beicip-Franlab. Apply for a job within
the company. Write your letter of application.
BEICIP-Franalb
Rueil-Malmaison Head Office
232, Avenue Napolon Bonaparte
BP 213-92502 Rueil-Malmaison-Cedex-France
Phone : 33 (1) 47 08 80 00
Fax : 33 (1) 47 08 41 85
The industrial projects division is one of Beicip-Franlabs four
operating divisions
The independent consulting services provided by the division cover all
industrial associated with the Oil & Gas and derived industries as well as the
global energy sector.

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40

The fields of activities are:
Energy system organization
Oil and gas production
Petroleum refining/distribution
Natural gas processing
Hydrocarbon transport, pipeline
Petrochemicals, fertilizers
Environment centres

The consulting services provided by the division are related to each
individual filed of expertize and can be combined according to the clients
requirements depending on the project status :
Sectoral and corporate planning
Feasibility studies
Project management
Management services
Specialized services
The industrial Projects Division resources are: a highly qualified and
experienced staff with an international experience of consultancy and
advisory services in fields of expertise:
Economics, financial analysis
Market, marketing
Process and engineering
Contracting
Cost estimation/control
Schedule control
Environment
Risk and safety
Training
Audits

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41
Valuation of assets
Restructuring
And with efficient and quality softwares and models servicing:
Data banks
Market evaluation
Energy planning and pricing
Projects optimization (L.P. models)
Economic and financial analysis
Process and basic engineering
Environmental/safety evaluation
Engineering design/drawings (CAD)
Project management
The company worked for governments, national and private companies,
multilateral or bilateral development organizations, bankers and is spread
out in over 100 countries. Some of these clients have, repeatedly, called
upon our expertise for more than two decades.
Among the services that Beicip-Franlab offers we may include
sectoral and corporate planning (energy planning, energy
conservation, resource appraisal, market/end-use analysis, resource
allocation optimization, projects identification/ranking, costs/benefit
evaluation, economic/financial appraisal, projects strategical
screening, pricing policy, marketing, financing issues, multiclient
studies) and
feasibility studies (market survey, feedstock availability,
scheme/technology evaluation, technical definition,
environmental/safety assessment, investment cost estimate,
operating cost estimate, economic/financial analysis, project
arrangement/schedule, financing opportunities).
management services (technical audit, management policy, income
valuation, financial valuation, insurance)
project management including:

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42
project preparation: site or route selection, project definition
(basis of design, project base line plan, technical definition
(process units; basic design, utilities and offsites conceptual
design, infrastructure requirements), tender documents
(technical documents packaging, project arrangement plan,
contract drafting)
project contracting, evaluation of licensors bids, contractors
bids, assistance with negotiation
project implementation (supervision of engineering studies,
supervision of construction work, quality control, budget and
schedule control, assistance in commissioning and start-up)
petroleum R&D centres projects: definition of objectives,
architectural conept, lay out/infrastructure study, safety security,
environment, equipment specifications, budget estimation, assistance
in procurement, supervision of construction, commissioning and
start-up, personnel training, long-term co-operation
environmental studies: environmental impact assessment,
environmental audit, plan for reducing emissions, soil remediation
project, life cycle analysis, industrial environmental planning)
safety (safety audit, safety study, damage survey)
Beicip-Franlab does not ignore the importance of the traditional domains of
process and of project engineering but emphasizes the role of market experts
and economists involved in a study.
The methodologies developed over more than two decades, along with the
technical and economic computer models, are an assurance of optimized
long-term strategies or specific industrial projects.
Feasibility studies, and even more so, sectoral and corporate planning,
require the contribution of numerous and diverse expertise both in the
upstream and in the downstream sectors of the Oil & Gas industries.
This integrated competence found in one single company is a guarantee of
the coherence and reliability of Beicip-Franlabs services.

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43
Auditing industrial operations does not only require concentration on the
structural and financial aspects, but also focuses on the market, the practical
operation, the maintenance, the process, the organization and economic
issues of the company or the organization under consideration.
Beicip-Franlab has, through its long international experience of planning
studies and of project management, developed a comprehensive and
independent approach in providing management services to the directors of
Oil and Gas organizations and companies.
The French Petroleum Institute R&D experience over the last five decades
has been transferred to over ten Petroleum Research Centres projects world-
wide. These projects were implemented under the entire responsibility of
Beicip-Franlab which has thus been disseminating this know-how in the Oil
& Gas sector around the world.
The environment and safety activities of Beicip-Franlab have developed
since the late seventies by taking advantage of the various categories of in-
house experts as well as of The French Petroleum Institutes works.
The inter-disciplinary competence of our division, including environment
generalists, covers the field of prevention, diagnosis, technological advice,
expert reporting on damage, as well as the setting-up of environment and
safety management programmes.
Grammar Reference
Classification of Nouns
Countable nouns Uncountable nouns
a girl
a man
a tool
a cup
an apple
a guitar
a pound
water
sugar
milk
music
weather
money
oil/ petroleum

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44
a car
a well
coal
gas
We can say two cups, four girls, ten pounds, twenty cars. We can count
them. We cannot count sugar, water or oil.
Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
This cup is empty.
These cups are full.
Uncountable nouns can only be singular:
The water is cold.
The weather is fine.
The coal has a good quality.

Number of Nouns:
Form
Variable nouns form the plural in the following way:
-s is added to the singular:
books-books, tool-tools
-es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, nouns
ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i), nouns ending in -
o:
bus-buses, box-boxes, match-matches, brush-brushes, city-cities; potato-
potatoes (But: photo-photos)
-(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v):
knife-knives, leaf-leaves, shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs)
Irregular plural nouns:
man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese, louse-lice,
mouse-mice, child-children, ox-oxen
Foreign plurals
stimulus-stimuli, larva-larvae, stratum-strata, basis-bases, criterion-criteria,
phenomenon-phenomena, datum-data, etc.


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45
The Genitive
The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of, used with neuter
nouns:
the tower of London, the colour of oil, the cover of the book, etc.
The synthetical genitive (s genitive) is used after:
nouns denoting persons or other beings:
Johns lecture, my parents advice
nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value:
a two months practice, yesterdays newspaper, a pounds worth of pears
collective nouns:
the governements decisions, the Parliaments laws
geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.:
Englands mountains, the spaceships crew, the afternoons heat.
Controlled Practice:
1. Complete this newspaper article. Choose the correct singular or plural
form in the brakets:
Clayton Factory for Milchester
The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in
Milchester. (This/These) news (was/were) announced by company chairman
Mr David Clayton yesterday. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester
before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby.
The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and
(is/are) famous for its Polymode (good/s) The slogans Youre never
alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/s) and Plymode (jean/jeans)
(is/are) the (one/ones) for you are well known. The companys profit last
year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business.
Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/s) there will be, but
(information/s) that there will be (work/s) (is/are) hard to find at the
moment, and 2,000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small
town.

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46
2. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. Make all other changes which
are necessary:
a. This child is a naughty one.
b. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists.
c. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove.
d. When I entered the room, he was arranging this books on the shelf.
e. Where have you put that box?
3. Translate into English:
a. Printele acestor doi copii se numete Gilbert Stones.
b. S-au fcut progrese semnificative n acest domeniu al cunoaterii.
c. El folosete multe maini-unelte.
d. La nceputul secolului XX, nu erau foarte erau multe studente n colegii.
e. Tatl studentului a venit la universitate s vorbeasc cu profesorul de
chimie.
4. Use the correct form of the verb:
a. The audience (is, are) asked to pay attention to the speech.
b. My family (has, have) been living in that chalet for years.
c. The majority (was, were) against the war.
d. That team (is, are) all children.
e. Mathematics (was, were) my favourite subject.
f. Politics (is, are) a matter of no interest to me.
g. The police (has, have) been chasing the thieves for weeks.
h. The audience (has, have) just come back and (is, are) taking (its, their)
seats.

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47
Test
1. Choose the best variant:
1. It .. a lot this winter, even if in Romania it generally
so much in this region.
A. is snowing/ snows; B. snows/ is snowing; C. is snowing/ doesnt snow;
D. snows/ isnt snowing.
2. This book .. to me and it .. five chapters.
A. belongs/ contains; B. is belonging/ is containing; C. belongs/ is
containing; D. is belonging/ contains.
3. I .. Speak English very well, but I ..my best to make
myself understood by the others.
A. speak/ do; B. dont speak/ do; C. am not speaking/ am doing; D. dont
speak/ am doing.
4. Where ? .. you should help us finish this?
A. are you going?/ dont you think; B. do you go?/ arent you thinking;
C. do you go/ do you think; D. are you going/ arent you thinking?
5. for tools?
A. Do you look/ these; B. Dont you look/ these; C. Are you looking/ those;
D. Are you looking/ these.
6. .. office is the big one? Its Johns. It has been for
two years.
A. Whose/ his; B. Which/ hers; C. Whose/ her; D. Which/ his.
7. There .. far too .. mistakes in your paper.
A. are/ much; B. arent/ many; C. are/ many; D. arent/ much.
8. I dont understand who .. about.
A. you are talking; B. are you talking; C. you talk; D. do you talk.
9. If you to practise English more, it is a good idea for you to
speak to . people. They came from England two days ago.
A. want/ these; B. want/ those; C. dont want/ these; D. dont want/ those.
2. Translate into English:

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48
George este student la Foraj. n acelai timp lucreaz pentru o companie de
petrol la Bucureti. El nu are mult timp liber, pentru c la sfritul
sptmnii are cursuri la universitate. Duminica, atunci cnd nu are multe
cursuri, ncearc s se gndeasc la ceea ce a nvat n timpul sptmnii.
Astzi este smbt sear i George este acas cu familia lui. Ei iau cina i
discut despre planurile lor de vacan.

Answer key:
1. C; 2. A; 3. B; 4. A.; 5. D; 6. A.; 7. C.; 8. A.; 9. A.
2. George is a student in Drilling. At the same time he works for a
petroleum company in Bucharest. He doesnt have much free time, for at the
weekend he has courses at the university. On Sunday, when he doesnt have
so many courses, he tries to think of what he has learnt during the week.
Today its Saturday evening and George is at home with his family. They
are having dinner and talking about their holiday plans.
1. 1 point + 1 point per ech good answer
2. 1 point + 9 points per translation.

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49
Unit 5


In this unit you will learn:
Drilling methods
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Expressions of quantity
The Adjective

Pre-Reading Tasks
What system is used for water wells?
Which was the first oil well in Romania?

Reading
Read this text about cable-tool drilling.
Look at the tenses of the verbs. Translate
the text into Romanian:
When the first real oil well was drilled in
Pennsylvania, the United States, in 1859,
engineers used a system which was being
used for digging wells for water. They
punched a hole into the ground. They
used a cutting tool, a bit, on the end of a
drilling stem which they were raising and then let it fall; the bit cut and
crushed the dirt or rock at the bottom of the well. The moment the debris at
the bottom of the well was removed, the stem and bit were pulled up,. Then


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50
the bit was dropped again to crush more rock, and the process was repeated
over and over again.
This technique is used nowadays only when the wells are shallow and when
there is hard rock to cut through. Most modern wells are drilled by the
rotary drilling method.

Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Well: hole sunk into the earth to reach water, oil, or gas.
Bit: a cutting tool. There are different bits used in drilling for oil (diamond
drill bits, fishtails, roller bits, etc.) Each type is suitable for use in
penetrating different subsurface layers.
Cable-tool drilling: a system for drilling oil wells. A hole is punched into
the ground by dropping a cutting tool into dirt or rock.
Rotary drilling: another system for drilling oil wells. A cutting bit drills the
hole with a rotary or circular motion.
2. In the sentence: When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania,
the United States, in 1859, the preposition in introduces both an Adverbial
of place (in Pennsylvania) and an Adverbial of time (in 1859). Now lets
learn some expressions containing the preposition in:
in all probability = dup toate probabilitile;
in all together = n total;
in the beginning = la nceput;
in contrast to/with = n contrast cu;
in common with = n comun cu;
in itself = n sine;
in order to/ that = ca s, pentru ca;
in particular = n special;
in the place of/ in lieu of = n loc de;
in practice = n principiu;

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51
in progress = n curs de;
in print = tiprit;
in return for = n schimbul a;
in quantity = n cantitate;
in search of = n cutare de;
in spite of = n ciuda faptului c;
in such a manner = n aa mod;
in sum = pe scurt, n dou vorbe;
in that = n aceea c;
in token of = n semn de, ca dovad;
in turn = cu rndul;
to be interested in = a fi interesat de;
to result in = a avea ca rezultat;
to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes n; a reui n.(e.g. She succeeded
in passing the exam).
3. How do you translate the debris at the bottom of the well? Now learn
some expressions containing the preposition at:
at best = n cel mai bun caz;
at a disadvantage = n dezavantaj;
at ease = linitit, pe ndelete;
at full load = cu sarcin plin/ total;
at intervals = la intervale, intermitent;
at liberty = fr restricii, liber;
at most = cel mult;
at once = imediat;
at request = la cerere;
at right angle = la unghi drept;
at stake = n joc;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.


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52
Grammar Reference
Past Simple
Past Simple is used to express
a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions:
last year/ month/ week/, five years/ two days/ four weeks ago, yesterday,
yesterday morning/ evening, in 1985, etc):
They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century.
The chemists reported the results obtained yesterday.
The discovery of diffraction of X-rays by von Laue (1912) led to the
discovery of the Bragg Crystal spectometer.
habitual, repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent
characteristic);
She always wore red.
I met him every d1ay on my way to the office.
Past Simple is used to describe a series of actions which follow one another
in a story
Tom came into the room. He took off his shirt, put on a T-shirt and sat down
in the armchair. Suddenly he remembered something. He stood up and went
out of the room.
(narrative past)

The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons.

Affirmative
The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed.
There are many common irregular verbs. In order to create this tense you
need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 169 Appendix 1)

I
You
We
arrived
went to Sinaia

yesterday.

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53
They
He/She

Negative
-the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not
(didnt).
I
You
We
They
He/She
did not (didnt) arrive
did not (didnt) go to Sinaia

yesterday.

Interrogative
-the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did.
When did
Where did
I
you
we
they
he
she
arrive?
go?

Short answer
Did you go to work yesterday?
Yes, I did. No, I didnt.
Did she report the results obtained?
Yes, she did. No, she didnt.

Past Continuous
Past Continuous is used to express:
an action in progress at some time in the past
What were you doing at 10 oclock yesterday?
I was calculating the length of the diagonal of a square.

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54
When she arrived, he was sleeping.
. past activity happening over a period of time
I was reading from 4 to 6.30 yesterday.

Form
was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle)

Affirmative and negative
I
He
She

was
was not (wasnt)
working.
You
We
They
were
were not
(werent)


Interrogative
What was I
he
she
doing?
were you
we
they

Short answer
Were you working at this time yesterday?
Yes, I was. No, I wasnt.
Was she studying when you entered the room?
Yes, she was. No, she wasnt.


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Past Simple and Past Continuous
I was doing my homework at 7 oclock last night. (I was in the middle of the
activity.)
I did my homework yesterday. (I started and finished.)
They were producing drilling bits when those people started to buy shares in
their company.
She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room.
(producing and looking are long activities. Something happened in the
middle to interrupt them).

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide which is the correct verb form:
a. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night.
b. While I was learning/ learnt for my Chemistry exam, somebody was
knocking/ knocked at the door.
c. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed
the wire, I was dropping/ dropped the knife.
d. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was
starting/ started to ring.
e. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington, but the
jets engines went/ were going wrong.
f. We produced/ were producing 10,000 drilling bits last year.
g. Chemistry played/ was playing an essential part in the development of the
refining process 20 years ago.
h. Our crew included/ was including a seismic shooter and the man who set
off/ was setting off the blast.
i. When the exploration was completed, the drilling crew moved/ was
moving in.

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56
j. The first important commercial product from crude petroleum was
kerosene, which quickly was replacing/ replaced whale oil in the kerosene
stoves in the 50s.
2. Find the correct action for each person and make a sentence:
Example:
Copernicus- studying the planets
Copernicus studied the planets.
People Actions
Elvis Presley going to the moon
Shakespeare inventing the electric light
Picasso writing Romeo and Juliet
Neil Armostrong singing rock music
Americo Vespucci playing tennis
Artur Aish discovering America
Martin Luther King painting Guernica
Thomas Hardy working for Black peoples rights
Edison creating novels
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3. Supply the simple past tense or the continuous past tense of the verbs in
brackets:
The accident (happen) at 11.46 pm on September 21st at the corner St and
Brooks Bd, Milchester. Mr and Mrs Smith (be) on their way home. Mr
Smith (drive). It (not rain) at the time, but the roads (be) wet, as it had
rained before. At 11.46 pm Mr Michael Johnson (cycle) north along Brooks
Bd. He (have) his lights on. Mr Smith (not stop) at the traffic lights. As he
(turn) into Brooks Bd, he (hit) Mr Johnson and (knock) him off his bike. Mr
Johnson (be) not badly hurt, but his bike (be) damaged. Mr Smith (stop) and
(report) the accident. This (be) his first accident and now he is more careful
when he drives at night.
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Expressions of Quantity
some/any; much/many, a lot of/ lots of, few (a few)/ little (a little)
1. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative
sentences, and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences:
Ive got some tools.
Are there any books of Physics in the house?
We dont need any apples for this pie.
Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in
interrogative and negative sentences, but only with a singular noun:
There is some coal in this mine.
Is there any gas in this well?
We havent got any butter in the house.

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2. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative
sentences:
How many geologists work for this petroleum company?
We havent discovered many new oil fields.
Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative
sentences:
How much money have you got?
There wasnt much disappointment that awaited the drillers at the bottom
of that dry hole.
3. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of:
Weve got a lot of uniforms.
There are lots of drilling bits.
Theres a lot of gasoline in this pipeline.
Hes got a lot of money.
4. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few, while uncountable nouns are
used with little/ a little:
Ive got a few problems at the moment.
We only need a little money to buy this.

Controlled Practice
1. Complete the following sentences with some or any:
a. Would you like .. more kerosene?
b. Could you give me .. information about the train times?
c. If you have .. trouble, just give me a ring.
d. Have you attended .. good conferences recently?
e. I tried to buy .. tools, but I couldnt find ......
2. Put much, many, or a lot of into each gap:
a. Have you got ... homework?
b. We dont need . oil.

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59
c. There are .. drilling books in our library.
d. I want .. pencils because Im going to draw a helix.
e. Is there .. petrol in the car?
The Adjective
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the
sentence.
Position of adjectives.
Adjectives appear before the noun or noun phrase that they modify (e.g. an
interesting course, a difficult exercise, a strange coincidence). Sometimes
they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set
order according to category. As after you finish this course you may write
scientific articles in English it is of major importance for you to know the
correct order of adjectives in a sentence.
The Order of adjectives in a series
It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow
house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and
not Italian blue sports car. The order in which adjectives in a series sort
themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second
language. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes
instinctive, because the order seems quite arbitrary. There is however a
pattern.
The categories in the following table can be described as follows:
Word
order
Types of adjectives

Examples
I. Determiners articles and other limiters
(numerals, possessive
adjectives, demonstrative
adjectives, etc.)
four people, the sixth
chapter, her story,
this tool
II. Observation postdeterminers and
limiter adjectives
real, perfect


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60
adjectives subject to
subjective measure
interesting, beautiful,
gorgeous
III. Size and shape adjectives subject to
objective measure
large, small, short,
round, square
IV. Age adjectives denoting age young, old, new,
ancient
V. Colour adjectives denoting
colour
red, black, yellow,
blue, green, brown,
orange, violet
VI. Origin denominal adjectives
denoting source of noun
French, English,
American, Spanish,
Polish, Romanian
VII. Material denominal adjectives
denoting what something
is made of
wooden, metallic,
woolen
VIII. Qualifier final limiter, often
regarded as part of the
noun
hunting cabin,
passenger car, book
cover
Controlled Practice:
1. Which words in column A can combine with words from column B?
A B A B A B
tall person heavy music Happy New Year!
high tree strong noise Merry Anniversary!
mountain loud traffic Christmas!
wall smoker Birthday!
building wind
price



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61
2. Translate into English:
a. Ea avea o main sport albastr.
b. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini n Petroleum Times.
c. El colecioneaz vase vechi, frumoase din porelan.
d. Ai ncercat s descifrezi acel text din engleza veche?
e. El confecioneaz dou bare din aluminiu.
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3. Read this text on digital integrated circuits. Pay attention to the adjective
order in this text. Translate it into Romanian:
A digital integrated circuit is designed to handle digital information. Most
digital integrated circuits operate on the binary system, such that one of only
two possible voltage levels can exist at the output. Input signals can be
either of these voltage levels. Digital logic circuits are switched from one
state to the other by a combination of several input signals, and logic
decisions are made according to which voltage level exists at the output for
a given combination of input signals.
Other types of digital circuit operate on the memory principle. in these ones,
if the output is triggered to one level by an input signal, it will then remain
at that level when the input signal is removed; that is, it will remember
that the last input signal was such as to trigger it to its output state.
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63
Unit 6

In this unit you will learn:
Advertising your petroleum product
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
Prepositions

Pre-Reading Tasks
If you create a new product, do you know how to advertise it in order to get
as many buyers as you expect?
How would you advertise the product your factory created?

Reading
Read this advertisement on Dirt Magnet
Plus. Identify the Present Perfect Simple of
the verbs:
Unique Products to maximize your wells
production
As Clear Fluids International, we have been
leaders in the industry, supplying
technologically innovative fluids to improve
the flow rates in your well. So, we have decided to give ourselves a new
moniker, one that is more reflective of our speciality. We are now known as
Well-Flow Technologies, Inc.


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64
We have made substantial improvements to our field proven displacement
fluid, Dirt Magnet. The result? We have designed and produced Dirt
Magnet Plus.
The non-flammable fluid works effectively to eliminate all contaminating
solids from the casing and tubing. The use of Dirt Magnet Plus helps
prevent damage to the formation during completion and leads to higher
production rates. Is is insoluble in brines and, with low specific gravity,
floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive. It is
also available in a low odour formulation.

Ways with words
1.Special terms
Flow: continuous stream or discharge.
Casing: pipe that is put inside the well as it is being drilled in order to
prevent contamination of fresh water (by salt, water, oil, and gas), washout
of the hole by drilling fluids, collapse of the hole, and so forth.
Drive: natural pressure which forces the oil to move.
2. In the sentence: Is is insoluble in brines and, with low specific gravity,
floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive, the
expression in such a way as is translated by n aa fel nct/ astfel nct.
Now learn more expressions containing the word way:
by way of = prin mijlocirea, n calitate de, cu ajutorul;
by the way = apropo;
in this way= n acest mod;
in every way = n toate privinele;
in a general way = n genere/ n general;
in one way = ntr-un fel;
one way or another = ntr-un fel sau altul;
out of the way = afar din cale/ drum;
under way = n curs de;

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65
way above = mult deasupra;
way ahead = mult nainte;
way below = mai jos;
way off = la o bun distan;
to give way to = a ceda la;
to make ones way = a-i croi drum, a face carier.
3. Read the sentence: So, we have decided to give ourselves a new moniker,
one that is more reflective of our speciality. So is a word which is generally
used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English.
Now lets learn some expressions containing the word so:
so as/ that = aa nct, astfel nct;
so far = pn acum, pn n prezent;
so far as = ntruct, n msura n care;
so it seems = aa se pare;
so much = att de mult;
so to say/ so to speak = aa zicnd, ca s zicem aa;
in a week or so = cam ntr-o sptmn;
so on and so forth = i aa mai departe;
in so doing = procednd astfel/ aa;
in so far as.. is concerned = ntruct privete.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Simple relates past actions and states to the present.
Present Perfect Simple is used to express:
a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still
having an effect (Present Perfect of Result):
I have already seen that movie. (i.e. I can tell you the story).
He has fixed his car. (i.e. He can drive it now).

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66
activities completed in the immediate past:
She has just met him in the laboratory. (But: She met him there a few
minutes ago.)
Has oil only been used by mankind in the last hundred years? (But: Why
was oil used on such a large scale in 1999?)
activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of
Experience):
I have been to Scotland once.
He has never used such a big screwdriver.
an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present
Ive known you for five years/ since 1996. (Since means from a definite
point in the past till now, and for expresses a duration).
How long have you worked as a driller?
How long has it taken the oil industry to grow to its present size?

Form
have/has+verb+(past participle)
The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. There are many common
irregular verbs (see the list on page 169 Appendix 1).

Affirmative and negative
I
We
You
They
have (ve)
have not (havent)
worked in a petroleum factory.
He
She
has (s)
has not (hasnt)


Interrogative
Have I
we
been to the United Kingdom?

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67
you
they
Has he
she

Short answer
Have you ever been to France?
Yes, I have. No, I havent.
Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer?
Yes, she has. No, she hasnt.

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple

Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following
sentences:
Ive lived in this flat for six months (I still do.)
I lived in this flat for two years. (Now I live somewhere else.)
F. Neagu has written very good short stories. (He is still alive.)
Shakespeare wrote very good plays. (He is dead.)
He has worked in this refinery for four years. (But: He started working in
this refinery in 1997.)
Have you found your books? (uncertainty)
Yes, I have.
Where did you find them? (certainty).
I found them behind a couple of other books, on the top shelf.

Controlled Practice:
1. Make sentences and questions about the following people
Example:
Alice is a drilling engineer.
-supervise/ a drilling well in Oradea.
She has supervised a drilling well in Oradea.

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68
-write a report on that?
Has she written a report on that?

a. John is a journalist.
-meet/ lots of famous people.
-interview the President?
b. Laura is a safety inspector.
-check/ for dangerous levels of gas
-prevent a well from exploding?
c. Mike is a derrickman.
-control/ the top of the drill pipe.
d. Chris is a petroleum engineer
-deal with engineering problems special to the oil industry.
-work in a big petroleum company?
e. Her brother is a welder.
- be in charge of/ a team of ten members.
-make mistakes in joining together two pieces of metal?
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2. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the
present perfect or simple past:
Maria: Hello, Dan.
Dan: Hello. I (not hear) from you for a long time.
Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks months, but you (not see) me.
I (be) on a tram.
Dan: Well, how are you? I remember that you were learning for your
chemistry test. . you (pass) it yet?
Maria: Yes, I have. I (pass) in December. I (not pass) my Physics exam yet.
But what about you, Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately?
Dan: No, not really. My brother is still out of work.
Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn?
Dan: Yes. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet.
Maria: Are you still working at Scotts?
Dan: Yes. They just (give) me a pay rise.
Maria: Well, thats one piece of good news.
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70
3. Imagine that you are talking on the phone to an old friend who you
havent seen for about two or three weeks. Write down three of four items
of news about yourself that you can tell your friend.
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4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple or the Simple
Past:
a. I (fly) over Paris last week. You (see) the Eifel Tower?
b. I (spend) four years in this company.
c. John (strike) a match, (light) his cigarette and (approach) his colleagues
quickly.
d. Mike is a famous singer. He (sell) over three million records.
e. How long you (work) as a drilling engineer? For eight years.
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5. Fill the blanks with since or for:
a. I havent seen you .. weeks.
b. Henry has been in hospital .. a week now.
c. Ive been in this university .. 1998.

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d. We havent had a test ..... October, 1999.
e. I have worked in this field .. five years.

The Preposition
Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in
a sentence. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a
prepositional phrase. Nouns, pronouns, noun phrases, gerunds or noun
clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions.
Note that in English, prepositions usually precede their objects:
Put it on the chair and leave!
Look at him.
Because of you, I can't get any work done.
After telling the whole story, he disappeared.As the preposition in English
may be different from the preposition in Romanian, here is a text in which
you may learn about the use of the preposition in English: (Also see the list
with prepositions which are usually mistaken by Romanian students on page
179 Appendix 2)

Now read the following text and pay attention to the use of the preposition
in English:
It seems generally accepted that Mathematics is indeed fundamental for all
engineering education, and for most schools all engineering students take
the same mathematics sequence.
Two areas of mathematics seem broadly basic to engineering: namely, the
calculus as used in the linear constant coefficient differential equation, and
statistical theory. The linear differential equation is a general form, useful to
engineering because we can obtain answers from it. Therefore, where this
form applies to the physical world, the use of mathematical prediction is
increasing over the experimental approach. Next is the area of the partial
differential equation, rigorously solvable in only a few special cases

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72
although approximation methods exist. Here the laboratory still depends on
many solutions where analytic methods are not yet fully available


Prepositions of Time
In the morning/ afternoon/ evening; January, February, etc.; summer,
winter, etc.; 1988; the 1930s; two weeks; two weeks time; your free (spare)
time; good/ bad weather
At six o clock, etc.; midnight; Easter/ Christmas; the weekend; the moment
On Saturday, Monday, etc.; Tuesday morning, etc.; 11-th January, etc.
For seven minutes, etc.; a long time; ages
Since June, 25-th, etc.; my last birthday; I came here
During* the film; the class; the war; my holidays; summer
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* In a sentence containing a subject and a verb, during is replaced by while:
While I was coming to you...

Controlled Practice:
1. Supply the right preposition:
a. She is very fond ... children.
b. The new teacher is very patient... us.
c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.
d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics.
e. What are you afraid ...?
f. Im proud ... your success.
g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far.
h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet dont expect us until late ...
night.
i. The results depended ... the stratigraphic trap.
j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology.
2. Put one of these prepositions in each empty space:

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73
These ambulance men are making preparations . taking a man to hospital,
on account . his having been knocked down by a car. These young
doctors are having a discussion . operating on the wounded man. They
take a lot od prode . doing their job as perfectly as possible. This nurse is
giving trhe man an injection as a protection getting tetanus. The man is
well again now. The doctor says he has no objection his going home
tomorrow.

3. Write this story. Put for, on, to or nothing in each empty space:
A: I have arranged someone to look after the shop while I am away.
B: Oh? Who?
A: James. I can always count him to help.
B: Thats wonderful. Have you reminded him that he can call me to
come if he needs me?
A: Yes, thanks, but he cant bear anyone to feel that he owes him
anything.
B: How sad! I always long someone to owe something to!
A: What do you mean?
B: I was only joking. But it seems me to be a sign of something strange if
one wants anyone to help one.
A: Well, I look you to help James if he needs it without forcing him
to refuse.
B: Of course.

4. Put in the missing prepositions:
.. a Monday evening ..... September 1931, .. about eight oclock,
the ship Voyager sank. The ship had been sailing .. the end of
September, when she left London, and was on her way .. England
.. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William
Batty, who saved himself .. swimming two miles. He spent three years
.. an island . the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk ..... the whole of it ..
an hour. He climbed .. the one hill and put a flag .... it .. a
signal. . night Batty slept .. a cave, where he felt quite ..
home .. the day, he often fished ..... a home-made net. He cooked the
fish .. a wood fire.
Batty stayed .. the island ... almost three years. .. August
1934, a ship was sailing . the island, and the captain saw Battys signal.
The sailors found a man .. a long blue coat .. dark hair and a
beard, looking rather ..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years
later he finally arrived in Australia .. air .

5. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column
A and then translate into Romanian:

A B
in work
on suspicion
under question
at joy
with love
above fire
out of ones breath
by fail
without heart
off duty


A B
interest for
lack in
ambition in
delight for
advantage between

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75
influence at
witness over
arrangement of
agreement of
declaration upon
protection against
difference to
damage on
impatience to


A B
busy to
inferior of
satisfied at
advantageous to
superior at
mad with
new to
afraid to
excited in
interested about


A B
run in
deal with
talk after
take about
divide on
think about; of
climb by
pass up
rely into

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believe for



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Unit 7

In this unit you will learn:
Solar Energy
Present Perfect Continuous
Modal verbs
Prepositions of place

Pre-Reading Tasks
How can people use solar energy?
Can you convert solar energy into chemical energy?

Reading
Read the following text on the relation
between chemistry and energy research.
Look at the tenses of the verbs:
Chemistry is an integral part of any
major energy research programme.
Chemists have played a key role, and
will continue to do so, in the
development of the energy technologies
needed to assure future growth. In the
last few years success has been
established in coverting the solar
energy into chemical energy, even if several problems remained. Solar
energy technology can have a significant impact on the energy supply over a
40-50 year time interval and it could contribute about 25% of the projected


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U.S. energy demands in 2020. Two possible ways of using solar energy are
the use of sun heat and the solar cell.
Heat from the sun is focussed onto a boiler using many small flat mirrors,
arranged to form a dish shape. At Odello in the French Pyrenees, a solar
furnace produces temperatures over 3000
o
C, enough to melt special steels.
When sunlight shines onto layers of silicon it is directly converted into
electricity. Each cell generates only a very tiny voltage. Hundreds of cells
are needed in solar arrays to give enough power for satellites or remote
telecommunications equipment.

Ways with words:
1. Special terms:
Chemistry: the science of the composition, properties, and reactions of
substances.
Research: systematic investigation to discover facts or collect information.
Assure: promise or guarantee; convince, make (something) certain.
Furnace: enclosed chamber containing a very hot fire.
Silicon: brittle nonmetalic element widely used in chemistry and industry.
Layer: single thickness of some substance, as a cover or coating on a
surface.
2. Have you ever encountered the word programme spelled as program?
This is not a mistake. Its just the difference between British English
(programme) and American English (program). There are several
differences in spelling words between British English and American
English.
Here are some of them:
British English American English
theatre theater
centre center
neighbour neighbor

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79
colour color
travelling traveling
organise organize
analyse analyze
3. Read again the following sentence: Hundreds of cells are needed in solar
arrays to give enough power for satelillites or remote telecommunications
equipment. How do you translate for? Is this a preposition or an adverb?
Now lets learn a few expressions containing this word:
for about = circa, aproximativ, n jurul a;
for all that = totui, cu toate acestea;
for certain = sigur, cu siguran;
for example/ for instance = de exemplu;
for reasons given = pentru motivele date;
for the time being/ the present = pentru moment/ n prezent;
as for = ct despre;
not for the world/ not for the life of me = pentru nimic n lume;
to compete for = a concura pentru;
to mistake sth. for sth. else = a lua un lucru drept altul;
to provide for = a se ngriji de. a avea grij de;
to take for granted = a lua de bun, a lua drept sigur;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous is used to express:
an activity begun in the past and still in progress at the moment of
speaking:
They have been creating new petroleum products for several years.
Ive been waiting for an hour and he still hasnt turned up.

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an activity begun in the past which has only just finished and is relevant
to the current situation:
Sorry Im late. Have you been waiting long?
Note: In both these uses a present perfect simple can be also used, especially
with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect, in
negative sentences, and when reference is made to the number of things that
have been done: They have created/ have been creating new petroleum
products for several years.
a repeated activity, in which case a nuance of reproach, irritation, etc.
can be present.
Ive been calling you for the past twenty minutes. Why dont you answer the
phone?
Its form consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the indefinite
participle of the main verb (verb+-ing).

Affirmative and negative

I
You
We
They
have been
have not been (havent been)
working.
He
She
has been
has not been (hasnt been)


Interrogative
What have I
have you
have we
have they
been doing?
has he
has she


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Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into English. Use Present Perfect
Simple or Present Perfect Continuous:
a. Te caut de o or. Pe unde ai umblat?
b. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el.
c. Cte sape de foraj ai folosit pn acum?
d. Locuim n Romnia de trei ani.
e. N-am mai vzut-o de cnd a terminat facultatea.
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2. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the
verbs in brackets:
a. Im tired. I (dig) all day.
b. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries.
c. I saw her in August, but (not see) her ever since.
d. How long you (learn) Chinese?
e. Youre out of breath. You (run)?
f. She still (not write) the report.;
g. What she (do) all afternoon?
h. They already (speak) to me about that experiment.
i. Your eyes are red. You (cry).

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3. Translate the following text into Romanian:
An important factor in the growth of the oil industry has been the
development of petrochemicals. Many products have been created by
chemists from petroleum. These include most of our modern plastics and
fertilers. Indeed, the increase in agricultural productivity - also known as the
green revolution - could not have taken place without petroleum-based
chemicals, including not only those that enrich the soil like fertilers but also
those that kill weeds, insects, and other pests such as herbicides,
insecticides, and pesticides.
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4. Choose the correct verb form:
a. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house?

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83
b. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten
years and a half.
c. Alan has been/ has gone to South America.
d. Hes tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all
day.
e. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English?
Modal Verbs
The modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verbs which express the
modality of the action and have some specific features. The following are
modal verbs:
can/ must/ / may/ need/ shall/ will/ would/ should
They have the following in common:
1. They help another verb. The verb form is the infinitive (without to)
She can drive.
He can speak English, French and Italian.
I must go.
May I open the window? Yes, you may.
2. Questions are formed by putting the modal verb in front of the subject.
There are no auxiliaries such as do/does/did, etc.
Can you type quickly?
Could you give me an example?
Should I go home now?
Need I invite them too?
3. The form is the same for all persons. Modals do not inflect (There is no -s
in the third person singular, and there are no -ing or -ed forms.)
She should learn more.
He can speak three foreign language well.
He insisted that Jack must go and see it himself.

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4. Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as not/ nt
immediately after the modal verb. There are no auxiliaries such as dont/
doesnt/ didnt, etc.
I cant spell your name.
She wouldnt like to become a teacher like me.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following into English:
a. Ea trebuie s plece.
b. El nu poate s scrie n englez.
c. Pot s nchid geamul?
d. Ea ar trebui s se strduiasc mai mult la examene.
e. Nu tiu s not, dar tiu s schiez i s patinez.
f. Ei nu tiu engleza, dar au nceput un curs anul acesta.
g. Vrei s te cstoreti cu mine?
h. Chiar trebuie s ne ducem la curs la ora patru? Da, chiar trebuie.
i. Nu vrem s venim cu tine, pentru c nu ne place la mare.
j. Tu vei sta unde i spun, dac nu, o s te pedepsesc.
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2. Choose the best variant which completes these sentences:
a. She can/may/ must go, otherwise she will miss the train.
b. I cant/ couldnt/may not help you at that time, as I was extremely busy.
c. Should/ Could/ Will I attend this optional course?
d. He cannot/ mustnt/ may not come to this wedding, as he is in Portugal.
e. Im afraid she may not/ cant/ mustnt help you at the moment, but I am
free now so could/ should/ may you tell me your problem?
3. Translate into English:
a. El trebuie c a plecat.
b. M ndoiesc c el a putut face aa ceva.
c. Eu tiu s vorbesc franceza de cnd aveam patru ani.
d. Noi trebuie s ne grbim, altfel ntrziem la cursul de fizic i nu mai
putem intra n sala de curs.
e. El poate s vin ma trziu, spunea c nu i-a terminat lucrarea la chimie.
f. Noi vom vota s se schimbe constituia.
g. Ei nu vor s mearg n excursie, li se pare prea scump.
h. E necesar s mi las bagajele aici?
i. A putea s l ajut, dar atept s-mi cear el ajutorul.
j. Nu ai voie s dai drumul la curent de aici. Instalaia este defect i se
poate ntmpla vreun accident.
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6. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. In some sentences more
than one modal is possible.
a. I promise to phone you next week. I will/ll phone you next week.
b. At the age of nine, he still didnt know how to read.
c. Its essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning.
d. Are you able to come with me tonight?
e. Its not a good idea for you to work so hard.
f. Its possible that theyll be here soon.
g. Why dont we go and see a film tonight?
h. He said that he intended to write to me soon.
i. Is it possible for me to sit here?
j. He refuses to give me an answer.
k. Its not necessary for you to apologize.
l. Am I allowed to smoke in here?
m. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve.
n. I want to help you but I am not able to.
o. I think its a good idea for me to stay in tonight: Ive got a lot of work to
do.
p. I dont know who she is but its possible that she is Ricks sister.
r. Do not tell him any of this: its vital that it remains a secret.
s. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep.
t. Its 7 oclock. I assume that Clare will be here soon.
u. I know hes in but hes not answering the phone. Im sure that he is
asleep.
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Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place
Movement Place
to at
used wih verbs of movement: go,
come, etc., even when the
meaning is different: She goes to
university.
not used with verbs of
movement: I arrived at the
house.
into/out of in (=contained by/ inside)
used with changes of place: She
walked out of the shop.
used with towns: I arrived in
London. But: I arrived at
London Airport. (=place)
across (=from one side to the
other: She went across the
promenade.)
by (=at the side of)
towards (=in the direction of: Im
going towards Cluj.)

Controlled Practice:
1. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition:

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88
a. I shut the door but left my key ..... it.
b. He strolled carelessly .. the road.
c. They arrived late .. the station.
d. She ran all the way .. the shop.
e. I went .. Paris last year.
f. I met her .. the rock concert.
g. The baby crawled .. the kitchen.
h. Theres a strike .. our factory.
i. She has left. She must be .. work.
j. The money fell ... my pocket.
2. Put in the missing prepositions:
.. a Monday evening ..... September 1931, .. about eight oclock,
the ship Voyager sank. The ship had been sailing .. the end of
September, when she left London, and was on her way .. England
.. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called Wilfred
Batty, who saved himself .. swimming two miles. He spent three years
.. an island . the middle of the Indian Ocean.
The island was quite small, and he could walk ..... the whole of it ..
an hour. He climbed .. the one hill and put a flag .... it .. a
signal. . night Batty slept .. a cave, where he felt quite ..
home .. the day, he often fished ..... a home-made net. He cooked the
fish .. a wood fire.
Batty stayed .. the island ... almost three years. .. August
1934, a ship was sailing . the island, and the captain saw Battys signal.
The sailors found a man .. a long blue coat .. dark hair and a
beard, looking rather ..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years
later he finally arrived in Australia .. air.

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Unit 8

In this unit you will learn:
Your catalogue at home
The Cardinal Numeral
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Continuous

Pre-Reading Task
If you produce a certain petroleum product which is the best way to promote
your product?
Reading
Your catalogue at home
Here is a presentation of Composite
Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and
Services. Translate the following text
into Romanian. Can you identify the
cardinal numerals in this text?
The key to a successful catalogue is a successful distribution. Thats why
your catalogue should be in the Composite Catalogue of Oil Field
Equipment and Services. Its where your prospects turn when theyre ready
to buy.
When you are in Composite Catalogue, youll be assured that virtually all
your customers and prospects have your product information at their
fingertips when they need it.
Well print your catalogue and distribute it worldwide to 20,000 locations
where it will be available to specifiers and buyers 24 hours a day, every day


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90
of the year. All for a fee thats probably less than it would cost you to print
and mail half that many.
When you individually mail your own catalogue, consider this. Research
indicates that out of every 1,000 catalogues distributed by mail 330 never
reach the prospect. Another 36 are either lost, tossed or mistified after
delivery. So, when it comes time to purchase, only 13% of your prospects
can find your product information. You can avoid this costly problem if you
employ us to do this for you.

Ways with words
1. In this text you have encountered the pair of words: buy/by. They are
called homophones. Homophones are words with two spellings and two
meanings but only one pronunciation (scent/ sent/ cent, flower/flour, pair/
pear). At the same time there are homographs in English. Homographs are
those words which have one spelling but two pronunciations and two
distinct meanings or usages. For example the homograph of the verb to tear
( a rupe) is the noun tear (lacrim).
Can you find homophones for the words listed below?
due, hair, hire, mail, parish, rain, whales, war, wax.
Answer key: dew, hare, male, perish, reign, Wales, were, whacks.
2. Read the following sentence: Well print your catalogue and distribute it
worldwide to 20,0000 locations. Worldwide is a compound word. A great
many new words are made by putting two little words together. The new
word may look hard at first, but you can get its meaning if you see the two
words from which it is made up.
We make many words from any, some, and every. Lets look at the words
made with any:
any one anyone
any time anytime
any place anyplace

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any body anybody
any way anyway
any how anyhow
any where anywhere
any thing anything
Now practise and form new words from every, some and no.
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Can you find the two words which formed the compound words listed
below? Translate the compound words. Translate the words they are made
up of:
airplane, busman, another, backstop, courtroom, countryside, gentleman,
gatepost, hammerhead, headache, horse-race, mailman, snowmen,
ourselves, daylight, summertime, doorman, bedtime, birthday, playtime,
holiday.
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Sometimes compound words are written as one word, sometimes two, and
sometimes they are written with a hyphen (-). The stress is usually on the
first word such as in the case of post office, headache, horse-race.
Match a line in A with a line in B. Check the spelling in your dictionary.
A B A B

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pocket clock car paste
alarm hour tooth opener
traffic time tin park
traffic belt departure time
safety lights earth quake
rush money screw recorder
word processor tape driver
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Grammar Reference
The Cardinal Numeral
The form of the cardinal numeral
1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 100 a (one)
hundred*
1,000 a (one)
thousand*
2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two 103 a (one)
hundred and two
1,003 a (one)
hundred and
three
3 three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three 306 three
hundred and six
3,476 three
thousand four
hundred and
seventy-six
4 four 14 fourteen 30 thirty 744 seven
hundred and
4,578 four
thousand five

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fourty-four hundred and
seventy-eight
5 five 15 fifteen 40 fourty 999 nine
hundred and
ninety nine
1,000,000 one
million
6 six 16 sixteen 50 fifty
7 seven 17 seveteen 60 sixty
8 eight 18 eighteen 70 seventy
9 nine 19 nineteen 80 eighty
10 ten 20 twenty 90 ninety

The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural form: 500 sheets
of paper - five hundred sheets of paper.
Notes:
1. When you read phone numbers, you should read them figure by figure.
For example: My phone number is 142357- My phone number is one four
two three five seven.
2. When you read years, you should read them in pairs of two figures.
For example: He died in 1987. - He died in nineteen eighty-seven.
Controlled Practice:
1. Read the following numbers:
4,536; 867; 629,846,768; 32,467; 23,535; 756,464,654.
2. Read the following years:
1543; 1987; 2002; 1654; 1876.

Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple is used to express:
an action completed before another action or moment in the past:
What happened to the mud that had burried the new deposits of oil?
He had read his lecture before he went to university.

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an action which began before another moment in the past and continued
up to that time or into it:
In 1999 we had drilled 54 wells for five years.
He had lived in this flat since he was born.
Its form consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.
Affirmative and negative
I
You
He/ She
We
They
had
had not (hadnt)
left.

Interrogative
What had I
you
he/she
we
they
done?
Short answer
Had you read the novel before we saw the film?
Yes, I had. No, I hadnt.
Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course?
Yes, he had. No, he hadnt.

Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous is used to express:
an action in the past begun before the time of speaking in the past and
still going on that time or possibly after:
Some men had been hauling the oil up to that time.
By that time we had been working on the project for two years.
They had been living for generations in that house.

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Its form consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present
participle of the main perfect.

Affirmative and negative
By that time I
you
he/she
we
they
had been
had not (hadnt)
been
working for a year.
Interrogative
What had I
you
he/she
we
they
been working on by that time,
last year?
Short answer
Had you been working on that project by that time for a year?
Yes, I had. No, I hadnt.

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide the order in which these things happened. Then write two
sentences using after and the past perfect.
Example:
The bank clerk gave it to me./ She looked at my cheque./ She counted out the
money.
After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque, she counted the money.
After she had counted the money, she gave it to me.

a. The tourists got out of the coach./ They got back in the coach./ They took
photos.

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b. The prisoner ran across the yard./ He jumped out of the window./ He
climbed over the wall.
c. The reporter wrote a report on the accident./ She interviewed the people
there./ She went to the scene of the accident.
d. The mechanic put a new tyre on./ He put the wheel back on./ He took the
wheel off the car.
e. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ She wrapped it./ She
showed it to me.
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2. Translate into English:
a. Se cunoteau de trei ani.
b. Pn atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de dou luni.
c. Ce s-a ntmplat dup ce am plecat?
d. l ateptam de o or, cnd am aflat c avusese un accident la sond.
e. Despre ce vorbeai cnd ne-am ntlnit?
f. Noi cunoteam adevrul n momentul n care te-ai decis tu s ni-l spui.
g. Abia se terminase ploaia c a i nceput un vnt ngrozitor.
h. De ndat ce a terminat tema, a sunat telefonul.
i. Ei se cunoscuser cu zece ani n urm, la o conferin de petrol.

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j. Nu crezuse c o s i se ntmple tocmai lui s nu-i aminteasc aa nite
noiuni elementare de fizic.
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3. Use the simple past, or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the
verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below:
a. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she
(write).
b. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant.
c. It was getting late, so we (decide) to go to bed.
d. She (say) that she (study) for two hours.
e. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes, as everybody (be)
interested in the story of the prime minister.
f. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie
on Channel 1.
g. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o clock?
She (watch) TV for an hour.
h. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring.
i. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain?
j. It (be midnight). I (write) for five hours. No wonder I (be) so tired.

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Unit 9

In this unit you will learn:
Transporting oil
Future Simple
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Comparative Sentences

Pre-Reading Task
By what means do you transport oil?
Which is the cheapest means of transport for oil?
Reading
In this unit John Smith presents his
project on transporting oil to some
journalists. He presents possible
problems that may occur when
creating the pipelines. Read the
text thouroughly and be attentive at the tenses of the verbs:

Some pipelines will run above the surface, especially in rugged or
uninhibited areas, but many others will run beneath the ground. In farming
country with open fields, there may be no surface indication at all of the
black stream of oil under the growing crops. However, the pipelines will be
marked by pumping stations at an average distance of about seventy-five
miles - closer together in the mountainous areas, farther apart in flat
countryside. Thats is why I think we shall need special equipment for some
pipelines.


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We shall clean the pipes by a device called a pig. This mechanism, as you
probably know, has metal blades that scrape the inside of the pipe to keep it
clear of the tar-like substance that forms in it.
So, thats about it. I think we still have some time for questions. So, Im all
ears.
Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Stream: steady flow of liquid.
Pipeline: a system designed to transport a liquid or a gas through pipes.
Pig: a device to clean a pipeline connecting the oil field with a refinery or
shipping point.
Scrape: rub with something rough or sharp.
2. Read the following sentence again: However, the pipelines will be marked
by pumping stations. Now learn some expressions containing the word by:
by and by = treptat;
by all means = cu orice pre;
by chance = din ntmplare;
by the end of week/ month/ year = spre sfritul sptmnii/ lunii/ anului;
by force = cu fora;
by hearsay = din auzite;
by no less than = cu nu mai puin de;
by no means = nicidecum, n nici un caz, cu nici un pre;
by-pass = unt, derivaie, condesator legat n dervaie;
by-pass system = sistem inelar/ cu ci de ocolire;
by reason of = pe motiv c, din cauz c;
by sight = din vedere;
by stages/ steps = discontinuu, n trepte;
by so much more = cu att mai mult;
by then = pn atunci, pn la acea dat;
by this time = ntre timp, pn la acea vreme;

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by turns = cu schimbul, pe rnd;
by virtue of/ dint of = n virtutea, cu ajutorul, prin mijlocirea;
better by far = cu mult mai bine.
3. Read the following sentence again: I think we still have some time for
questions. Now learn some expressions containing the word time:
at the same time = n acelai timp;
for the first time = pentru prima dat;
at times = din timp n timp, la rstimpuri;
by that time = pn atunci, la vremea aceea;
some time or other = cndva;
the time is up = timpul a trecut, intervalul de timp s-a scurs;
time after time = n repetate rnduri;
time will tell = timpul va dovedi, timpul va hotr;
for a long time = de mult timp;
all in good time = oricnd;
from that time forth = de atunci nainte;
within the time = n decursul;
time-lag error = eroare de temporizare;
time release = declanare temporizat.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
Future Simple
Future Simple is used to express:
actions to be performed in the future.
I shall be thirty next year.
When will you graduate from university?
She will work for our company if we give her a good salary.
Notes:

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1. We use will and shall in many other ways, apart from predicting the
future: e.g.:
-intentions/ promises (Ill buy you a bike for your birthday.)
-request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me, please?)
-offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?)
-suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?)
-threats (Just wait and see! Youll regret this!)
-decisions (Ill stop and ask the way.)
2. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause:
If you help me, Ill be grateful to you.
When it rains, we stay inside.
Form
Affirmative and negative
I
We
shall (ll)
shall not (shant)
come.
You
He/ She
They
will (ll)
will not (wont)

Interrogative
When shall I
we
help him?
will you
he/she
they

Short answer
Will you help me finish my drilling project?
Yes, I shall.
Note: No, I wont is not common because it is impolite, it may mean I dont
want to help you. That is why a polite answer would be: Im afraid I cant.


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Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Te voi chema cnd voi ajunge acas.
b. l voi vedea sptmna viitoare.
c. Azi avem repetiie la ora dou.
d. Va deveni necesar s gsim noi resurse de energie.
e. Crezi c vei gsi petrol aici?
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2. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right:
A B
1. Well have a thunderstorm tonight,
Im sure. - b.
a. stating a planned arrangement
2. Will there be a general strike? b. making a prediction
3. Ill send you a card from Paris c. making a request
4. Will you send me an e-mail? d. expressing future hope
5. Shall I go to the library for you? e. expressing future uncertainty
6. Shall we take a drive into the
country later?
f. offering
7. Ill report you to the police next
time.
g. promising/ stating an intention
8. The wedding will take place next
Friday.
h. making an invitation
9. I hope youll come and see us on i. asking for a prediction

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104
Saturday.
10. Explain it to them again. Perhaps
theyll understand.
j. threatening
11. Will you have dinner with us on
Sunday?
i. making a suggestion

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Form
Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative
Short adjectives cheap
small
big
fat
old
cheaper
smaller
bigger
fatter
older/ elder
the cheapest
the smallest
the biggest
the fattest
the oldest/ the eldest
Adjectives that
end in -y
funny
early
heavy
funnier
earlier
heavier
the funniest
the earliest
the heaviest
Adjectives with
two or more
syllables
careful
expensive
difficult
interesting
rapid
more careful
more expensive
more difficult
more interesting
more rapid
the most careful
the most expensive
the most difficult
the most interesting
the most rapid
Irregular
adjectives
good
bad
many/ much
little
far*

fore**
late***
near****
better
worse
more
less
farther/ further

former
later/latter
nearer
the best
the worst
the most
the least
the farthest/ the
furthest
the foremost/ the
first
the latest/ the last

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105
the nearest/ the next
Short adjectives with one vowel and one consonant double the consonant:
fat/ fatter/ the fattest, hot/ hotter/ the hottest, etc.
Elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family relationships
(My elder brother is twenty four).
* Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you.);
further/ the furthest are used in relation to time, quantity. The latter has also
an abstract meaning. (Give me further details in order to understand it
better.)
** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times,
people used whale oil for lamps.); the foremost means chief (The foremost
welder in this factory is John.); the first means initial (Americans claim that
the first underground oil well was drilled in the United States.).
*** Later means the second of two (Ive met John and Cindy: the former is
a student in Drilling, the latter is student in Foreign Languages); the latest
means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. Fowles.); the last
means final: ( Shakespeares last play.).
****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the
nearest oil pump?); the next refers to order. (The next bus comes in an hour.)

Examples:
There are two forces F
1
and F
2
, the former is the greater./ This welder is the
foremost worker in our workshop./ this is Newtons first law of motion.
This is a good conductor of electricity./ We need a better conductor./ This is
the best machine in the exhibition by far.
There is little advantage in using rotary drilling on this field./ There is less
oil in this tank than in the other one./ Forces are not of least importance for
an engineer.


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Comparative Sentences
In relation with the degrees of comparison, there are idiomatic expressions
with two comparatives which are very common in technical English texts:
Form:
the+ comparative ...... the+ comparative ...
The bigger the force, the greater the acceleration.
The more mass in the body, the less acceleration.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Cu ct mai repede nvm engleza, cu att mai bine.
b. Ei fac n continuare investigaii.
c. Presiunea este mai mare n al doilea caz dect n primul.
d. Cu ct diametrul conductorului este mai mare, cu att intensitatea este
mai mic.
e. Avem nevoie de mai multe maini-unelte.
f. Sondorul acesta este cel mai tnr dintre toi.
g. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificil cu care m-am confruntat vreodat.
h. Ideea ta e mai bun, dar soluia mea este mai ieftin dect a ta.
i. Aceast main devine din ce n ce mai important.
j. Dintre cele dou unghiuri, primul este mai mic, iar al doilea este mai
mare.
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107
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2. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets:
a. He is (lazy) student in the class.
b. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working in now.
c. He was unable to get (far) information.
d. The underground pressure was (big) than expected.
e. Today, (great) care is taken to prevent accidents.
f. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the
intense cold.
g. He needed (little) gasoline than he thought.
h. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology.
i. She found (little) errors in Johns programme than in Marys one.
j. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists.
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3. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited. Some are
facts and some are his opinions. Complete his sentences:
a. London is, of course, much older ..... Los Angeles, but it isnt ..
than Athens. Athens is .. oldest city I have ever seen.
b. London doesnt have .. buildings than Athens, but is has older ones
.. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo.

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108
c. Tokyos exciting, but, for an architect, London is .. exciting ..
Tokyo, an, of course, Los Angeles is .. ... exciting of all.
d. Los Angeles has .. parks than Tokyo, but London has .. ..
parks. There are five in the city centre.
e. In comparison to our cities, these are .. interesting from the point of
view of the buildings people built there.
4. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below:
Missing phrases: environmentally friendly; the most expensive; too
expensive; the largest; more environmentally sound
If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design, the Mercedes is far
more attractive than any others. Yet at the same time you should think that,
even if their cars are very ellegant and .., they are .. for common
people. The Electrolite is .... than the others as it is equipped with a
filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. The
latest Mercedes model is of course .. and . yet if you want to have
a car for a life save your money and buy it.


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Test
Choose the best variant:
1. He .. when I .. the room.
A. read/ entered; B. was reading/ entered; C. was reading/ was entering.;
D. read/ entered.
2. She .. since she a child.
A. hasnt been/ was; B. wasnt/ was; C. wasnt/ has been; D. hasnt been.
3. He .. to school by bus, but last week his car was broken and he
.. the bus.
A. doesnt go/ has taken; B. doesnt go/ takes; C. isnt going/ took;
D. doesnt go/ took.
4. Where .. ? I .. for you everywhere.
A. have you been/ have looked; B. have you been/ have been looking;
C. were you/ looked; D. were you/ was looking.
5. I . be . time. The weather was very bad and I was stuck in a
traffic jam.
A. couldnt/ on; B. wouldnt/ in; C. couldnt; in; D. shouldnt/ on
6. What exactly are you interested..?
A. in; B. about; C. on; D. for
7. I .. what to do, so I .. ask my superviser.
A. didnt know/ have to; B. havent known/ must; C. dont know/ had to;
D. didnt know/ had to
8. If this solution is .. than mine, I dont mind. The .. one will be
appreciated by everybody.
A. good/ good; B. better/ better; C. better/ best; D. better/ good.
9. I .. possibly accept his offer, as it was . than the other one.
A. couldnt/ worse; B. can/ the worst; C. wouldnt/ bad; D. wont/ worst;
10. The .. I arrive home, the . I am.
A. soon/ happy; B. better/ happier; C. sooner/ happier; D. better/ happy.
11. What are you looking ..? I .. my keys and I cant find them
anywhere.

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A. for/ have lost; B. at/ lost; C. in/ have lost; D. of/ lost.
12. Where . last summer? I .. to the seaside.
A. did you go/ went; B. have you gone/ went; C. did you go/ have gone;
D. have gone/ have gone.
13. He was preoccupied solving that problem, so he . what I was
saying.
A. for/ hasnt heard; B. with/ didnt hear; C. in/ hasnt heard; D. for/ didnt
hear.
14. The train is .. than the bus, but the plane is .. of all.
A. faster/ the fastest; B. faster/ faster; C. faster/ the fastest; D. the faster/ the
fastest.
15. When .. to John? Oh, I to him for ages.
A. did you last write/ havent written; B. have you last written/ havent
written; C. did you last write/ wrote; D. have you last written/ wrote.
16. How much did you sell your car ..?
A. at; B. with; C. of; D. for.
17. the novel before we .. the film?
A. Had you read/ saw; B. Have you read/ saw; C. Did you read/ saw;
D. Had you read/ had seen.
18. The translation of Cu ct mai repede nvm engleza, cu att mai
bine. is :
A. The quicklier we teach English, the better it is; B. The quicklier we learn
English, the better it is.; C. The sooner we learn English, the better it is.;
D. The quick we learn English, the better it is.
Answer key:
1. B; 2. A; 3. D; 4. B; 5. A; 6. A; 7. D; 8. C.; 9. A; 10. C; 11. A.; 12. A.;
13. B.; 14. C.; 15. A.; 16. D; 17. A.; 18. B.
1 point + 0,50 points per each good answer

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111
Unit 10

In this unit you will learn:
Exploring for petroleum
Be going to Future
Future Simple or be going to?
First Conditional

Pre-reading task
What do you know about geology?
What is a geologist in charge of?
Who helps geologists in their search for oil fields?

Reading
Read the following text about Mike
Howard who is a geologist. Identify
the future of the verbs:
Mike Howard works for an oil
company. His job involves exploring
the terrain where oil may occur.
Places such as canyons, where
different layers of rock are exposed,
often give him clues to the possible
presence of oil. He is aware of the
fact that as most petroleum is underground this will make oil exploration a
risky business and his job is to make sure that the company he works for
doesnt waste its money.


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112
Right now he is going to test some cores that have been brought up from
below the surface of the earth. His team includes four other members:
another geologist, two paleontologists and a geophysicist who are also
involved in the search for oil. The paleontologists are going to make a
special study of some fossils now, while the geophysicist is dealing with the
effects of gravity. He is asking Mike Howard to come and see the results of
his test.

Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Layer: single thickness of some substance, as a cover or coating on a
surface.
Geology: the study of the physical features of the earth such as rocks,
mountains, and so on. A geologist is a specialist in the field of geology.
Paleontology: the study of prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils.
Geophysics: the study of some disciplines of geology combined with those
of physics.
Core: a sample of rocks obtained by a drill. The core can be studied for the
types of rocks and for evidence of fossils.
2. Read this sentence again: The paleontologists are going to make a special
study of some fossils now. Lets learn some expressions in which the verb to
make occurs.
to make an attempt = a face o ncercare;
to make the best of = a trage ct mai mult profit de pe urma, a profita la
maximum de;
to make believe = a face s cread;
to make it clear = a clarifica;
to make it possible = a face posibil;
to make for = a contribui;
to make out = a nelege, a demonstra, a redacta;

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113
to make over = a transfera, a ceda;
to make ready = a fi gata, a (se) pregti;
to make a stand = a se opune;
to make sure of = a se asigura de;
to make short work of/ sth = a scurta, a face ceva repede, a termina, a
finaliza;
to make tight = a ermetiza, a etaneiza, a nchide etan;
to make up ones mind = a se hotr;
to make up for ones losses = a-i recupera pierderile;
to make up for lorst time = a rectiga timpul pierdut;
to make as if/ though = a prea ca i cum, a pretinde ca i cum, a face ca i
cum;
to make use of = a ntrebuina;
to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru.

3. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way, there
are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make:
e.g. to do ones best = a face tot ce-i posibil;
to do the donkey work = a munci din greu;
to do sbd. a good turn/ a favour = a face cuiva o favoare;
to do sth. with your eyes closed = a ti ceva foarte bine, a face ceva cu ochii
nchii;
to do harm = a face ru;
to do wonders = a face minuni;
to have sth. to do with = a avea de-a face cu.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.
Put make or do before the following nouns:
.. a phone call; .. a mess; .. my homework; .. a mistake;
.....a noise; .. the shopping; .. your best; .. a cup of tea;
.. your bed; .. someone a favour; ..... an excuse; ..... sense;
.....up your mind; .. an appointment; ..sure.

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Grammar Reference
Be going to Future
Be going to Future is used
to express a future decision, intention, or plan made before the moment
of speaking
Were going to move to Bucharest.
How long are they going to drill that well in Videle?
She isnt going to attend this Physics course.
Note:
The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or
arrangement, particularly with the verbs go and come.
Shes coming on Monday.
Im going home.
when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the
future
Look at those grey clouds! Its going to rain.
Watch out! The box is going to fall.

Its form consists of the verb to be in Present+to+infinitive
Affirmative and negative
I am (m)
am (m) not
going to work.

He
She
It
is (s)
is not (isnt)

We
You
They
are (re)
are not (arent)

Interrogative

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115
When am I going to arrive?
is he/ she/ it
are we/you/ they

Short answer
Are you going to attend his lecture?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.

Future Simple or Be Going To?
Look at the use of Future Simple and to be going to in the following
sentences:
Im going to improve my English. ( I decided that and I may have bought
books to improve my knowledge).
What language shall I learn? Er... I know. Ill learn some English! Thats a
good idea. ( Idecided to learn English at the moment of speaking.)

Controlled Practice:
Decide which is the correct verb form:
a. My suitcase is so heavy!
Give it to me. Ill/Im going to carry it for you.
b. I bought some warm boots because Ill go/Im going on an off-shore
drilling rig.
c. Well go/ Were going to a conference next week.
d. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations!
e. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?
France. What about you?
We dont know yet. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain.


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First Conditional
The first conditional is used to express a possible condition and a probable
result in the future:
If my cheque comes, Ill buy this car.
Well destroy the environment if you dont look after it.
If he passes the baccalaureate, hell go to university.
Form
No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. This is replaced by the
present.
Main Clause If Clause
Present/ Future Present

Affirmative and negative
If I work hard, I ll pass my exams.
she has enough money,
she
buy that new book on MathCad.
we dont hurry up, we be late
you are late, we wont wait for you.
you are not polite, she talk to you anymore.
she doesnt learn, she pass her exams in Mathematics.

Interrogative
What will you do if you dont go to any university?
Where will she go she cant find a job in the
petroleum field?
Controlled Practice
1. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real
type:
a. What happens if you dont pass this exam?
b. What presents will you buy if you go to that party?

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c. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper?
d. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job?
e. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident?
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2. Translate the folowing sentences into English:
a. Dac voi putea, te voi ajuta la proiectul de an.
b. Dac voi ti rspunsul, o s i-l spun.
c. Dac vrei s ne nsoeti, eti binevenit.
d. Voi pleca n vacan dac voi avea bani.
e. Vei nva mai bine dac accepi s te ajut.
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118
3. Put if, when, or as soon as into each gap, and put the verbs in brackets in
the correct tense:
John: Bye, darling. Have a good trip.
Maria: Thanks. I (ring) you ... I (arrive) at the hotel.
John: Good, but remember Im going out.
Maria: Well, ... you (be) out ... I (ring), I (leave) a message on the answer
phone so you know Ive arrived safely.
John: Great. What time do you expect youll be there?
Mary: ... the plane (arrive) on time, I (be) at the hotel at about 10.00. Thats
8.00 your time.
John: All right. And remember. Give me a ring .. you know the time of your
flight back, and I (pick) you up.
Maria: Thanks, darling. Bye!
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119
Unit 11

In this unit you will learn:
Taking trouble out of circulation
The Ordinal Numeral
The Fractional Numeral
The Multiplicative Numeral
Second Conditional


Pre-Reading Task
How do you solve the problem of water circulation for condensers of power
stations?

Reading
Read the folowing text about the Delta Group, a company which is very
famous in Canada. Can you identify the ordinal and the fractional numerals
in the text?

Taking trouble out of circulation...
Two thirds of the problems associated with water circulation for condensers
of power stations and oil refineries from Canada are being solved by the use
of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by the tube division of the Delta Group.
The large range of trouble-free alloys available today is the result of over a
centurys experience in tube manufacture by James Booth Company and
John Wilkes, Sons & Mapplebeck, members of the Delta Group.

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120
More than three fourths of the power stations and oil refineries at home and
abroad owe much of their efficiency to being fitted with tubes from one of
these old established companies.
The Delta Group was founded in 1965, June, 3rd and since then it has been
specially developed to suit the varying conditions which have to be met in
service.
Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Condenser: electricity capacitor.
Alloy: mixture of two or more metals.
Tube: hollow cylinder.
2. Read this sentence again: Two thirds of the problems associated with
water circulation for condensers of power stations and oil refineries from
Canada are being solved by the use of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by
the tube division of the Delta Group. How do you translate from? Now learn
some expressions containing this preposition:
from first to last = de la A la Z, de la nceput pn la sfrit;
from this point of view = din acest punct de vedere;
from... to = de la... pn la;
from experience = din experien;
apart from = n afar de, separat de;
far from it = departe de acest lucru;
far be it from me = departe de mine.
3. How do you translate the phrase more than three fourths? Now learn
some expressions containing the word than:
other than = cu excepia;
little more than = cu puin mai mult dect;
rather than = mai degrab dect;
no sooner... than = de ndat ce... c.
Now practisee these expressions in sentences of your own.

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Grammar Reference
The Ordinal Numeral
The form of the ordinal numeral
1st the first 11th the eleventh 21st the twenty-first
2nd the second 12th the twelfth 22nd the twenty-second
3rd the third 13th the thirteenth 23rd the twenty-third
4th the fourth 14th the fourteenth 30th the thirtieth
5th the fifth 15th the fifteenth 40th the fourtieth
6th the sixth 16th the sixteenth 50th the fiftieth
7th the seventh 17th the seveteenth 60th the sixtieth
8th the eighth 18th the eighteenth 70th the seventieh
9th the ninth 19th the nineteenth 80th the eightieth
10th the tenth 20th the twentieth 90th the ninetieth

100th the (one) hundredth 1,000th the (one) thousandth
622nd the (six) hundredth
and twenty-second
1,000,000 the (one) millionth

The Fractional Numeral
The forms of the fractional numeral
Common fractions Decimal fractions
1/2 a (one) half 34.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven
3/6 three sixths 56.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight
2/3 two thirds 0.04 (nought) point nought four
8 6/5 eight six fifths 1.06 one point nought six

The Multiplicative Numeral
The forms of the multiplicative numeral
1x single, once
2 double/ twice/ twofold

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122
3x triple/ threefold, three times
4x fourfold, four times
10x tenfold, ten times
100x a hundredfold, a hundred times
Controlled Practice:
1. Read the following numerals:
3 2/4; 5.879; 2 9/7; 11x; 43/42.
2. Read the following dates:
July, 12, 1987; January, 2, 2001; August, 8, 2002; May, 4, 1980; April, 27,
1974; March, 11, 1958.

Second Conditional
The second conditional is used to express an unreal or improbable condition
(hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. The
condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. We
can always say But...
If I were Prime Minister, Id increase taxes on properties such as castles,
palaces, ranches, etc. (But Im not Prime Minister.)
If I lived in a big house, Id have a party. (But my house is very small.)

Form
The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive);
the verb in the conditional clause is in the past subjunctive which is similar
to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were
for all the persons.
Main Clause If Clause
Present Conditional Past Subjunctive

Affirmative and negative
If I had more money, I would (d) buy a new computer.
she knew the answer, she tell it to us

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123
immediately.
I didnt have debts, I wouldnt have to work so hard.
Interrogative
What would you do if you were me?
Which countries would you visit you travelled round the
world?
Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into Romanian:
a. If I knew it, I would have told you the truth.
b. If she helped me I wouldnt be late to work.
c. If it rained, we would go inside.
d. Id like to hear her news if she were here.
e. If you could do it, you wouldnt ask me to tell you how to do it.
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2. Translate the following sentences into English:
a. Dac a ti mai multe amnunte despre acest anticlinal, i le-a spune.
b. Dac ai vrea, m-ai putea ajuta s termin proiectul acesta?
c. Dac ar fi aici, am termina treaba mai repede i am putea iei la o cafea.
d. L-ar asculta dac ar avea urechi de auzit.
e. Ne-ar face plcere s venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultii dac
nu am avea altceva de fcut.

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3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses:
a. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.
b. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes.
c. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money.
d. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arab.
e. I (offer) to help if I thought Id be of any use.
f. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension?
g. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you.
h. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing.
i. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going.
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125
Unit 12

In this unit you will learn:
Working on an oil rig
The Indefinite Article
The Definite Article
Zero Article

Pre-Reading Tasks
Can you describe the kind of job a drilling engineer has? Which are his
duties?
Do you think this is an interesting or a boring job?

Reading
Now read a text about Graham
Macdonald, a Scottish drilling
engineer. Confrunt your
opinions with the opinions given
in this text by his boss:
Graham Macdonald is an
engineer. He works on an oil rig
in the North Sea. He works on
the rig for two weeks and then
he has two free weeks to spend
with his family at home in Glasgow. The rig is 100 miles off the coast of
Scotland. The oil companys helicopter flies him to and from the Aberdeen
Airport. He does an important job, and hes paid over $500 a week.


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Graham works twelve hours a day during his two weeks on the rig. His shift
finishes at midnight, when he goes to bed. Although the work is important,
its rather a boring job. He shares a cabin with three other men. One of them
is a friend of his, an American called Lee Driver, who comes from New
Mexico.
The weather on the rig can be pretty bad. Sometimes there are storms.
Everyones always glad to get back to the mainland.

Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Rig: apparatus for drilling for oil and gas
Shift: group of workers who work during a specified period
Cabin: small hut on the drilling rig where workers sleep at night.
2. How do you translate the sentence The oil companys helicopter flies him
to and from the Aberdeen Airport? You have already learned some
expressions containing the preposition from. Lets learn some more
containing the preposition to.
to advantage = cu profit/ folos;
to the best of ones power/ ability = dup puterea/ capacitatea cuiva;
to cut the matter short = pe scurt;
to date = la zi;
to the dot (of an i) = pn n cele mai mici amnunte;
to this effect = n acest scop;
to a fraction = pn la milimetru;
to and fro = nainte i napoi, ici i colo;
to hand = la ndemn;
to little purpose = cu puin efect, mai degeaba;
to my knowledge = dup cte tiu;
to ones mind = dup prerea cuiva;
to the letter = ntocmai, ad litteram;

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to the utmost = (pn) la maximum, n cea mai mare msur;
to the very moment = chiar pn n clipa;
short and to the point = scurt i la obiect.
3. Read the following sentence again: The rig is 100 miles off the coast of
Scotland. How do you translate it? Now learn some expressions containing
the word off:
off hand = fr pregtire anterioar, ntmpltor;
off the point = n afara subiectului;
all thats off the point = toate acestea nu au legtur cu problema;
far off = ndeprtat;
on and off = la intervale neregulate;
to be off duty = a fi liber/ n afara serviciului;
to turn off/ switch off (the radio, the light) = a nchide (radioul, lumina)
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Article
The use of articles in English is complex, and there are a lot of exceptions
that need to be known.
Here are the basic rules.

The Indefinite Article: a (before a word beginning with a consonant or
semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used
to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we dont
know which one, or it doesnt matter which one):
They live in a flat.
Im reading a course for my exam now.
to describe what something or someone is (a profession, religion, class):
Thats an instrument for measuring distance.
She is an engineer.

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128
He is a Christian.
in phrases:
to be in a hurry, to have a headache, as a matter of fact, to develop a
disease, to have a good time, to take a seat, etc.
The Definite Article: the is used:
before a singular or plural noun, when both the speaker and the listener
know which specific object is being referred to:
They live in the blue house on top of the hill.
The course Im reading is very interesting.
Mind the baby!
before nouns expressing certain public places, especially when referring
to them in a general way:
I went to the cinema last night.
I have to go to the bank to pay my bills.
before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural), countries (if they
are in the plural, or if they represent a union), denoting groups of
islands, chains of mountains, deserts, oceans, seas, rivers, channels,
hotels, shops, institutions, means of transport, newspapers and
magazines:
The Johnsons, the Netherlands, the United States, the Bahamas, the Alps,
the Sahara, the Pacific, the Suez Canal, the Hilton, the Orient Express, the
Time, etc
before nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class, nationality, or
an abstraction:
The rich should help the poor.
The English are very polite.
in phrases:
to tell the time, by the way, at the moment, on the whole, on the one hand...
on the other hand, etc.
Zero Article: - is used with:
plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general.

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Money is the root of all evil.
Gas is cheaper than electricity.
proper nouns denoting persons, continents, countries, regions, towns,
mountains, lakes, streets, magazines and periodicals, months, festivals,
days of the week, etc.:
Mary/ Mount Everest, Europe, Oxford Street, Paris, January, Sunday,
Newsweek
nouns like school, church, prison, when we imply the use made of the
building:
He goes to school (to learn).
in phrases:
at night, at dawn, day by day, by sea, to be in trouble, by mistake, to make
friends, to shake hands, to take place, etc.

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide which answer A, B or C best fits each space:
a. He is speaking to .... authority.
A. an; B. - ; C. the
b. In order to survive, plants need ... water.
A. - ; B. a; C. the
c. In order to fix the armchair he needs ... hammer and ... nails.
A. the/ the; B. a/ the; C. a/ some
d. I took ... seat and waited for ... director to come.
A. - /the; B. a/the; C. the/ a
e. I thought you had passed ... exam but it seems that it was ... hardest of all.
A. - /the; B. an/the; C. the/the
f. They had ... excellent dinner and had ... very good time at ... Hilton.
A. - /a/the; B. an/the/ - ; C. an/a/the

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g. He had ... degree in ... Physics and one in ... Mathematics, so he was one
of ... best teachers in our highschool.
A. - / - / - /the; B. a/ - / - /the; C. a/the/the/the
h. I did my homework and then went directly to ... bed as I was very tired.
A. - ; B. a; C. the
i. Everyone was impressed by ... sincerity with which he spoke, yet not
everyone admires .... sincerity in such ... way.
A. - / - / - ; B. a/ - / - ; C. the/ - /a
j. ... Smiths are at ... home now, yet they are busy at the moment.
A. - / - ; B. the/ - ; C. - /the;
2. Work in pairs to find one mistake in each of the following sentences:
a. Hes geologist, so he studies the physical features of the earth.
b. I want a government to do something about the problem of
unemployment.
c. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for
example, in London, you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre
in evening.
d. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. I want to borrow one
hundred pounds.
e. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. Her office is in the
Baker Street.
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Third Conditional
The third conditional is used to express impossible condition referring to the
past; it contradicts reality, which can no longer be changed. The condition is
highly hypothetical.

Form
The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+
the third form of the verb), while the verb in the conditional clause is in the
past perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect).

Main clause If clause
Past/Perfect conditional Past perfect subjunctive

Affirmative and negative
If I had had more money, I would (d)
have bought
this ellegant
car..
she had known the answer, she would have
passed
the exam.
I hadnt made so many mistakes, I wouldnt have failed the
driving licence
test.

Interrogative
What would you have
done
if you had seen such a
wonderful movie?
Which countries would you have
visited
you had travelled round
the world?


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Controlled Practice:
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:
a. If I (know) this from the beginning, I wouldnt have asked you to do it for
me.
b. If it had rained it (be) a disaster.
c. If she (go) to university so late, she wouldnt have had these problems in
her career.
d. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confrunted with) such storms, I
dont think you would argue against my leaving that place.
e. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry, I (pass) the exam
in the winter session.
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2. Translate into English:
a. Dac a fi putut s te ajut, a fi fcut-o nc de atunci.
b. Dac ar fi tiut rspunsurile la toate ntrebrile, nu ar fi luat o not aa de
mic.
c. Dac a fi nvat mai bine, nu a fi picat acest examen.
d. Dac nu ar fi nins, nu am fi plecat la munte de Crciun.
e. V-ai fi distrat mai bine, dac nu ai fi avut aceast problem de rezolvat
n acelai timp.

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133
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3. Put the verbs in brackets into the corect tenses:
a. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you.
b. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat.
c. I shouldnt have believed you when telling me about that drillers
accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes.
d. If he had asked you to do that job, you (accept)?
e. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago.
f. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.
g. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.
h. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the
money.
i. You wouldnt have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it
serviced regularly.
j. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long
way.
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4. Finish these sentences, taking care to use the correct tense. These are
mixed conditional sentences.
a. If he had taken my advice...
b. The substance would look better if...
c. Id have brought my compass if...
d. If you had asked his permission...
e. If I buy this machine ...
f. If she practised more...
g. If the river rises any higher...
h. I would lend it to you if...
i. If the fire had been noticed earlier...
j. If she rings while Im in the tunnel...


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Unit 13

In this unit you will learn:
Refining oil
The Adverb
The Passive Voice

Pre-Reading Tasks
Think of the most important refineries in Romania. Where are they?
Think of the petroleum products these refineries produce. How many types
of petroleum products are produced in Romania?

Reading
Now read a general text on refining oil. Translate the text into Romanian:
One of the most distinctive and at the same time most characteristic sights
of the industrial age is the oil refinery.
Crude oil is a mixture of a number of different chemicals that are called
hydrocarbons because they are composed of atoms of hydrogen and carbon.
The mixture of crude oil contains fractions of the different hydrocarbon
molecules. In the refining process the different fractions of molecules in the
crude oil mixture are separated in such a way as to obtain usable products.
The impurities from the oil are also removed in the refining process.
The first step is called distillation. The oil is heated to a high temperature in
coil of pipe that pass over a furnace. Then the oil is piped into a tall
cylinder, called a fractionating tower. As the vapors rise, they
condense - that is, they turn into liquids again -at a particular temperature at
a particular level in the tower. Another process is called cracking which

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means breaking down the heavy molecules of such petroleum products as
kerosene or lubricating oil into the lighter molecules of gasoline. After the
basic fractionating or cracking process, further refining takes place,
particularly of gasoline products. There are several gasolines such as
regular, high-test, special, etc., their names indicating that one kind of
gasoline will vaporize more quickly and efficiently than another kind.
So when we speak about refining oil, we may say that in just a little over a
hundred years, oil products have asumed a central place in our industrialized
society and they will continue to do so until another fuel is discovered.

Ways with words
1. Special terms:
Refinery: the industrial plant in which oil is refined - processed and
purified - into commercially usable products.
Molecules: the smallest units in combinations of atoms.
Compound/Mixture: a compound of atoms which are chemically joined
together into molecules, like water (two atoms of hydrogen and one of
oxygen) or salt. A mixture combines several different molecules which are
not chemically joined together.
Hydrocarbons: substances made up of molecules formed from hydrogen nd
carbon.
Fractionating tower: a cylindrical tower at a refinery which is used to
separate the different fractions of crude petroleum.
Distillation: the process of separating ligthter molecules from heavier
molecules in a mixture by heating the mixture.
Cracking: the process of breaking down the heavy molecules of some
hydrocarbons into lighter molecules.


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2. In this text there are several occurences of the preposition after. At the
same time you may find the phrase to take place. Now learn more phrases
containing the preposition after and the verb to take:
after all = la urma urmelor;
after a while = dup ctva vreme;
day after day = zile n ir;
to look after = a avea grij de;
soon after = curnd dup.

to take advantage of = a utiliza, a valorifica, a se prevala de, a se folosi de
ocazia;
to take an active part in = a lua parte activ la;
to take account of = a ine seama de;
to take care of/ to take charge of = a-i asuma rspunderea, a avea grij de;
to take control of = a-i asuma controlul;
to take its course = a-i urma cursul;
to take for granted = a lua drept sigur, a considera indiscutabil;
to take an interest in... = a manifesta interes fa de...;
to take the liberty of (+-ing form) = a-i lua libertatea de a (e.g. She took
the liberty of doing it in her own way.);
to take into account/ consideration = a lua n consideraie;
to take note/ notice of = a ine seama de;
to take ones own way = a-i urma calea proprie;
to take on = a lua asupra sa, a se nsrcina;
to take over = a prelua;
to take a stand = a adopta un punct de vedere, a lua o poziie;
to take warning = a fi prevenit;
to take a view of = a considera, a privi;
to take a weight off somebodys mind = a elucida o problem.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

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3. In this text you learned several chemical elements such: hydrogen,
oxygen, carbon, etc. Lets learn all the chemical elements in English:
1 hydrogen H 38 strotium Sr 75 rhenium Re
2 helium He 39 yttrium Y 76 osmium Os
3 lithium Li 40 zirconium Zr 77 iridium Ir
4 beryllium Be 41 niobium Nb 78 platinum Pt
5 boron B 42 molybdenum Mo 79 gold Au
6 carbon C 43 technetium Tc 80 mercury Hg
7 nitrogen N 44 ruthenium Ru 81 thallium Tl
8 oxygen O 45 rhodium Rh 82 lead Pb
9 fluorine F 46 palladium Pd 83 bismuth Bi
10 neon Ne 47 silver Ag 84 polonium Po
11 sodium Na 48 cadmium Cd 85 astatine At
12 magnesium Mg 49 indium In 86 radon Rn
13 aluminium Al 50 tin Sn 87 francium Fr
14 silicon Si 51 antimony Sb 88 radium Ra
15 phosphorus 52 tellurium Te 89 actinium Ac
16 sulphur S 53 iodine I 90 thorium Th
17 chlorine Cl 54 xenon Xe 91 protactinium Pa
18 argon Ar 55 caesium Cs 92 uranium U
19 potassium K 56 barium Ba 93 neptunium Np
20 calcium Ca 57 lanthanum La 94 plutonium Pu
21 scandium Sc 58 cerium Ce 95 americium Am
22 titanium Ti 59 praseodymium Pr 96 curium Cm
23 vanadium V 60 neodymium Nd 97 berkelium Bk
24 chromium Cr 61 promethium Pm 98 californium Cf
25 manganese Mn 62 samarium Sm 99 eisteinium Es
26 iron Fe 63 europium Eu 100 fernium Fm
27 cobalt Co 64 gadolinium Gd 101 mendelevium Md
28 nickel Ni 65 terbium Tb 102 nobelium No
29 copper Cu 66 dysprosium Dy 103 lawrencium Lr

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30 zinc Zn 67 holmium Ho 104 rutherfordium Rf
31 gallium Ga 68 erbium Er 105 dubnium Db
32 germanium Ge 69 thulium Tm 106 seaborgium Sg
33 arsenic As 70 ytterbium Yb 107 bohrium Bh
34 selenium Se 71 lutetium Lu 108 hassium Hs
35 bromine Br 72 hafnium Hf 109 meitnerium Mt
36 krypton Kr 73 tantalum Ta
37 rubidium Rb 74 tungsten W

Grammar Reference
The Adverb
The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state, a quality thereof.
It can modify:
a verb: We are talking about your report today.
an adjective: He was bitterly dissapointed.
a noun: Only John knows the whole truth.
a pronoun: Me too.
another adverb: She spoke extremely loud.
a clause: Maybe I will come to your party.

Form

Simple
adverbs
Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial
phrases
far likewise everywhere at least
fast afloat outdoors at once
here homeward(s) outside by the way
late repeatedly thereby by all means
near hardly therefore in full
now monthly today in general

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then bitterly tomorrow in all probability
today happily wherein now and then
well excellently wherefore of old

Adverbs of manner: badly; carefully; excellently; fast
Adverbs of place: away; aboard; above; anywhere
Adverbs of time: already; after; afterwards; early
Adverbs of quantity, measure, degree and approximation: awfully;
extremely; enough; little
Adverbs of frequency: always; ever; every time; again; forever
Adverbs of cause, reason, result and concession: consequently; fore; for this
reason; hence; so that
Interrogative adverbs: how; where; when; wherefore; why.

Controlled Practice
1. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. Shes rather tired, and
shes left some of the words out by mistake. Rewrite Marias letter to Mary
putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right:
Dear Mary,
Thank you for your letter. Is it five months since I last
wrote?
really
Im sorry, but Ive been very busy. lately
Im working for my exams. already
Ive planned my revision. carefully
I work until about ten oclock in the evening. usually
Ive finished for today. just
I dont keep my plan. of course
I saw a marvellous film. yesterday
It was called The English Patient. Have you seen it? yet
I dont go out. actually, often
Suzanne comes about once a week. here

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We talk. a lot
I hope to visit England again. next year
I had a lovely time last year. there
It would be great to see you. again
Im trying to save some money. hard
How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. soon
Love, yours,
Maria

2. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by
choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets:
John: Well, the party is going very nice/nicely, isnt it? Have one of these
sausages. They taste good/well.
Helen: No, thanks.
John: You dont sound very happy/happily. And you look pale/paley. Are
you all right?
Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. And Im hot/hotly.
John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here, isnt it? Well I can easy/ easily
open this window here.
Helen: Thank you. Actually, my head aches quite bad/badly, too. I think its
slow/slowly getting worse.
John: Im sure/surely the music isnt helping too much. It seems rather
loud/loudly, doesnt it? Look, would you like me to take you home?
Helen: No, thats all right, thanks. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere
for a few minutes, I might be OK.
John: Ill ask Susan if theres somewhere you can go.

The Passive Voice
What voice is the verb in the sentence: The first step is called distillation?

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This is the passive voice. Translate it into Romanian. Now learn about the
passive voice in English.
The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some
prepositional verbs such as: to account for, to attend to, to look at, to look
after, to send for, to speak to, etc.
There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the pasive voice such
as: to have, to hold, to possess, to resemble, etc.

Its form consists of the respective tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the past
participle of the lexical verb.
The indicative mood
Simple Present I am called
Present Continuous I am being called
Present Perfect I have been called
Simple Past I was called
Past Continuous I was being called
Past Perfect I had been called
Simple Future I shall be called
The imperative mood
Let me be asked

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into English:
a. Tu vei fi chemat de director mine s explici decizia ta.
b. El este ntrebat dac este vegetarian.
c. Soluia a fost gsit de fratele meu.
d. Mi s-au furat banii.
e. Problema a fost rezolvat recent prin introducerea pompei elicoidale.
f. Doctorul a fost chemat.

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g. El a fost ales preedintele companiei n 1997.
h. Copiii sunt ntrebai dac tiu n ce const compoziia acestei substane.
i. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea.
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2. Put the following sentences into the Passive:
a. Who drew this asymptote?
b. People in my town built this hospital last year.
c. John cant have done this.
d. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons.
e. Children had cast stones.
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3. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. When no agent is given
supply one:
a. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000.

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b. When was your car stolen?
c. AIDS is thought to be curable.
d. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a
big hand.
e. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into
the new building.
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Unit 14

In this unit you will learn:
Lake Erie Gas
The Infinitive
The Participle
The Gerund

Reading
Now that you learned so many things about the English grammar and you
also know a certain amount of words belonging to the petroleum
vocabulary, test yourself in the following way. Use your dictionary and try
to read and translate this article on the discovery of gas in Lake Erie,
Canada.
Lake Erie gas attractive to Canadian drillers

Lake Erie Production on the Canadian side has become more important
during the past 25 years as smaller onshore gas fields in Ontario have
become depleted.
During 1984, Lake Erie production accounted for more than 74% of the
provinces total 19.4 bcf of gas - and four companies have been active in
Lake Erie this year. These operators are: Consumers Gas Co. of Toronto;
Diamond Shamrock Exploration of Calgary; Pembina Resources of Calgary;
and Place Gas Oil of Toronto.
Pembina was the most active company in the lake in 1985, drilling about 40
wells. The company operates about 185 producing wells in the producing
wells in the lake, most of these located in the eastern portion between Long
Point and the Niagara River.

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Consumers Gas which drilled about 20 wells in the lake this year and
operates more than 700 there, has been drilling in Lake Erie for 20 years.
Diamond Shamrock drilled six deep exploratory wells in the lake in 1985 on
a farm-in basis with Anschutz Resources of Calgary in order to earn 50%
interest in the 700,000-acre holding. The wells will be drilled about 10 miles
offshore and are scheduled for 4,500-5,000 ft to penetrate the Precambrian
basement.
Canadian operations. One of the worlds first offshore wells was drilled on
the Canadian side of Lake Erie in 1913 - and in the ensuing 72 years more
than 1,7000 wells have been drilled there, with total production of 190 bcf.
At the close of 1984, some 585 wells were producing or capped awaiting
pipeline hookups.
Lake Erie development continues as the most important natural gas province
in Southern Ontario.
Drilling activity. Lake Erie is the shallowest of the Great Lakes. It reaches
its maximum depth of 210 ft just east of Long Point in the eastern basin of
the lake. Most wells drilled in the lake have been close to shore- extending
existing onshore production.
Most wells have been drilled using what is designated as Lake Erie jack-
ups, in water depths of less than 80 ft. Although these jack-ups which are
elevated by employing either hydraulic power in waters down to
350 ft - water depth normally is restricted to about 80 ft because of
unconsolidated bottom sediments. A pre-load test of the jack-ups is required
to make certain they will remain stable during drilling operations.
Drilling in deeper waters is performed using drillbarges, or floaters,
weighing 2,000 tons or more and moored onstation by an anchoring system.
For example, Underwater Gas Developers operates three rigs in Lake Erie,
including the drillbarge Telesis, a 259-ft-long vessel with a rated 5,000-ft
drillling depth capacity. The vessel is held on-station using five 5,000 lb

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Bruce anchors attached to 1 1/8-in-dia., 1,200-ft-long cables controlled by
100-hp hydraulic winches.
During drilling, excess cement and rock cuttings can be discharged into the
lake. An inspector from the Ministry of Natural Resources is required to be
on location during periods of cementing casings, plugging, and completions.
An average 2,000-2,5000 ft Lake Erie well-including completion- costs
from $ 125,000 to $ 200,000.
The drilling season in Lake Erie extends from May to October, when the
lake freezes over.
(Andy Maslowski, Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Columbus, Ohio,
published in Ocean Industry, The Magazine for Offshore Business,
December 1985, p. 64)
Grammar Reference
Punctuation

There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. At one
extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. At the other
extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to o
make their meaning clear. Here are some punctuation rules.
1. Sentence - Level Punctuation
Punctuation
Marks
Guidelines Examples
.
ordinaly and
independent clause is
made into a sentence by
beginning it with a
capital letter and ending
it with a period.
Some of us think we should
invest in this company.
Others think it is useless.
,
Independent clauses The forecast promised

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may be combined into
one sentence by using
the words and, but, yet,
or, nor, and so. The
first clause is usually
followed by a comma.
beautiful weather on the coast
of the North Sea, but it rained
every day.
Draw the figure and solve the
problem.
;
The writer can indicate
that independent
clauses are closely
connected by joining
them with a semicolon.
Some of us think we should
invest in this company; others
think it is useless
:
When one independent
clause is followed by
another that explains or
exemplifies it, they can
be separated by a colon.
The second clause may
or may not begin with a
capital letter.
Theres only one solution: we
must reduce next years
budget.
The conference addresses a
basic question: How can we
take steps needed to protect
the environment?
?
Sentences that ask a
question should be
followed by a question
mark.
Are they still drilling in that
region?
What percentage of oil have
you recovered here?
!
Sentences that express
strong feeling may be
followed by an
exclamation mark.
Watch out!
Thats a rude thing to say!
2. Separating Elements in Clauses
When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are
two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is
necessary.

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149
Punctuation
Marks
Guidelines Examples

When two elements
are compounded,
they are usually
joined together
with a words such
as and, or or
without any
punctuation.
Occasionally more
than two elements
are joined in this
way.
Tuition may be paid by check or
charged to a major credit card.
Im taking Chemistry and
Physics and Maths this semester.
,
Compounds that
contain more than
two elements are
called series.
Commas are used
to separate items in
a series, with words
such as and or or
usually occuring
between the last
two items.
England, Scotland, and Wales
share the island of Great
Brittain.
Environmentally conscious
businesses use recycled paper,
photocopy on both sides of a
sheet, and use ceramic cups.
;
When the items in
a series are very
long or have
internal
punctuation,
separation by
Students were selected on the
basis of grades; test of
vocabulary, memory, and
reading; and teacher
recommendations.

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150
commas can be
confusing, and
semicolons may be
used instead.
3. Word - Level Punctuation
The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences,
There are also punctuation marks that are used with words.
Punctuation
Marks
Guidelines Examples

The apostrophe is
used with nouns to
show possession.
The companys management
resisted the unions demands.

An apostrophe is used
in constructions to
show where letters or
numbers have been
omitted.
Hes; didnt; let; Maam; four
oclock.
45s; ABCs.
.
A period is used to
mark shortened forms
like abbreviations and
initials.
Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00
p.m.
-
A hyphen is used to
end a line of text when
part of a word must be
carried over the next
line
... insta -
bility

Hyphens are
sometimes used to
form compound words
twenty-four, self-confidence

When two modifiers
containing hyphens
The study included first- and
second-year students.

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151
are joined together,
common elements are
often not repeated.
Other uses of Punctuation Marks
Punctuation
Marks
Guidelines Examples

When writers use the exact
words of someone else, they
must use quotation marks to
set them off from the rest of
the text.
In 1841, Ralph Waldo
Emerson wrote I hate
quotations. Tell me what
you know.
...
....
If part of a quotation is
omitted, the omission must be
marked with points of ellipsis.
When the omission comes in
the middle of a sentence, three
points are used. When the
omission includes the end of
one or more sentences, four
points are used.
She told him the
following: If you want
to settle down, to get a
proper job, to find the
proper wife... you should
give up your selfish
ideas.
Work of the tyre that
B.W.R.A. is doing is of
greatest value when
carried out in a
sufficiently
comprehensive pattern,
and it is much to be
hoped that the framers of
codes will give it full
weight .... There are
many factors which
affect a pressure vessel
of the types commonly

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152
used.
[ ]
When writers insert something
within a quoted passage, the
insertion should be set off with
brackets.
In a fault, it [the crust of
the earth] has cracked
and caused different
layers of rock to slip.

The dash can be used to
indicate hesitations in speech.
Well uh Id like to
try again if you let
me, he offered.

The Infinitive
The infinitive is considered to be the base form of the verb.
Form
It appears as long infinitive (preceded by the particle to): I didnt want to tell
you that. ot as short infinitive (not preceded by the particle to): She made me
do it eventually.
A special use of the infinitive is the split infinitive, where the adverb which
modifies the verb is inserted between the particle to and the verb proper: He
was too disappointed to really care about the circumstances of the accident.


The Participle
There are two participle forms in English:
the -ing participle which denotes a continuous action or state:
I saw smoke coming through the door of the chemistry laboratory.
the past participle (the third form of the verb) which denotes the action
as a result:
The police wanted the law respected.
Form
Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite
Participle
asking being asked

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153
Perfect Participle having asked having been asked

The Gerund
denotes an action simultaneous with the present, past or future expressed
by the finite verb:
I thanked him for letting me know.
expresses anteriority after verbs as excuse, forgive, remember, thank,
etc.
Thank you for letting me know.
has a passive meaning after verbs as desire, need, require, want, etc.
Your hair needs cutting.

Form
The Gerund is formed ith the help of the -ing suffix added to the verb.
Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite Gerund helping; reading being helped
being read
Perfect Gerund having helped having been helped
having read having been read
In order to improve your knowledge about Gerund/ Infinitive, you may look
at Appendix 3 (page 189).

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Sper s termin de nvat ultimul curs.
b. El vrea s plece mai repede, pentru c are o treab important de
rezolvat.
c. Te-a rugat s scrii un raport, motivnd de ce gndeti aa.
d. Iat cteva formule pe care s le nvai.
e. Studentul a dovedit c este foarte bun la matematic.

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154
f. Dac nu faci maina s porneasc, ne stricm buna dispoziie.
g. Ploaia oprindu-se, putem pleca la universitate.
h. Te deranjeaz dac nchizi fereastra?
i. i mulumesc pentru c m-ai ajutat s rezolv acest exerciiu la geometrie.
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2. Put the verbs between brackets in gerund or past participle:
a. Thank you for (to tell) me the truth.
b. After (to wait) for you for half an hour, I left the hotel
c. We need to have our roof tiles (to replace)
d. They stopped (to cut) the pipes, when they discovered that they had some
short ones too.
e. I dont mind your (to stay) here and (to wait) for my daughter.
f. You are always late; you certainly must have your watch (to reapair).
g. I should like the World Championship (to win) by the Romanian team.;
h. Why are you loking at me? Go on (to work)!
i. Ill make them (to answer) all my questions about Canadian drilling.

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Unit 15
Reading and Practice
Imagine you work in a drilling company. Advertise your companys
products. Read two presentations of two refining companies and then make
your own presentation:

1. Automatic Filter Systems
All our automatic filter systems include filter media, support materials,
pressure vessel, steel structure, piping, valves, instrumentation and a PLC-
controlled sequencing program. Additional equipment necessary for
effective automatic operation can also be added to the scope of delivery.
In situations where the best solution is not easily determined, Dahlmans
extensive experience can always find the definitive technical and economic
solution.
Dahlman automatic filter systems are mostly used when:
Relatively high dirt loads are present in the feed
Continuous filtration is required
The system operates at high temperature
The product is hazardous, toxic or carcinogenic
Environmental or ergonomic regulations apply
Automatic systems can be provided with various filter elements. Direct
filtration at a 0.2 micron absolute rating is possible using porous sintered
stainless steel filters. Dahlman Etched Disc Filters can handle special
applications. The systems are regenerated using high pressures. This
technology has been specifically developed and proven by Dahlman in
amine filtration applications at many refineries.
The range of filtering media in automatic filter systems can include:
Porous sintered stainless steel
Filter fabric, seamless woven
Etched discs

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156
Wedge wire tubes
Dual media e.g. sand, anthracite, graphite
Polypropylene candles
For every application Dahlman can assist you by this selection process and
supply you with the very best and most economical filter internals.
Control
The controllability of automatic filter systems is always tailored to the
plants specific requirements. Control via local control cabinet with a PLC
or by the DCS systems can be incorporated. All our systems are supplied
with sequence charts, narratives and software. The advantage of automatic
filter systems is that we will perform a thorough check on the operation
before delivery or start-up. This can be done by means of a functional test or
a factory acceptance test. That way the systems are delivered according to
the requirements, and performance guarantees can be given.
Benefits
Advantages of Dahlman automatic filter systems:
Fully closed filter systems; no operator contact with the product
Fully automatic control and operation; no operator involvement
No moving parts; almost maintenance-free
Process guarantee; laboratory-or field test-proven
Shop-fabricated and delivered as a package; reduction of field
installation costs
Regeneration by gas, steam or liquid; flexibility
Several automatic systems for different applications
Dual media filters
Systems designed with sand, anthracite and graphite filter media
which are fluidised during backwashing. These systems are
generally used in water applications. Efficiencies of up to 98% at 2
microns can be achieved.
Gas-assisted backflush filters (Used with various filter media, such
as sintered metal, etched discs and several fabric types. Dahlamn has

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157
considerable experience of these filter systems both in polishing
filtration applications and in cake filtration. Some systems are
designed to provide dry-cake discharge, while others are executed
with decanting vessels.)
High-pressure bag filters (To clean gases from dust, Dahlman
designs and manufactures reverse jet bag filters used in several
(petro-)chemical processes. Fabrics and sintered metal are used as
the filter medium, depending on your specific process. Dahlman
specialises in high-pressure gas filters, and has been very successful
in supplying these for olefin plants and catalyst filtration. )

Some applications
Oil refining (Petro)chemicals Oil and gas
Amine Oleochemicals Seawater
FCC slurry oil Polymers Fuel gas
Heavy coker gas oils Fibres Reverse osmosis
Gas processing plants Speciality chemicals De-aeration

Dahlman Industrial Group B.V.
P.O. Box 438, NL 3140 AK Maassluis
Noordzee 8, NL 3144 DB Maassluis
Phone: +31-(0)10 599 11 11
Fax: +31-(0)10 599 11 00
E-mail: dahlman@dahlman.nl
Internet : www.dahlamn.nl


2. What is hydrocracking ?
Hydrocracking is a type of chemical plant designed to remove sulphur
( desulphurize) and process vacuum oils produced in Tubular Tower
Distillation (TTD) installations. Hydrocracking provides for increase in the
extent of crude oil treatment at PKN ORLEN S.A. to a level exceeding 80
per cent of clear product yield.
A hydrocracking Plant comprises the following technological sections :

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158
Reactive Section where two basic reactions occur:
hydrodesulphurisation and hydrocracking both are strongly
exothermic reactions, taking place in the presence of the catalyst
agent in a hydrogen atmosphere, under pressure of approximately 15
MPa and temperature of some 400
o
C. Intensifying the output and
modernizing the Hydrocracking Plant was possible through delivery
and application by Universal Oil Products USA of the most modern
catalyst agents available in the market: the nickel-tungsten
hydrocracking catalyst and the nickel-molybdenum desulphurising
catalyst;
Defractionalisation Section where extraction of dry gase, liquid
gases,m petroleum fractions, gas and heating oil fractions and
hydrocracking residuals take place;
Amine Wash section where liquid gases and hydrogen gases are
desulphurised.
The following are Hydrocracking Products, used as sulphur-free fuel
components or stock for further processing:
Hydrogen gases hydrogen and light hydrocarbons (mostly
methane)
Liquid gases hydrocarbons, such as propane-butane, with
applications including compounding of commercial liquid gases;
Light petrol hydrocarbons with boiling range up to 85
o
C, used as a
stock for isomerisation or compounding of petrols;
Naphta hydrocarbons with boiling range between 75
o
C and 180
o
C,
used as a stock for catalytic reforming or compounding petrols;
Kerosene fractions hydrocarbons with boiling range between
150
o
C and 300
o
, used as component of gas oil or aviation fuel;
Light gas oil hydrocarbons with boiling range between 170
o
C and
330
o
C, used as a component of high-quality diesel oil;
Heavy gas oil Hydrocarbons with boiling range between 250
o
C
and 370
o
C, used as a valuable component of diesel oil;

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Hydrocracking residuals hydrocarbons with boiling range above
365
o
C, used as high-quality stock for catalytic cracking or pyrolysis

Summary of the hydrocracking plant modernization and intensification
results
Processing capacity
rising
from 2,6 million to 3,4 million tons per
year
Two-fold increase in
production of sulphur-
free diesel (gas) oil
from 640,000 tons to 1,230,000 tons per
year
Increase in production
of desulphurised stock
for FKK installations
By more than 2000,000 tons per year
Reduction of national
sulphur dioxide
atmospheric emissions
By approximately 21,000 tons yearly

Hydrocracking plant after modernization

Total capacity 3,400,000 tons per year
Liquid gas 50,000 tons per year
Light petrol 65,000 tons per year
Naphta 520,000 tons per year
Kerosene fractions 250,000 tons per year
Light gas oil 940,000 tons per year
Heavy gas oil 280,000 tons per year
Hydrocracking residuals 1,250,000 tons per year



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160
Ways with words
1. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. For example,
the opposite of short is long, the opposite of old is young. Complete the
following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the
word in capital letters:
a. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being ....
b. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a
.... position.
c. The first shop he opened was a big success but the second was a total
....
d. Many people would rather work .than FULL-TIME.
e. The management said salaries had INCREASED, but official reports
showed that as a matter of fact they had ..
2. Word sets. Try to think of the word time. Now think of words connected
to time. In this way you may create a word set which may include among
other words: day, month, year, century, year, etc. Now complete the
following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject
of money:
a. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ....
b. When she started with the company her . was only $000 a year.
Now its at least four times that.
c. When Mr Michael retired he received a . of $00 a month.
d. Pierre is very worried because he is in .... nobody will lend him
any money.
e. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a
....
Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. Use your
dictionary and divide them into the following categories:
-borrowing money; saving and investing money; having a personal bank
account.
Sometimes the same word will fit different categories:

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161
-to withdraw money; a building society; a current account; a cheque card; a
mortgage; to cash a cheque; to buy shares in a company; the Stock Market;
to put money in; a monthly statement; a deposit account; to earn 15%
interest.
Grammar Reference
The Conjunction
Conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses:
He slipped and fell on the floor.
Please watch my baggage whileI buy my train ticket.
Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically (
have the same function in the sentence):
He slipped and fell on the floor. (And joins two verbs)
He moved quickly but quietly. (But joins two adverbs)
Conjunctions both...and, not only... (but also), either...or,
neither...nor make the connection more intense. They are also called
correlative conjunctions:
Both Lisa and I will go to the party.
Neither money nor power can make him happy.
Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. Here are
some common subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as
much as, because, before, how, if, since, that, unless, what, when,
where, who, whom
She never saw him after he left town.
She has been very ill since her operation.

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Controlled Practice
Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate
conjunction:
A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and
unforgettable walk on the wild side. It is to feel once more the power of the
old myths, to once again know that the land is the cradle of life, a. .
nature is the hand setting b. craddle endlessly rocking.
To the west, on the Olympic Peninsula, is the brooding, primordial coastline
of Olympic National Park. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a
part of the landmass. c. .. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer
stone, creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. Along this
coast, and beyond, into the Olympic Mountains, is one of the most diverse
wilderness areas in North America. Within the park are alpine meadows,
majestic white-robed peaks, d. .. some sixty active glaciers slow-
sliding their relentless way down from the heights. On the western slopes of
the mountains, there is a remarkable rainforest. In Wyoming are the rugged,
majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. e. .. most
mountain ranges, the Tetons have no foothills. They rise dramatically to a
height of almost 14,000 feet. Although relatively small, the Colorado River
must surely be the most powerful river of them all. For the Colorado River
carved the Grand Canyon. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other
would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. Sometimes the walls of the
canyon are less than a half mile wide.
Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f.
.. may be the most unusual river in the world. The Seminoles called it
"Pa-hay-okee," g. .. "Grassy Water." Here is the central feature of
Everglades National Park. A river that is 100 miles long, 50 miles wide, and
averages only 6 inches deep. Slowly flowing through the entire southern
reaches of the Florida Peninsula, the Everglades teems with an extraordinary
variety of life. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps, hammocks, islands
and hyacinth pools, live more than 350 species of birds.

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Sea. Mountain. River. Each has had a powerful impact on human
experience. h. .. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest.
Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest.
On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the giant sequoias are the survivors of a
forest realm that has endured for millennia. Some of these patriarchs have
stood for more than 2000 years. They are the largest living things on earth.
Far to the east, there is a more gentle forest. In the ancient mountains of
southern Appalachia, in Shenandoah National Park i. .. in Great Smoky
Mountains National Park, are seemingly endless groves of oak, hickory,
maple and other hardwoods. To walk these cool, serene, vaulted byways is
to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man
and nature are too often strangers. These are softer mountains, laying
comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist.
The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke." Bryce
Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed.
There are castles and whimsical skylines, arches, minarets, towers, all cut
from stone by the delicate, j. .. powerful hand of water, time and wind.
Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. Within the avenues
of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. seem to have once been
alive.
Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of
Zion National Park. l. .. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved,
the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold,
powerful strokes. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the
valley floor.
m. .1794, n. ..Captain George Vancouver first explored these
shores, the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. No longer shrouded in
ice, the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is
performed. Here is where glaciers come to die.
The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. ..for
the soul. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs

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towering taller than anything man has made. Waterfalls dance in the heights
like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap
of the valley. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of
liquid crystal. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they
will dwell in the eye of the mind forever.

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Test
Choose the best variant:
1. I went to .. cinema last night.
A. -; B. the; C. a; D. an.
2. He would have helped you if he
A. had been able to; B. could; C. has been able to; D. wanted.
3. If it tomorrow well postpone our businees trip.
A. rained; B. rains; C. will rain; D. had rained.
4. If I . in your place, I would gladly acept his invitation.
A. was; B. had been; C. were; D. has been.
5. On .. one hand I would like to start such a project, on other
I think I shant have the time to finish it.
A. the/ a; B. the/ the; C. -; -; D. a/ the.
6. I saw smoke through the door of .. chemistry laboratory.
A. come/ the; B. come/ -; C. coming/ -; D. coming/ the.
7. Have you .. finished your homework ?
A. -/ yet; B. just/ -; C. already/ -; D. -/ already.
8. the truth, I would have told it to you.
A. Have I known; B. Did I know; C. Had I known; D. Should I know.
9. I couldnt make a story, so I had to tell them the truth.
A. up; B. in; C. out; D. of.
10. .. had I entered the door .. the phone started to ring.
A. Hardly/ when; B. scarcely/ then; C. hardly/ than; D. hard/ when.
11. No sooner .. on that drilling rig when he . promoted.
A. had he moved/ has been; B. had he moved/ was; C. was he moved/ was;
D. he had moved/ was.
12. The doctor .. several hours ago.
A. has been sent for; B. had been sent for; C. was sent for; D. was being
sent for.
13. In case you my advice, call me at this number.
A. will need; B. need; C. has needed; D. needed.

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14. Do you think we call him so late?
A. should; B. need; C. had to; D. must.
15. The paper addresses a basic question.. How can we take steps
needed to protect the environment?
A. : ; B. .; C. ,; D. - .
16. She took the liberty it in her own way.
A. of doing; B. to do; C. of to do; D. to doing.
17. She spoke
A. extreme loud; B. extremely loud; C. extremely loudly; D. extreme
loudly.
18. He was looking at me as if he that easy equation.
A. didnt understand; B. hasnt understood; C. hadnt understood;
D. understood.

Answer key:
1. B; 2. A; 3. B; 4. C; 5. B; 6. D.; 7. A; 8. C; 9. A.; 10. A; 11. B; 12. C;
13. B.; 14. A.; 15. A; 16. A; 17. B; 18. C.
1 point + 0,50 points per each good answer

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167
Evaluation

1. What have you learnt from this book?
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2. What did you enjoy about it?
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3. What didnt you enjoy about it?
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4. Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently.
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Appendix 1
Irregular verbs
Base form Past Simple Past
Participle
Translation
to be was/were been a fi
to beat beat beaten a bate
a lovi
a nvinge
to become became become a deveni
to bend bent bent a (se) ndoi
to begin began begun a ncepe
to bid bid
bade
bid
bidden
a ordona
a porunci
a oferi
to bind bound bound a uni
a lega
a obliga
to blow blew blown a sufla
a arde (fuzibilul unei
sigurane)
to break broke broken a sparge
a rupe
a sfrma
a concasa
a degrada
to bring brought brought a aduce
a produce
to build built built a cldi
a construi
to burn burnt burnt a arde

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a calcina
a ataca
to burst burst burst a izbucni
a exploda
a crpa
to buy bought bought a cumpra
to cast cast cast a arunca
a turna
to catch caught caught a prinde
a capta
a bloca
a colecta
to choose chose chosen a selecta
a alege
to cleave cleft
clove
cleft
cloven
a (se) despica
a (se) scinda
a separa
to come came come a veni
a ajunge
cost cost cost a costa
to creep crept crept a (se) tr
a aluneca
a se alungi
to cut cut cut a tia
a fasona
a seciona
a opri (un motor)
to deal dealt dealt a se ocupa (cu)
a contracta
a distribui
a repartiza

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to dig dug dug a spa
a excava
a explora
to do did done a face
to draw drew drawn a desena
a schia
a atrage
to dream dreamt dreamt a visa
to drink drank drunk a bea
to drive drove driven a aciona
a conduce
to eat ate eaten a mnca
to fall fell fallen a cdea
a da la rebut
to feed fed fed a alimenta
a hrni
a aproviziona
to feel felt felt a (se) simi
to fight fought fought a combate
a (se) lupta
to find found found a gsi
a descoperi
a constata
to fling flung flung a lansa
a arunca
a izbucni
to fly flew flown a zbura
a lansa
to forecast forecast forecast a prevedea
to forbid forbade forbidden a interzice
to forget forgot forgotten a uita

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to freeze froze frozen a nghea
a refrigera
to get got got a obine
a primi
a deveni (a ajunge)
to give gave given a da
a acorda
a transmite
a aviza
a preda
to go went gone a merge
a funciona
a circula
to grow grew grown a se mri
a dezvolta
to hang hung hung a suspenda
a aga
a pune receptorul n furc
to have had had a avea
to hear heard heard a auzi
to hew hewed hewed
hewn
a ciopli
a degroa
a tia
to hide hid hidden a ascunde
to hit hit hit a lovi
a ciocni
a izbi
to hold held held a ine
a bloca
a opri
a fixa

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a cuprinde
to hurt hurt hurt a rni
a lovi
a avaria
to keep kept kept a ine
a reine
a menine
a ntreine
to knit knit knit a nnoda
a tricota
a mbina
to know knew known a ti
a cunoate
to lay laid laid a pune
a aeza
a ntinde
to lead led led a conduce
a avansa
a comanda
to lean leant leant a nclina
a (se) apleca
a se sprijini
to learn learnt learnt a nva
to leave left left a pleca
a prsi
to lend lent lent a mprumuta
to let let let a lsa
a permite
to lie lay lain a se afla
a consta n
light lit lit a aprinde

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to lose lost lost a pierde
to make made made a fabrica
a face
to mean meant meant a nsemna
a vrea s spun
to meet met met a (se) ntlni
a intersecta
a ncrucia
to pay paid paid a plti
a achita
to put put put a pune
a aeza
to read read read a citi
to ride rode ridden a clri
to ring rang rung a suna
a chema (la telefon)
to rise rose risen a (se) ridica
a (se) urca
a rsri
to run ran run a alerga
a funciona
a administra
to say said said a spune
to saw sawed sawn a tia cu ferstrul
to see saw seen a vedea
to seek sought sought a cuta
a cerceta
to sell sold sold a vinde
to send sent sent a trimite
to set set set a regla
a ajusta

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a stabili
to shake shook shaken a bate
a scutura
a vibra
to shear sheared shorn a tia
a mrgini
a forfeca
to shed shed shed a arunca
a difuza
a vrsa
to shine shone shone a strluci
a polisa
to show showed shown a arta
a manifesta
to shoot shot shot a mpuca
a filma
to shrink shrank shrunk a se contracta
a freta
to shut shut shut a nchide
to sing sang sung a cnta
to sink sank sunk a (se) scufunda
a ngropa
to sit sat sat a sta jos
to sleep slept slept a dormi
to slide slid slid a aluneca
a glisa
to sling slung slung a arunca
a lansa
to smell smelt smelt a mirosi
to smite smote smitten a izbi
to speak spoke spoken a vorbi

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to speed sped sped a accelera
to spell spelt spelt a scrie liter cu liter
a silabisi
to spend spent spent a petrece
a cheltui
a ntrebuina
to spill spilt spilt a vrsa
a risipi
a turna
to split split split a cliva
a scinda
a despica
a disocia
to spin spun spun a centrifuga
a roti
a presa
to spread spread spread a rspndi
a acoperi
a extinde
to spring sprang sprung a sri
a izvor
a se arcui
to stand stood stood a sta (vertical)
a rezista
a suporta
to steal stole stolen a fura
to stick stuck stuck a (se) lipi
a se fixa
to strike struck struck a lovi
a izbi
to string strung strung a nira

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a lega
a ncorda
to strive strove striven a se strdui
a se lupta
to swear swore sworn a jura
to swell swelled swollen a (se) umfla
a crete
to swim swam swum a nota
to swing swung swung a oscila
a (se) balansa
a pendula
to take took taken a lua
a capta
a necesita
to teach taught taught a preda
to tear tore torn a rupe
to tell told told a spune
to think thought thought a reflecta
a gndi
a socoti c
to throw threw thrown a arunca
to thrust thrust thrust a mpinge
a nfige
a apsa
to understand understood understood a nelege
to wake woke woken a (se) trezi
to wear wore worn a purta
a uza
a toci
to weep wept wept a plnge
a picura

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a se prelinge
to win won won a ctiga
to wind wound wound a rni
to wring wrung wrung a stoarce
a rsuci
a smulge
to write wrote written a scrie

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Appendix 2
WORD+PREPOSITION (sb.= somebody; sth.= somenthing)
(break sth.) by accident
according to (the weather forecast)
to account for sth.
an advertisement for sth
afraid of (storms)
at the age of (twenty)
to agree with sb. on sth.
to apply for (a job)
appropriate for sth.
to argue with sb. about sth.
to arrive at (the railway station)
to arrive in (Europe)
as a result
to ask for sth.
to assist in sth.
attentive at sth./ sb.
at the beginning of sth.
in the beginning
to be afraid of. sb./ sth.
to be at home
to be aware of sth.
to be bored with sth./sb.
to be careful about sth.
to be fed up with sth.
to be full of (energy)
to be fond of sb.
to be good at sth.
to be in charge of sth.
to be in love with sb.

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to be in a mess
to be interested in sth.
to be impressed by sth.
to be married to sb.
to be on strike
to be out of order
to be patient with sb./ sth.
to be proud of sth./ sb.
to be similar to sth.
to be tired of sth.
to believe in sth.
to belong to sb.
to benefit from sth.
to go by bus/ train/plane, etc.
in the (20-th) century
certain of sth.
change for (a dollar)
to come from England/ Romania
to compare sth. with sth. else
to complain about sth.
in (good/bad) condition
in/ under these conditions
in contrast with sth./ sb.
to cooperate with sb.
to cope with sth.
to deal with sth.
to debate on sth.
deficiency in sth./ deficient in sth.
to depend on sb./ sth.
to develop into sth.
to die of sth.

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to be different from sb./sth.
in the distance
to distinguish sth. from sth. else
to dream about sb./sth.
in the end
at the end of sth.
to a (certain/great) extent
to fight against sb./ sth.
to fight against sb./ sth.
on a flight to (Paris)
to fight against sb./sth.
to find put about sv./ sth.
to forget about sb./sth.
to get in touch with sb.
to get on (well) with sb.
to go out with sb.
to go home
to have a degree in sth.
to have an interview for a job
to invite sb. to (a party) or for (dinner)
in the North/ South, etc.
to laugh at sb./ sth.
to listen to sth./ sb.
to live on the third/fourth floor
to look after sb.
to look at sth.
to look for sth.
to look forward to doing sth.
to merge with sth.
by mistake
at the/that moment

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to operate on sb.
to originate in sth.
owing to sth.
to participate in sth.
to pay ($5000) for sth.
to point at sb./ sth.
to point sth. (a gun) at sb.
preoccupation with sth.
to rely on sb./ sth
representative of sb./ sth.
resistance to sth./ sb.
to search for sth./ sb.
to sell sth. for ($300)
to share sth. with sb.
similar to sb./ sth.
to speak to sb. about sth.
to specialize in sth.
to spend money on sth.
a story about sth.
to suffer from sth.
to talk to sb. about sth.
thanks to sb./ sth.
on television
to think about (What are you thinking about?)
to think of (What do you thinf of von Laue?)
to throw sth. at sb.
a ticket for sth.
in view of sth.
to wait for sb./ sth.
on the way (to school)
to work as (a teacher)

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to work for (an organization)
to worry about sth./ sb.
to write (an e-mail, a letter) to sb.

Verbs with Obligatory Preposition:
ABOUT:
argue, complain, doubt, fret, grieve, know, say, see, set, speak, talk, tell,
think, worry, write.
AFTER:
aspire, crave, hanker, hunger, hunt, look, take, yearn.
AGAINST:
clamour, defend, exclaim, fight, guard, indemnify, insure, murmur, mutter,
protect, revolt, thunder, warn.
AT:
aim, assess, buy/sell (sth) at a price, call, drive, fire a shot, gaze, glance,
knock, laugh, mock, point, puff, rage, rejoice, repine, rush, shoot, smile,
sneer, stay, strike, throw, work.
BY:
begin, buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc, divide, finish, pass, profit, pull,
swear, walk.
FOR:
account, answer, ask, atone, bargain, call, care, cry, die, do, fall, fish, hope,
lament, languish, leave, long, look, last, pay, pine, prepare, reach, sail,
search, send, sigh, stand, start, strive, take, wait, wish.
FROM:
absolve, banish, borrow, cry, derive, descent, differ, differentiate,
distinguish, ensue, exact, excerpt, expect, extricate, flee, learn, manufacture,
obtain, purchase, purge, receive, recover, refrain, select, spring, suffer,
withdraw.
IN:

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer,
insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write.
INTO:
alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn.
OF:
accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain,
consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn,
relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think.
ON:
act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark,
gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell.
OVER:
brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate.
TO:
adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal,
aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain,
consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead,
listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return,
seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend.
WITH:
agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond,
deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet
(~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side,
sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie.
UPON:
act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist,
look, play (~ones feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample.

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Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:
Addicted to
adequate for (smth.)
adequate to (smb.)
adverse to
affected by
amazed at
ambitious after
annoyed at
anxious about (smth.)
anxious for (smb.)
appalled by
apprehensive of (i.e. worried about)
apt for
ashamed of
averse to
bad at
beneficial to
bent on
busy with
capabale of
certain of
charmed at (smth.)
charmed with (smb.)
clever at (mathematics)
compatible with
concerned about /with
concerned for (smb)
connected with
consistent with

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contended with
convenient for (smth.)
convenient to (smb.)
crazy about
cruel to
deficient in (smth.)
delighted at
derogatory to
devoid of
dexterous at
diffident in
disappointed at
disgusted by (smth.)
disgusted with (smb.)
displeased at
dissatisfied with
doubtful of (smb.)
dying for
eager for/about
earnest about
enraged by
essential for
excited at/over
fit for
frightened at
full of
good at
greedy of
hostile to (smb.)
hungry for
identical to/with

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ignorant of
immersed in (debts)
immune against
immune from
impolite to
inadequate for smth/to smb
incensed at/with
inclined to /for
inconceivable to
independent of smb
indignant at/with
infatuate with
intent on
irritated at
offended at
opposite from
parallel to
paralyzed with
partial to
particular about
pleased at smth
prepared for
proficient in
prone to
resolved on
rude to
secure of
skillful at/in
slow at
solicitous about
sorry about smth, sorry for smb

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subject to
suffering from
sufficient for
suited to
sure about smth
sure of smb
sympathetic to
tired with
true to
unfit for
unjust to
vexed at smth, vexed with smb


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Appendix 3
Verbs which are always followed by a GERUND:
The drilling engineer denied experiencing a gusher.
admit defer dispute find miss recall
appreciate delay enoy finish pardon risk
avoid deny escape forgive postpone suggest
celebrate detest excuse mention practice understand
consider dislike explain mind prevent

Verbs wich are always followed by an INFINITIVE:
The regional Electricity companies expect to earn an additional 23% profit
this year.
afford decide intend plan refuse
agree expect need pretend seem
appear hope offer promise want

Verbs which are followed by either an INFINITIVE or a GERUND
Nowadays many countries prefer to generate/generating electricty from
renewable sources of energy.
begin continue prefer start


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