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Blue tooth is a standard developed by a group of electronics manufacturers that allows any sort of electronic equipment – from computers to cell phones and keyboards to headphones – to make its own connections without wires, cables or any direct action from the user. The technology encompasses a simple low-cost, low-power, global radio system for integration into mobile devices. Such devices can form a quick ad-hoc secure “piconet” and communicate among the connected devices. This technology creates many useful mobile usage models because the connections can occur while mobile devices are being carried in packets and briefcases (therefore, there are no line-of-sight restrictions). This paper provides a brief introduction of Bluetooth technology and its working. It also gives some insights of applications, features and benefits. Finally, the implementation issues of Bluetooth technology are observed.
Bluetooth has to receive an overwhelming support of all the digital and computerized manufacturers to become a basic unit in a production process. Acceptance by those companies outside the SIG will hold back the implementation of Bluetooth in all devices in the future.
Bluetooth is a radio system designed for connecting a variety of mobile devices in a secure ad-hoc fashion. The Bluetooth specification is definitely real and is being widely adopted by industry leaders. The possibilities for new applications are very exciting with this versatile technology.
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Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras via a secure, low-cost, globally available short range radio frequency. The name Bluetooth was born from the 10th century king of Denmark, King Harold Bluetooth who engaged in diplomacy which led warring parties to negotiate with each other. The inventors of the Bluetooth technology thought this a fitting name for their technology which allowed different devices to talk to each other Bluetooth is a radio standard primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 10 centimeters, 10 meters, 100 meters) and with a lowcost transceiver microchip in each device. Bluetooth lets these devices talk to each other when they come in range, even if they are not in the same room, as long as they are within up to 100 meters of each other, dependent on the power class of the product. Products are available in one of three power classes: Power (mW) Power (dBm) Range (approximate)
Class 1 100 mW 20 dBm ~100 meters Class 2 2.5 mW Class 3 1 mW 4 dBm 0 dBm ~10 meters ~10cm (1 meter max)
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WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?
Bluetooth is a name given to the novel technology that uses short range, radio link, intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed communicating devices. Such as mobile phones, desktops, notebook computers, cameras, printers, coffee makers, telephones etc. OR Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low cost, low power, short range, radio technologies for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data any where in the world.
THE NAME BLUETOOTH COMES FROM…
Bluetooth is named for Harald Blatand, the king of Denmark who united Denmark and Norway. Blatand translates into Bluetooth in English. The Ericsson Company originally started Bluetooth as a project. Similarly, in the beginning of the Bluetooth technology era, Bluetooth was aimed at unifying the telecom and computing industries.
THE REASON WE CAME TO BLUETOOTH…
Let us take an example of telephones for cables where as mobiles are wireless. Because of the problem of interference over cabling we came to Bluetooth technology. This Bluetooth is also a cable replacement technology i.e. wireless.
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BLUETOOTH IS WIRELESS…
Blue tooth uses omni-directional radio waves which even operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHZ that can be transmitted through walls and non-metal barriers. Bluetooth uses 1600 times/sec frequency hopping to avoid interference.
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) This group worked together to define and promote an open, royalty-free This group also defines a certification program for Bluetooth products to specification. ensure product compatibility across manufacturers. The Bluetooth SIG includes promoter companies 3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba, and more than 2000 Adopter/Associate member companies.
Universal short-range (up to 100 mts) radio communication standard. Runs at 2.4GHz band, which is near microwave frequency. Performs fast frequency hopping between 79 points to avoid interference i.e., 1600 times/sec. It is full-duplex. Low power, 32-100mA during sustained data transmissions between devices. Devices automatically switch to power saving mode. Transfers data at 721 Kbps (Kilo Bits Per Second), which is 3 – 8 times the average speed of parallel and serial ports respectively. Bandwidth is wide enough to carry voice and data signals. 4 Email: email@example.com
Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html 300 – 400 Kbps real data rate.
Bluetooth defines two types of networks. ♦ Piconet ♦ Scatternet
It is a small subset of Bluetooth devices that share the same physical channel in an ad-hoc fashion. Piconet comprises of eight stations in which only one serves as master & the rest as slaves. All the slave stations synchronize their clocks & hopping sequence with the master. An indefinite number of parked devices remains synchronized with the Piconet but is not active. A slave in the parked state is synchronized with the master but cannot take place in communication until it moves from parked state to active state. Activating a station from parked state means that an active station should be moved to parked state.
The communication between master & slaves can be of • • One-to-one One-to-many (or) single point-to-point (or) multipoint
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Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html M – Master S - Slave M M
A group of two or more partially overlapping Piconet connected through gateways. (Or) A Scatternet is a group of Piconet linked via a slave device in one Piconet, which plays master role in other Piconet. The connection between master and slaves is same as in Piconet. In Scatternet the slave of one Piconet can be a master to another Piconet.
M M – Master S – Slave S S M/S S
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Co ntr ol
RADIO LAYER: The radio layer coordinates the functions required to transmit bit stream over a medium. It deals with Band, FHSS & Modulation. This layer uses 2.4GHz ISM band divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each .In this layer a method called Frequency hopping spread spectrum is used in order to avoid interference from other devices or other networks. To transform bits to a signal a sophisticated version of FSK called GFSK (FSK with Gaussian Band Width Filtering) is used. 7 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
BASE BAND LAYER: Base band layer governs the operation of the access method. It deals with access method TDMA & Physical links. This layer deals with access method TDD-TDMA (Time Division Duplexing–Time Division Multiple Access). TDD is a kind of half duplex communication. The communication for each direction uses different hops.
In TDMA access method communication is of two types: • SINGLE SLAVE COMMUNICATION If the Piconet has only one slave then the master uses even numbered slots and the slave uses odd numbered slots to communicate with one another in half duplex method. • MULTIPLE SLAVE COMMUNICATION If the Piconet consists more than one slave then the master uses the even numbered slots, but a slave sends in the next odd numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it. PHYSICAL LINKS: The types of links between master and slave are SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) link ACL (Asynchronous Connection Less) link • SCO: 8 Email: email@example.com
Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html A synchronous connection oriented link is used when avoiding Latency (delay in data delivery) is more important than integrity (Error-free delivery).In SCO, a physical link is created between a master and slave by reserving specific slots at regular intervals. In SCO, if a packet is damaged it is never retransmitted. So, SCO is used for real- time audio. A slave can create up to three SCO links with the master • ACL: An Asynchronous connectionless link is used when data integrity is more important than avoiding latency. ACL can achieve a data rate up to 721 Kbps. LMP (Link Manager Protocol)
This layer is responsible for setting up the link between two Bluetooth radios (Security aspects and control issues on Baseband packet sizes). Link manager uses the services of link controller to perform its services. It essentially consists of number of protocol data units, which sends from one device to another. Furthermore, it controls the power modes and duty cycles of Bluetooth radio services, and connection states of Bluetooth unit in a Piconet. HCI (Host Controller Interface) It is provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across to processors. Some systems will implement the Baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor. The HCI is provided as command interface between these parts. This HCI is functionally broken up into three parts. HCI Firmware, HCI Driver & Host Controller Transport Layer HCI Firmware & HCI Controllers are communicated through Host Controller Transport Layer.
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Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html L2CAP LAYER: L2CAP is the acronym for Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol. L2CAP adapts upper layer protocols over the Baseband and resides in the data link layer. L2CAP permits higher-level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64KB of length.
How Bluetooth Technology Works?
Connecting Devices In order to understand how Bluetooth technology works we must first take a look at how electronic devices (Bluetooth or not) connect and communicate with one another. There are several questions that need to be addressed before any two devices can communicate with one another Will the devices communicate via wires or through the air? Obviously, if the devices are using Bluetooth, they will communicate without wires. However, if the devices are not Bluetooth enabled, then they have the option of communicating either with or without wires. Devices can take advantage of several wireless technologies, Bluetooth included, by using various transmitters to send information over the airwaves.
Bluetooth devices are required where cable replacement needed and at data and voice access points, ad-hoc networking and some like in medical or industrial organizations. o Cable Replacement o Data and Voice Access Points – PCs &peripherals, home networking, headsets – E-mail, web access, Cordless telephone, etc.
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Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html o Ad-hoc Networking o Medical o Industrial – Business card exchange, multi-layer Games, vending machines, white goods, etc. – Monitoring devices – Inventory management systems
Allows transmission range of up to 100 meters Robustness: This is capable of operating in an environment strongly Low Complexity: This is suitable for devices with low memory and low Low Power: This is suitable for small devices that are battery powered Low Cost: Very large scale production can be implemented on a single Blue tooth devices are wireless
interfered by other technologies using the same radio spectrum cpu capacity, so that it could be easily integrated in chipsets and energy constrained chip
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Only applicable to short range (up to 100 mts) Bluetooth technology is of high cost when compared to other
technologies. Relatively low transfer rate(721Kbps)
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∗ There are three Security Modes Security Mode 1
No security procedures and any Bluetooth device can initiate a connection
Security Mode 2
Security is enforced after the connection has been
established. Can allow greater flexibility to work with application
requirements. Security Mode 3
Security is enforced during set-up.
Only a device is authenticated, not its user. Bluetooth security not intended to replace other software security Network security still needed to control access to LANs. Bluetooth wireless technology not built for secure e-commerce
The other WLAN technology is 12 Email: email@example.com
Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html IEEE 802.11b – – – – – Office or campus LAN 11 Mbps Multiple clients per access point Up to 100 metres range Uses Wired Equivalent Privacy
Headset 3 in 1 Phone – Hands free cell phone (road, office ,car) – Intercom (no charge), Portable phone (fixed line charge), Cellular in Office LAN Internet Bridge – Network access point, for mobile internet browsing
Automatic Synchronizer – Background Syncs between PC & PDA, Phone, PC Instant Postcard Interactive Conference Wireless Workplace – Digital camera send to cell phone – Exchange Business Cards & Data in meetings – Peripherals connect to your PC or LAN w/o wires
This paper is intended to explain the working, advantages and applications of Bluetooth technology .Today over 1,000 international electronics manufacturers belong to Bluetooth special interest group or SIG. This ability to establish peaceful communication between differing peoples is a metaphor for the ability to connect devices from differing 13 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Visit: www.geocities.com/chinna_chetan05/forfriends.html technologies. The SIG today consists of more than 2,000 member organizations. The core or “promoter” group, in the SIG is composed of 3com,Ericsson,Intel,IBM ,Lucent ,Microsoft , Motorola,Nokia and Toshiba.Thus there is an urgent need for all the other companies to understand the importance of Bluetooth and implement it to acquire more fruitful results. As Bluetooth technology becomes more main stream, go ahead and take it for a whirl and enjoy a cable less and hands-free environment.
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