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New Biology – a modern approach 2

Chapter 13: The human breathing system


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Structured Questions
Core Section

|!|EQA01300001|!|
Complete the following paragraph with suitable words selected from below:
lower enters increases higher leaves relax
contract dome-shaped flattened raise decreases
The movement of air over the respiration surface is called ventilation. During inspiration, the diaphragm
muscles (i)_______________ to make the diaphragm (ii)_______________. At the same time, the intercostal
muscles contract to (iii)_______________ the rib cage. The volume of the thoracic cavity
(iv)_______________. The air pressure inside the lungs becomes (v)_______________ than the atmospheric
pressure. As a result, air (vi)_______________ the lungs.
(3 marks)
##
(i) contract (1/2 mark)
(ii) flattened (1/2 mark)
(iii) raise (1/2 mark)
(iv) increases (1/2 mark)
(v) lower (1/2 mark)
(vi) enters (1/2 mark)
_________
(3 marks)##

|!|EQB01300002|!|
* Thomas examined the photomicrograph below that shows some cells from the lining of the respiratory tract:

Layer A

(i) Name TWO types of cells in layer A and state their functions which help to keep the respiratory tract
free from dust. (4 marks)

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Name Function
(1)
1 mark/ blank
(2)
1 mark/ blank
(ii) In some cities in the Mainland China, the residents use coal as a fuel. In the air, there would be a higher
level of soot particles. State the effect of the soot particles on gaseous exchange in the lungs.
(2 marks)
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(iii) Bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. State the result in a patient after repeated
attacks of bronchitis. (2 marks)
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(iv) People sometimes choke when trying to swallow pieces of poorly chewed food. Name a reflex action
to expel the food out of the windpipe. (1 mark)
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##
(i)
Name Function
(1) mucus-producing cells To produce mucus to trap dust.
1 mark/ blank
(2) ciliated epithelial cells To sweep the mucus and dust towards the throat.
1 mark/ blank
(ii) The soot particles in the alveoli reduce the surface area for gaseous exchange. (1 mark)
Thus the rate of gaseous exchange becomes slower if more soot particles are present in the lungs.
(1 mark)
(iii) The passageways of the bronchi become narrow, (1 mark)
making breathing more difficult. (1 mark)
(iv) Coughing. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##
|!|EQB01300003|!|
* Vivian was asked to put her right hand on the sternum and her left hand on the left side of the rib cage. Then
she breathed in and out. She found that both parts moved during the breathing action.
(i) On the diagram shown below, draw the position of the labeled parts after exhalation. (3 marks)

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backbone
sternum

rib

diaphragm

(ii) There are muscles in the diaphragm. Describe the role of these muscles in exhalation. (4 marks)
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(iii) During breathing, the ribs move. Name the muscles involved. (1 mark)
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(iv) State the direction in which the ribs move during exhalation. (1 mark)
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##
(i)

backbone
sternum

rib

diaphragm

During expiration

Correct position of sternum (1 mark)


Correct position of rib (1 mark)
Correct position of diaphragm (1 mark)
(ii) The diaphragm muscles relax and the diaphragm returns to dome-shaped. (2 marks)
This reduces the volume of the thorax and (1 mark)
the air pressure in the thorax increases. (1 mark)
(iii) intercostal muscles (1 mark)
(iv) The ribs move downwards and inwards. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQA01300004|!|
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:
VOICEBOX
Your voice box (larynx) is a framework of cartilages, muscles and mucous membranes
that forms the entrance to your trachea (windpipe). The larynx is the part at the top of the
windpipe. The epiglottis is a small, movable lid just above the larynx that prevents food and
drinks from entering your windpipe. You cannot swallow and breathe at the same time. Don’t
talk too much when you are eating. Otherwise you may choke when food wrongly falls down
the trachea.

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(i) Explain why swallowing and breathing cannot occur at the same time. (4 marks)
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(ii) The pharynx is the part which is common to the respiratory and digestive systems. Breathing through the
mouth is possible, but it is not a good habit. State the advantages of breathing through the nose.
(3 marks)
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(iii) Describe a structural feature which keeps the trachea constantly open. (1 mark)
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(iv) In a human male, the larynx enlarges after puberty. Describe the change of his voice. (1 mark)
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##
(i) The epiglottis drops down when one swallows, (1 mark)
effectively blocking the larynx. (1 mark)
If he is not eating, the epiglottis is slightly lifted (1 mark)
so that air can flow freely into the lungs. (1 mark)
(ii) The air is moistened by the mucous layer, (1 mark)
warmed by the blood vessels (1 mark)
and filtered by the cilia. (1 mark)
(iii) C-shaped cartilage (1 mark)
(iv) His voice becomes deeper. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

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|!|EQA01300005|!|
The following setup was used to examine the composition of air samples. Each time the gas jar was filled with
a treated air sample. The amount of the air sample before treatment was 15.0 cm 3. The air sample entered the
syringe via the rubber tube. The volume of air sample collected was measured by the syringe.

gas jar syringe

rubber tube

water trough

Treatment Volume measured by syringe (cm3)


A. Inhaled air exposed to potassium hydroxide solution 15.0 cm3
B. Inhaled air exposed to alkaline pyrogallol 12.0 cm3
C. Exhaled air exposed to potassium hydroxide solution 14.5 cm3
(i) What was the function of potassium hydroxide? (1 mark)
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(ii) Why did the volume measured for treatment A remain at 15.0 cm3? (3 marks)
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(iii) What gas did alkaline pyrogallol absorb? Calculate the percentage of the gas in the air sample.
(2 marks)
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(iv) Compare the volumes measured for treatment A and treatment C. What conclusion can you draw from
the comparison? Explain the difference. (3 marks)
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##
(i) To absorb carbon dioxide. (1 mark)
(ii) Since the percentage of carbon dioxide in the inhaled air was only about 0.03, (1 mark)
its volume in the 15cm air sample was too small
3
(1 mark)

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for its absorption to be measured by the syringe. (1 mark)
(iii) Oxygen. (1 mark)
[(15-12)/15]×100%(1)=20% (1 mark)
(iv) The exhaled air has more carbon dioxide/ a higher percentage of carbon dioxide than inhaled air.
(1 mark)
Since carbon dioxide is produced by cells as a waste product of respiration, it is carried away from the
body during exhalation. (2 marks)
_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQA01300006|!|
The diagram below shows a model of a human chest. Axis A is fixed while axis B can be moved up and down.

Nail to fix axis A


Strip of wood

Rubber band
Axis A

Screw which bolts


axis B and wood
Axis B

together to allow
movement

(i) Which part of the body does each of the following represent?
(1) axis A: ___________________
(2) axis B: ___________________
(3) strips of wood: ___________________
(4) rubber bands: ___________________ (4 marks)
(ii) What corresponding movement in the human body is demonstrated when axis B is moved up? (1
mark)
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(iii) How is the movement in (ii) brought about in the human body? (1 mark)
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(iv) What would happen to the lungs in the human body as a result of the movement in (ii)?
(1 mark)
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(v) Describe and explain the sequence of events involved in the process of inspiration. (6 marks)
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##
(i) (1) vertebral column (1 mark)
(2) sternum (1 mark)
(3) ribs (1 mark)
(4) intercostal muscles (1 mark)
(ii) The sternum is moved up/ rib cage is raised/ inspiration. (1 mark)
(iii) by the contraction of intercostal muscles (1 mark)
(iv) The volume of the lungs increases./ inflation of lungs (1 mark)
(v) Contraction of the intercostal muscles raises the rib cage. (1 mark)
Contraction of the diaphragm muscles flattens the diaphragm. (1 mark)
The volume of the thorax is increased. (1 mark)
The pressure inside the thorax is reduced. (1 mark)
Thus air is forced into the lungs (1 mark)
by the greater atmospheric pressure. (1 mark)
__________
(13 marks)##

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|!|EQB01300007|!|
* The diagram below shows the structure of the bronchiole and an alveolus in a human lung:

cilia
bronchiole

water film

wall of alveolus
wall of blood capillary
soot particles
white blood cell

Gas Y red blood cell


Gas X

to pulmonary vein

(i) State the function of


(1) cilia on the inner surface of the bronchiole. (2 marks)
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(2) the water film on the inner surface of the alveolus. (1 mark)
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(ii) Name TWO gases which are most abundant in the expired air. (1 mark)
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(iii) Name gas X and gas Y. Name the process by which these gases pass through the alveolar wall into the
blood. (2 marks)
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(iv) State TWO structures in the diagram that are defensive against inhaled bacteria. (2 marks)
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(v) Give THREE structural features of the alveoli which make the lungs efficient for gaseous exchange.
(3 marks)
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(vi) State the differences between the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary vein with reference to their
(1) structures. (1 mark)
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(2) composition of blood. (1 mark)
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(3) nature of haemoglobin in their red blood cells. (1 mark)
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(vii) Give FOUR reasons why it is healthier to breathe through the nose than through the mouth.
(4 marks)
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(viii) Explain how the presence of soot particles may affect gaseous exchange. (2 marks)
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(ix) Suggest a possible source of soot particles. (1 mark)
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##
(i) (1) The waving movement of cilia causes the mucus to mix with dust and bacteria and move upwards
from the bronchiole to the larynx. (2 marks)
(2) as a moist layer for dissolving oxygen (1 mark)
(ii) oxygen (½ mark)
nitrogen (½ mark)
(Composition of expired air: oxygen ........
…...16.4 %
nitrogen ......……79.6 %
carbon dioxide ...4.0 %)
(iii) Gas X = oxygen (1/2 mark)
Gas Y = carbon dioxide (1/2 mark)
diffusion (1 mark)
(iv) cilia for sweeping dust and bacteria (1 mark)
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white blood cells to kill bacteria (1 mark)
(v) The wall is thin enough for rapid diffusion of gases. (1 mark)
The wall is moistened by water film for dissolving oxygen. (1 mark)
It is richly supplied with blood capillaries for transport of gases/
to maintain a steep concentration gradient across the alveolar wall. (1 mark)
(vi)
Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein
(1)Structure (1) Thicker wall/ with (1) Thinner wall/ with less
more elastic tissue elastic tissue
(2) More carbon dioxide/ less (2) More oxygen/ less
(2)Composition of blood
oxygen carbon dioxide
(3) Carbaminohaemoglobin (3) Oxyhaemoglobin
(3)Nature of haemoglobin
(3 marks)
(vii) -Hair in the nasal passage can filter the dust. (1 mark)
-Mucus in the nasal passage can trap the bacteria. (1 mark)
-Pressure of sensory cells in the nasal cavity prevents the breathing of harmful gases into the lungs. (1
mark)
-The blood capillaries in the nasal cavity warm the incoming air before it enters the lungs.
(1 mark)
(viii) Soot particles slow down the rate of gaseous exchange by depositing on the inner surface of alveoli
which increases the distance of gas diffusion/ reducing the surface area of the respiratory surface.
(2 marks)
(ix) The soot particles may come from smoking/ exhaust fumes. (1 mark)
__________
(21 marks)##

|!|EQA01300008|!|
The following table shows the results obtained from the analysis of an air sample:
Volume (cm3)
Original volume of the air sample 100
Volume after absorbing carbon dioxide 96
Volume after absorbing oxygen and carbon dioxide 80

(i) Name a chemical which could be used in this experiment to absorb carbon dioxide. (1 mark)
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(ii) Calculate the percentages of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air sample. (4 marks)
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(iii) Was this sample taken from inspired or expired air? Give a reason for your answer. (2 marks)
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(iv) Explain why great care had to be taken to avoid any change in temperature during the analysis of the
air sample. (2 marks)
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##
(i) caustic soda/ sodium hydroxide/ potassium hydroxide (1 mark)

100 − 96
(ii) The percentage of carbon dioxide = x 100% = 4% (2 marks)
100
96 − 80
The percentage of oxygen = x 100% = 16% (2 marks)
100
(iii) Expired air - because it contained more than 0.03% carbon dioxide (2 marks)
(iv) The air expanded when the temperature increased. (1 mark)
Thus the volumes would not be comparable. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

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|!|EQB01300009|!|
* The following diagram shows the respiratory system in man:

(i) Name parts A to F. (3 marks)


A. ____________________ B. ____________________ C. ____________________
D. ____________________ E. ____________________ F. ____________________
(ii) State and explain TWO adaptive features possessed by B to perform its function. (4 marks)
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(iii) How is E adapted for gaseous exchange? State the importance of these adaptations. (4 marks)
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(iv) State and explain the status of F when the man inspires. (2 marks)
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(v) Name X and state its function. (2 marks)
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(vi) State and explain what will happen if D is punctured in an accident. (3 marks)
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##
(i) A - nasal cavity
B - trachea
C – bronchus
D - pleura/ pleural membranes
E - alveolus/air sac
F – diaphragm (½ mark each) (3 marks)
(ii) It is supported by incomplete rings of cartilage/ C-shaped cartilage (1 mark)
which can keep the trachea open all the time. (1 mark)
Its inner lining produces mucus and is covered with cilia. (1 mark)
These can trap dust particles and germs and remove them from the respiratory tract. (1 mark)
(iii) E is highly folded/ lobed (1 mark)
to increase the surface area for diffusion of gases. (1 mark)
Its wall is thin/ one-cell thick (1 mark)
to shorten the distance for the diffusion of gases. (1 mark)
(iv) When the man inspires, his diaphragm muscle contracts and the diaphragm/ F becomes flattened.
(1 mark)
As a result it increases the volume of the thorax/ decreases the pressure inside the thorax. (1 mark)
(v) X is pleural fluid which reduces friction during breathing. (2 marks)
(vi) Air leaks into the pleural cavity. (1 mark)
The lungs collapse (1 mark)
because of their own elasticity. (1 mark)
__________
(18 marks)##

|!|EQA01300010|!|
The following diagram illustrates a model used to show the breathing mechanism of mammals:
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(i) Name the structure in the human body corresponding to


(1) glass tube B. _____________________ (1 mark)
(2) the balloons. _____________________ (1 mark)
(ii) Explain why
(1) the rubber sheet cannot accurately represent the diaphragm in breathing movements. (4 marks)
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(2) the bell jar cannot accurately represent the thoracic wall. (2 marks)
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(3) glass tube A cannot accurately represent the trachea. (4 marks)
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(iii) (1) Which structure of the mammalian body is represented by space X in the diagram? (1 mark)
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(2) Name the fluid contained in this structure. (1 mark)
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##
(i) (1) bronchus (1 mark)
(2) lungs (1 mark)
(ii) (1)
Rubber sheet Diaphragm
Flat when at rest Dome -shaped when at rest
- Movement is controlled Movement is automatic
by hand
- Moves downwards to fill Flattens during inspiration
balloons with air any two pairs
(4 marks)
(2) The bell jar is rigid/ immovable/ not elastic while the ribs can move during breathing. (2 marks)
(3) The trachea is elastic and cilia are present in the inner lining while glass tube A is rigid and has no
cilia. (4 marks)
(iii) (1) thoracic cavity/pleural cavity/chest cavity (1 mark)
(2) pleural fluid (1 mark)
__________
(14 marks)##

|!|EQB01300011|!|
STS Connections
* The diagrams below show the field of view of a microscope for observing the bronchioles and alveoli of two
persons:

alveoli

bronchioles

(i) Person
Which of the A
two persons, Person B
A or B, is a smoker? (1 mark)

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(ii) With reference to the diagram, what are the TWO structural differences between the lungs of person A
and those of person B? (2 marks)
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(iii) In what way would the differences in (ii) affect the functioning of the lungs? (2 marks)
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(iv) The diagram below shows an alveolus of person A as observed under a high-power microscope:

(1) With reference to the diagram, what are the adaptations of the alveolus for gaseous exchange?
(3 marks)
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(2) Write the route taken by oxygen to pass from space Y into cell X. (2 marks)
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##
(i) Person B (1 mark)
(ii)
Person A Person B
The folding of alveoli is normal. The folding of alveoli disappears.
The diameter of bronchioles is wide. The bronchioles are constricted.
(1 mark each) (2 marks)
(iii) For person B, the surface area for gaseous exchange decreases due to potential disappearance of the
folding in alveoli. (1 mark)
In addition, person B has difficulty in breathing in or out due to the narrow passage at the bronchioles.
(1 mark)

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(iv) (1) The wall of the alveolus is one-cell thick to shorten the distance for the diffusion of gases.
(1 mark)
The lining is moist to dissolve the gases for diffusion (1 mark)
The alveolus is surrounded by a network of capillaries. The blood carries the gases to and away
from the alveolus to increase the concentration gradient for diffusion. (1 mark)
(2) moisture on the wall of the alveolus  wall of the alveolus  wall of the blood capillary
 cell membrane of cell X cell X (2 marks)
__________
(10 marks)##

Extension Section

|!|EQA01300012|!|
STS Connections
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Aaron participated in a survey to measure the volume of air flowing into and out of his lungs. The graph
below shows the volume of air in his lungs while breathing at rest:

(i) Find out the volume of air breathed out in one breath. (1 mark)
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(ii) Calculate Aaron’s breathing rate. Show your working. (2 marks)
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(iii) Calculate the volume of air breathed out in one minute. (1 mark)
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(iv) Describe the effect of exercise on:
(1) the depth of each breath; (1 mark)
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(2) the rate of breathing. (1 mark)
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(v) During vigorous exercise, both aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration take place. Compare the
two types of respiration. (3 marks)
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
(1) Products 1 mark each
formed
(2) Amount of 1
/2 mark each
energy
##
(i) 0.5 dm3 (1 mark)
(ii) Aaron’s breathing rate = 4 x 60/15 (1 mark)
= 16 breaths per minute (1 mark)
(iii) Volume of air breathed out in one minute = 0.5 x 16 = 8 dm3 (1 mark)
(iv) (1) The depth of each breath is increased. (1 mark)
(2) The rate of breathing is faster. (1 mark)
(v)
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
(1) Products water & carbon dioxide lactic acid 1 mark each
formed
(2) Amount of larger smaller 1
/2 mark each
energy

_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQA01300013|!|
A boy was allowed to breathe in three types of gases. His breathing rate with each type of gas is shown below:
Type of gas Breathing rate (no. of breaths per min.)
A. 20% oxygen + 0.03% carbon dioxide 18
B. 95% oxygen 10
C. 93% oxygen + 2.2% carbon dioxide 25

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(i) Which substance, oxygen or carbon dioxide, had a greater effect on the breathing rate? Explain briefly.
(3 marks)
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(ii) Describe how this substance stimulated the breathing rate. (4 marks)
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(iii) Without using this substance, how could he increase his breathing rate consciously? (2 marks)
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(iv) Choose a gas from the above types (A, B or C) to apply to a person with breathing difficulty. Explain
your choice. (3 marks)
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##
(i) Carbon dioxide. (1 mark)
By comparing the breathing rate for types B and C, which contained similar percentages of oxygen, it
was found that the breathing rate for type C was much higher than that of type B. (1 mark)
This indicates that the difference was due to the presence of carbon dioxide. (1 mark)
(ii) Breathing in more carbon dioxide led to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in blood and hence
a decrease in the blood pH. (1 mark)
The change was detected by chemoreceptors (1 mark)
which then sent nerve impulses to the respiratory centre. (1 mark)
It then sent more nerve impulses to the diaphragm muscles and intercostal muscles to make them
contract more frequently. (1 mark)
(iii) Move the intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles more quickly. (2 marks)
(iv) Type C. (1 mark)
It has a high carbon dioxide content which can lower blood pH, stimulating the patient to breathe faster
(1 mark)
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to get more oxygen, and the gas also supplies a high percentage of oxygen. (1 mark)
__________
(12 marks)##

|!|EQA01300014|!|
An experiment was carried out by a student to measure the volume of air taken in per breath and the number
of breaths per minute at rest and after exercise. The results are shown as follows:
Volume of air per breath Breaths per minute
At rest 400 cm3 20
Just after exercise 900 cm3 36
(i) Calculate the total volume of air breathed in per minute
(1) at rest. (1 mark)
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(2) just after exercise. (1 mark)
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(ii) Assuming that the air breathed in consists of 20% oxygen and the air breathed out consists of 16%
oxygen, calculate the volume of oxygen entering the blood per minute when the student was
(1) at rest. (1 mark)
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(2) just after exercise. (1 mark)
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(iii) From the data in the table, state the effect of exercise on breathing. (2 marks)
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(iv) In order to bring about the changes in (iii) during exercise, state
(1) the part of the nervous system involved. (1 mark)
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(2) the stimulus concerned. (1 mark)
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(3) the TWO effectors responsible. (2 marks)
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##
(i) (1) At rest = 8000 cm3 (1 mark)
(2) Just after exercise = 32400 cm3 (1 mark)
(ii) (1) At rest = 8000 x 4% = 320 cm3 (1 mark)
(2) Just after exercise = 32400 x 4% = 1296 cm3 (1 mark)
(iii) During exercise the rate and depth of breathing increase. (2 marks)
(iv) (1) medulla oblongata (1 mark)
(2) high concentration of CO2 (1 mark)
(3) diaphragm muscle and intercostal muscle (2 marks)
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(10 marks)##

|!|EQA01300015|!|
A man breathed into and out of an air-tight bag which was filled with air initially. His nose was clipped so that
the air getting into his body could only come from the bag.

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© Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2007 256
New Biology – a modern approach 2
Chapter 13: The human breathing system
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(i) What would happen to the rate and depth of breathing of the man? (2 marks)
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(ii) Explain why and how the changes in (i) occurred. (4 marks)
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##
(i) Both the rate and depth of breathing increased. (2 marks)
(ii) Carbon dioxide accumulated in the body. (1 mark)
The blood pH was lowered and this stimulates the breathing centre of the medulla oblongata
(1 mark)
to send off nerve impulses to the diaphragm muscle and intercostal muscles (1 mark)
so as to increase the rate and depth of breathing for expelling the carbon dioxide. (1 mark)
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(6 marks)##

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