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F FA AC CI IL LI IT TI IE ES S I IN NT TE EG GR RI IT TY Y D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T





ZADCO








(MSG)






No. FI/TS/MSG/001







CORNELIUS O. EMENIKE FRANCIS J. EGAN OBAID S. KHATEM 0
PREPARED BY REVIEWED BY APPROVED BY
METALLURGIST FIP TEAM LEADER FI MANAGER
REV.
Date: 30 September 2003 Date: Date:
MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES
FACI LI TI ES I NTEGRI TY DEPARTMENT Date: 30 Sep 2003
FI/TS/MSG/001
MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES
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REVISION CONTROL SHEET
REV NO. DATE OF ISSUE DESCRIPTION
A 31 May 2003 Issued for intra discipline check
0 30 Sep 2003 Issued for implementation



















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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Click the subject to browse)
1. PURPOSE...............................................................................................................................................................................................6
2. SCOPE.....................................................................................................................................................................................................7
3. DEFINITIONS .........................................................................................................................................................................................7
3.1. Integrity...................................................................................................................................................................................................7
3.2. Asset........................................................................................................................................................................................................7
3.3. Risks........................................................................................................................................................................................................8
3.4. Risk assessment must address:......................................................................................................................................................8
3.5. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Assurance...................................................................................................................8
3.6. Review, Improve and Change. ..........................................................................................................................................................8
3.7. Responsibilities....................................................................................................................................................................................8
4. ACRONYMS .........................................................................................................................................................................................10
5. REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................................................................................11
6. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL SELECTION................................................................................................................12
6.1. Design life and system availability requirements.....................................................................................................................12
6.1.1 Some Comments On Materials/ Corrosion..................................................................................................................................13
6.1.2 Galvanic corrosion............................................................................................................................................................................13
7 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS /SYSTEMS...................................................................................14
7.1 Well completion..................................................................................................................................................................................14
7.1.1 Downhole Tubing Selection in ZADCO ........................................................................................................................................15
7.2 Topside facilities................................................................................................................................................................................17
7.3 Oil and gas processing.....................................................................................................................................................................18
7.4 Seawater systems..............................................................................................................................................................................18
7.5 Recommendation:..............................................................................................................................................................................23
7.6 Water Injection....................................................................................................................................................................................23
7.7 Recommendation:..............................................................................................................................................................................23
7.8 Bolting materials for piping, equipment, structural and sub sea applications .................................................................23
7.8.1 Corrosion Protection of the Bolting system...............................................................................................................................24
7.8.2 ZADCO specification for structural application are summarized below:...........................................................................25
7.9 Subsea production and flowline systems...................................................................................................................................25
7.10 Flexible flow lines and risers..........................................................................................................................................................29
7.11 Subsea production control systems.............................................................................................................................................29
7.12 Drilling and workover risers............................................................................................................................................................30
7.13 Pipeline systems................................................................................................................................................................................30
7.14 Sour services ......................................................................................................................................................................................31
7.15 Chains and mooring lines for floating units ...............................................................................................................................31
8 DESIGN LIMITATIONS FOR CANDIDATE MATERIALS............................................................................................................31
8.1 Materials for pressure retaining purposes..................................................................................................................................32
8.1.1 General..................................................................................................................................................................................................32
8.1.2 Material Selection for pumps. .........................................................................................................................................................32
8.1.3 Firewater pumps.................................................................................................................................................................................32
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8.1.4 Seawater Lift (Winning) Pump........................................................................................................................................................33
8.1.5 Injection pump....................................................................................................................................................................................33
8.1.6 Main Oil Line Pumps .........................................................................................................................................................................33
8.1.7 Downhole Pump.................................................................................................................................................................................33
8.1.8 Other Rotating equipment ...............................................................................................................................................................34
8.1.9 Valves....................................................................................................................................................................................................34
8.1.10 Instruments ....................................................................................................................................................................................34
8.1.11 Life Saving......................................................................................................................................................................................34
8.2 Gratings ................................................................................................................................................................................................38
9 GUIDELINES ON GENERAL PROPERTIES AND PRECAUTIONS WHEN USING SPECIFIC MATERIALS ..................40
9.1 Carbon Steel ........................................................................................................................................................................................40
9.2 Clad carbon steel ...............................................................................................................................................................................40
9.3 Stainless steels...................................................................................................................................................................................40
9.4 Martensitic & Ferritic SS ..................................................................................................................................................................41
9.5 Duplex SS (DSS) .................................................................................................................................................................................43
9.6 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS)...........................................................................................................................................44
9.7 Aluminum and its Alloys ..................................................................................................................................................................45
9.8 Copper-Nickel Alloys ........................................................................................................................................................................46
9.9 Nickel and its Alloys..........................................................................................................................................................................47
9.10 Titanium and its alloys. ....................................................................................................................................................................48
9.11 Metallic Coating..................................................................................................................................................................................49
9.11.1 Electroless Nickel Plating (ENP)...............................................................................................................................................49
9.12 Polymeric Materials...........................................................................................................................................................................49
9.13 Reinforced Plastics............................................................................................................................................................................50
9.14 GRP Piping...........................................................................................................................................................................................50
9.15 Passive Fireproofing Materials.......................................................................................................................................................50
10 APPENDIX A (MATERIAL SELECTION DIAGRAM) ................................................................................................................53
11 ZADCO FAILURE INVESTIGATION (Appendix-B) .............................................................................55
1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................................................................55
2. FAILURE MECHANISMS...................................................................................................................................................................55
2.1. Ductile Fracture/Ductile Overload.................................................................................................................................................55
2.2. Brittle fracture.....................................................................................................................................................................................56
2.3. Fatigue failure .....................................................................................................................................................................................56
2.4. Creep Failure.......................................................................................................................................................................................57
2.5. Wear Failures ......................................................................................................................................................................................57
2.6. Distortion Failures.............................................................................................................................................................................58
2.7. High Temperatures softening.........................................................................................................................................................58
2.8. Erosion Corrosion ..........................................................................................................................................................................59
2.9. Fretting Failure....................................................................................................................................................................................60
2.10. Corrosion Induced Failures.............................................................................................................................................................60
2.11. General Corrosion..............................................................................................................................................................................60
2.11.1. Pitting...............................................................................................................................................................................................60
2.11.2. Crevice Corrosion.........................................................................................................................................................................61
2.11.3. Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) ............................................................................................................................62
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2.11.4. Galvanic Corrosion. .....................................................................................................................................................................63
2.11.5. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) ............................................................................................................................................63
2.11.6. Chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) ...................................................................................................64
2.11.7. Wet H2S (Sour) Corrosion...........................................................................................................................................................65
2.11.8. Dealloying attack ..........................................................................................................................................................................66
2.11.9. Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) ............................................................................................................................................66
2.11.10. Corrosion under insulation (CUI) .............................................................................................................................................67
3. DEGRADATION OF NON-METALLIC MATERIALS ....................................................................................................................69
3.1. Swelling and dissolution..................................................................................................................................................................70
3.2. Chemical Degradation......................................................................................................................................................................70
3.3. Thermal Degradation.........................................................................................................................................................................70
3.4. UV degradation...................................................................................................................................................................................71
3.5. Explosive Decompression...............................................................................................................................................................71
4. REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................................................................................71
5. FLOW DIAGRAM FOR FAILURE INVESTIGATION....................................................................................................................75
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. . P PU UR RP PO OS SE E
This document (MSG) is part of ZADCO Asset Integrity Management System (AIMS),
see fig. 1 below, which identifies the strategies required to effectively manage materials
for all ZADCO assets. MSG is a component of the integrity of ZADCO assets. It
examines, inter alia, asset availability. Life cycle cost approach will be its main focus.
This will be correlated with reviews and analysis of design and process parameters/fluid
chemistry. MSG will be used to meet the requirements of statutory regulations in line
with HSEMS.


Fig. 1 Shows MSG as a part of AIMS

PROCESSES
ASSETS
ASSURANCE
HSEMS ZBRMS
AIMS
DESIGN
PROCURE
BUILD/ INSTALL
OPERATE
CORROSION
MANAGEMENT
INSPECTION
MAINTENANCE
CHANGE
PIMS
SIMS
EPRS
LEMS
PSV
I MS
MMS
MSG
THIS DOCUMENT
WELLS
PIPELINES
STRUCTURES
PRESSURE EQUIP
ROTATING EQUIP
ELECTRICAL EQUIP
INSTRUMENTS
EMERGENCY
& LIFE SAVING
CMS
POMS PEMS
WIMS
CAMS
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. . S SC CO OP PE E
MSG addresses the optimum material selection of piping, pipelines and equipment within
ZADCOs business units. It aims at minimizing the risk of failure for a given design life of
say 30 years. This document also addresses materials failure investigation and
subsequent recommendation as input to asset integrity from concept, through design
and maintenance to abandon.
Fig 2. The integrity life cycle of an asset is considered as per the following diagram: (See
CMS for details)
QA/QC
BUILD/
PROCURE
CORROSION
OPERATE
COMMISSION
DESIGN
CHANGE
REVIEW/
IMPROVE
MAINTAIN
INSPECTION
ASSET INTEGRITY
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
CONCEPT ASSURANCE ABANDON



. . D DE EF FI IN NI IT TI IO ON NS S
3.1. Integrity
An asset has integrity if it operates as designed for its assigned life (or greater)
with all its risks kept as low as reasonably practicable, or as nominated.

3.2. Asset
In the context of this document, an asset is an engineered piece of equipment. It
can be categorized into business unit (BU), process train/unit (e.g. Crude
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stabilization), equipment type (e.g. pipelines, structures) or equipment tag
numbers.

3.3. Risks
Risk assessments are done, either qualitatively or quantitatively to ensure that all
material selection activities are fully justified and prioritised in accordance with
both economic necessity and ZADCOs commitment to health, safety and the
environment. ZBRMS will be followed.

3.4. Risk assessment must address:
Probabilities of failure
Safety consequences of failure
Economic consequences of failure
Environmental consequences of failure

3.5. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Assurance
The effectiveness of MSG will be judged by materials/equipment attaining their
optimal life at a minimum OPEX. However, service failures may not be attributed
to wrong material selection. For example, a bad design, e.g. a high level of torque
can lead to premature failure of a good bolting material. Hence, it is prudent to
carry out failure investigation to address the questions why, how and what.
Therefore, decisions can be made on material upgrading due to changing
operating environment or like to like replacement for materials that have attained
economic life

3.6. Review, Improve and Change.
This involves intimacy with technological developments, which may confer
obsolescence or change the boundary conditions for the application of existing
materials. For example, NACE MR0175-2003 has apparently deleted Monel 400
from the list of materials for sour service application.

3.7. Responsibilities
Below (Table-3.1) is a responsibility matrix adapted from CMS. This grid
highlights the relationship among various ZADCO departments for the upkeep of
asset integrity.

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Table 3.1
ASSET INTEGRITY RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX

ASSET
PROCESS
WELLS PIPELINES STRUCTURES LIFTING PE PSVs ELECT RE INST.
EMERG.
FIREFIGHTING
LIFE
SAVING
PROCESS
TIA
DESIGN FD/SSE FI FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE BU FE
PROCURE ADMA CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM
BUILD/COMM. SSE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE FE
OPERATE BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU
CORR.MGMT FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP BU BU BU FIP FIP FIP
CMS FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP BU BU BU FIP FIP FIP
MSG FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP BU BU BU FIP FIP FIP
INSPECTION/TEST WORC FIP FIP FIP BU BU BU BU BU BU FIP FIP
MAINTENANCE WORC FIP BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU FIT
REVIEW/IMPROVE FD FIP FIP FIP FIP FIP BU BU BU BU BU FI/FE
CHANGE/REPAIR SSE/FD FIP BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU BU FE/BU
ASSET TIC WORC FIP FIP FIP FIP FE FE BU BU BU BU
NB: Position indicators used are those current at time of writing and the roles and indicators may change with time.
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. . A AC CR RO ON NY YM MS S
AFFF Aqueous Film Forming Foams
AIMS Asset Integrity Management System
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
CMS Corrosion Management System
CPT Critical Pitting Temperature
CRAs Corrosion Resistant Alloys
CTOD Crack Tip Opening Displacement
EPRS Emergency Pipeline Repair System
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
HAZ Heat Affected Zone
IMS Inspection Management System
LEMS Lifting Equipment Management System
LTHAZ Low Temperature Heat Affected Zone
MIC Microbial Induced Corrosion
MIG Metal Inert Gas
MMS Maintenance Management System
MSG Material Selection Guideline
NPSH Net Positive Suction Head
OPEX Operating Expenditure
PEMS Pressure Equipment Management System
PIMS Pipeline Integrity Management System
PREN Pitting Resistant Equivalent Number
PSVs Pressure Safety Valves
SIMS Structures Integrity Management System
SRB Sulfate Reducing Bacteria
TIG Tungsten Inert Gas
WIMS Well Integrity Management System


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. . R RE EF FE ER RE EN NC CE ES S
1. ZADCO HSEMS
2. ZBRMS
3. AIMS
4. CMS
5. PIMS
6. Piping specifications, Z0-TS-P-05010
7. Coating Specification, Z0-TS-Y-02010
8. ZADCO Specification for instrument materials, Z0-TS-J-01050
9. ZADCO Specification for rotating equipment, Z0-TS-M-01050
10. American Iron and steel institute (AISI)
11. American society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
12. American Petroleum Institute (API)
13. The American society of mechanical engineers (ASME)
14. The unified Numbering system (UNS)
15. API 5L specification for Line pipe
16. Specification for wellhead and Christmas tree equipment.
17. ASME B 31.3 Process piping
18. ASTM A 193 specification for carbon steel bolts and nuts, upto 60,000psi
Tensile Strength stainless steel bolting Materials for Higher - Temperature
Service
19. ASTM 194 specification for carbon and Alloy steel Nuts for bolts for High-
pressure and High temperature service
20. ASTM A 307 specification for alloy steel bolting materials for non-structural
application
21. ASTM A 320 Specification for alloy steel Bolting Materials for low
temperature service.
22. ASTM A 325 specification for carbon steel bolting materials for offshore
applications.
23. EFC publication number 16: Guidelines on Material for carbon and Low alloy
steel for H2S Environments in oil and Gas production.
24. EFC publication number 17: corrosion resistant alloys for oil and gas
production. Guidance on general requirements and test methods for H2S
service.
25. ISO 898 mechanical properties of fasteners
26. ISO 11960 Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for well (replaced API 5
CT)
27. MTI Manual No.3: Guideline information on newer Iron and Nickel base
corrosion resistant alloys, Phase 1, corrosion test methods (appendix B,
Method MTI-2)
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28. NACE MR 0175: Metals for Sulfide stress cracking & stress corrosion
cracking resistant in sour for oil field environment.
29. NACE RP0475: Selection of Metallic Material to be used in all phases of
water handing for injection into Oil Bearing Formations
30. NORSOK standard M-001, Rev.2 November, 1997
31. Engineering equipment and materials users association (EEMUA)
32. Shell EP 2001-5024: Material Failure modes, mitigation methods and
general material properties F.Egan, S. Frost, I. Rippon and L. Smith
33. API RP 17B recommended practice for flexible pipes, 3
rd
edition.
34. ASTM A 123: Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip-Galvanized) coatings
on iron and steel products.
35. DIN EN ISO 1461: Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel
articles Specifications and test methods (ISO1461: 1999)

. . G GE EN NE ER RA AL L P PR RI IN NC CI IP PL LE ES S O OF F M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL L S SE EL LE EC CT TI IO ON N
The process flow diagram (PFD) and the process conditions usually precede the
material selection diagram (MSD). The process parameters dictate the material of
construction (MOC). The MOCs for equipment and piping is reflected in the PFD.
Details such as corrosion allowance, symbols/notes for individual materials, corrosion
monitoring and injection points fabrication and inspection requirements are shown in the
MSD. Examples are shown in the Appendix A.
Material selection shall be optimised, considering investment and operational/
maintenance costs, such that life cycle cost (CAPEX & OPEX) are minimised while
providing acceptable safety and reliability. As a minimum, attention shall be paid to:
Corrosivity, taking into account specified operation conditions including start-up and
shutdown conditions.
. . . . D De es si ig gn n l li if fe e a an nd d s sy ys st te em m a av va ai i l la ab bi il l i it ty y r re eq qu ui i r re em me en nt ts s. .
Failure probabilities, failure modes and failure consequences for human health,
environment, safety and materials assets
Inspection and corrosion monitoring possibilities.
The final material selection shall address the following additional factors:
Priority shall be given to materials with good market availability and documented
fabrication and services performance.
The number of different materials shall be minimised considering stock, costs,
interchangeability and availability of relevant spare parts.
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Deviations from materials selections specified in this guideline may be
implemented if an overall cost, safety and reliability assessment shows to be more
cost effective. Such deviations may include replacing CRAs with carbon steel.
Inspection, corrosion and structures are covered by PIMS, CMS and SIMS.
6.1.1 Some Comments On Materials/ Corrosion
Any component permanently exposed to seawater and for which
efficient cathodic protection cannot be ensured, shall be fabricated in
materials immune to corrosion in seawater. Exceptions are components
where corrosion can be tolerated. Material selection should take into
account probability for and consequence of component failure.
The following materials are regarded as immune to corrosion when
submerged in seawater at ambient temperature:
Alloy 625 and other nickel alloys with equal or higher PREN value.
Titanium alloys careful about CP, pure methanol (<5% water) or
hydrofluoric acid.
GRP
Other materials, provided adequately documented.
Stainless steel type 6Mo and type 25Cr duplex are borderline cases.
Threaded connections are particularly susceptible to crevice corrosion.
6.1.2 Galvanic corrosion
Galvanic corrosion prevention where dissimilar metals are coupled
together in piping systems, a corrosivity evaluation shall be made if
galvanic corrosion is likely to occur, mitigation can be achieved by the
following methods:
Apply electrical insulation to dissimilar metals. Possible electrical
connection via pipe supports, deck and earthing cables shall be
considered.
Install a distance spool between the dissimilar metals so that they be
separated by at least 10 pipe diameters from each other. The distance
spool may be either of a solid electrically non-conducting material e.g.
GRP or of a metal that is coated internally with an electrically non-
conducting material, e.g. rubber. The metal in the distance spool
should be the noble of the dissimilar metals.
Apply a non-conducting coating on the more noble of the dissimilar
metals. Coating to extend at least 10 pipe diameters into the more
noble pipe material.
Apply corrosion allowance on the less noble metal e.g. in hydrocarbon
systems.
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Install internal sacrificial anodes through access fittings near the
interface, e.g. resistor controlled CP. This works only when the system
is filled up with a conductive liquid, and special precautions during
commissioning and shut-in is required.
Generally, at galvanic connections between dissimilar materials without
isolation/distance spool, it can be assumed that the local corrosion rate
near the interface is approximately three times higher than the average
corrosion rate, decreasing exponentially away from the interface within a
length of 5 pipe diameters. This should be used to estimate the
magnitude of the corrosion allowances. Particular system may have
higher corrosion rates, which depends on area ratio and material
combinations.
For connections between copper alloys and stainless steel/nickel
alloys/titanium, the use of easily replaceable spools with added wall
thickness shall be evaluated.
In hydrocarbon systems, isolating spools shall be avoided and transitions
shall normally be made in dry, inhibited or other areas with low Corrosivity.
Corrosivity evaluation in hydrocarbon systems:
Evaluation of Corrosivity shall as a minimum include:
CO
2
-content
H
2
S Concentration
Oxygen content and concentrations of other oxidizing agents.
Operating temperature and pressure
Acidity, pH
Halide, metal ion and metal concentration
Velocity, flow regime and sand production
Biological activity.

M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL L S SE EL LE EC CT TI IO ON N F FO OR R S SP PE EC CI IF FI IC C A AP PP PL LI IC CA AT TI IO ON NS S / /S SY YS ST TE EM MS S
Introduction
This section gives requirements to material selection for specific areas and systems.
7.1 Well completion
All well completion materials, including elastomers and polymeric materials, shall
be compatible with produced fluid. In addition, the materials shall as a minimum
be compatible with the following well intervention fluids with additives for relevant
exposure durations:
Completion and packer brine fluids
Mud acids (HCI-hydrochloric acid, HF- Hydrofluoric acid)
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Stimulation fluids
Scale inhibitors
Methanol

7.1.1 Downhole Tubing Selection in ZADCO
Downhole materials selection for UZ producers is based on a corrosion
model (ZADCORE) developed by Taywood Engineering Ltd.
Based on well parameters, recommendations are made for carbon steel
with inhibitor squeeze, 13% Cr or Alloy 28 & alloy 825.
The output for the recommended material is based on the ground of
technical suitability and economics taking into consideration the life cycle
cost (LCC) and risk assessment. As of today, ZADCO uses either carbon-
steel or 13% Cr tubing.
After GBT material upgrading, to alloy 28 & alloy 825 may be
necessary because of a potential increase in the partial pressure of
H
2
S.
Gas injection wells were completed with carbon steel after evaluation
of the well conditions. ADMA-OPCO used the same material for gas
injection well.
Gas lift wells were completed with 13% Cr for all items located below
chemical injection points (side pocket mandrel) and carbon steel above
the injection point with the provision of corrosion inhibition at the
surface.
Material selection for well completion is given in table 7.1
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Table 7.1 Material selection for wells, sheet 1 of 2
WELL TYPE TUBING AND LINER
Completion equipment
(where different from
tubing / liner) N
o
t
e
s

13 Cr is Base Case.
See table 8.1 for design limitations.
1
Low alloy steel. (Option for systems
with low corrosivity /short lifetime)
13 Cr 1,2
Production
13% Cr and 15% Cr alloys modified
with Mo/Ni, duplex and austenitic
stainless steel and nickel alloys are
options for high corrosivity
3
Deaerated
seawater
injection
Low alloy steel UNS N09925, Alloy 718
22Cr or 25 Cr duplex
2, 4, 7
Low alloy steel with GRP or other
lining
Titanium. See also table
8.1
5,8,9
Low alloy steel for short design life Titanium. See also table
8.1

Raw
seawater
injection
Titanium for design limitations Table 8.1
Low alloy steel 13 Cr (Limitations as for
tubing for this service)
1, 2,6
Low alloy steel with GRP or other
lining
13 Cr (Limitations as for
tubing for this service).
1, 5
13 Cr. Provided oxygen < 10 ppb, see
also table 8.1
1
Produced
water and
aquifer
water
injection
22Cr duplex, alloy 718, N09925.
Provided oxygen <20 ppb

Gas
Injection
Material selection shall be as for
production wells and shall follow
corrosivity evaluation

Alternating
injection and
combination
wells (WAG)
Materials selection shall take into
account that the corrosion resistance
of different material alternatives will
differ for various media

Table 7.1 Material selection for wells, sheet 2 of 2
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Notes
1. For fluids with a partial pressure of H
2
S above 0.1 bar or pH below 3.5, 13Cr shall
have a maximum SMYS of 560 MPa (80 ksi). Limiting the strength is generally
recommended to avoid hydrogen stress cracking caused by hydrogen formed by
galvanic corrosion of the casing.
2. Low alloy steel with approximately 0.5% Cr and proper corrosion allowance for tubing.
Use of same CRA as for completion equipment shall be evaluated for liners.
3. Cold worked grades of duplex stainless steel shall be limited to 862 MPa (125 ksi)
SMYS and maximum 96 MPa (140 ksi) actual yield strength in longitudinal and
tangential direction.
4. Detailed material selection for completion equipment to be based upon design
requirements and supplier experience.
5. For GRP lining, qualification is required unless field experience can be provided.
6. CO
2
corrosion rates estimate shall be based on corrosivity evaluation. Corrosion
inhibitors can be used in oxygen free systems provided acceptable from reservoir
considerations.
7. Low alloy steel can be used in components located in lower sections of the well if
strict dimensional tolerances in service are not required.
8. For short design lives and low temperatures, stainless steels or Ni-based alloys may
be considered for completion equipment.
9. Raw seawater contains oxygen and may or may not contain chlorine.

7.2 Topside facilities
Carbon steel can be used in topside systems where the calculated annual
corrosion rates is less than corrosion allowance divided by design life. For
inhibitors in topside systems corrosivity evaluation is necessary.

The piping materials shall be standardised on the following material types as far
as practical:

Carbon steel ASTM A106 Grade B
Stainless steel Type 316
Stainless steel Type 22Cr and 25Cr duplex
Stainless steel Type 6Mo
Titanium
GRP

Other materials shall only be introduced after their performance and availability
have been considered.

Cast stainless steel Type 6Mo shall not be used for components to be welded.
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Material sections for topside facilities are given in table 7.2 with amendments as
given below. A premise for the selections in the table has been limitation of
number of grades and types for each application.

7.3 Oil and gas processing
For evaluation of corrosivity in a vessel (i.e. separator or scrubber) and in the
liquid carrying piping downstream the vessel, the CO
2
and H
2
S partial pressures
in the gas carrying piping downstream the vessel can be used. To compensate
for the fact that these gases are not at equilibrium with the liquid in each vessel,
the corrosion rate found by corrosivity evaluation shall be increased by 25% for
separators and liquid carrying piping downstream the separators. No
compensation is required for gas scrubbers and liquid carrying piping downstream
scrubbers.

Pressure rating, maximum/minimum design temperature and size shall be taken
into account when selecting materials.

All components which may contact oil well streams shall be resistant against well
treating, well stimulating chemicals and other additives.

7.4 Seawater systems
Hot dip galvanized carbon steel can be used in seawater systems provided it is
documented to be cost efficient and replacement is planned for in design if
necessary. If this material is evaluated for usage in firewater systems, special
attention shall be made to the risk for plugging of sprinkler/deluge nozzles.

Based on an evaluation in each case, internal cathodic protection of stainless
steel and other passive materials may be used for piping and components.

Graphite gaskets shall not be used in seawater piping systems.

For piping downstream heat exchangers it shall be taken into account that
relatively high operating temperatures may occur when marine fouling is not
present inside the heat exchanger, i.e. initially and after cleaning operations.

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Table 7.2 MATERIALS FOR TOPSIDE FACILITIES
Facilities Materials Notes
Oil and gas production and processing
Corrosivity evaluations shall be carried out
Wellhead equipment/
X-mas tress
13 Cr4Ni, Low alloy steel with alloy 625 weld overlay API 6A 1
Piping and vessels
22Cr duplex, 25Cr duplex, 6Mo. 316
Thick wall vessels
Carbon steel with 316, alloy 625, Alloy825 or 904 clad or weld overlay
Piping and vessels in low corrosivity
systems
Carbon steel
Inlet side of compressors
Carbon steel. Carbon steel with CRA weld overlay or solid CRA if required, based
upon corrosivity evaluations

Piping, vessels for produced water
316, 22 Cr duplex, 25Cr duplex, 6Mo, Titanium or GRP
Seawater systems and raw seawater
injection
See also 7.4 4
Wellhead equipment/
X-mas trees
Carbon steel with weld overlay
Vessels
Titanium, GRP, carbon steel with internal rubber lining or organic coating in
combination with cathodic protection.

Piping materials
6Mo, 25Cr duplex, Titanium, GRP
Piping components
6Mo, 25Cr duplex, Titanium, Alloy 625, Alloy C276, Alloy C22. 2,3
Valves in GRP systems
GRP, Carbon steel with polymeric lining, NiAl bronze.
Normally drained systems
Copper base alloys, 6Mo, Titanium, Carbon steel for short lifetimes, e.g. 5-10 years. 4
Pumps
25Cr duplex, 6Mo, Titanium, 5.6
Deaerated seawater injection See also 7.1.
Wellhead equipment/X-mas trees
Low alloy steel with Alloy 625 weld overlay in sealing surfaces.
Design must allow for corrosion on non overlaid parts, API 6A

Piping
Carbon steel, GRP.
Deaerated Tower
Carbon steel with internal organic coating, plus Cathodic protection in bottom section.
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Facilities Materials Notes
Pump and valve internals
Provided CARBON STEEL HOUSING: 13Cr4Ni, 316, 22 Cr duplex, 25 Cr duplex. 6
Produced water and aquifer water injection
Carbon steel, 316, 22 Cr duplex, 6 Mo, Titanium, GRP.
Wellhead and X-mas trees as for deaerated seawater injection.

Fresh and potable water
Hot dip galvanized carbon steel, GRP, Poloypropylene, 316, Copper base alloys. 7
Drains and sewage
Open drain
GRP, carbon steel
Closed drain without oxygen
316, carbon steel
Closed drain with oxygen
22Cr duplex, 25 Cr duplex, 6Mo, Titanium, GRP
Sewage
GRP, polyethylene.
Flare Systems
Relief system
316, 6Mo, low temperature carbon steel.
Burner components (Flare Tips)
Alloy 800H, alloy 800 HT, Alloy 625; For temperatures below 650

C: 310, HR120,
RA330

Flare boom
Structural steel with thermally sprayed aluminum.
Dry fuel gas and diesel
Carbon steel
Piping
Carbon steel
Tanks
Carbon steel, GRP 8
Lubrication and seal oil
316, 22Cr duplex, 6Mo 9
Hydraulic fluid
316, carbon steel upstream filters.
Instrument air
316, carbon steel upstream filters.
Inert gas/plant air piping
Carbon steel, 316.
Instrumentation
Tubing
316, Titanium, 904L 5,10
Junction boxes/cabinets
GRP, 316
Cable trays
316; Hot dip galvanized carbon steel in fully HVAC controlled areas.
HVAC ducts and units
Ventilation/air intake ducts
316, Hot dip galvanized steel 11
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Facilities Materials Notes
Air handling units
316.
Seawater Coils
Titanium
Active fire fighting systems
Dry CO2 systems
Carbon steel
Freshwater/plant air/nitrogen
316 5
Glycol
Carbon steel, 316
Methanol
Carbon Steel, 316
AFFF
316, GRP
Heating/cooling media
Carbon steel. CRA in heat exchange tubes.
Miscellaneous chemical systems
GRP, 316, 6Mo, Titanium 12
Bolting materials
See 7.6
Notes:
1. Sealing surfaces of components In Type 13Cr4Ni shall be overlay welded with alloy 625. For wells with low corrosivity and/or short lifetime,
low alloy steel with alloy 625 weld overlay in sealing surfaces only can be used.
2. Shall also be used for process-wetted parts of instrument systems.
3. See 8 for materials for pressure retaining purposes. Weld overlay can be applied to prevent crevice corrosion.
4. Copper alloys shall not be used in combination with CRAs and Titanium. Exception can be components in fire water systems, provided
galvanic corrosion can be avoided by proper isolation. If electrical isolation (15,000 ohm in dry system) is ensured and verified after
installation, mechanical connections between bronze/brass and noble alloys such as Type 6Mo and titanium alloys are acceptable.
5. See 8.1/8.2 for design limitations.
6. Ceramic filled epoxy coating can be used for shorter lifetime, e.g. 5-10 years.
7. Large diameter piping and tanks can bee made in internally coated carbon steel. Tanks not intended for potable water, shall in addition be
cathodically protected. GRP polypropylene and coating used for potable water shall be accepted by the national health authorities.
8. Tanks in carbon steel shall have 3mm corrosion allowance at the bottom section. In addition the bottom and roof shall be coated. External
cathodic protection is recommended for tank bottoms. Also secondary containment (GRP lining up to 1m) is recommended for hydrocarbon
tank bottoms. This is ZADCO s practice.
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Facilities Materials Notes
9. Type 316 is acceptable up to operating temperature 70C provided it is located indoor or in sheltered areas and not insulated.
10. For uninsulated stainless Type 316 instrument piping downstream a shut-off valve, normally no extra precautions are required, provided
process medium temperature is below 85C and there is no flow in the instrument piping.
11. Hot dip galvanized steel can be used in living quarter and domestic areas.
12. The combination of chemical and material has to be considered in each case. Titanium or GRP shall be used for hypochlorite systems.

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7.5 Recommendation:
It is recommended to limit pressure rating of seawater systems to 10 bar in order
to be able to use qualified valves in GRP and carbon steel with polymeric lining. If
carbon steel valves with polymeric lining is considered for CRA based piping
systems, the valve design shall be critically assessed with respect to possible
accelerated galvanic corrosion.

7.6 Water Injection
Water injection covers systems for injection of deaerated seawater, raw untreated
seawater and produced water. Please see NACE RP 0475-98.
Corrosivity evaluations for deaerated injection seawater shall, for conventional
deaeration process be based on a maximum operating temperature of 30C and
the following Oxygen Equivalent levels (oxygen equivalent = ppb oxygen+0.3ppb
free chlorine).
50 ppb for 90% of operation time
200 ppb for 10% of operation time, non continuous.
Even if the specification for the deaeration equipment gives more strict
requirements, the above shall be basis for the material selection. If the specified
Oxygen Equivalent nor temperature is above 50 ppb or 30C respectively for
normal operation, the basis for material selection shall be subject to special
evaluation.

7.7 Recommendation:
For carbon steel submarine injection flow lines the corrosion allowance should be
minimum 3 mm. In injection water system where alternating deaerated seawater,
produced water, aquifer water and/or gas could flow through the systems,
material selection shall take this into account. All components which may contact
injection water or back-flowing fluids shall be resistant against well treating
chemicals or well stimulating chemicals in case of back-flow situations. For
carbon steel piping, the maximum velocity shall be 6m/s.

. . Bolting materials f fo or r p pi ip pi in ng g, , e eq qu ui ip pm me en nt t, , s st tr ru uc ct tu ur ra al l a an nd d s su ub b s se ea a a ap pp pl li ic ca at ti io on ns s
The general bolting material for bolt diameters above 10 mm in piping systems
and equipment shall be carbon or low alloy steel selected in accordance with the
ASTM Standards listed in table 7.3 below. Bolts with a diameter<10mm shall be
stainless steel type 316 for metal temperatures below 60 for topside applications
based upon maximum operating temperature. In anticipation of the gas
breakthrough, ZADCO piping specification Z0-TS-P-05010 recommends ASTM A
193 grade B7M and A194 2 HM for sour services for carbon steel flanges. Other
bolting materials are shown below.
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Table 7.3 Temperature range for bolting materials
Temperature
range (C)
BOLT NUT
Size range
(mm)
A 320 Grade L7 A 194 Grade 4/S4 <50 -100/+400
A 320 Grade
L43
A 194 Grade 7 <100
-40+400
1)
A 193 Grade B7 A 194 Grade 2H All
-29/+540
1)
A 193 Grade
B16
A 194 Grade 7 All
-196/+540
2)
A 193 Grade
B8M
A 194 Grade 8M/8MA
3)
All
-46/+400
1)
A 193 Grade
B7M
A 194 Grade 2HM All
NOTES:
1. These grades should not be used for permanent sub sea equipment. For
X-mas trees and retrievable equipment, Grade B7 can be used. Grade
B16 is intended for high temperature services, outside the temperature
range for Grade B7.
2. Type 316 bolts and nuts shall not be used at maximum operating
temperature above 60 C if exposed to wet marine atmosphere.
3. Use 8MA with class 1 bolts.


7.8.1 Corrosion Protection of the Bolting system
FIP has evaluated the options for corrosions protection of the bolting
system.
These are:
External coating with PTFE (see ZADCO painting specification Z0-TS-
Y-02020
Denso tape
Grease containing vapour phase inhibitors
Inhibited waxes
Rubber
Strippable coatings/vapour phase inhibitor borne

Bolting materials for Structural applications shall generally be carbon or
low alloy steels.


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7.8.2 ZADCO specification for structural application are summarized
below:
For sub sea application, ASTM A325 type 3 shall be used.
For above sea (normal structural) application, ASTM A325 type 1
galvanized shall be used.
For non-structural application, e.g. staircase, hinges, door, ASTM A 307
grade A galvanized shall be used.
For topside applications, the strength class shall not exceed ISO 898
class 10.9
For submerged bolts, the strength class shall not exceed ISO 898
class 8.8, ASTM A 320 Grade L7 or A 193 Grade B7.
Bolts with a diameter above 25 mm shall be impact tested to the
same requirements as for the steels to be bolted.
If other bolting materials are required due to corrosion resistance or other
reasons, the material shall be selected in accordance with the general
requirements of this document. For subsea applications, Alloy 625 shall
be used when corrosion resistant bolts are required at ambient
temperature It shall be verified that the materials have acceptable
mechanical properties at the actual design temperatures.
Bolts screwed into component bodies shall be of a material that is
compatible with the body with respect to galling and ability to disassemble
the component for maintenance, if relevant. Risk for galvanic corrosion,
thermal coefficient if relevant, and for sub sea applications the effect of
Cathodic protection, shall be considered.
Carbon steel and/or low alloy bolting material shall be hot dip galvanized
or have similar corrosion protection. For submerged applications, where
there is a risk that dissolution of a thick zinc layer may cause loss of bolt
pretension, electrolytic galvanizing or phosphating shall be used.
Electrolytic galvanizing shall be followed by post banking. For subsea
installations the use of poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) based coatings
can be used provided electrical continuity is verified by measurements.
Cadmium plating shall not be used.

7.9 Subsea production and flowline systems
Material selections for subsea production and flowline systems are given in table
7.4 for carbon steel flowline the requirements given in 7.13 apply.

Recommendation:
Metal to metal seals that may be exposed to seawater without cathodic protection
should be made in corrosion resistant alloys such as UNS R30035, R30003, alloy
C-276. Generally, metal to metal sealing materials shall be more noble than
surrounding surfaces.

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All polymeric/elastomeric materials shall be qualified and the performance
documented in all relevant exposure conditions in accordance with 9.12 of this
document

For leveling systems and other systems mainly used for installation, carbon steel
shall be considered.

All bolting materials shall comply with 7.8

Restrictions for maximum SMYS and actual yield strength shall apply for all
components exposed to ambient seawater with cathodic protections.


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Table 7.4-Material selection for subsea production and flowline systems
APPLICATION MATERIALS NOTES
Wellheads and X-mas trees
Wellhead equipment/X-mas trees for production 13 Cr4Ni, Low alloy steel with Alloy 625 overlay. Relevant API/ISO standards 1
Wellhead equipment/X-mas trees for deaerated
seawater
Low alloy steel with Alloy 625 weld overlay in sealing surfaces. Design must
allow for corrosion on not-overlayed parts. Relevant API/ISO standards.
1
Wellhead equipment/X-mass trees for aerated
seawater
Carbon steel with weld overlay
Wellhead equipment/X-mass trees for produced water
and aquifer water
As for production
Retrievable equipment internals 13 Cr or CRAs with higher PREN
Non-retrievable equipment internals, incl. X-mass
trees
Alloy 718 or CRAs with higher PREN
Subsea Manifold Piping
Piping systems for well fluids 6Mo, 22 Cr duplex, 25 Cr duplex
Piping for deaerated seawater 6Mo, 25 Cr duplex, Carbon steel can be used for shorter design life, i.e. less
than 15 years

Piping for gas Carbon steel, 22 Cr duplex, 6 Mo, See corrosivity parameters.
Piping for produced water and aquifer water 22 Cr duplex, 25Cr duplex, 6Mo. Carbon steel can be used for shorter design
life (i.e. less than 6-8 years) and if low corrosivity.

Piping for raw seawater Titanium
Hydraulic fluids/glycol/methanol 316 2
Chemical injection and annulus bleed systems 316
Retrievable valve internals 13Cr, 17-4 PH, Alloy 718
Non-retrievable valve internals Alloy 718.
Subsea Rigid Flowlines
Oil and Gas Carbon steel, 13Cr 22Cr duplex or CRA clad carbon steel. Material selection
shall follow guidelines on corrosivity.
4,5,6
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APPLICATION MATERIALS NOTES
Deaerated seawater injection Carbon steel 4
Produced water and aquifer water injection Carbon steel, 22 Cr and 25Cr duplex, 6Mo. 5
Raw seawater injection Titanium, 6Mo, 25Cr duplex, internally plolyethylene lined carbon steel
Hydrate Inhibitor Lines Carbon steel, 316, 22 Cr duplex 7
Subsea Production Control systems
Umbilicals, metallic 25Cr duplex, encapsulated, Titanium 8,9,10
Umbilicals, polymer hoses Polyamide 11, Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), High strength carbon or high
strength polymer fibres
11
NOTES
1. Sealing surfaces of components TYPE 13 Cr4Ni shall be overlay welded with Alloy 625.
2. Carbon steel and stainless steel with lower PRE than Type 316 can be used provided documented by field experience and/or tests,
3. Flexible pipe should be considered as alternative to rigid pipe. Carbon steel clad with CRA can be used as alternative to solid CRA, Guidance
on selection of CRAs for injection is given in table 7.1.
4. Carbon steel and weld metal can be alloyed with approx. 0.5% chromium for oil production and deaerated seawater injection flowlines to
improve corrosion resistance.
5. Type 25Cr and type 13Cr to be documented with respect to feasibility/weldability.
6. Cost effectiveness of using duplex stainless steels with a lower alloying content than for Type 22Cr should be considered.
7. Carbon steel can be used if acceptable from cleanliness point of view.
8. See Table 6.1 for limitation for titanium in methanol service.
9. Type 22Cr duplex can be used if Cathodic protection can be ensured. For 25 Cr duplex without Cathodic protection, external polymeric
sheathing is required.
10. Carbon steel with external protection (Cathodic protection in combination with coatings- organic or thermally sprayed aluminium) can be used
if acceptable from cleanliness requirements point of view.
11. Documented functionability in relevant fluids with extrapolation of service life is required. Not to be used for methanol service.


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7.10 Flexible flow lines and risers
Generally the requirements of API RP 17B and Det Norske Veritas Guidelines for
Flexible Pipes shall be satisfied. Due consideration shall be made to evaluate
the possibility of failure due to corrosion and/or corrosion-fatigue of the steel
reinforcement caused by the internal and/or the external environment. If sour
conditions apply, the effect of H
2
S on steel reinforcement and inner liner shall be
considered. The gas diffusing through the polymeric sheets shall be considered
wet. If welding is performed on reinforcement wires, the resulting reduction in
strength shall be taken into consideration in the design.
Measures to avoid internal galvanic corrosion by proper material selection and/or
electrical isolation shall be ensured at all interfaces to neighboring systems such
as at subsea production manifold piping and flowlines.
The material for the inner metallic layer of non bonded pipe can be stainless steel
type 316 provided pitting corrosion and local erosion penetrating the liner do not
deteriorate the functional performance and reliability of the flexible pipes. The
choice of inner material shall take into account the possibility of being exposed to
seawater during installation and commissioning.
The following shall be documented, material properties verifying consistency
between the design requirements and the fabricated quality.
Documentation demonstrating that polymeric materials will be resistant to the
internal and external environment and maintain adequate, mechanical and
physical properties throughout the design life of the system

7.11 Subsea production control systems
For polymeric based hoses, material selection shall be based upon a detailed
evaluation of all fluids to be handled. The annulus bleed system will be exposed
to a mixture of fluids, such as production fluid, methanol, completion fluid and
pressure compensating fluid. A hose qualification programme shall be carried out
including testing of candidate materials in stressed condition, representative for
actual working pressure, unless relevant documentation exists. The results from
qualification testing shall provide basis for service life extrapolation according to
methods such as Arrhenius plots.
For umbilical, the electric cable insulation material shall also be qualified for all
relevant fluids. The material selected for the electrical termination should be of
similar type in order to ensure good bonding between different layers. The
material selection for metals and polymers in electrical cables in the outer
protection (distribution harness) and in connectors in distribution systems shall
have qualified compatibility with respect to dielectric fluid/pressure compensation
fluid and seawater. The functionability in seawater of the individual barriers
relative to the service life shall be documented.
The different parts of the components in hydraulic and chemical distribution
systems shall have documented compatibility with relevant process fluids,
dielectric fluid and seawater.

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7.12 Drilling and workover risers
The required accumulated exposed design life shall be defined at an early stage.
Material selection shall take into account if the part will be welded or not. The
strength shall be limited to enhance ductility and toughness. The specified
minimum yield strength shall be limited to max. 640 MPa for unwelded parts (max.
ISO 11960 Grade C90) and 560 MPa for welded parts (max. ISO 11960 Grade
L80). All welded parts shall be post weld heat-treated.
Resistance to sour conditions shall be taken into account for parts of the drilling
and workover risers, which may be exposed to reservoir fluids during drilling and
testing. Compliance with sour services requirements shall be met, unless less
stringent requirements are justified.
For drilling risers a total erosion/corrosion allowance of minimum 6 mm shall be
included for accumulated design lives exceeding 10 years. For floating drilling
and production units, the use of titanium for drilling risers shall be evaluated.
For work over risers manufactured from C-steel, reduction in wall thickness due to
corrosion shall be evaluated. Effects of corrosion shall be accounted for by a
minimum of 1 mm unless it can be demonstrated through routine maintenance
that a corrosion allowance can be eliminated.

7.13 Pipeline systems
For pipeline systems for processed oil and gas and for injection water, carbon
steel according to API 5L, grade X65 or lower shall be used. ZADCO
specification cover API5L X-52, X-60, X-65 and X-70 (water injection).

The line pipe material shall be specified and tested to verify acceptable weldability
under field welding conditions accounting for welding during barge installation and
contingency hyperbaric repair welding situations during construction and
operations. The latter shall also address replacement of anodes, unless doubler
plates are used.

Where sour service requirements apply, this requirement shall also be fulfilled
under hyperbaric welding conditions down to the maximum water depth along the
pipeline route.

Pipeline systems containing gas shall be designed for a minimum design
temperature that takes into account possible blow down situations.

For the reel laying method, it shall be documented that the base material and
weld zones have acceptable properties after the total accumulated plastic strain
that can be experienced during reeling and installation.

Pipelines for unprocessed or partially processed oil and gas shall be selected on
the basis of corrosivity evaluation.

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7.14 Sour services
Satah plant is exposed to sour environment. After GBT (gas break through) the
west, south and central complex of UZ and Zirku plant may be exposed to varying
degrees of sour services. Consequently, the risk of SSC and HIC for carbon steel
cannot be ignored. Both NACE MR0175 latest edition and EFC 16 give guidelines
for SSC and HIC respectively.

7.15 Chains and mooring lines for floating units
In mooring line systems a corrosion rate of 0.4 mm/year for splash zone, and 0.1
mm/year for fully submerged conditions respectively, shall be used as basis for
corrosion allowance and lifetime estimates. An evaluation of possible corrosion
due to bacterial activity on the seabed shall be carried out.

Wire rope segments shall have a protection system consisting of an outer
jacketing (typically polyethylene or polyurethane), galvanized wires and a filler
material to prevent ingress of water. In addition, zinc sacrificial wires may be
incorporated.

D DE ES SI IG GN N L LI IM MI IT TA AT TI I O ON NS S F FO OR R C CA AN ND DI ID DA AT TE E M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL LS S
Design limitations for the application of different material types, e.g. maximum/minimum
temperature, maximum SMYS and actual strength, weldability, etc, are defined in the
following.
The following general requirements apply for all steel types (including bolts):
For carbon and low alloy steels, the yield to tensile strength ratio (actual values)
shall not exceed 0.9.
For materials intended for welding, SMYS shall not exceed 560 MPa.
Note: If this requirements can not be met, higher SMYS may be accepted provided
adequate documentation showing acceptable properties with respect to weldability
and the in service properties of the base material, heat affected zone and weld
metal on both sides is presented.
For submerged parts that may be exposed to cathodic protection, the following shall
apply:
For carbon and low alloy steels, SMYS shall not exceed 700 MPa (725MPa for
bolts). The actual yield strength shall not exceed 950 MPa. Alternatively, it may be
verified that the actual hardness in base materials does not exceed 292 HB. For
carbon steel welds a max. limit of 350 HV
10
, applies. For stainless steels and non-
ferrous materials, resistance against hydrogen embrittlement shall be controlled by
specifying that the actual harness of the material shall be in accordance with NACE
MR0175, unless otherwise documented.
In case where the minimum design temperature is a limiting factor for a material,
also temperature exposures during intermediate stages (such as manufacturing,
storage, testing, commissioning, transport, installation) shall be considered when
specifying the minimum design temperature and handling procedures.
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The impact toughness test requirements given to, and the application of, the
specified structural material are based on a minimum design temperature of -10C.
If lower design temperatures are applicable, sufficient fracture toughness properties
have to be verified. For the most critical design class, this shall include CTOD
testing of base material, weld metal and HAZ at the minimum design temperature.

8.1 Materials for pressure retaining purposes
8.1.1 General
Materials shall be used within the limits given in table 8.1.
Recommended limitations for CRAs in sour service beyond NACE
MR0175 are given in table 6.2. It is emphasised that H2S limits for CRA
material categories are difficult to state on a general basis. Specific limits
for the material type and grade to be used should be established
accordingly by testing according to EFC Publication no. 16 for carbon and
low alloy steel and EFC Publication no.17 for CRAs. For requirements to
manufacturing, heat treatment and material properties, reference is made
to NACE MR0175.

8.1.2 Material Selection for pumps.
Various pumps are used in the hydrocarbon industry. These are firewater
pumps, seawater lift pumps, injection pumps, main oil pumps and
downhole pumps. The operating conditions of these pumps vary thus,
standby, intermittent or continuous. These conditions often govern the
type of pump to be used and their material of construction. Fluid
corrosivity, abrasion resistance, life and efficiency eventually dictate
material selection. Galvanic corrosion is very important, as it is not always
possible to make the whole pump of same material. The extent of
galvanic corrosion depends on fluid corrosivity. In addition to the pump
components, the interaction of the pump with other materials in the system
such as pipes and flanges shall also be considered. For example, a
submersible seawater pump in super duplex stainless steel will cause
accelerated corrosion of the adjacent pipework if it is attached to a copper
nickel column pipe. Finally, the pump shall have sufficient net positive
suction head (NPSH) to prevent damage (cavitation) due to evaporation.

8.1.3 Firewater pumps
Low cost option would be SS 316 impeller in an austenitic cast iron body
such as Ni-resist. While these pumps can work well in operation, there
have been failures of the cases by stress corrosion cracking, particularly in
warmer waters. Another option is nickel aluminum bronze (NAB) impeller
in an NAB or gunmetal body. While NAB has good resistance to corrosion
in clean seawater, it is very prone to attack due to sulfides produced under
stagnant conditions. For high reliability /high safety application, super
duplex stainless steel is commonly used and it has given high reliability in
service.
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8.1.4 Seawater Lift (Winning) Pump
The same comments that were made for material selection of firewater
pumps, generally apply to seawater lift pumps. Additionally, corrosion
problems have been seen with NAB due to excessive chlorine levels at
pump inlet. As for firewater pumps, super duplex stainless steel has
proved to give the high reliability required. However, ZADCO has bad
experiences with Zeron 100 pump shaft and sleeve. Crevice corrosion is a
problem for the non-hydraulic (section above sea level). This section is
subject to near stagnancy when the pump is not operational. Monel K-500
is another candidate for pump shaft.

8.1.5 Injection pump
When deaerated seawater is pumped, 316 stainless steel is commonly
used with alloy 625 overlay in critical crevice areas e.g. O seals. With
the need for high discharge pressure the use of duplex or super duplex
stainless steel offered reduction in wall thickness due to its higher
strength. In addition, it is common to re-inject produced water later in a
fields life and this often contains chloride levels greater than that of
seawater plus substantial H
2
S concentrations, super duplex stainless steel
has good resistance to both chlorides and H
2
S and injection pumps
handling both produced water seawater are common nowadays.

8.1.6 Main Oil Line Pumps
The oil usually contains some water that has not been separated and this
has high levels of chloride. The pumps are usually of carbon steel casing
and shaft and with 13/4 martensitic stainless steel impellers and diffusers
because of their erosion resistance. The carbon steel is often weld
overlaid with 309 or 316 stainless steel in critical areas to minimise the
effect of corrosion. These alloys work because the corrosion is not much
at low water content. Where higher water content (separation) are
expected it may be necessary to upgrade the materials. 316 stainless
steel is not usually used because the oil is pumped hot (e.g. 60-70C)
and chloride stress cranking (SCC) may occur and the alloy also has
lower strength than martensitic alloys. In this case duplex stainless steel
gives increased resistance to corrosion and pitting as well as chloride
SCC. If strength requirement is satisfied, SCC should not be a problem for
SS316 because oil is unlikely to be oxygenated.

8.1.7 Downhole Pump
These pumps are installed downhole and shall resist the aggressive fluids
both inside and outside. Also the elastomers shall be resistant to corrosive
fluids including drilling fluids and injected corrosion inhibitors. Frequently
sand drilling mud or other abrasive media are mixed with the process fluid.
Because of the need to resist both wear and corrosion in hot brines which
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often contains high chloride concentrations it is essential to use materials
resistant to both corrosion and erosion. Typically the pipes and casing
would be super duplex stainless steel with cobalt-chrome alloy (stellite
type impellers. Bearing and seals would be weld overlaid or solid cobalt-
chrome as a minimum. In very erosive media it is common to use
tungsten carbide or other ceramics. Further details in API 610, NACE RP
0475, pump engineer, 02, 2003.

8.1.8 Other Rotating equipment
Turbine, compressors, pumps, fans; gearboxes are designed on vendor
packages supplemented by ZADCO specification ZO-TS-M-05010 pumps
were discussed in the preceding section. Each rotating equipment is
operated as per the specific plant and operation manual and maintained in
accordance with the MAXIMO PM schedule and the associated job plan.

8.1.9 Valves
Valves are used for both hydrocarbon and produced water services.
Details are given in ZADCO piping specification Z0-TS-P-05010 and
NACE RP047. Carbon steel valves used for hydrocarbon services should
have the same corrosion allowance as the associated piping. Usually,
Carbon steel valves are adequate for hydrocarbon service. In wet gas
and oil systems, stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloy seats and
gates/balls should be used. In some cases weld overlay may be required
for some critical areas, areas of the cavity subject to erosion due to
possible high velocities, ie, on seat pockets and body/stem seal areas of
the body, extending at least 20mm on both sides of the grooves and
around corners. Therefore, the overlay requirement is not on the
complete valve body.

8.1.10 Instruments
ZADCO instruments such as thermowells, control valves, PSVs,
transmitters, shutdown valves are constructed of corrosion resistant
alloys, material selection is dictated by fluid analysis, ZADCO instruments
are at low risk of sulphide stress corrosion cracking after GBT because
they are made of corrosion resistant alloys and comply to NACE
requirements. Further details can be obtained from ZADCO specification
for instrument material selection (Z0-TS-I-01050).

8.1.11 Life Saving
ZADCOs life saving equipment (e.g. life boat, raft, jacket and buoy) are
constructed of GRP. BU in cooperation with the vendor maintains such
equipment. HSEMS and operations documents address all life saving
equipment. Testing and maintenance is covered in MMS and IMS.

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Table 8.1 Metallic Materials for pressures retaining purposes
Material
Min. design
Tem. (C)
Impact
Tested
Other requirements Notes
Carbon and low alloy
steel
1
API 5LGr.B
ASTM A33
Grade .6
3.5% Nickel steel
-29
-46

-101
x

Martensitic Stainless
steels
2,3
13Cr
13Cr valve trim parts
13Cr4Ni
13Cr4Ni double
tempered
-10
-29
-46
-100
x


Austenitic stainless
steels
4
316



6Mo
-105
-196



-105
-196
x
Maxi. Operating
temp.60C. Higher
temperature acceptable
if full HVAC control.
6 Mo seawater systems
with crevices:
Max. operating temp.
15C, max. residual
chlorine 1.5 ppm.
Without crevice: Max.
operating temp. 30C
and same chlorine level.

Duplex stainless steels 5
22Cr




25Cr
-46




-46
x
Maximum operating
temperature 110C for
22Cr and 120 C for 25
Cr if exposed to saline
atmosphere.
Risk for cracking should
be assessed in systems
affected by acidizing if
sulphide containing
scales can be formed.
Temperature limits for
25Cr in seawater
systems as for 6Mo.

Nickel base alloys -196
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Table 8.1 Metallic Materials for pressures retaining purposes
Material
Min.
design
Tem. c
Impact
Tested
Other requirements Notes
Titamium base alloys 6
Grade 2 -196 Seawater operating temperature
limits if crevices are present:
Unchlorinated 95C, chlorinated
85C, Brine 80C

Other grades 7
Copper base alloys Velocity limits for piping min 1.0
m/s, max. cfr. BS MA 18. for
intermittent service max. 10 m/s.
Not for stagnant conditions
8
90-10, 70-30, NiAl
bronze, gun metal
Fresh seawater and normally
drained systems.

Admiralty brass, gun
metal, tin bronze
Fresh water normally drained
systems

Aluminium base alloys -196 9
NOTES
1. Carbon steel API 5L Gr B be used in piping systems with minimum design temperature
down to 15
0
C for thickness less than 16 mm.
2. A corrosivity evaluation shall be carried out if temperature > 90C, or chloride
concentration >5%.
3. Impact testing for well completion shall be carried out at 10C or the min. design
temperature if this is lower.
Use of 13Cr at temperature below 10C requires special evaluation.
4. Impact testing of austenitic stainless steel Type 316 and 6 Mo weldments has not been
considered necessary above 105C.
Type 6Mo stainless steel can be used in seawater systems with crevices above 15C if
crevices are weld overlayed. No threaded connections acceptable in seawater systems.
5. Type 25Cr stainless steel can be used in seawater systems with crevice above 15C if
crevices are weld overlayed. No threaded connections acceptable in seawater systems.
6. Shall not be used for hydrofluoric acid or pure methanol (>95%) or exposure to mercury
or mercury-based chemicals. Titanium shall not be used for submerged applications
involving exposure to seawater with cathodic protection unless suitable performance in
this service is documented for the relevant operating temperature range.
7. Service restriction shall be documented for other Titanium grades.
8. Shall not be exposed to mercury or mercury based chemicals, ammonia and amine
compounds.
9. Shall not be exposed to mercury or mercury containing chemicals.

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Table 8.2 Proposed H
2
S limits for generic CRA classes
Material
Chloride
concentration,
max. %
Min. allowed
in-situ pH
Temperature,
max.C
Partial pressure
H
2
S, max. bar
Notes
Martensitic
stainless
steels
1,2
13Cr 5
5
3
3.5
90
90
0.01
0.1

Austenitic
stainless
steels

316 1
1
5
5
3.5
3.5
3.5
5
40
60
60
60
0.1
0.05
0.01
0.1
3
3
3
3
6Mo 5
5
3.5
5
150
150
1.0
2.0

Duplex
stainless
steels

22Cr 3
1
3.5
3.5
150
150
0.02
0.1

25Cr 5
5
3.5
4.5
150
150
0.1
0.4

Nickel alloys 1
625 3.5 5 4
C276 >5 4
Titanium 3.5 >5 1
NOTES
1. If one of the listed parameters exceeds the given limit, it is recommended to test the
material according to EFC Publication no. 17.
2. The temperature limit may be increase based upon evaluation of specific field data and
previous experience. Testing may be required.
3. The temperature can be increased to 120C provided completely oxygen free conditions
can be guaranteed.
4. No practical limits to temperature and chloride concentration for oilfield service.

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8.2 Gratings
Primary Structural Material: Carbon Steel
Secondary Structural Material: Carbon Steel
Tertiary Construction Material: Carbon Steel, Alloys, GRE and GRP
Gratings: Gratings for offshore structures that are
installed from the first level above the
designated Splash Zone shall be
constructed of Cast Metal, which has been
galvanized to ISO 1461. They shall not be
painted.
Gratings: Gratings for offshore structures that are
installed in the Splash Zone shall be
manufactured from non-metallic fibre re-
enforced plastic materials that conform to
the required structural loading and fire
endurance requirements of the installation.
They shall not be painted.
Gratings: Gratings for onshore structures shall be
constructed of Cast Metal, which has been
galvanized to ISO 1461. They shall not be
painted.
Stair Treads: Where stair treads are constructed from
cast metal grating materials the stair tread
shall be galvanized to ISO 1461. They shall
not be painted.
Stair Treads: Where stair treads are manufactured from
flat or checker carbon steel plate they
shall be prepared and coated to Company
specifications.
Stair Handrails and Handrail Posts: These items can be fabricated from carbon
steel or non-metallic fibre re-enforced
plastic materials that conform to the
required structural loading and fire
endurance requirements of the installation.
Non-metallic materials are recommended
for Splash Zones and shore based high
corrosion zones.
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Galvanizing shall be in accordance with the following standards:
ASTM A 123
ISO 1461

The minimum coating (Zinc) thickness shall be a function of the steel
thickness as follows: -

Steel Thickness mm Average Coating (Zinc) Thickness
To 1.5 mm 45 Microns
1.5 to 3 mm 55 Microns
3 mm to 6 mm 70 Microns
6 mm + 85 Microns


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G GU UI ID DE EL LI IN NE ES S O ON N G GE EN NE ER RA AL L P PR RO OP PE ER RT TI IE ES S A AN ND D P PR RE EC CA AU UT TI IO ON NS S W WH HE EN N U US SI IN NG G
S SP PE EC CI IF FI IC C M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL LS S
From the viewpoint of corrosion, the first material of choice for the designer is carbon
steel. If high rates of carbon steel corrosion are expected, CRAs or non-metallic should
be considered. However, CRAs may suffer from some types of localised corrosion or
cranking mechanism under particular environmental conditions. Thus a corrosion
monitoring and inspection philosophy will generally be required regardless of materials
selection.
9.1 Carbon Steel
When carbon steel is selected for a part of the process stream or for other
systems it is susceptible to a variety of potential internal and external corrosion
risks. In many cases it should be acceptable to have corrosion occurring as long
as the rate of attack is within manageable limits and there is some means of
checking the type of corrosion damage and its extent. This is the essence of a
corrosion management philosophy.
Care has to be taken when welding carbon steels to ensure that the weld and
heat affected zone also have adequate strength and toughness for the
application. Welding procedures should be specified according to appropriate
standards and qualified to ensure that suitable mechanical properties will be
obtained in the production welds.
For pipe system in corrosive service the weld should be compatible with the base
material in order to avoid local corrosion of weldment and heat-affected zone. For
systems with sour service requirements the Ni content may be allowed up to 2.2
%
9.2 Clad carbon steel
In corrosive hydrocarbon systems, cladding with corrosion resistant materials may
replace solid CRAs. The choice of cladding alloy will be dictated by the corrosivity
of the environment, the selected cladding process and the availability. In practice
the number of cladding alloys used is fairly limited.
Fully clad components are widely applied (pipe, vessels, wellheads etc), but
partial cladding is also used, particularly to protect important sealing surfaces. In
such cases the usual cladding process is weld overlay and Alloy 625 (AW
ERNiCrMo3) is normally used. A minimum 3 mm thickness as finished is typical,
with the maximum iron content at the finished surface being 10 weight percent for
Alloy 625 overlay.
9.3 Stainless steels
Stainless steels contain at least 11% chromium to provide the passive Cr
2
O
3
layer
which protects the bulk steel, and appear shiny in their natural state. However,
this layer, and thus stainless steel, is susceptible to localised corrosion often
involving chlorides or other ions (Refer to Appendix - B).
The resistance of stainless steels to these forms of localised corrosion in
oxygenated environment is approximately described by the Pitting Resistance
Equivalent Number.
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PREN = % Chromium + 3.03 x % Molybdenum + 16 x % Nitrogen.
The Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) as determined by experiment, is another
measure, which is often used for comparing the pitting resistance of materials.
Localised corrosion can also be initiated by contamination of the surface with iron
ions formed by corrosion of iron contamination of the surface. Thus stainless
steels should not be allowed to contact unalloyed or low alloy steels. During
storage or fabrication. Stainless steels should be fabricated in a separate work
area and with tools only to be used for the fabrication of stainless steels.
Stainless steel surface that are iron contaminated can be mechanically cleaned
using abrasive flap wheels or clean SS wire brush. If they are kept clean and dry
for a few days the protective oxide coating is naturally restored. Chemical
passivation of contaminated stainless steel surface is unnecessary and provides
no additional benefit that cannot be provided by simple cleaning as described
above.
The welding of all stainless steels requires good backing gas shielding to avoid
oxidation of the heated surface, as the oxide film formed at high temperature does
not protect the surface from corrosion. Where discoloration of the surface occurs
it should be assessed and, where necessary the surface should be cleaned by
grinding, wire brushing or picking.

9.4 Martensitic & Ferritic SS
Martensitic SSs are hardenable by heat treatments similar to carbon steel.
Corrosion resistance is generally better in the hardened condition. The corrosion
resistance is less than ferritic or austenitic SS. However, martensitic grades show
good resistance to CO
2
corrosion. Ferritic SS is non-harbdenable. Both ferritic
and martensitic SS are magnetic.
Although it has less than 11% Cr and as such is not strictly a stainless steel, 9
Cr1Mo (use for downhole tubulars) is often grouped with the martensitic stainless
steels.
Martensitic SS are generally used in the quenched and tempered, or normalised
and tempered, conditions to a maximum hardness of 22 HRC for sour services.
Because of the maximum hardness, they are generally specified to a maximum
yield strength of 660-690 MPa (95-100ksi). Higher strength can be used in sweet
service; however corrosion resistance (including SCC resistance) and ductility can
be adversely affected by increased strength. Martensitic stainless steel are used
extensively for production tubing and also for forged items for valves and
wellheads.
Low carbon content martensitic SS can be welded using matching or duplex
stainless steel consumables without requiring extensive post-welding heat
treatment to soften the weld zone. These steels, referred to as the weldable
martensitic stainless steels have been used for pipelines and for piping and
vessels. Industry guidelines on the welding of these steels to optimise weld and
HAZ properties are developing at the time of writing this report and so up to date
information should be sought.
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Ferritic SS are not widely applied and are not generally used as material for
welded constructions, since they often give problems during fabrication, welding
and heat treatment.
They may be found in the following applications:
Strip lining or cladding of pressure vessels to resist sulphur corrosion;
Internals of valves
Tray decks;
Castings for pumps
Austenitic SSs are non-magnetic and non-harnenable by heat treatment. They
have better corrosion resistance than martensitic or ferritic SS. However, they can
be more susceptible to localised forms of corrosion, particularly in the presence of
chlorides ions. Super austenitic stainless steels (SASS) are highly alloyed grades
with a high PREN generally above 33.
Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible during welding to hot cracking caused
by the high coefficient of thermal expansion of the material in combination with the
high affinity of nickel to the pick-up of impurities like sulphur, forming low melting
nickel suphides. To avoid this problem a high level of cleanliness is required
when welding austenitic stainless steels.
Austenitic SS can be susceptible to sensitise heat treatments between about
480C and 760C, including the heat-affected zone of welds, which adversely
affect SCC resistance.
The selection of the welding consumables depends on the type of austenitic SS
and the intended service. The following guidelines will help avoid problems
during fabrication, heat treatment, welding and service:
Tack-welds should be made at small intervals.
Heat input per weld run should be low to avoid too high an interpass
temperature and overheating of the weld area.
Cleanliness is very important; the weld area should be free of grease, dirt,
cutting, fluid etc. to avoid carbon pick-up, hardening and hot cracking.
For GMAW or GTAW welding, a good supply of backing gas is required to
prevent oxidation of the HAZ and weld.
After heavy oxidation of the weld and HAZ, the corrosion resistance can be
restored by picking and passivation.
For most applications a weld consumables is used with a low susceptibility to
hot cracking in the weld metal, giving a weld deposit with 3-8% ferrite.
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To prevent sensitisation and weld decay at the grain boundaries in the heat
affected zone, the carbon content of the stainless steel should be below
0.03% C or the parent metal is stabilised with Nb to Ti, and care is taken to
avoid excessive heat input during welding.
Austenitic SS grade with less than 2% molybdenum such as SS303, SS304,
SS321 or SS347 are susceptible to CSCC at ambient conditions and so should
not be used.
9.5 Duplex SS (DSS)
DSS have about 50% austenitic in a ferritic matrix and thus magnetic. DSS have
superior resistance (but they are not immune) to pitting and CSCC due to their
high PREN. DSS steel (e.g. SAF 2205) have a PREN value >33.
It is recommended that UNS S32205 be specified and preferred (with no
requirement for any ASTM G 48a tests) whenever a DSS is required. This has a
better PREN value than UNS S31803 due to its higher Molybdenum and Nitrogen
content. If S31803 is ordered a further requirement should be % N>0.15. Thick
sections and /or those without a known thermal history (welded components)
should be considered for screening using the ASTM G48a test.
For thicker materials where the risk of having non-optimised microstructure
including sigma phase formation, a full qualification programme would be
advisable.
Table 9.1 Limitations for Duplex Stainless steels to be used for process piping
Lower design
Temperature (C) above
Maximum wall thickness
(as-welded)
- 50 18 mm
- 40 23 mm
- 30 28 mm
- 20 33 mm
- 10 38 mm
0 43 mm
Welding of DSS can have a significant adverse effect on the corrosion behaviour
and toughness of these alloys. The majority of problem have been related to
excessive heat input, incorrect selection of consumables, inadequate welding
procedures for all geometries being considered, lack of adequate gas shielding
and lack of cleanliness after welding.
Filler metals with higher nickel content than the base material (i.e. over alloyed)
should be used to ensure that the weld microstructure contains sufficient
austenite (about 40-70%) and is comparable in corrosion properties with the base
metal.
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In DSS, insufficient or excessive heat input can result in loss of toughness and
corrosion resistance in the weldment. Control of interpass temperature is
essential and should be below 150C.
Welding procedure qualification tests to be conducted to verify the WPS,
simulating the conditions and materials to be used for production welding as fully
as possible.
Impact testing (with acceptance criteria appropriate to the application) is a helpful
PQR test to determine the quality of the material and weld zone. Similarly the
PQR should include ferrite determination, the acceptable range for ferrite content
being about 30-60%, preferably at the lower side of this range.
Because of the possible risk of hydrogen cracking in the ferritic phase of duplex
stainless steels, SMAW consumables should be handled like low-hydrogen
consumables to avoid any risk of water pick-up prior to welding.
DSS contains appreciable amounts of nitrogen, both as an austenite former and
to enhance pitting resistance. This should be controlled to minimise loss of
nitrogen from the weld pool by use of argon/nitrogen (max.2.0 % nitrogen)
shielding and backing gas.
DSS and SDSS pipe and fittings manufactured by the isostaic or powder
metallurgy process have been found to be unacceptable because of high
amounts of third phase which are dettrimetal to mechanical and corrosion
properties. Care should be taken to optimise the heat treatment of items made
using these manufacturing routes.

9.6 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS)
SDSS have the greatest resistance to pitting and CSCC of all the stainless steels
but are also more expensive and more difficult to weld. They are weldable
provided strict quality control procedures are implemented and adhered to.
As the corrosion resistance of SDSS is dependent on correct heat treatment, the
corrosion resistance of materials purchased should be checked, e.g., using ASTM
G48.
SDSS (e.g. SAF 2507) have a PREN value >40. Their high yield strength (~550
MPa) significantly reduces the overall weight of equipment such as a
firewater/seawater system.
The control of heat input during fabrication is important to avoid the formation of
third phases (e.g. sigma phase causing LTHAZ embrittlement adjacent to welds).
This phase is susceptible to pitting corrosion and failure may occur during service
if appropriate mitigation methods are not employed.
Zeron 100 has been found to be more difficult to weld and more susceptible to
LTHAZ embrittlement than SAF 2507 due to its Copper (Cu) and Tungsten (W)
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additions. All grades of SDSS can be satisfactory welded but great care has to be
taken to ensure the heat input, cooling rate and maximum interpass temperature
meets design guidelines.
Combining SDSS piping with aluminum-bronze valves will cause galvanic
corrosion of the valve. Thus, valves should also be SDSS. All parts of valves,
including the internals, require correct heat treatment to ensure optimum
corrosion resistance in service.

9.7 Aluminum and its Alloys
The use of aluminum for offshore structures has many potential benefits, such as
a weight reduction of at least 50 % compared to steel, increases in lifetime and
reduction in maintenance. Aluminum has been used in the North Sea for stair-
towers and helicopter decks, safety barriers and subsea protection structures with
significant cost savings incurred from reduced weight of the structures.
Aluminum does have a relatively low fatigue strength, which is further reduced in
welded structures. This can be compensated for in design by using local
reinforcements and alternative methods of connection such that weight savings of
up to 50% over steel can still be achieved. It is important to check that material
properties are homogeneous, particularly in extruded sections and across
extrusion welds.
Marine grades of aluminum have significantly lower general corrosion rates than
steel due to the protective oxide film. However, aluminum can deteriorate from
crevice and pitting corrosion. It is also susceptible to galvanic corrosion and so
has to be insulated from other metals. If neoprene is used for insulation, it should
not contain any carbon additives.
It is recommended to use seawater resistant grade Aluminum alloys i.e in the
alloying system AlMg and ALMgSi. Acceptable material grades are AlMg3Mn (AA
5454), AlMg4.5Mn (AA 5083), AlMgSi0.7 (AA 6005) and AlSiMgMn (AA 6082).
The AA 6005 and AA 6082 alloys are preferable for extrusion and thick plates and
the AIMg-alloys for thin plates. AlMg-alloys should be used as far as possible.
Aluminum is a structural material that cannot support a fire. In theory, under the
right conditions frictional sparks can be generated by the impact of aluminum and
a corroded steel surface. In practice, the incendiary sparking risk is very low and
is negligible compared to other potential sources of explosion. The melting point
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of aluminum is 660C. AT 250C the tensile strength of aluminum is half of its
room temperature strength.
Aluminum may be used for ambient temperature but not elevated temperatures.
In particular, AlMg-alloys with Mg-content above 3.0 % should not be used when
design temperature is above 60C, as these alloys are sensitive to stress
corrosion cracking. Special consideration to the loss of strength is needed for
application above approximately +200C.
Aluminum can be welded by TIG, MIG and Friction Stir Welding techniques. In
general the weld is weaker than the base material and this is often allowed for by
an increase in section thickness at the weld. Stainless steel bolting should be
used to join aluminum, with insulation. Aluminum and steel should be joined by
explosion welding plates.
Hardened aluminum alloys suffer from a reduction in strength in the heat affected
zone after welding. The actual reduction factors to be used can be taken from
with applicable design code but should also be evaluated and verified by welding
and appropriate mechanical testing including the weld metal strength and defining
the minimum yield and tensile strength requirements.

9.8 Copper-Nickel Alloys
90/10 CuNi piping offers excellent corrosion resistance in stagnant and low speed
flowing seawater. It has moderate corrosion resistance in dry deluge systems
and it is satisfactory in sprinkler systems. However, it is susceptible to erosion-
corrosion at velocities greater than 2m/s.
CuNi alloys are normally welded either GMAW or GTAW with a70Cu-30Ni
consumable that contains de-oxidisers to avoid porosity. The lower percentage
Ni-containing consumables, e.g.90/10 and 80/20, are more prone to hot cracking.
Flaring is a suitable method for joining of CuNi alloys provided good tools and
competent people are used.
Failures have been experienced in CuNi piping mainly from erosion-caused wall
thinning in elbows, bends, pipe downstream of restriction orifices and locations
that experience localised turbulence.
Poor operational procedure can also lead to design conditions being exceeded,
resulting in erosion-corrosion. For example, impingement attack in a seawater
header has been recorded due to the use of a third lift pump. Two pumps
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produced a flow rate in the header of less than 2m/s, the third takes the rate
above 3m/s and impingement attack has occurred.
70-30 CuNi alloys have excellent seawater corrosion resistance with higher
ductility giving it greater resistance to mechanical damage. It is also easy to weld,
but has a higher cost than 90-10 CuNi.

9.9 Nickel and its Alloys
These alloys include Incoloy 800, 825 and 800H, Inconel 600 and 625, Hastelloy
C, C-276, C-4, Hastelloy B and B-2, Monel 400 and Monel K500. All these alloys
have good toughness and ductility combined with resistance to corrosion of
various types.
Nickel and nickel alloys are selection based on their ability:
To resist elecrochemcial corrosion and /or stress corrosion, particularly in
sour conditions,
To resist chemical corrosion, also at elevated temperatures;
To resist severe creep conditions in combination with oxidation and
corrosion.
Alloy 625 is also widely applied because of its excellent weldability as an overlay
on carbon steel.
The rules for welding nickel a nickel alloys depend not only on the chemical
composition but also on the required application.
When welding, to avoid hot cracking the area adjacent to the weld preparation
should be clean. S, Pb, Sb, Cd and Zn are detrimental impurities, which could be
present in grease or paint. Acetone or equivalent solvents are used for cleaning,
to avoid porosity. The oxide layer can be removed by grinding to a bright metal
surface appearance just prior to welding.
Welding preparation should have a greater included angle than those used for
carbon steel, to minimise the risk of lack of fusion defects due to the low fluidity of
the weld metal.
The welding consumables have the same low carbon content and a low Ti
content. (For chlorine service at temperature above 450C, weld metal containing
Ti is attacked. In this case a low-carbon type Ni wire without Ti can be applied to
prevent the selective attack). Extreme cleanliness of the weld area can minimise
the porosity of the weld metal).
Monel can be used in instrumentation at temperatures greater than 60C provided
its mechanical properties are taken into consideration at higher temperatures. It
should not be used if the tubing will carry seawater or an oxygenated corrosive
medium, as Monel will pit at high temperature in stagnant condition. Hastelloy C
has been used in these conditions.
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Monel should also not be used in seawater service connected to Zeron 100 as it
will corrode preferentially from galvanic effects.
Monel also has anti-fouling properties from its copper content and has been used
as corrosion resistant sheathing for risers.

9.10 Titanium and its alloys.
Titanium has high strength and with its density between that of aluminum and
carbon steel gives it a high strength to weight ratio. Titanium has excellent
resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and CSCC making it suitable materials for
high temperature seawater service. Titanium should be purchased from reputable
suppliers with careful control of the certification, as there can be a risk of getting
material contaminated with iron from some sources.
Titanium has a high affinity for oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. Therefore, during
welding care should be taken to avoid embrittlement in the weld area from the
absorption of these gases from the atmosphere. Other impurities, like
hydrocarbons (oil, grease), dirt and oxides in the weld area will also cause weld
embrittlement. Hence the weld area must be cleaned carefully to a bright metal
surface prior to welding.
Experience and care is required when welding titanium and should be an
important consideration when selecting fabricators. A high priority should be
placed on initiating weld qualification at an early stage. Weld procedure
qualification should include corrosion testing in addition to the normal mechanical
test requirements. Vetting titanium weld procedure specifications (which should
include corrosion testing) should be done as part of fabricator selection and
tender evaluation.
During the welding operation the weld area is protected with pure inert gases like
argon or helium. The required protection during welding can be provided in
special welding chambers that are filled with a 99.996% pure inert gas (e.g.
argon). This is often combined with GTAW in technically pure argon or helium
gas.
For large sections special devices are constructed for GTAW to protect both the
back and the front side of the weld area with trailing shields.
Welding of Ti requires highly skilled welders and specialized contractors. Welding
of Ti requires segregated clean areas. Dry grinding of Ti should be avoided, since
small Ti particles could ignite and cause a fire, so oil cooled carborundum or
corundum-grinding wheels should be used. Prior to welding, the weld preparation
area shall be cleaned carefully to remove any impurities.
In applications where titanium is submerged in seawater it should not be
cathodically protected because of the risk of hydrogen embrittlement.
Titanium in contact with any corroding material (e.g. Carbon steel) will absorb
hydrogen and become embrittled. Iron contaminant particles embedded in its
surfaces (from poor fabrication or forming practice) will result in severe pitting.
Poorly supported titanium components in heat exchangers are susceptible to
fatigue and corrosion fatigue.
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9.11 Metallic Coating
Metallic coatings are applied either for corrosion resistance or wear resistance.
Galvanising (zinc), cadmium plating and flame sprayed aluminum are applied to
carbon steel for corrosion resistance. Thermally sprayed aluminum is also used
as an external coat on stainless steels to prevent chloride stress corrosion
cracking under chloride deposits.
Electroless nickel plating and hard facing are used for wear resistance.
9.11.1 Electroless Nickel Plating (ENP)
ENP is not recommended for the primary purpose of corrosion protection
because of the risk of defects in the ENP layer. However, ENP is often
applied to improve the wear resistance of base metals (carbon steels and
stainless steels) up to a maximum operating temperature of 200C (80C if
in the presence of H
2
S).
Requirements for ENP are given in DEP 30.48.41.31-Gen Electroless
Nickel Plating (Amendments/Supplements to ASTM B733).

9.12 Polymeric Materials
The selection of polymeric materials (including elastromeric materials) is made on
an evaluation of the functional requirements for the specific application.
Dependent upon application, properties relevant for the design, area/type of
application and design life to be documented and included in the evaluation are:
Thermal stability and aging resistance at specified service temperature and
environment.
Physical and mechanical properties.
Thermal expansion.
Swelling and shrinking by gas and by liquid absorption
Gas and liquid diffusion/permeation.
Decompression resistance in high pressure oil/gas systems.
Chemical resistance
Control of manufacturing process.

Polymeric sealing materials used in critical applications such as well completion
components, Xmas trees, valves in manifolds and permanent subsea parts of the
production control system require particularly thorough documentation.

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9.13 Reinforced Plastics
Fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs) comprise non-metallic fibers of glass, aramid or
carbon within a resin matrix, the resin being vinyl ester, polyester, epoxy or
phenolic. The choice of fibre and resin should be selected after full consideration
of the service requirements.
GRP (gas reinforced plastic) (either with epoxy or vinyl ester resin) is now an
established offshore and onshore engineering material and its adoption can
provide life cycle cost saving over traditional engineering metallic materials,
particularly in utility piping systems. It also should be considered as a lining
material for carbon steel production and water injection tubulars.
For GRP (either with vinyl ester or phenolic resin) used in applications such as
panels, gratings and other secondary applications, special emphasis must be put
on risk assessment including both blast and fire performance.

9.14 GRP Piping
Whenever GRP is used a check should be made on the need for fire and impact
protection; smoke generation and its toxicity and the potential for static electricity
charge accumulation.
The use of GRP for piping systems on platforms is limited as follows:
No use in transporting of hydrocarbon and methanol.
Design temperature range from - 40 up to 95C for epoxy and up to 80C for
vinyl-ester,
For GRP tanks and vessels the following limitations apply: -
Design pressure in bar times internal volume in liters should not exceed
75000.
Design temperature of maximum 75C
A risk assessment is required for hydrocarbon service.

For systems where GRP can be applied, epoxy and vinyl-ester resins may be
evaluated as alternatives for piping components and tanks. Polyester resin can
be used in tanks for seawater and open drain services.
If GRP is considered for use as rigid pipe for downhole produced water and sea
water injection tubing, material properties should be documented in accordance
with relevant API standards, ASTM D 2992 and DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen.

9.15 Passive Fireproofing Materials
Passive fireproofing materials for protection of structural steel or for area
segregation should be of spray-applied types. A corrosion protection coating
system is first applied to the steel, and then the passive fire protection is sprayed
on to the required minimum thickness.
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For outdoor applications, or where the passive fireproofing is subjected to wear,
impact or other mechanical damages, an epoxy based coating system is
recommended.
For other applications, cement type materials with a diffusion open topcoat can be
used. Panel based passive fire protection products may be considered as an
alternative for protection of structures or for area segregation.
Mandolite a cement-like product has been used in offshore operations with
regular maintenance required to renew the UV resistant acrylic coating. Poor
maintenance has resulted in localised degradation of the coating.
Chartek with an epoxy coating has performed satisfactorily.
Thermolag products are banned due to accelerated breakdown experienced in
an LNG Plant.
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Table 9.2 NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS OF ALLOYS
GENERIC TYPE UNS TYPICAL ALLOY COMPOSITION
Carbon and low alloy steels % Cr % Ni % Mo Others
3.5 % Ni 3.5
Martensitic stainless steels
13Cr 13
13Cr4Ni 13 4
17-4PH S17400 17 4
Austenitic stainless steels
310 S31000 25 20
316 S31600 17 12 2.5 C<0.035
6Mo S31254
N08925
N08926
N08367
20
20
20
21
18
25
25
24
6
6
6
6
N=0.2
Cu=1, N=0.2
N min.0.15
N=0.2
904 N08904 21 25 4.5 Cu=1.5
Duplex stainless steels
22Cr S32205
S31803
22 5.5 3 N
25Cr S32550
S32750
S32760
25
25
25
5.5
7
7
3.5
3.5
3.5
N
N
N
Nickel base alloys
Alloys C22 N26022 21 Rem 14 W=3
Alloy C-276 N10276 16 Rem 16 W=4
Alloy 625 N06625 22 Rem 9 Nb=4
Alloy 718 N07718 19 53 3 Nb=5
Alloy 800H/Alloy 800HT N08810
/
N08811
21 33 - Al+Ti
Alloy 825 N08825 21 42 3 Ti
Co-base Type
Elgiloy R30003 20 16 7 Co=40
MP-35-N R30035 20 35 10 Ti, Co rem.
Copper base alloys
Cu-Ni 90-10 C70600 - 10 - Fe, Cu rem
Cu-Ni-70-3- C71500 - 31- - Fe, Cu rem
NiAl bronze C95800 - 4.5 - 9Al, Fe, Mn,
Cu rem
Gun metal C90500 - - - 10Sn, zn, Cu rem
Titanium
Ti grade 2 R50400 - - - C max 0.10 Fe max
0.30
H max 0.015
N max 0.03
O max 0.25
Ti rem

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10 APPENDIX A (MATERIAL SELECTION DIAGRAM)


Water from
desalters
Water from crude
storage tank
Water from
separators
Alloy 28 CA: NIL
Alloy 28 CA: NIL
CS CA: 1/8
Blanketing Gas
CS (SOUR & HIC
RATED) CA: 1/8"
461-P-TO 1A/B
SEPARATED OIL TO SECOND
STAGE SEPARATOR
TO EFFLUENT
TREATMENT PLANT
CS (SOUR & HIC RATED)
CA: 1/8" + INTERNAL EPOXY
LINING (APROX: 0.625MM)
CS (SOUR & HIC RATED) CA: 1/8"
461-V-116
461-V-105
461-P-T02 A/B/C
461-P-105A/B STRIPPING GAS
CS CA: 1/8"
GAS to Gas
Sweetening unit
Gas to flare
CA = Corrosion Allowance
FIC = Flow Indicator Controller
LIC = Level Indicator Controller
PIC = Pressure Indicator Controller
RO = Restriction Orifice
A SECTION OF SATAH D&D (P7133) ILLUSTRATING MATERIAL SELECTION DIAGRAM (MSD)
Alloy 28
CA=NIL
Alloy 28
CA=NIL
PIC
RO
LIC
RO
LIC
FIC
LIC













































































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A AT TT TA AC CH HM ME EN NT T- - ( (A AP PP PE EN ND DI IX X- -B B) )
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Z ZA AD DC CO O F FA AI IL LU UR RE E I IN NV VE ES ST TI IG GA AT TI IO ON N ( ( A Ap pp pe en nd di ix x- -B B) )
1. INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this document is to provide a guideline to ZADCO failure investigation. A
failure investigation and subsequent analysis should determine the primary cause of a
failure, after detailed assessment, corrective action should be taken to prevent
similar failures. Various stages of analysis are summarized in figure 1.
The principal stages that comprise the investigation and analysis of a failure are
summarized below:
Collection of background data and procurement of samples
Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination and record keeping)
Laboratory tests Mechanical, Metallography and Chemical analysis, etc.
Analysis of all evidence, formulations of conclusions, and writing the report
including recommendations
2. FAILURE MECHANISMS
There are various types of failures, only summaries are given here.
2.1. Ductile Fracture/Ductile Overload
A ductile Fracture is characterized by tearing of metal accompanied by
appreciable gross plastic deformation and expenditure of considerable energy.
Ductile tensile fractures in most materials have a gray, fibrous appearance and
are classified on macroscopic scale as either flat/ perpendicular to the maximum
tensile stress or shear at (a 45 0 slant to the maximum tensile stress). Material
exhibits necking before failure. The resulting fracture surfaces also show a cone
and cup formation.

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There is also evidence of dimples. Materials can also fail in a ductile manner in
compression, such fractures resulting in a characteristic bulge and series of axial
cracks around the edge of the material. A summary of various fracture modes is
given in table 1. Typical micrographs are given in figure 2.
2.2. Brittle fracture
A brittle fracture is characterized by rapid crack propagation with less
expenditure of energy than with ductile fracture and without appreciable gross
plastic deformation. Brittle tensile fractures have a bright, granular appearance
and show little or no necking. They are generally of flat type that is, normal
(perpendicular) to the direction of maximum tensile stress. A chevron pattern
may be present on the fracture surface, pointing towards the origin of the crack,
especially in brittle fractures in flat, plate like components.
Brittle fracture is both structure and temperature dependent. Cryogenic/subzero
temperatures promote brittle failure in bcc (Body centered cubic) and HCP
(hexagonal close packed) structures. The bcc crystal structure tends to have a
region of ductile to brittle transition. Therefore, equipment should operate within
its design temperature including temperature excursions and process upsets.
2.3. Fatigue failure
A Fatigue fracture result from cyclic loading, and appears brittle and generally
smooth on a macroscopic scale. It is characterized by incremental propagation of
cracks until the cross section has been reduced to where it can no longer support
the maximum applied load, and fast fracture follows. Frequently, the progress of
a service induced fatigue crack is indicated by the presence of a series of
macroscopic crescents, called beach marks, progressing from the origin of the
crack.
Also fatigue failure often starts at some point of stress concentration. This point
of origin of the failure can be seen on the failed material as a smooth flat,
semicircular or elliptical region, often referred to as the nucleus. Surrounding the
nucleus is a burnished zone with ribbed markings. This zone is smooth. The
region of abrupt failure has a crystalline appearance.
Thermal fatigue is caused by temperature fluctuation. Corrosion fatigue is caused
by the combined action of corrosion and cyclic stress. The normal fatigue
behavior of metals is worsened by the action of a corrosive environment. Metals
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suffering corrosion fatigue may not display a fatigue limit. Fatigue limit is the
threshold stress level for fatigue failure and this is displayed by many ferrous and
titanium alloys (and a very few aluminum alloys).
Fatigue cracking is always a potential failure mode associated with most
mechanical vibration sources (e.g. pumps, turbines, compressors, engines, well
head chokes, orifice plates, etc), and also wave loading. Thus, all welds,
supports, piping and instrument connections around these sources are potential
sites for fatigue cracking. As conditions change (compressor balance,
throughput, instrument additions etc), vibration characteristics will change. This
means that fatigue is hard to predict and hard to detect by inspection. ZADCO
has experienced pump failures by fatigue.
2.4. Creep Failure
Creep is the time dependent permanent strain (deformation) occurring in high
stress- high temperature regimes. Failure occurs by intergranular cracking of the
resultant creep damaged material. For metals, creep becomes important at
temperatures greater than about 0.4 (Tm = absolute melting temperature) or
approximately 400 450 C for carbon and low alloy steels.
Careful design can minimize the risk of creep (for example, optimizing flare
design). The primary method of avoiding creep is to ensure correct material
selection at the design stage.
2.5. Wear Failures
Wear is a surface phenomenon that occurs by displacement and detachment of
material. Because wear usually implies a progressive loss of weight and
alteration of dimensions over a period of time, wear problems generally differ
from those involving outright breakage. However, wear may progress far enough
to cause catastrophic failure. For example, fatigue failure may initiate in a worn
area.
All mechanical components that undergo sliding or rolling contact are subject to
some degree of wear. Typical of such components are bearings, gears, seal
guides, piston rings. Wear of these of components may range from mild,
polishing type friction to rapid and severe removal of material with
accompanying surface roughening. Whether or not wear constitutes failure of a
component depends on whether the wear harmfully affects the ability of the
component to function. In general, lubrication minimizes wear.
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Common sites for fretting are joints that are bolted, keyed, pinned, press fitted or
riveted, in oscillating bearings, couplings, seals and flexible hoses e.g. from EGT
turbine in UZ. In the case of flexible hoses from EGT (UZ), fretting occurred
between the external surface of the flexible hose and the internal layers of wire
braiding where the two materials were in tight contact. Hose failure was attributed
to vibration, contact between the two materials and relative movement of small
amplitude.
2.6. Distortion Failures
These failure occur when a structure or component is deformed so that it
No longer can support the load it was intended to carry
Is incapable of performing its intended design function
Interferes with the operation of another component
Distortion failures can be either plastic or elastic and may or may not be
accompanied by fracture.
2.7. High Temperatures softening
This is a reduction in tensile strength of materials (non - age hardening) with the
increase in operating temperatures. This is commonly seen as distortion or
warping of structural components. It may be solely due to extreme temperature
gradients or microstructural changes from grain growth or spheroidization in
carbon steels. It can be found in refractory lined vessels and structural supports
near the flare tip. Damage may also occur during hot environmental conditions
caused by excessive flaring during process upsets or the early stages of
commissioning.
The typical reduction in strength of materials with increased temperature should
also be considered when selecting materials and required wall thickness for
operation where the operating temperature is above about 100
0
C
Potential areas of concern are boiler steam tubes. Flame impingement should be
avoided since high temperatures will cause tubing to suffer unacceptable creep
rates. Guards should be provided to shield steam tubes from direct flame
impingement during fabrication and maintenance activities. Creep can also arise
from local hot spots in steam tubes caused by blockages, such as dropped
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objects. Where this is suspected to have occurred, tubes can be cleared by
rodding before boiler box-up.
It is recommended that material selection is conservative as low water and steam
flow rates during start-up, testing and commissioning processes will bring tube
metal temperatures to above design conditions. Start-ups and shutdowns in
boilers and fired heaters are expensive, dangerous, time consuming and should
be minimised where practicable. Burners and start-up procedures should be
designed such that the firing pattern ensures an even distribution of heat and
satisfactory performance of thermal swirlers should be verified.
Creep failure of incoloy 800H /800HT materials in coanda type kaldair flare tips
has been experienced in operation, especially during thermal cycling. Alternative
materials are documented in the flare tip report.
2.8. Erosion Corrosion
This is a type of wear in which there is relative movement between a surface and
a corrosive fluid (which also may carry abrasive particles), the wear rate being
directly related to the rate of relative movement. When abrasive particles are
present, material removal is effected mainly by contact with the particles (erosive
wear). Generally, erosion corrosion occurs when fluid velocity exceeds its
optimum value. When this happens, turbulence, a measure of Reynolds number,
takes place. Hence, pipe sizing, using API RP 14E is strongly recommended.
Further work done by shell international gives guidelines on fluid velocity limits
for shell and tube coolers. Minimum velocity is also important to ensure that a
pitting mechanism does not become a factor. Erosion corrosion can also be
promoted by obstacles in path of fluid flow such as high weld bead.
A special form of erosion corrosion called cavitation erosion can occur on a
surface in contact in contact with a liquid devoid of particles. In cavitation erosion,
the repeated formation and collapse of vapour bubbles at the surface imposes
large repetitive contact stresses that can cause pitting or spalling. In the design
of pumps, sufficient NPSH is provided to minimize cavitation. Features of erosion
corrosion include groves, rounded holes, waves and valleys in a directional
pattern.
Many copper alloyed impellers and valves (e.g. NiAlBronze) are prone to
erosion - corrosion in high velocity water. The fluid maximum velocity is highest
velocity calculated with an appropriate factor for directional changes i.e.
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maximum velocity in a tube with 1m/s would be in the order of 1.5 m/s at the tube
ends.
2.9. Fretting Failure
This is a wear phenomenon that occurs between two mating surfaces; it is
adhesive in nature and vibration is essential causative factor. Usually, fretting is
accompanied by corrosion. In general, fretting occurs between two tight-fitting
surfaces that are subject to a cyclic, relative motion of extremely small amplitude.
External velocities (around baffles, etc) can also be important particularly when
fretting erosion can occur.
2.10. Corrosion Induced Failures
Some of the failures caused by corrosion have been addressed in proceeding
section.

2.11. General Corrosion
This form of corrosion is characterized by uniform wall thinning without
appreciable localized attack and often leaves behind a scale or deposit. It is
usually associated with sweet (CO
2
) corrosion of carbon steels, particularly in
offshore locations. Corrosion allowance is usually associated with uniform
corrosion. It is usually detected by NDT. The control of internal corrosion is
generally through the modification of the service environment by chemicals (e.g.
corrosion inhibitors or pH modifiers), separation of metal surface from the service
environment (e.g. painting or coatings) and or material selection, e.g. use of
CRA. External corrosion should be controlled by a combination of coatings, CP
and / or materials selection.

2.11.1. Pitting
Three types of localized attack for sweet (wet CO2) corrosion are pits, mesa
attack and flow induced localized corrosion (FILC).
Pitting corrosion results in small pits or holes forming in the metal. These sites
are relatively small compared to the overall exposed surface, and may be
covered (hidden) by corrosion product. Most external pitting failures are due
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to the presence of chloride ions which concentrate in the pits. Internal pitting
failures are due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (here chloride ion
concentration and temperature play a part in the susceptibility to pitting).
Pitting is generally promoted by areas of stagnant / near stagnant flow. Pitting
is an extremely dangerous form of corrosion sand can cause rapid failure,
usually after the incubation. It follows the law of nucleation and growth.
Carbonate scales on carbon steels can reduce corrosion rates. Conditions
favouring the formation of a protective iron carbonate scales are:
Elevated temperature (decreased scale or CO
2
solubility, accelerating
scale precipitation
Increased pH (decreased scale solubility)
Lower velocities and lack of turbulence (less erosion of scale)
CRAs selected for immunity to general corrosion in intended service
environment, may suffer from localized and unpredictable forms of corrosion
including pitting, particularly where localized and environments can become
established (e.g. associated with oxide films on welds or crevices formed at
flanges or bolts). For this reason great care shall be taken in assessing a
CRA for a given environment. Both the critical pitting temperature (CPT) and
the pitting resistance equivalent (PREN) are used for ranking CRAs. General
and pitting corrosion have been observed in ZADCO downhole tubes.
2.11.2. Crevice Corrosion
Localised corrosion frequently occurs within crevices exposed to corrosive
environment. The crevice is wide enough for the solution to penetrate, yet
narrow enough for stagnancy. Typical crevices are holes, gasket surfaces, lap
joints, surface deposits and under bolt and rivet heads. The factors that
influence the occurrence and severity of crevice/corrosion include crevice
geometry, material resistance to localized corrosion and the environment.
ZADCO has experienced crevice corrosion between the shaft (Zeron 100)
and the sleeve (Zeron 100) of the winning pump of UZ.
Crevice corrosion can be prevented in a number of ways
Material selection
Design out crevices
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Close crevices (wherever possible) by welding, caulking, soldering or use
solid, non-absorbent gaskets
Design for complete drainage
Frequent removal of accumulated deposits
Weld overlay with minimum 3mm thick crevice corrosion resistant material
(e.g. Alloy 625 or AWS ERNiCrMo3) for critical sealing surfaces
Crevices that cannot be dealt with in the ways listed above may be opened
periodically and kept as clean as practicable to allow inspection and
monitoring. Thus, the use of mastic or other fillers to temporarily fill crevices
should be avoided wherever possible.

2.11.3. Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)
Microbiological organisms are present in virtually all-natural aqueous
environments and have a tendency to attach to and grow on surfaces,
resulting in the formation of a biological film or biofilm. The biofilm that forms
has the capacity to influence the corrosion of the substrate. This influence is
due to the organisms ability to change environmental variables such as pH,
oxidizing power, temperature, velocity (stagnation) and concentration.
The most common form of MIC is the corrosion of iron and steel under
anaerobic (no free oxygen) condition in the presence of sulfate reducing
bacteria (SRBs). SRBs are present in most waters and seawaters. They
promote the anodic dissolution of iron by depolarizing the cathode surface
(consuming atomic hydrogen to reduce sulfate ions).
SRBs also form H
2
S which then reacts with the surface by normal corrosion
mechanisms. SRBs can accelerate corrosion even in aerated environments,
as they may live under a film of aerobic organisms which provide anaerobic
conditions under the biofilm.
The mechanism of SRB attack is pitting which makes detection by external
UT difficult. Once SRBs are present in a system, their elimination is extremely
difficult Control is by avoiding stagnant areas and dead leg, checking for
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active bacteria and treating by application of biocides. The most effective
control is keeping the system clean (from untreated sea water) to prevent
SRB contamination.
2.11.4. Galvanic Corrosion.
When metals or alloys are electrically coupled and there is a difference in the
materials electrochemical potential, the metal or alloy that possesses a more
negative potential (i.e. the more reactive metal) will corrode preferentially.
The necessary components for galvanic corrosion are:
Materials possessing different electrochemical potential.
A common electrolyte (e.g. water) and
A common electrical path.
Galvanic corrosion is particularly common in sea water systems. Other field
examples are listed below:
Galvanic corrosion of carbon steel bolting and fasteners used to attach
stainless steel instruments and fittings to carbon steel piping systems.
Accelerated corrosion (with perforation) of exposed (coating damaged)
internal surfaces of drain caissons in galvanic contact with superduplex
stainless steel internals.
Galvanic external corrosion of carbon steel bolting to stainless steel and CuNi
piping components in warm, humid salt laden atmospheric environments. Use
of SS316 bolting materials and supports in this instance was found
satisfactory.
2.11.5. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
SCC refers to cracking caused by the simultaneous presence of tensile stress
(applied or residual) and a specific corrosive medium. During SCC, the metal
is virtually unattacked over most of its surface, while fine cracks progress
through it, until the strength of the remaining ligament is insufficient and
failure occurs. SCC susceptibility increases with increasing temperature. The
table below outlines the specific environments which cause SCC in a number
of metals.
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Table 1 Alloy environment systems showing SCC
MATERIAL ENVIRONMENT
Aluminium alloys Chloride solutions
Copper alloys Ammonia vapours & solutions, amines
Inconel Hydroxide solutions
Carbon steels Hot nitrate, Hydroxide solutions
High strength steels Hydrogen sulfide solutions
Stainless steels Chloride, H
2
S solution
Titanium alloys Chloride solution, some organic liquids, N
2
O
4

The most common SCC mechanisms experienced offshore are chloride
induced SCC of stainless steel and sulfide induced SCC (SSC) of high
strength and stainless steels.
2.11.6. Chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC)
CSCC is typically initiated in oxygenated environments when the presence of
chloride ions electrochemically interacts with the protective oxide layer on
stainless steels causing it to breakdown. At high temperatures SCC can
initiate in CRA in certain anaerobic process conditions.
The cracks usually undergo extensive branching and develop in a direction
generally perpendicular to the static stress. As SCC is an anodic process, it
can be mitigated by cathodic protection. Surface coating can be used to
reduce the risk of SCC but cannot be 100% relied upon if there is any risk of
holidays.
SCC tends to show thresholds of temperature below which cracks so not
propagate. The threshold temperatures are 60
o
C for SS 316 L, 100
o
C for
22Cr duplex and 120
o
C for 25 Cr would be used not SS316L. If coatings are
considered conventional coating should not be used; a life time type coating
(e.g. thermally sprayed aluminum) should be used. This is to the risk of SCC
occurring later in the life of the facility. Alternative materials which show
greater resistance to external chloride stress corrosion cracking and which
are appropriate for specific applications include Monel, Alloy 825 Alloy 625
and the Hastelloy C- alloys.
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Experience indicates that these temperature thresholds are dependent upon
chloride content. This information is based on each alloys curve which
relates temperature to chloride concentration. The formation of concentrated
chloride solutions or crusts of salt on the outside of stainless steel equipment
can result in SCC even at ambient temperatures, different stainless steels
having different concentrations of salts at which cracking will initiate. For this
reason SS 304 and other austenitic stainless steel with less than 2%
molybdenum have been banned from all uses (not just fasteners) offshore.
Critical pitting temperature (CPT) and pitting resistant equivalent (PREN) are
both used to rank CRAs.
In some applications a practicable way to prevent SCC can be by inspection
of the surface and washing to remove any risk of chloride build up on the
surface. Crevices on the surface should be minimized as these can both allow
concentration of chloride ions and also initiate pitting attack which can
develop into SCC
SCC requires a tensile stress and so materials may be used in applications
above their liming temperature as long as they are clearly in compression. An
example is the use of SS 316 for gaskets in ring-type joints on wellheads
(with operating temperatures exceeding 60
o
C as there is no risk of the ring
being in tension.
If the temperature is above the threshold temperature there are two options.
Change material or coat the CRA. It is common practice to change material
e.g. at 80
o
C 22Cr would be used not SS316L. Shot-peening (shot blasting)
produces residual compressive stress on the surface of the metal. This
beneficial to both fatigue and SCC.

2.11.7. Wet H
2
S (Sour) Corrosion
By comparison to wet CO
2
, wet H
2
S rarely causes severe weight loss
corrosion in production equipment (except at low concentration 50ppm
because the corrosion product (iron sulfide, FeS) usually forms a protective
film on the surface of the steel. However, at imperfections or damage of the
film, a corrosion cell is set up between FeS and bare metal, resulting in
enhanced corrosion (pitting) of the bare steel.
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Successful sour operations generally utilize corrosion inhibition and have flow
regimes conducive to good inhibitor distribution (annular flow and low
turbulence). Recent analyses indicate that for CO
2
: H
2
S< 70, Corrosion is H
2
S
dominant and vice versa. Shell uses CO
2
: H
2
S <20.
Sulfide stress cracking (SCC) and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) are
mainly other forms of sour corrosion.
Three requirements for HIC to occur in carbon and low alloy steels are the
presence of H
2
S and presence of free water and presence of non metallic
inclusions for SSC, H
2
S and free water and tensile stress shall be present
For details please see Effects of introducing wet H
2
S on ZADCO facilities.
2.11.8. Dealloying attack
Dealloying is the removal of one element from a solid alloy by corrosion
processes. An altered residual structures is left behind. The metal in the
affected area becomes porous and loses much of its strength, hardness and
ductility. Dimensional changes do not always occur.
The most common example is the selective removal of zinc in brass alloys
(dezincification). Arsenic or other elements are usually included in the alloy to
minimize susceptibility to dezincification. All brasses in aqueous service
should contain arsenic to inhibit dezincification.
2.11.9. Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)
LME refers to the embrittlement of metal arising from liquid metal
penetration along the grain boundaries resulting in cracking. Many metal
systems, including copper, aluminum, titanium, stainless steel and nickel
alloys are susceptible to LME, usually by molten metals that react specifically
with alloy system.
In the oil & gas industry, LME can arise from mercury (e.g. from the
production or from broken thermometers or blown manometers), cadmium
(from bolting) or from Zinc (present on bolting, galvanized structural
components and Zinc pigmented primers). In ZADCO, we observed LME on
the 13Cr shaft of an oil booster pump when the copper bearing jammed on
the shaft.
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Experimental work has shown it is extremely difficult to get liquid Zinc
penetration of stressed metals including stainless steel below 400oC. For low
pressure, non toxic/non flammable austenitic stainless steel the risk of zinc
embrittlement is considered negligible. The risk of LME for duplex SS is also
considered negligible, as they do not have continuous austenitic boundary.
Produced mercury, where it arises, is contaminated and does not, apparently,
penetrate SS piping or vessels at normal operating temperatures. Thermally
sprayed aluminum coatings are rapidly quenched onto the metal surfaces and
do not directly result in LME.
The following precautions should be taken for pressured austenitic SS
Metallic zinc (or cadmium) in any form (e.g. galvanized coatings, metallic
pigment in paints, plating on gaskets, valve components, hangers, supports
or bolts, etc.) should not be placed in contact with stainless steel piping or
equipment.
An adequate separation distance, 100mm horizontal and 300mm vertical,
should be provided between insulated austenitic SS and overlying galvanized
grating, pipe work or equipment. Where this separation distance cannot be
provided, half-shell aluminized carbon steel or stainless steel shields can be
placed over the austenitic SS pipework and equipment.
All austenitic SS piping and equipment should be coated with suitable metal
zinc-free organic coating where there is a risk of LME.
Care should be taken during construction, for example when flame cutting or
welding galvanized parts, to ensure that no zinc droplets can fall on to
stainless steel. If this should occur, the zinc should be immediately removed
form the SS surface.
2.11.10. Corrosion under insulation (CUI)
Insulation is normally applied to piping and equipment to minimize heat
loss/gain and/or provide protection for personnel safety. Corrosion under
insulation is a significant threat in systems operating in the temperature range
60
o
C 120
o
C. Corrosion under insulation is also possible in the temperature
ranges of 5
o
C to 60
o
C and 120
o
C to 150
o
C, though the corrosion rates are
lower than in the most critical temperature range. Corrosion under insulation
is further worsened by intermittent operations, poor installation or design of
insulation sheathing and when the external environment is subject to open
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weather conditions. The threat is also significantly grater due to the difficulty
and costs of carrying out thorough inspections. Protection should be provided
under the insulation by applying a suitable choice of paint or other coating
suitable for full immersion service.
Insulation applied to cold (typically 5
o
C to 25
o
C) intermittently operating
equipment also presents significant risk from moisture condensing and
accumulating underneath damaged insulation heating. The corrosion rates
are much less in operation (due to the lower temperatures) and occur mainly
during equipment shut downs (i.e. at ambient temperatures) Equipment in
these service conditions are best left coated and insulated. Use of Denso
wrapping (or similar) can be considered.
Icing and significant condensation on equipment surfaces are also a corrosion
threat to adjacent carbon steel equipment (especially at crevices from pipe
supports etc) which are constantly wetted, measures to ensure shielding of
any critical pipework or equipment should be considered.
If appropriate, design should give due consideration to the use of higher
operating temperatures to avoid wet conditions (e.g. the use of appropriate
heat exchangers in fuel gas system) Alternative methods using heat tracing
can also be employed. If steam tracing is used the tubing should be made of
Hastelloy C to minimize corrosion from contact with outer insulation
sheathing.
Accumulation of salt spray within insulation also exacerbates SCC and
crevice corrosion of both duplex and austenitic SS if chloride ion
concentrations at the surface reach high levels. It may therefore be preferable
to avoid application of insulation to SS in locations exposed to external
weather conditions. The unprotected surfaces can then be washed down
intermittently with potable water to wash off any chloride ion deposits. Where
this is not practicable the SS shall be suitably protected under the insulation
layer. Wrapping with Al foil prior to insulation has been found to be very
effective for SS but is prone to problems in application, so the use of
thermally sprayed aluminum should be considered.
There can be risk of damage to insulation sheathing from personnel
accessing and working in some areas, so additional protection or guards for
the insulation may be required if damage is likely. In service pipework in open
weather conditions should be regularly re-sealed and suitable drainage ports
provided at low points in the insulation will also assist in service inspections
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and monitoring to void removing the insulation for determining the degree of
internal corrosion by UT or other techniques. Note that the inspection ports
are unlikely to give a representative picture of the external corrosion of the
system.
In the absence of insulation, personnel protection should be of perforated
mesh type rather than wrap. This allows inspection of components external
surfaces whilst providing the required level of personnel protection.
The following examples illustrate where project installed insulation was
removed to mitigate corrosion under insulation
Removal of insulation to process test separators operating intermittently at
temperatures around 80
0
C. It was preferred to coat the vessels and leave
them uninsulated.
Removal of insulation from cold intermittently operating fuel gas knockout
vessels, fuel gas coolers and piping. Denso wrapping have been applied
successfully in sections that could not be coated. Remaining sections are left
uncoated. Carbon steel bolting material and supports should be avoided and
SS 316 used wherever practical.
Hot insulated and heat traced SS316L HP Fuel Gas Turbine piping. The
piping material was recommended to be changed to coated SDSS under
insulation.
3. DEGRADATION OF NON-METALLIC MATERIALS
Plastics materials are susceptible to alteration of their properties by a variety of causes
which may be sourced from processing (heat or shear stresses) or during service (heat,
solar radiation and chemical environment). The majority of these property changes are
detrimental and referred to as degradation. Only few of the relevant degradation modes
of plastics are briefly addressed here.
Other non-metallics such as ceramics, wood and composite materials are also use
din the offshore industry in more specific applications. Deterioration modes and
mitigation methods are not discussed.
Many failures in non-metallic components arise from poor installation practices.
These are only avoidable through the use of satisfactory quality, inspection and
training programs. It provided the lowest quality and inspection attention. Thus
caution must be taken during the design stage to prevent this occurring.
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Further reference may be sought from ISO 14692 or DEP 31.40.10.19-GEN for
pressure testing and installation guidelines.
3.1. Swelling and dissolution
Swelling occurs when a liquid is absorbed by the polymer and the small liquid
molecules occupy positions amongst the polymer molecules. This causes a
reduction in material rigidity causing the material to become rubbery and
potentially unsuitable. Swelling is essentially a partial dissolution process and
dissolution occurs when the polymer is fully dissolved.
Softening of all polymers will ultimately occur when in the presence of
hydrocarbons, in particular aromatics. Nitrile-rubbers have improved resistance
by having a co-polymerized molecular matrix. Caution is required in the selection
of non-metallic materials for various service environments.
3.2. Chemical Degradation
The chemical resistance of a plastic is determined by its most reactive site a
determined from the type of bonds between atoms within the molecules.
Stressed unsaturated rubbers tend to degrade in this manner.
Chemical degradation also includes effects of hydrolysis, substitution reactions to
benzene rings.
3.3. Thermal Degradation
The thermal degradation process involves the initiation of free radicals which
may initiate a chain reaction type degradation producing low molecular weight
components. The base material essentially becomes embrittled.
Typical of this is the thermal degradation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It should be noted that PVC degrades producing
hydrochloric acid vapour which can accelerate corrosion in adjacent metal
components.
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3.4. UV degradation
Ultra-violet radiation incident on the earths surface has more than sufficient
energy to break most atomic bonds found in polymer materials. For UV
degradation (also known as photolysis) to occur, the UV photon energy must be
first absorbed by bonds with close activation energies (e.g.. C=C or C=O) which
may start a chain reaction leading to the formation of free radicals and
consequent chain scission Carbon black and other inhibitors Polyethylene.
Materials susceptible to UV degradation are required to be provided with a UV
resistant coating.
3.5. Explosive Decompression
Under pressure, most polymer materials will absorb small amounts of
hydrocarbon fluids (mainly gases) and during any subsequent sudden drops in
pressure (e.g. shutdowns or maintenance), volatile components (gaseous phase)
will expand rapidly within the polymer material matrix. The rapid expansion of
the gaseous phase (or large in crease in volume cannot be dissipated through
diffusion. The resulting damage is seen as blisters or small tears and is known
as explosive decompression. Elastomers can be susceptible to this degradation.
Explosive decompression can be avoided by selecting materials with a proven
resistance. Examples include: James Walker 58/90 (Viton B), James Walker,
58/58, Dowty 9730, Greene Tweed 826. It is accepted that resistance and
susceptibility to failure will vary according to the hydrocarbon composition
surrounding the polymer. Under repeated pressure cycling even resistant
materials will degrade through explosive decompression.


4. REFERENCES
ASM Handbook vol.11
Material Failure modes, Mitigation Methods and General Material Properties (Shell
EP 2001- 5024) by Frank Egan, Simon Frost, Ian Rippon and Liane Smith.
Stainless steels for corrosive Environments YN13 00 (WTIA)
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Corrosion Engineering Mars G Fontana (3
rd
Edition)
Selection and use of Engineering Materials J.A. Charles, F.A.A.Crane (2
nd

Edition)
Materials For Engineering W.Bolton 1
st
Edition
EFC 16 Guidelines on Materials Requirement For Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
For H2S containing Environments in oil and Gas production
EFC 23 CO2 Corrosion control in Oil and Gas Production.
The effects of introducing hydrogen sulfide on ZADCO facilities.
NACE MR0175

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Table -1 Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive failure mode (b)
METHOD
DUCTILE
OVERLOAD
BRITTLE
OVERLOAD
FATIGUE CORROSION WEAR CREEP
Visual, 1 to 50x
(fracture
surface)
Necking or
distortion in
direction
consistent with
applied loads
Dull, fibrous
fracture
Shear lips
Little or no
distortion
Flat fracture
Bright or coarse
texture, crystalline,
grainy
Rays or chevrons
point to origin
Flat progressive
zone with beach
marks
Overload zone
consistent with
applied loading
direction
Ratchet marks
where origins
join
General
wastage,
roughening,
pitting, or
trenching
Stress corrosion
and hydrogen
damage may
create multiple
cracks that
appear brittle
Gouging, abrasion,
polishing or erosion
Galling or storing in
direction of motion
Roughened areas
with compacted
powdered debris
(fretting)
Smooth gradual
transitions in
wastage
Multiple brittle
appearing
fissures
External surface
and internal
fissures contain
reaction scale
coatings
Fracture after
limited
dimensional
change
Scanning
electron
microscopy, 20
to 10, 000
(fracture
surface)
Micro voids
(dimples)
elongated in
direction of
loading
Single crack with
no branching
Surface slip band
emergence
Cleavage or
intergranular
fracture
Origin area may
contain an
imperfection or
stress
concentrator

Progressive
zone:
Worn
appearance, flat,
may show
striations at
magnifications
above 5000x
Overload zone:
may be either
ductile or brittle
Path of
penetration may
be irregular,
intergranular, or
a selective
phase attacked
EDS may help
identify
corrodent
Wear debris and/or
abrasive can be
characterized as to
morphology and
composition
Rolling contact
fatigue appears like
wear in early stages
Multiple
intergranular
fissures covered
with reaction
scale
Grain faces may
show porosity
Metallographic
inspection, 50 to
1000 (cross
section)
Grain distortion
and flow near
fracture
Irregular,
transgranular
fracture
Little distortion
evident
Intergranular or
transgranular
May relate to
notches t surface
or brittle phases
Progressive
zone: usually
transgranular
with little
apparent
distortion
Overload Zone:
General or
localized surface
attack (pitting,
cracking)
Selective phase
attack
Thickness and
May show localized
distortion at surface
consistent with
direction of motion
Identify embedded
particles
Micro structural
change typical of
overheating
Multiple
intergranular
cracks
Voids formed on
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internally may be either
ductile or brittle
morphology of
corrosion scales
grain boundaries
or wedge shaped
cracks at grain
triple points
Reaction scales
or internal
precipitation
Some cold flow in
last stages of
failure
Contributing
factors
Load exceeded
the strength of the
part
Check for proper
alloy and
processing by
hardness check or
destructive
testing, chemical
analysis
Loading direction
may show failure
was secondary
Short-term, high-
temperature, high
stress rupture has
ductile
appearance (see
creep)
Load exceeded
the dynamic
strength of the part
Check for proper
alloy and
processing a well
as proper
toughness, grain
size
Loading direction
may show failure
was secondary or
impact induced
Low temperatures
Cyclic stress
exceeded the
endurance limit
of the material
Check for
proper strength,
surface finish,
assembly, and
operation
Prior damage by
mechanical or
corrosion modes
may have
initiated cracking
Alignment,
vibration,
balance
High cycle low
stress:
Attach
morphology and
alloy type must
be evaluated
Severity of
exposure
conditions may
be excessive:
check: pH,
temperature,
flow rate,
dissolved
oxidants,
electrical current,
metal coupling,
aggressive
agents
Check bulk
composition and
contaminants
For gouging or
abrasive wear:
check source of
abrasives
Evaluate
effectiveness of
lubricants
Seals or filters may
have failed
Fretting induced by
slight looseness in
clamped joints
subject to vibration
Bearing or materials
engineering design
may reduce or
eliminate problem
Water
contamination
High velocities or
uneven flow
distribution,
cavitation
Mild overheating
and/or mild
overstressing at
elevated
temperature
Unstable
microstructures
and small grain
size increase
creep rates
Ruptures occur
after long
exposure times
Verify proper
alloy

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5. FLOW DIAGRAM FOR FAILURE INVESTIGATION







IE/CE PROBLEM SOLVE
ROOT CAUSE
IDENTIFIED?
FIELD DATA
COLLECTED BY
DIRECTION OF
AUH
METALLURGIST
YES
NO
NO
MATERIAL FAILURE
ANALYSIS REQUIRED
FOR CORROBORATION
AUH METALLURGIST TO
DEFINE SAMPLE
AUH METALLURGIST
DEFINES
INVESTIGATION ETC.
IE/CE
OBTAINS
SAMPLE
MATERIAL FAILURE
ANALYSIS REQUIRED
FOR ASSISTANCE
YES NO
DEFINE CORRECTION
FLOW DIAGRAM FOR FAILURE INVESTIGATION
NO
YES
EQUIPMENT FAILS
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Beach marks as evidence of
fatigue fracture of austenitic
steel tube
External corrosion of the failed heat exchanger
tubes from Satah reboiler
FACI LI TI ES I NTEGRI TY DEPARTMENT
Date: 30/09/2003
FI /TS/MSG/001
MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES
Page 77 of 79


































COE/mhh












SS316 fitting showing extent of internal cracking
SS 316 fitting after dye penetrant inspection
FACI LI TI ES I NTEGRI TY DEPARTMENT
Date: 30/09/2003
FI /TS/MSG/001
MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES
Page 78 of 79


































COE/mhh
Fractured Oil booster pump shaft showing evidence of LME (copper coloured
beads on SS 416 shaft) x 3.0
SS316 fitting showing external SCC cracks x 50








FACI LI TI ES I NTEGRI TY DEPARTMENT
Date: 30/09/2003
FI /TS/MSG/001
MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDELINES
Page 79 of 79


































COE/mhh
Oil booster pump shaft showing LME
(Elongated sulfide inclusions and a copper filled crack) x 56

Stereomicroscopic view of the fretting damage and perforation (Red arrow). This
is a specimen of failed flexible hoses from EGT turbine (UZ)