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Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and
International Copyright laws. Reproduction,
distribution, display and use of the presentation
without written permission of the speaker is
prohibited.
2006
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Learning Objectives
The learner will identify benefits of incorporating
sustainable design in healthcare facilities.
The learner will identify average, US-based
hospital energy usage.
The learner will identify typical HVAC systems
used in hospitals.
The learner will identify HVAC systems and
technologies that can be used to improve energy
consumption and help achieve energy and
carbon goals.
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Paul Switenki - PE, Associate
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Benefits of Sustainable Hospitals Client Satisfaction
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Benefits of Sustainable Hospitals - Employees
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Benefits of Sustainable Hospitals - Earth
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Average Hospital Energy Consumption
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Energy Strategy
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
UCSF Mission Bay Medical Center
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Energy Strategy
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Air Handling Systems
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Air Handling Systems
Air Handling Unit
(AHU)
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Air Handling Systems
Duct
Inlets/Outlets
Terminal Unit
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Constant Air Volume Base Case
SA
EA
EA
75 hp
30 hp
105 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy (assumes 40,000 cfm per AHU)
EA SA
P
P
CAV w/
Reheat Coil
OA
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Constant Air Volume Base Case
Pros:
Tried and tested system
Straightforward controls
Lowest first cost
Cons:
Maximum flow 24/7
Fans at maximum HP
Simultaneous cooling/reheat
All Air Systems
EA SA
CAV w/
Reheat Coil
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Reducing Air Flow
Ventilation Minimum
2 ACH (CMC)
6 ACH (AIA)
Up to 15 ACH
Patient Room - Load vs. Ventilation
Solar + Internal Loads
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Loads
Load-dominated Areas
Patient Rooms
Imaging
MRI
CT Scan
Radiology
Fluoroscopy
Lounges
Nourishment/Food Prep
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Constant Air Volume Base Case
OA
SA
EA
EA
75 hp
30 hp
105 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
EA SA
P
P
CAV w/
Reheat Coil
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Variable Air Volume - Boxes
OA
SA
EA
EA
60 hp
20 hp
80 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
EA SA
P
P
VAV w/
Reheat Coil
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Variable Air Volume Boxes
OA
SA
EA
EA
60 hp
20 hp
80 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
EA SA
P
P
VAV w/
Reheat Coil
VAV
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Variable Air Volume Boxes
OA
SA
EA
EA
60 hp
20 hp
80 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
EA SA
P
P
VAV w/
Reheat Coil
VAV
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Variable Air Volume - Valves
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
OA
SA
EA
EA
60 hp
20 hp
80 hp
EA SA
P
P
VAV
VAV
VAV
RHC
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
All Air Systems
Variable Air Volume - Valves
Pros:
Tried and tested system - labs
Adjusts to meet load
Lower average fan BHP
Less reheat
Less drafty
Cons:
More terminal units (x 2)
Assembly required
More complicated controls
EA SA
VAV
VAV
RHC
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Decoupling Ventilation
Ventilation Minimum
2 ACH (CMC)
6 ACH (AIA)
Up to 15 ACH
Patient Room - Load vs. Ventilation
Solar + Internal Loads
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Chilled Ceiling
SA
EA
T
out
T
in
~ 60
0
F
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Passive Chilled Beams
SA
EA
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Active Chilled Beams - Ceiling
SA
EA
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
SA
EA
Active Chilled Beams
5 hp pump
CAV
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hydronic Systems
Active Chilled Beams
Pros:
European Healthcare
Minimal ceiling space requirements
Simple air and chilled water controls
Recent US Offices, Laboratories, Universities
Minimal rooftop/mechanical room space requirements.
Cons:
Higher first cost
Higher maintenance costs
User unfamiliarity
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hydronic Systems
Constant Air Volume & Active Chilled Beams
OA
SA
EA
EA
40 hp
15 hp
55 hp
Air Handling Unit Fan Energy
P
P
CAV
SA
EA
5 hp
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Minimum Ventilation (2-6 ACH)
Peak Cooling Loads (9-15 ACH)
Mechanical Space
Duct Sizes
Shaft Sizes
Ceiling Space Coordination
Hydronic Systems
Physical Impacts
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Air Only: VAV Air Only: CAV
Chilled Beams w/CAV
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Indirect Evaporation Chilled Beam (Active) 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume C3
Air-to-Air HX Chilled Beam (Active) 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume C2
Runaround Loop Chilled Beam (Active) 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume C1
Indirect Evaporation - 100% Outdoor Air, Variable Volume B3
Air-to-Air HX - 100% Outdoor Air, Variable Volume B2
Runaround Loop - 100% Outdoor Air, Variable Volume B1
Indirect Evaporation - 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume A3
Air-to-Air HX - 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume A2
Runaround Loop - 100% Outdoor Air, Constant Volume A1-Base
Energy Recovery Local System Central System Option
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hospital Life Cycle Cost Analysis
-$8,000,000
-$6,000,000
-$4,000,000
-$2,000,000
$0
$2,000,000
$4,000,000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Years
T
o
t
a
l

S
a
v
i
n
g
s
A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
Chilled Beam
(Active) w/IE
Chilled Beam
(Active) w/HX
Chilled Beam
(Active) w/RL
100% OA
VAV w/IE
100% OA
VAV w/HX
100% OA
VAV w/RL
100% OA
CAV w/IE
100% OA
CAV w/HX
100% OA
CAV w/RL
Central
System
6
55 yrs
C3
5
25 yrs
C2
T3
17.1 yrs
C1
T3
17.1 yrs
B3
T1
12.5 yrs
B2
T1
12.5 yrs
B1
8
never
A3
Similar to
Base
A2
Base A1
Rank Option
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hospital Life Cycle Cost Analysis
-$5,000,000
-$4,000,000
-$3,000,000
-$2,000,000
-$1,000,000
$0
$1,000,000
$2,000,000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Years
T
o
t
a
l

S
a
v
i
n
g
s
Chilled Beams
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Active Chilled Beam System
First Cost: $ 4,000,000
Maintenance Cost: $ 55,477
Annual Energy Savings: $ 259,112
20 Yr Life Cycle Savings: $ 773,837
Payback: 17.1 Years
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hospital Life Cycle Cost Analysis
-$5,000,000
-$4,000,000
-$3,000,000
-$2,000,000
-$1,000,000
$0
$1,000,000
$2,000,000
$3,000,000
$4,000,000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Years
T
o
t
a
l

S
a
v
i
n
g
s
VAV System
Air Only: VAV
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
VAV System
First Cost: $ 4,600,000
Maintenance Cost: $ 8,250
Annual Energy Savings: $ 357,404
20 Yr Life Cycle Savings: $ 3,092,290
Payback: 12.5 Years
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Thank you!...Questions?
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Unused Slides Supporting Info
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Recirculating
Simple AHU
100% OA
Simple Ductwork
Good IAQ
AHU Configuration Options
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Energy Recovery Runaround Loop
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Energy Efficiency Options
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Air Handling Unit
Components
Filters
Pre-filters (30-65%)
Final-filters (90-95%)
HEPA (99.97%+) ?
Coils
Cooling
Heating
Energy Recovery
Humidifiers
Attenuators
Fans, Motors & VFDs
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Air Handling Unit
Components
Filters
Pre-filters (0.5)
Final-filters (1.0)
HEPA (1.5) ?
Coils
Cooling (0.8)
Heating (0.5)
Energy Recovery (0.5)
Humidifiers
Attenuators
Fans, Motors & VFDs
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Air Handling Unit
Components
Filters
Pre-filters (0.5)
Final-filters (1.0)
HEPA (1.5) ?
Coils
Cooling (0.8)
Heating (0.5)
Energy Recovery (0.5)
Humidifiers
Attenuators
Fans, Motors & VFDs
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
HVAC Air Handling Systems
Air Handling Unit
Components
Filters
Pre-filters (0.3)
Final-filters (0.8)
HEPA (1.0) ?
Coils
Cooling (0.5)
Heating (0.3)
Energy Recovery (0.3)
Humidifiers
Attenuators
Fans, Motors & VFDs
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
6 ACH
CAV: Sunny Day, No Diversity
North Facade
All Air Systems
15 ACH
South Facade
12 ACH
East Facade
15 ACH
West Facade
Total = 50 ACH
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
6 ACH
North Facade
All Air Systems
6 ACH
South Facade
6 ACH
East Facade
6 ACH
West Facade
Total = 24 ACH
Overcast, Cold Day with Diversity
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Solutions for Patient Rooms
Dual Vertical Chilled Water Coils
Chilled Beam Cavity Part of Room
In-Room Chilled Surface Rather Than
External Re-Circulating Equipment
Room
Plenum
Noncentral Recirculating Air Handling System
CMC 408.2.4
MERV 1 Filter
Ceiling Mounted Active Chilled Beams
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Solutions for Patient Rooms
Dual Vertical Chilled Water Coils
Chilled Beam Cavity Part of Room
In-Room Chilled Surface Rather Than
External Re-Circulating Equipment
Coil Condensate Trays
Condensate Captured and Removed
Supply Air Does Not Traverse Chilled Beam
Coil
Supply Air Traverses Filter Banks 1, 2 & 3
CMC 408.1.5
Ceiling Mounted Active Chilled Beams
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Chilled Beams - Active
Hydronic Systems
Condensation
Shower is major source of room moisture
Override ceiling valves - Room dewpoint
Comfort conditions maintained?
Condensation eliminated?
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model would
consider:
Shower = rate of increase in humidity level
Ceiling = rate of surface temperature change
Room = warmest resulting average temperature
Filtration
MERV 1 possible
Hygiene
Antimicrobial coating
Hinged coil and/or access panel for cleaning
Similar to finned-tube baseboard heating
SA
EA
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Active Chilled Beams Under Window
EA
SA
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Hydronic Systems
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Ventilation
Ventilation Rates
ASHRAE Standard 62
1,000 s.f. assembly area = 395 cfm
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Ventilation
Ventilation Rates
ASHRAE Standard 62
1,000 s.f. assembly area = 395 cfm
AIA Guidelines (2006)
Air change rate based on contaminant dilution
1,000 s.f. waiting room = 2,000 cfm
California Mechanical Code (2007)
1,000 s.f. waiting room = 2,000 cfm
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Loads
Ventilation-dominated Areas
Waiting
Laboratories
Clean Utility
Soiled Utility
Corridors
Exam Rooms
Isolation Rooms
Kitchens
Toilets/Baths/Lockers
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Ventilation
Ventilation Rates
ASHRAE Standard 62
300 s.f. office = 35 cfm
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Ventilation
Ventilation Rates
ASHRAE Standard 62
300 s.f. office = 35 cfm
AIA Guidelines (2006)
Air change rate based on contaminant dilution
300 s.f. patient or exam room = 270 cfm
California Mechanical Code (2007)
Differentiates between 100% outdoor air and
recirculating systems.
300 s.f. patient room = 90 cfm
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Sizing Drivers - Ventilation
Ventilation Rates
ASHRAE Standard 62
300 s.f. office = 35 cfm
AIA Guidelines (2006)
Air change rate based on contaminant dilution
300 s.f. patient or exam room = 270 cfm
California Mechanical Code (2007)
Differentiates between 100% outdoor air and
recirculating systems.
300 s.f. patient room = 90 cfm
Cooling = 650 cfm
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
Reduction of 6 x 40,000 cfm AHUs
Reduced ductwork ~ 15%.
Reduced average CAV box size ~50%.
Reduced run-around energy recovery system.
Two beams per patient room.
One 3-way valve, circuit setter and manual isolation valve set per patient
room.
One set of manual isolation valves per beam.
Added horizontal, reverse-return CHW loops ~ one per tower per floor.
Generator savings not yet accounted for.
Electrical system savings not yet accounted for.
Chilled Beam (Patient Towers) Cost Differentials
Hospital HVAC Systems 6/22/08
1 2
3
4 5
6
Life Cycle Cost Analysis