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Access EAP: Founuations
Answei Key
Sue Aigent anu 0lwyn Alexanuei
Ç 2u1u uainet Publishing Ltu


!"#$ &

'())*" &

+,)- &
Chen ¡ China ¡ Computei Science BSc ¡ Yeai 1
uuy ¡ 0K ¡ Inteinational Business BA ¡ Yeai 2
Naysoun ¡ Syiia ¡ Enviionmental Stuuies ¡ postgiauuate mastei's

+,)- .
./& Chen spoke fiist, to get to know othei stuuents¡to be polite anu sociable¡to
maximize oppoitunities to use English.
./. Naysoun is piobably the oluest: she is a postgiauuate¡is alieauy
maiiieu¡has a chilu. uuy is piobably next: oluei than Chen because he is in his
seconu yeai, while Chen is in his fiist yeai.

+,)- 0
Naysoun anu uuy (E)
Chen (P) Chen (E)
Naysoun (P) Naysoun (E)
uuy (P) uuy (E)

+,)- 1
Naysoun
puiposes: to leain English foi univeisity stuuies; to leain about enviionmental
issues in ueveloping countiies
expectations: Ny mastei's will involve lots of ieauing.

Chen
puiposes: to leain English foi univeisity stuuies; so that I can get a goou job with
a high salaiy
expectations: Theie is not much wiiting in a Computei Science couise.

uuy
puiposes: in oiuei to get a job wheie I can tiavel anu meet people
expectations: I will have to wiite much longei texts than I uiu at school. Theie
will be stuuents fiom many uiffeient countiies on my couise this yeai.

+,)- 2
Chen's expectation that !"#$# &' ()* +,-" .$&*&(/ &( 0 1)+2,*#$ 3-&#(-# -),$'# is
likely to be wiong. Computei Science stuuents have to wiite iepoits on all
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
aspects of theii woik. 0ften, they have to stuuy subjects that iequiie extensive
wiiting, such as Nanagement.

+,)- 3
3/& Chen: I'm stuuying Computei Science so that I can get a goou job with a high
salaiy.
Naysoun: I chose this couise to leain about enviionmental issues in ueveloping
countiies.
uuy: I'm stuuying Inteinational Business in oiuei to get a job wheie I can tiavel
anu meet inteiesting people.

3/. nouns: Computei Science; couise; a BSc; a BA; business; a mastei's;
couisewoik; texts; a salaiy; issues; countiies
veibs: involve; leain about
aujectives: inteinational; enviionmental; high; ueveloping

3/0 , high
4 Inteinational
5 issue
6 subjects
( ueveloping
7 about

+,)- 8
open

+,)- 9
open


'())*" .

+,)- &
&/& : &/. , uiscuss ¡ uiscusseu ¡ uiscussion
4 stuuy ¡ stuuy ¡ stuuies
5 expect ¡ expects ¡ expectation
6 choose ¡ choose ¡ choice
( intiouuction ¡ intiouuce¡ intiouuction

+,)- .
, 2
4 S
5 6
6 7
( 1
7 4
; S

+,)- 0
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
, to leain English foi univeisity stuuies
4 so that he can get a goou job with a high salaiy
5 to leain about enviionmental issues in ueveloping countiies
6 in oiuei to get a job wheie he can tiavel anu meet people
( so that they can leain fiom each othei

+,)- 1
help with stuuy; health; social life

+,)- 2
, so that stuuents can get to know each othei anu join univeisity clubs
4 in oiuei to piactise the languages they want to leain
5 to show stuuents what to uo anu wheie to go if they have health pioblems
6 so that you can get help if neeueu

+,)- 3
3/& Chen wants to leain about Summeifoiu
3/. uuy wants to leain Chinese

+,)- 8
*) (2 ); &( )$4#$ *) (1 ); ') *"0* (4)

+,)- 9
, system
4 pioblems
5 events
6 piactise

+,)- <
open


'())*" 0

+,)- &
4 quickly, in oiuei to finu out if hei application was successful

+,)- .
Yes: confiimation of a place to stuuy at uateway 0niveisity has been offeieu anu
has been accepteu

+,)- 0
, The paits in bolu focus attention on the key infoimation.
4 Naysoun has to piove she has an acceptable level of English.
5 Sanuia Rose, the Postgiauuate Aumissions 0fficei
6 17
th
Septembei (one uay befoie the stait uate)
( She has to biing hei uegiee ceitificate anu pay hei fees.

+,)- 1
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She uiu not stuuy in English anu, at that time, uiu not have an acceptable
language qualification. We know this because she is now uoing a pie-sessional
English (EAP) couise.

+,)- 2
2/& : 2/. You have to pay youi fees when you iegistei.
You have to biing youi uegiee ceitificate to iegistiation.
You have to have an acceptable level of English.

+,)- 3
3/& : 3/.
, application ¡ applieu ¡ application
4 successful ¡ successful ¡ succeeu
5 confiimation ¡ confiimeu ¡ confiimation
6 conuitional ¡ conuitional ¡ conuition
( acceptable ¡ accepteu ¡ acceptable
7 ability ¡ ability


'())*" 1

+,)- &
Family name: SALEB
0thei names: NAYS00N
Title: Nis
Sex: female |fiom titlej
Naiital status: maiiieu |fiom titlej
Bate of biith: |not knownj
Countiy of biith: Syiia |possiblyj
Name of uegiee: ENvIR0NNENTAL SCIENCE
Type of uegiee: by couise |possiblyj
Noue of stuuy: full time
Entiy uate: 17
th
Septembei 2uu9
Pioof of English ability: Naysoun coulu wiite that she has applieu to stuuy
English on the pie-sessional couise.

+,)- .
./& The unknown infoimation is shown in squaie biackets in the answeis to
Task 1.
./. !&*5#, +0$&*05 '*0*,' anu +)4# )6 '*,47 can all be guesseu fiom the choices
given on the foim.

+,)- 0
0/& applieu ¡ applicant ¡ application ¡ applicable
0/. , iuea
4 peison
5 uoing

+,)- 1
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4 1 noun
5 2 veib
6 S aujective
( 1 veib
7 2 veib
; S veib

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
, complete
4 uetails
5 on, uistance
6 qualifications


'())*" 2

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
1, S, 6, 7

+,)- 0
0/& : 0/. Stuuent 1: to solve pioblems anu challenges (1¡ 6); so that my paients
can be piouu of my achievements (S)

Stuuent 2: to give me a step foiwaiu anu to gain the iight tools anu skills neeueu
to succeeu acauemically anu piofessionally (7); to show me the way to help my
countiy anu the inuustiy in my countiy to uevelop (1¡6)

Stuuent S: to bioauen my view of the woilu (7); to impiove my English enough
to give me goou position in an inteinational company that pays high salaiies (7);
in oiuei to use my mathematical skills fully (1); to help my countiy to uevelop as
a global economy (6)

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Stuuent 1: I won fiist piize in my college engineeiing competition last yeai; to
solve pioblems anu challenges (but coulu be moie specific)

Stuuent 2: the iight skills neeueu to succeeu acauemically anu piofessionally
(but coulu be moie specific); help my countiy anu the inuustiy in my countiy to
uevelop (but coulu be moie specific)

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Stuuent S: impiove English; a goou position in an inteinational company; use
mathematical skills fully. Also, Stuuent S links 0K fiienus to helping to uevelop
global economy

Stuuent S's text is piobably the most specific in teims of puiposes.

+,)- 2
, 2
4 S
5 4
6 7
A*$(B Examples 1 anu 6 aie faiily specific, but they aie not ielevant to the
puiposes. Example S is much too geneial.



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!"#$ .

'())*" &

C$D6E )F,@$
Ciicle S

+,)- &
, 7 oi S
4 6
5 4 oi 9
6 8
( 2
7 9 oi 4
; S oi 7
G 1

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
./& The new stuuents aie not giving him time to ieply. They aie anxious to finu
wheie they have to go ¡ woiiieu about getting to classes.
./. They coulu be put into subject gioups anu go aiounu togethei. They woulu
leain moie locations anu make fiienus at the same time. (shaieu expeiience)

+,)- 0
position: in the noith of; next to; between . anu; in the east of; behinu; on South
Avenue; neaiest; on the iight; the top flooi; the giounu flooi; in fiont of; opposite
N.B. *"$),/" = movement, but shows position inuiiectly

campus locations: a thiee-stoiey builuing; a complex; labs (laboiatoiies); the
libiaiy; a uepaitment; a lectuie theatie; a woikshop; the Civil Engineeiing
Institute; a site; the bus stop

+,)- 1
1/& , south ¡ noith
4 behinu ¡ between
5 V
6 east ¡ noith
( giounu ¡ top
7 left ¡ iight (if he is facing the squaie)
; in fiont of a line of ¡ suiiounueu by
G behinu ¡ in fiont of
# behinu ¡ opposite
H behinu ¡ between
- iounu ¡ thiough (you can also walk iounu, but you uon't have to)
> V

+,)- 2
, Theie aie ¡ fiont
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4 Theie is ¡ next
5 Theie is ¡ in
6 Theie is ¡ noith
( Theie aie ¡ in
7 Theie aie ¡ west
; Theie is ¡ in
G Theie aie ¡ to

+,)- 3
open

+,)- 8
open

I*F(?*@-
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)J"*$()
Alan Tuiing was a pioneei in Computei Science anu is piobably best known foi
inventing the Tuiing Test, uesigneu to uistinguish the iesponses of a ieal peison
fiom those of a computei. Amaitya Sen is a Nobel Piize-winning economist, best
known foi his ieseaich on the effects of globalization on the pooi. Rachel Caison
was an eaily enviionmentalist who waineu about the effects of pollution anu
wiote influential books which ieally staiteu people thinking about
enviionmental issues.


'())*" .

+,)- &
, The ueology uepaitment ¡ Petioleum Engineeiing ¡ Enviionmental Science
4 The Alan Tuiing laboiatoiies ¡ the top flooi
5 The bus stop ¡ the Stuuent 0nion
6 The Libiaiy ¡ the Stuuent 0nion
( The Bealth Centie ¡ the Aumin Builuing ¡ the Foou Couit
7 the Amaitya Sen Lectuie Theatie ¡ the libiaiy
; The Nain Entiance ¡ West Avenue

+,)- .
, n-n
4 n-n
5 auj-n
6 n-n
( auj-n
7 n-n
; n-n
G n-n

+,)- 0
0/& , on
4 iounu
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5 opposite
6 along
( on
7 towaius
; behinu
G to

0/. position: on; opposite; behinu
movement: iounu; along; towaius; to

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Chen (Computei Science):
, a sounu wave
6 a planning giiu
G a tiee uiagiam
- chain coue

uuy (Inteinational Business)
6 a planning giiu
7 a supeimaiket chain
; a management netwoik
G a tiee uiagiam
H a peak piice

Naysoun (Enviionmental Stuuies):
4 a foou chain
5 a iivei netwoik
( wave powei
G a tiee uiagiam
# a watei cycle
> a family tiee

Notice that all thiee uisciplines aie likely to use tiee uiagiams, as they iepiesent
hieiaichies, e.g., in uecision making.

+,)- 2
, S
4 2
5 S
6 4
( S
7 6
; S
G S
# 2
H 7
- 1
> S
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+,)- 3
open


'())*" 0

+,)- &
KLF,#> & Naysoun
KLF,#> . Bi Chailes
KLF,#> 0 Naysoun
KLF,#> 1 Bi Chailes

+,)- .
./& a meeting
./. , S
4 4
5 1
6 2

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, on the postgiauuate notice boaiu on hei uepaitment website
4 because she can't uiive back fiom the school quickly enough to get to the
meeting
5 a foluei anu an IB bauge
6 by going heiself anu by asking people
( by checking hei office houis on the website oi office uooi

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, by checking hei uepaitment website ¡ online noticeboaiu
4 Yes, e-mail is quick anu is suie to ieach hei.
5 Yes, the pioblem was solveu.
6 Naysoun #M Bei English is not as goou as Bi Chailes's, so she neeus moie
woius. ##M She feels she neeus to say polite things.
( 'teiiible', 'embaiiasseu' (she says this).
7 She is anxious about missing impoitant infoimation. She asks a lot of questions.
; She sounus foimal but kinu. She tiies to sounu fiienuly by using hei shoit
name, 'Sue', in the seconu e-mail.

+,)- 2
, Naysoun's aie longei anu have moie foimal beginnings anu enuings. They
have moie polite iequests, such as 25#0'#, *"0(8 7), anu ')$$7. Bi Chailes's e-
mails aie shoitei anu moie uiiect: 0'8, -"))'#, -)+#.
4 Naysoun uses the name at the enu of the pievious e-mail (2) to stait hei next
e-mail (S); she also makes e-mail S shoitei. Bi Chailes enus each of hei e-mails
moie infoimally.
5 open
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+,)- 3
$#$>( ;#N(" ",F() )D@",F(
Bi Susan Elizabeth Chailes
Ns Caioline West
Piof. Robeit Noiiis
Bi Naseem Nalik

+,)- 8
7*@F,> 5*FFD"#5,$#*" #"7*@F,> 5*FFD"#5,$#*"
Bi Chailes Susan¡Sue
Ns West Caioline
Piof Noiiis Robeit
Bi Nalik Naseem

+,)- 9
open


'())*" 1

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
5

+,)- 0
open

+,)- 1
, 2
4 S
5 1
6 6
( 8
7 7
; 4
G S
# 1S
H 11
- 12
> 9
F 14
" 1u

+,)- 2
, S
4 2 (anu possibly S)
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5 S
6 1 anu 2
( 4

+,)- 3
3/& take; show; meet
3/. infoimation; constiuctive

O#)5D))#*"
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
to help you to impiove a uiaft text; anyone you can tiust, such as a teachei oi a
fiienu; iueas, oiganization; vocabulaiy anu giammai - what is goou anu what
coulu be impioveu

+,)- 8
4 (The concept is constiuctive feeuback.)

+,)- 9
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
9/& It's a nice, funny, fiienuly e-mail. It gives a cleai, concise pictuie of life on
campus. Bieak up the seconu paiagiaph into foui shoitei ones. Language: &* "0'
shoulu be *"#$# 0$#; ),*'&4# shoulu be (#0$; 0* *"# -&*7 -#(*$# shoulu be &( *"# -&*7
-#(*$#; -))8#$ shoulu be -))8.
9/. use of given name, 9)"(; :&; ;; inclusion of jokes; faces; :0 :0;; abbieviation;
<=. All these aie coiiect in an infoimal e-mail to a fiienu but incoiiect in a foimal
e-mail, e.g., to a staff membei you have nevei met.


'())*" 2
+,)- &
4

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, 1
4 2
5 S, 2
6 S
( 1
7 1, S
; 1, 2
G S

+,)- 0
open

+,)- 1
, Y
4 N
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5 N
6 N
( N
7 Y
; Y

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
> .&55:
go to all my lectuies; stuuy books in the libiaiy (not just on the Inteinet); hanu in
uiafts of my woik in time foi feeuback to help me impiove; tell my tutoi if I have
any pioblems with the woik.

+,)- 3
3/& open
3/. see table foi possible answeis

4(#"; ,5$#N( P7#"6#"; $G#";)
,"6 6*#"; $G#";) 7*@
E*D@)(>7M
>(,N#"; E*D@ 5*F7*@$ Q*"(
P$@E#"; "(? $G#";)R "*$
4(#"; ,7@,#6 *7 F#)$,-()M
$G#"-#"; ,4*D$ G*? E*D
>(,@" P$G#"-#"; ,4*D$
?G,$S) D)(7D> *@ "*$ D)(7D>M
!"#$ &
'&
uiscuss expectations of
univeisity
leain how to wiite anu say
youi own subjects foi
univeisity
Bomewoik: choose what
vocab. to leain (without
asking the teachei)
think about how to use
uictionaiies
!"#$ &
'0

think of youi puipose befoie
ieauing
ueciue which woius aie
impoitant to leain anu which
woius you uon't neeu to leain
now
think about how you ieau, in
youi own language anu in
English
!"#$ .
'&

Bomewoik: finu campus maps
on the Web
finu infoimation about famous
acauemics
tiy two ways to piepaie to
listen
Bomewoik: choose what
vocab. to leain (without
asking the teachei)
think about how to piepaie to
listen
!"#$ .
'1

uiscuss teachei anu stuuent
expectations
uiscuss feeuback
Bomewoik: finu guiuance
notes on the Web
Bomewoik: choose what
vocab. to leain (without
asking the teachei)
think about what stuuy points
apply to you
think about what kinu of
feeuback is useful




EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 0

'())*" &

+,)- &
, Text 1
4 Text 2
5 open

+,)- .
, to uissolve the salt; to sepaiate the sanu fiom the solution; to evapoiate the
watei anu make salt ciystals
4 a mixtuie of sanu anu salt; the sanu anu salt mixtuie; watei; the salt; the
mixtuie; a filtei; the sanu; the solution; the solution; the watei; salt ciystals
5 in sentence oiganization anu veib foim (See Noticing giammai patteins box
that follows Task 2.)

+,)- 0
, x
4 V
5 V
6 x
( V

a anu c aie not sentences; these veibs neeu something else to complete the
sentence.
a The sanu anu salt mixtuie is put. Wheie. &(*) .0*#$
u The mixtuie is pouieu. Wheie. *"$),/" 0 6&5*#$

+,)- 1
(Compaie answei with Text 2 on page S9.)

+,)- 2
2/& , P
4 I
5 P
6 I
( P
7 I
; I
G P

2/. , S
4 2
5 1
6 4
( 4
7 S
; 1
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G 2

+,)- 3
3/& no
3/. inuef =S; uef = S (incluuing title; same answei foi both texts)

+,)- 8
, a
4 a
5 The
6 a
( The
7 an
; The
G a
# The
H the


'())*" .

+,)- &
C$(T & open the can
C$(T . put the beans in a pan
C$(T 0 heat the beans
C$(T 1 toast the bieau
C$(T 2 put the toast anu the beans on plates

+,)- .
puipose: so that they uon't buin at the bottom
methou: gently; with a can openei; with a spoon
sequence: fiist; next
fiequency: occasionally
uuiation: until they just begin to bubble

+,)- 0
auveibs: gently, occasionally
piepositional phiases: with a can openei; with a spoon

+,)- 1
1/& =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, with a can openei
4 with a spoon
5 with a mouem¡wiieless auaptei oi ioutei
6 with a fiie blanket¡fiie extinguishei
( by bus

1/. open

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+,)- 2
, S
4 1
5 S
6 2
( 8
7 4
; 6
G 7

+,)- 3
3/& open
3/.
signpost woius: Beie, Then, Next, Finally
linking woius: while
aujective-noun noun phiases: the cookeu beans; The filleu cans; The colu cans

+,)- 8
, cookeu¡hot
4 hot
5 cooleu¡colu

+,)- 9
methou: by machine; by tiuck; with clean watei; with colu watei
uuiation: until they aie soft; immeuiately; foi seveial minutes

+,)- <
, iemoving¡iemoval
4 tianspoiting¡tianspoitation
5 washing
6 auuing¡auuition
( cooking
7 pouiing
; filling
G sealing
# labelling
H packing

+,)- &U
, iemoval
4 tianspoitation
5 auuition
6 filling
e sealing
f cooling
; tianspoitation


'())*" 0
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+,)-) & : .
, 4
4 2
5 1
6 S

+,)- 0
open

+,)- 1
=,@$ .
Leave the builuing.
Keep loose papeis away fiom the flooi.
Ninimize the height of the flame.
Nake suie the flame is visible.
Check it fiequently.
Tuin the Bunsen buinei off.

=,@$ 0
Always weai youi lab coat.
Tie back youi haii.
Covei any skin cuts.
Ninimize splashes.
Always clean spills.
Keep uoois anu winuows closeu.
Wipe uown suifaces.
Wash youi hanus.
Wash them thoioughly.
Keep the soapy watei on youi hanus.
Reau the safety notices.
Avoiu these |acciuentsj by keeping the flooi cleai.
Put them |bags anu coatsj in lockeis.
Keep safe by being awaie.

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
(Check answeis in tiansciipts on pages 2uS anu 2u4.)

+,)- 8
, quickly anu safely
4 with heat iesistant gloves
5 by aujusting the aii hole
6 with a wateipioof uiessing
( by slow ueliveiy
7 using gloves anu papei towels that have been soakeu in uisinfectant
; by keeping notebooks away fiom Bunsen buineis
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
G thoioughly
# by checking the flooi caiefully
H by being awaie of eveiything in youi enviionment

+,)- 9
.&*" + noun phiase: b, u
?7 + uoing noun: c, g, i, j
?7 + noun phiase: e
,'&(/ + noun phiase: f
auveib: a, h

+,)- <
</& )$(T & )$(T .
, wash hanus leave lab
4 use suifaces wipe suifaces
5 (at the same time)
6 soak towels in uisinfectant wipe up spills
( open liu fully iemove contents
7 (at the same time)
; heai bell leave builuing

</. befoie leaving; aftei use; when you aie woiking; have been soakeu; befoie
iemoving the contents; while woiking; on heaiing

+,)- &U
, fiequency
4 fiequency
5 uuiation
6 fiequency
( uuiation
7 uuiation


'())*" 1

+,)-) & : .

VWJX PY''!C+ZW+Y[AMB YACKZ+ C\W''] CY\='K 'W^K''KO _`_'K OYWaZW\
XY+I 'W^K'C WC CI[XA ^K'[Xb
evapoiation! piecipitation! iun off!
"------------------------------------------------

+,)- 0
VWJX PY''!C+ZW+Y[AMB YACKZ+ C\W''] CY\='K 'W^K''KO _`_'K OYWaZW\
XY+I 'W^K'C WC CI[XA ^K'[Xb
planning! implementation! evaluation
"------------------------------------------------

+,)- 1
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
1/& , impiovement
4 specification
5 implementation
6 evaluation
( analysis

1/. , impiove¡ impiovement
4 specify¡specifications
5 implementation¡implementeu
6 evaluateu¡evaluation
( analyzeu¡analysis


'())*" 2

+,)- &
The mouel¡uiagiam looks like steps in a wateifall (the lectuiei explains this).

+,)- .
Step 1

+,)- 0
Stuuent A: , 1. Requiiements analysis
4 2. Besign
5 S. Implementation
6 4.veiification
( S. Naintenance

Stuuent B: , talking, uetail
4 uesciibing, will uo
5 -
6 checking
( solving, ienewing

Stuuent C: , aie unueistoou
4 components, simultaneously
5 the piogiam, bug-fiee
6 woiks¡uoes what it shoulu, acceptable
( -

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
subject-specific vocabulaiy: hyuiologic; conuenses; evapoiateu; piecipitation;
iun-off; piogiammei
geneial acauemic vocabulaiy: implementation; system; veiification; technical;
cycle; specific; objectives
both: compatibility (has a geneial acauemic meaning anu a specific meaning foi
softwaie)

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 2
2/& 5
2/. VWJXB WOO IKZK WA KcW_+ _[=` [d +IK A[+KC [A 23 PZ[!aI'` WC
CI[XA ^K'[XM/ ^!+ WOO WZZ[XC +[ Y+ \W+_IYAa A[+KC O[XA CYOKC
XY+I A[+KC YA \YOO'K] KcW_+'` WC CI[XA ^K'[Xb


how to say the woiu (woiu
stiess)

giammai uetails

an example of how
it is useu
C(F()$(@ & ?((- &

6,$, (n. pl. ... ask uuy) |Chinese
chaiacteisj infoimation ¡ facts oi
numbeis
Computeis woik on uata veiy fast. If the
uata is wiong, the iesults aie wiong. (uuy
saiu: uIu0 = /0$?0/# &(@ /0$?0/# ),*!)
uatabase, uata stieam, binaiy uata


meaning in Chen's
language

meaning in English

collocations
giammai uetails

an example of how it is useu

woiu family
4D; (n. sing.) |Chinese chaiacteisj a
mistake in a piogiam stops the piogiam
uoing what it shoulu uo.
In the fiist piactical theie was a bug in my
piogiam!
uebug (v), bug fiee (auj)

meaning in Chen's
language

meaning in English


how to say the woiu (woiu
stiess)

giammai uetails

an example of how it is useu

woiu family
N(@#7#5,$#*" (n. uncount.) |Chinese
chaiacteisj
checking stage to see if softwaie woiks ¡
can be accepteu by customei.
testing ¡ evaluation
veiify (v) veiifiable ¡ veiifieu (auj)
In the veiification stage, we have to make
suie the piogiam woiks with the
customei's othei softwaie.

meaning in Chen's
language

meaning in English

synonyms (similai woius)



+,)- 3
Chen is piobably not suie if 40*0 is pluial oi uncountable. Nany uictionaiies say
it shoulu be pluial, but, in fact, concoiuancing shows that it is often tieateu as
uncountable (like infoimation). Stuuents have to notice what theii lectuieis uo.



EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 1

'())*" &

+,)- &
, uuy piefeis a classioom; Chen piefeis a computei. Naysoun says she piefeis a
classioom, but she uoes not seem completely suie: computeis aie flexible, but
she likes class uiscussion.
4 The stuuents uiscuss cost, time, social gioup, convenience, fluency anu
flexibility. Location is also mentioneu, in the ieasons foi theii piefeiences.

+,)- .
, C
4 C
5 u
6 C
( N
7 N
; N (anu possibly u)
G C
# C

+,)- 0
, biainstoiming with othei stuuents is a way to finu new iueas.
4 Chen saiu computeis weie moie convenient anu cheapei. Chen hau moie iueas
at the enu of the conveisation than he hau at the beginning.

C$D6E )F,@$
=*))#4>( ,")?(@
Lectuieis want stuuents to auu theii own examples to show that they
unueistanu concepts, anu evaluate infoimation to see if they agiee with it.

+,)- 1
1/& 5 You have to set youi own ueaulines.
; You can keep youi job.
G You may have to give up youi job.

1/. 7 You may have to tiavel.
> You have to speak quickly.


+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
convenience ¡ time ¡ cost ¡ flexibility ¡ social gioup ¡ fluency

+,)- 3
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
positive aujectives: cheap, convenient, flexible, confiuent, sociable, ieliable,
efficient, accuiate, fluent, effective;
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
negative aujectives: expensive, noisy, ciowueu, iuue, passive, shy

+,)- 8
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, positive aujectives: cheapei¡moie convenient¡moie flexible
4 positive aujectives: less convenient¡flexible¡efficient
5 positive aujectives: moie sociable¡efficient¡ieliable
6 positive aujectives: moie flexible¡ieliable¡efficient

+,)- 9
, A
4 A
5 B

+,)- <
open


'())*" .

+,)- &
The oiuei of aims in the fliei is uiffeient fiom the lectuie: the libiaiian uoes aim
2 fiist, then aim 1.

+,)- .
the Inteinet anu the libiaiy; she wants to show they aie uiffeient; she says: 'Let's
think about some uiffeiences between the Inteinet anu the libiaiy.'

+,)- 0
(Check answeis against the tables on page 199 of the Couise Book.)

+,)- 1
1/& b
1/. puipose, viewpoint, authoi, quality

+,)- 2
, The libiaiian gave an unbalanceu view of the Inteinet at fiist, because she
wanteu to peisuaue the stuuents to use the libiaiy.
4 She only consiueis anothei viewpoint at the enu of hei talk.
5 She aumits at the enu of hei talk that theie is anothei viewpoint, when she
says, 'Now it is tiue that theie is some goou-quality, ieliable infoimation on the
Inteinet'.
6 Infoimation on the Inteinet is moie up to uate, because it can be publisheu
quickly. Nany jouinals anu books aie publisheu on the Inteinet anu the quality
of these has been checkeu.

+,)- 3
3/&
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
Stuuents shoulu wiite sentences containing a selection of the linking anu
signpost woius below.
linking woius: although, but, wheieas
signpost woius: Bowevei, In contiast, 0n the othei hanu

3/.
open


'())*" 0

+,)- &
&/& , -
4 1 anu S
Clues: '-")50$ anu A#4, suggest an acauemic site. #B),$(05 suggests an online
acauemic jouinal
5 -
6 4
Clues: the funny name $)'#'C*#0 anu ?5)/'2)* inuicate this is a weblog oi blog.
These aie uesigneu to make web publishing accessible to anyone.
( 2
Clues: A-)+ inuicates this is a commeicial website to sell a seivice;
-50''$))+)(5&(# specifies the seivice.
7 -

&/. The two acauemic uils, 1 anu S, aie almost the same. They locate two
uiffeient volumes of the same acauemic jouinal so the uiffeiences appeai at the
enu of the uil to show the volume anu pait numbei anu the authoi suiname.

+,)- .
Souice 1 uil 4
Souice 2 uil 2
Souice S uil 1
Souice 4 uil S

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
+(e$ &
puipose: to give a peisonal opinion
viewpoint: only one
authoi: ueekygiil - no inuication who this is, anu we can only see hei blog
quality: not checkeu by anyone

+(e$ .
puipose: to sell online couises
viewpoint: two about classiooms - moie stuuent centieu but cannot pioviue
enough attention oi all couises; one about classioomonline - all positive
authoi: not given, but theie coulu be anothei page with infoimation about the
tutois
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
quality: no cieuit foi couises, so no-one is checking the quality

+(e$ 0
puipose: to piesent ieseaich about computei-baseu leaining
viewpoint: seveial (}amieson, Foibes, Toiies-Coiiea)
authois: Liu Yanming anu Robeit Black (we coulu seaich in jouinals to see if they
hau publisheu othei aiticles)
quality: iefeieeu, so an expeit has checkeu the infoimation

+(e$ 1
puipose: to ieview a book about computei-baseu leaining
viewpoint: two - the viewpoint of Bi Lama Al-Khamees anu hei iepoit of the
viewpoint of Pete anu }ing Wu
authoi: Bi Lama Al-Khamees
quality: checkeu by the euitoi who askeu this lectuiei to ieview the book foi the
jouinal

+,)- 1
Texts S anu 4 aie likely to be moie ieliable.

+,)- 2
2/.
Souice 1
nouns¡noun phiases mainly peison nouns: I, I, she, hei husbanu, he, we foui
two object nouns: the iest of the class, it
one iuea noun: this (intiouuction)

Souice 2
nouns¡noun phiases mainly peison nouns: not all stuuents, some stuuents,
otheis, you, you, you, you, you, we, you
object nouns: classiooms, Classioom 0nline, oui assessments
one iuea noun: this uesciiption

Souice S
nouns¡noun phiases mainly object nouns: most univeisities, iecent stuuies, they,
most stuuies
iuea nouns: the use of computei-baseu methous foi teaching

Souice 4
nouns¡noun phiases mainly peison nouns publisheis, teacheis, Pete Wu anu }ing
Wu, the authois, they
object nouns (to name the book anu its contents): computeis, the infoimation,
computeis in language classiooms

+,)- 3
, using¡use
4 the use of¡computei
5 ieplacement¡teacheis
6 intiouucing technology
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
( the ieview of a book

+,)- 8
, & Souices S anu 4
. Souices 1 anu 2
4 & Souices S anu 4
. Souices 1 anu 2


'())*" 1

+,)- &
Souice 1 has two auvantages, convenient anu less expensive, anu two
uisauvantages, uifficult to combine stuuy anu woik anu less sociable (no tutoi oi
othei stuuents).
Souice 2 has thiee auvantages: quick feeuback, peisonal attention anu
ueveloping inuepenuence.

+,)- .
Iueas in the fiist text aie similai to those that Chen has alieauy uiscusseu. Iueas
in the seconu text aie new.

+,)- 0
, 6 2uu7
4 4 1999
5 S 2uuS
6 6 2uu7
( 1 1998, 1999
7 6 2uu7
; 2 1997
G 2 1997
# S 2uuu
H S 2uuu

+,)- 1
, The fiist sentence is the most geneial.
4 The last sentence is the most specific.
5 & the fiist sentence
. the last sentence
6 This geneial to specific uevelopment helps ieaueis because they have a
geneial iuea of the topic in theii minus to link to what they alieauy know about
this topic. Then the text intiouuces new anu moie specific iueas to auu to the
pictuie builuing up in theii minus.

+,)- 2
open uiscussion

+,)- 3
, S
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 7
5 S
6 1
( 6
7 4
; 2


'())*" 2

O#)5D))#*"
Chen piefeis leaining on computeis he can take moie time to stuuy oi to think
what he wants to say anu it is cheapei.

+,)- &
&/& Be has moveu cost to the top anu he has ieuuceu the numbei of featuies.
!&+# is now incluueu unuei -)(D#(&#(-#, anu 65,#(-7 unuei ')-&05 /$),2A
&/. , computei-baseu leaining
4 classioom leaining

+,)- .
The compaiison in teims of social gioup. This is not Chen's piefeience, but he
neeus to incluue it to show that he knows theie aie uiffeient viewpoints.
In his assignment, Chen can aumit that theie is one uisauvantage to computei-
baseu leaining ('It is tiue that computei-baseu leaining is less social, but.') Be
can then show that this is not impoitant because theie aie many othei
auvantages.

+,)- 0
open - with peei ieviewing using the checklist

+,)- 1
b

+,)- 2
No. a anu b aie too specific. a uoes not mention computei-baseu leaining anu b
uoes not mention classioom leaining. b is wiitten in a style that is not
appiopiiate foi a stuuent because it is too foimal anu acauemic.
c is too geneial foi the puipose of Chen's assignment. This is a veiy common
mistake foi stuuents to make, staiting too fai away fiom the topic.

+,)- 3
\*6(> ,")?(@
, to stuuy in a tiauitional classioom oi take couises on the Inteinet
4 aie combineu anu computeis aie useu in classiooms
5 to both kinus of leaining
6 computei-baseu leaining anu classioom leaining
( cost, convenience, flexibility anu social gioup

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 8
open

+,)- 9
9/& , Souice S, paiagiaph 1, last sentence
Be copieu pait of the infoimation 'no significant uiffeience in achievement'
exactly, but useu a geneial noun phiase foi both kinus of leaining to summaiize
the compaiison in the final pait of the sentence.
4 Souice S, paiagiaph 2, seconu sentence
Be changeu 'moie attiactive foi stuuents with low incomes because it is less
expensive' to 'moie stuuents with low incomes can affoiu them'.
5 Souice S, paiagiaph 2, thiiu¡fouith sentences
Be useu 'stuuying' anu 'woiking' fiom the pievious sentence to complete 'some
stuuents have pioblems', but useu his own signpost expiession, 'it is tiue that'.
6 Souice 4, paiagiaph 2, thiiu sentence
Be combineu iueas fiom two sentences, 'computeis will not ieplace teacheis'
anu 'inuepenuent leaineis'.

9/. 4 2
5 S
6 4

9/0
In the intiouuction aftei sentence 2 (see mouel answei foi Task 6). It coulu be
intiouuceu with 05*"),/", oi sentence S coulu stait with :).#D#$.

9/1
Paiagiaph 2 coulu be uiviueu into thiee paiagiaphs, as below.

\*6(> ,")?(@
Nany stuuents piefei online couises because they aie cheapei. Stuuents can
stuuy at home anu they uo not have to tiavel. Putting couises on the Inteinet
means moie stuuents with low incomes can affoiu them (Toiies-Coiiea, 1999,
citeu in Liu anu Black, 2uuS).

Leaining online is moie convenient than leaining in a tiauitional classioom
because it is moie flexible. Stuuents can stuuy anu woik at the same time. It is
tiue that some stuuents have pioblems stuuying anu woiking (}enkins, 2uuu,
citeu in Liu anu Black, 2uuS) but they can set theii own ueaulines anu take moie
time if they neeu to.

Stuuents with an auvanceu level usually piefei classiooms because they like to
uiscuss theii woik with othei stuuents anu the tutoi. Bowevei, stuuents with a
low level cannot speak quickly. They usually piefei online uiscussions because
they can take time to think what to say. Wu anu Wu (2uu7, citeu in Al-Khamees,
2uu8) suggest that computeis will not ieplace teacheis but they can help
stuuents to become moie inuepenuent leaineis.

+,)- <
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
</& Inveiteu commas show that the woius have been copieu exactly.

</. The names aie shown because these iueas aie boiioweu fiom the authois.
Theie aie many ways to show this in the text. 0ne common way is to use the
Baivaiu system, as shown.

0nly the texts that have actually been ieau shoulu be iefeienceu. The use of
'citeu in' shows that iueas by Toiies-Coiiea anu }enkins weie ieau in Liu anu
Black, anu iueas by Wu anu Wu weie ieau in Al-Khamees.



EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 2

'())*" &

+,)- &
c, u

+,)- .
, uuy
4 Naysoun
5 Chen

+,)- 0
the laige amount of woik to uo, especially new vocabulaiy to leain

+,)- 1
& listen ¡ meanings
. ieview
0 ieau ¡ meanings
1 meanings
2 vocabulaiy notebooks

+,)- 2
, hyuiologic = about watei
piecipitation = watei conuensing anu falling as iain
iunoff = movement of watei fiom lanu to ocean
4 geology; vegetation
5 open

+,)- 3
, coue = computei
piogiam = instiuctions that computeis can follow
implementation stage = wiiting the coue
4 bug-fiee oi functional uesciiption

+,)- 8
, geology = iocks¡iock foimations
vegetation = plants
4 bug-fiee = without mistakes¡eiiois

+,)- 9
9/& collect
9/. , impoitant
4 specialist aiea
5 have pioblems
6 fix
( peisuaueu
9/0 open
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- <
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
0nit 1
holiuay ¡ enough ¡ woiluwiue ¡ finisheu

0nit 2
place ¡ take pait ¡ known ¡ get bettei

0nit S
steps ¡ iisks ¡ necessaiy ¡ infoimation

0nit 4
finu ¡ assess ¡ auvantages ¡ impoitant


'())*" .

+,)- &
, S
4 6
5 4
6 1
( 2
7 7
; 8
G S

+,)- .
, peison ¡ stuuieu
4 uevice ¡ conveiting
5 mistake ¡ stops
6 woiu ¡ phiase ¡ but not in otheis ¡ meaning
( ieseaich ¡ gathei
7 oiganism ¡ uisease

+,)- 0
b, e

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
1/& a lab coat is a coat to piotect clothes fiom splashes anu spills
a fiie alaim is a uevice to wain people of fiie
a peisonal statement is a text to explain youi ieasons foi applying to univeisity
a vocabulaiy notebook is a book foi iecoiuing infoimation about new woius
Fiesheis' Week is a time foi getting to know the town, the univeisity, the social
activities anu the othei stuuents

1/. an umbiella is a uevice to piotect a peison fiom iain
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
a scannei is a machine foi conveiting images into binaiy uata
an ATN is a machine foi pioviuing seivices to bank customeis outsiue noimal
office houis
uebugging is a piocess to iemove eiiois fiom softwaie
a web biowsei is a computei piogiam foi looking at web pages on the Woilu
Wiue Web.

1/0 open

+,)- 2
, & Computei Science
. Inteinational Business
0 Enviionmental Science
1 Inteinational Business
2 Computei Science
3 Computei Science
8 Enviionmental Science
9 Enviionmental Science

4 2$)-#'' is useu in all thiee; +#0',$# is useu in Inteinational Business anu
Computei Science

+,)- 3
See Task S.


'())*" 0

+,)- &
&/& , that
4 which
5 who
6 wheie
( when

&/. peison: who
place: wheie
time: when
thing: which
concept: which

+,)- .
open

+,)- 0
0/& open
0/. u

0/0 , no geneial noun
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 no geneial noun
5 no specific featuie
6 goou uefinition
( no specific featuie
7 ciiculai

0/1 , auu 'aie miciooiganisms that'
4 auu 'foi looking at web pages on the Woilu Wiue Web'
5 auu 'is liquiu which'
( ,"6 7 auu 'when the whole system is testeu'

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
A computei piogiammei is a peison who wiites computei coue¡computei
softwaie.
Collocations aie gioups of woius that often go togethei.
A uiaft is a text which the wiitei is still ievising.
A health centie is a place wheie you can get auvice on health pioblems.
A supeivisoi is a peison who is iesponsible foi helping a postgiauuate stuuent
with ieseaich.
A libiaiy is a place wheie books aie kept foi people to stuuy.
0ffice houis aie the times when a lectuiei is available to talk to stuuents
inuiviuually.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, Theie aie othei uevices that uo this. Fuithei infoimation coulu be auueu.
4 A peison can stuuy ueeply anu foi a long time but still may not know enough.
We coulu auu to the uefinition 'anu gaineu iecognition fiom otheis foi theii
knowleuge'.


'())*" 1

+,)- &
&/& It's not ciiculai (it explains the key specific featuie of pollution). By using the
geneial noun piocess, she has classifieu pollution in a way that allows hei to
bieak it uown into steps, e.g., the souices of pollution anu latei the effects of
pollution.
&/. open

+,)- .
, thiee
4 to uefine the concept anu explain some key teims

+,)- 0
, pollution anu contaminants oi pollutants
4 paiagiaph 2: to outline the thiee uiffeient kinus of analysis
paiagiaph S: to explain the fiist analysis with examples
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
5 to give two fuithei possible analyses

+,)- 1
1/& paiagiaphs 1 anu S
1/. mateiials ¡ eneigy
, pathogens
4 non-biological
5 eneigy
6 paiticulates
( chemicals
7 heat
; light
G noise
# gases
H liquius
- solius

+,)- 2
Key woius aie:
aie calleu
can be analyzeu
can be uesciibeu
can be¡aie classifieu
geneial categoiies of
such as
can be fuithei subuiviueu into
incluuing
e.g.

+,)- 3
, teims
4 accoiuing
5 by

+,)- 8
, enviionment
4 atmospheie
5 watei
6 lanu
( atmospheie
7 watei
; oceans
G iiveis
# giounuwatei
H watei
- watei
> lanu
F uiban locations
" soil
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 9
9/& =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
concepts:
uiseases
paiticulates
chemicals

examples:
choleia
veiy small pieces of mateiial, uust, fibies
gases, C02, liquius, ueteigents, solius, metals, iion

9/. , such as
4 incluuing
5 e.g.

+,)- <
open

+,)- &U
&U/& open
&U/. open


'())*" 2

+,)- &
&/& , Naysoun
4 Chen

&/. using caius - this helps Chen to think of a uatabase
&/0 help him piactise a piesentation

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Be likes uuy's suggestion.

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Both aie oiganizeu by mouule, but Naysoun aiianges the woius in alphabetical
oiuei, while Chen oiganizes the vocabulaiy accoiuing to when he finus it.

+,)- 2
2/& the system is nameu aftei its inventoi, Bewey, anu is calleu a uecimal system
because its piinciple of oiganization is baseu on 1u categoiies at each level,
allowing uecimal numbeis. It contains both letteis anu numbeis.
2/. by subject anu topic; by alphabet
2/0 subject anu topic
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 3
, Suu
4 SSu
5 (not given; see below)
6 Suu
( SSu
7 SS1
; 6uu
G 62u
# 627
H 628
- 628.16

Lanu economics is not mentioneu specifically, but by analogy with science
stuuents can guess that it is SS1.

+,)- 8
8/& a
8/. open

+,)- < , sentence 1
4 sentences 2 anu S

+,)- &U
to classify: nouns¡aujectives: subcategoiies; level
veibs: is classifieu; label; aie aiiangeu
othei: alphabetically
to give the basis of classification: on the basis of; accoiuing to

+,)- &&
&&/& , wheie
4 oiganizeu
5 categoiies
6 uiviueu into
( foi example
7 specific
; accoiuing to
&&/. =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
aie gioupeu¡basis of classification


EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 3

'())*" &

+,)- &
&/. =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Aftei 186u family membeis at uateway
In 196us gianufathei at uateway
In 196us uateway ! univeisity
In 196us gianufathei got uegiee
In 198us paients at uateway

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
1864 - founueu by two businessmen foi woiking men¡euucation foi engineeis
¡uiploma
187u - }enny Ellis¡women aumitteu
188u - populai¡oveiciowueu¡neeu iepaii
new builuings in city¡money pioblems
money fiom foimei stuuent¡change name to Noigan-Stevenson
2uth centuiy - expanueu¡ieputation foi Science¡Engineeiing
1967 - move to new location¡change name to uateway¡new logo
> 196us - expanueu¡inteinational stuuents on campus¡ uistance leaining

+,)- 0
0/& open ieflection
0/. b

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
peiiou of time
in the 6us ¡Sus
in the 12th centuiy
thioughout the 2uth centuiy
point in time
aiounu 18Su
about 1Su yeais ago
in 18S4
in 187u
in 1967
sequence in time
while he was stuuying
when I was at univeisity
by 188u
at the same time
since the 196us

+,)- 3
3/& : 3/. =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
ueneial situation piesent:
Ny name is ueoige Blackstone.
I live in Summeifoiu.
I'm ietiieu.
I'm inteiesteu in local histoiy.
uateway 0niveisity is ieally quite young.
(veib foim=piesent simple)

ueneial situation past:
I was at uateway 0niveisity.
It wasn't calleu uateway then.
I stuuieu engineeiing.
They weie conceineu.
Theie weie no schools foi woiking men.
They wanteu a school foi.
It wasn't a univeisity. only a college.
It was calleu the Stevenson Institute.
(veib foim=past simple)

ueneial tienu:
It has seen a lot of changes in its lifetime
The main expansion has been in the numbei of inteinational stuuents.
(veib foim=piesent peifect)

Specific event:
They weie founueu in the 12th centuiy.
uateway was set up in 1864.
It was staiteu by two local businessmen.
Women began to attenu classes in 187u
(veib foim=past simple)

+,)- 8
, went
4 met
5 have been
6 openeu
( staiteu¡was staiteu
7 stuuieu
; staiteu
G hau
# was
H convinceu
- became
> was
F saiu
" got
* has changeu
T weie
f aie
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
@ offeis


'())*" .

+,)- &
&/& Begin: be set up, stait¡be staiteu, become, constiuct
Become bettei: uevelopment, iepaii, iename
Change size: expansion
Change place: ielocate, movement
Enu: close

&/. open

+,)- .
open

+,)- 0
, aftei the heau woiu
4 example 1: intiansitive
example 2: tiansitive
5 Begin: be founueu T, be set up T, stait¡ be staiteu I¡T, constiuct T
Become bettei: uevelop I¡T, iepaii T, iename T
Change size: be uemolisheu T, expanu I¡T
Change place: move I¡T, ielocate T
Enu: close I¡T

+,)- 1
1/& , 0xfoiu anu Cambiiuge 0niveisities weie founueu in the 12th centuiy.
4 The Stevenson Institute was set up in 1864.
5 In the 188us, the institute moveu to new builuings in the city centie.
6 A uecision was maue in 1967 to move the univeisity to a puipose-built
campus.
( The institute expeiienceu some financial pioblems.
7 The name changeu fiom the Stevenson Institute to Noigan-Stevenson College.
; The college changeu its name again to uateway 0niveisity when it moveu to
the new campus.
G The builuings on the estate weie uemolisheu long ago.
# The univeisity expanueu the numbei of couises it offeieu, paiticulaily in
science anu engineeiing.
H Since the 196us, the numbei of stuuents has expanueu with many stuuents now
coming fiom oveiseas.

A*$(B The time clauses &( + yeai can go at the beginning oi the enu of the
sentences without changing the meaning. 0thei time clauses aie most likely to
be in the positions shown in the answei key above.

1/. , T
4 T
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
5 I
6 T
( T
7 I
; T
G T
# T
H I

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, It useu to be calleu the Stevenson Institute, but it changeu its name to uateway
0niveisity in 1967.
4 It useu to be foi men only, but women began to attenu classes in 187u.
5 It useu to be locateu in the city centie, but in the 196us, it moveu outsiue the
city.
6 It useu to be only foi woiking men, but it became an inteinational univeisity at
the enu of the 2uth centuiy.

+,)- 8
open

+,)- 9
open

+,)- <
, uuy:
big change in politics
big change in technology

Chen:
big change in technology
big change in the enviionment

Naysoun:
big change in eneigy use
big change in faiming piactices

4 similai: infoimation ievolution; inuustiial ievolution
uiffeient: Fiench ievolution; gieen ievolution
5 open

+,)- &U
, 1
4 4
5 2
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
6 1
( S
7 2
; 1


'())*" 0

+,)- &
&/& u
&/. g

+,)- .
, 2
4 S
5 1
6 - (puipose of whole text)
( 2 anu 4
7 S
; - (puipose of section 7.1)

+,)- 0
, geneial topic: the co-opeiative movement in the 0K
specific aspect: uecline
4 The essay iequiies ieasons foi the uecline.
5 Be coulu select fiom paiagiaphs 1, S anu S.
6 uuy coulu uefine the co-opeiative movement anu show its iise in the 0K to set
the context foi talking about its uecline.

+,)- 1
1/& teim¡concept: co-opeiatives
geneial: oiganizations
specific: in which people have joineu togethei
moie specific: to meet common neeus anu achieve common goals.
1/. example: consumei co-opeiatives
specific: owneu by customeis who join togethei
moie specific: to make suie that the goous anu seivices they want to buy aie
goou quality anu a faii piice

example: woikei co-opeiatives
specific: owneu by the woikeis in an inuustiy

+,)- 2
1844 - co-opeiative staiteu in Rochuale
Rochuale Pioneeis
188u - spieau thiough 0K
19uu - 1.7 million membeis
1,uuu societies
now - woiluwiue movement
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 3
3/& uuy wiote some of his intiouuction in his own woius, e.g., sentences 1, 2, 4
anu S, but he copieu sentences S, 6 anu 7.
3/.
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
!"#$# 0$# +0(7 4&66#$#(* *72#' )6 -)E)2#$0*&D#'F 4#2#(4&(/ )( *"# G'"0$#4H (##4'
0(4 /)05' )6 *"# +#+?#$'A |copieu fiom paiagiaph 1 with unueilineu woiu
omitteuj
!"# -)E)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(* ?#/0( &( *"# I)$*" )6 J(/50(4F &( KLCCF ."#( 0 /$),2
)6 .)$8#$' &( *"# *).( )6 M)-"405# )2#(#4 0 '+055 '")2 GNH *) 6&(4 0(4 '#55 ?0'&-
6))4 &*#+' 0* 0 $#0')(0?5# 2$&-#. |copieu fiom paiagiaph 2 with unueilineu
changes; two paits joineu togetheij
!"# $#2,*0*&)( )6 *"# -)E)2 '")2 /$#. D#$7 O,&-857F ') ?7 KLLPF *"# -)E)2#$0*&D#
+)D#+#(* "04 '2$#04 *"$),/"),* *"# Q=F 0(4 ?7 *"# #(4 )6 *"# KR*" -#(*,$7F
+#+?#$'"&2 "04 $#0-"#4 KAS +&55&)(A |copieu fiom paiagiaph 4 with unueilineu
changes anu final clause omitteuj

3/0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
uuy uoes not acknowleuge the souice of iueas.
uuy uoes not wiite the iueas in his own woius but copies them exactly.
The intiouuction uoes not fit the puipose of uuy's essay question.


'())*" 1

+,)- &
, Stuuents uo not know eveiything. They aie leaining new iueas anu neeu to
show what they aie leaining.
4 Stuuents neeu to show that they aie builuing on the woik of pievious scholais
anu they neeu to thank them foi theii iueas.
5 Stuuents can show what they have unueistoou by wiiting in theii own woius.
6 Stuuents can show that they aie able to tiansfoim knowleuge anu use iueas foi
a new puipose which is uiffeient fiom the oiiginal puipose of the souice text.

+,)- .
./& a
./. f
./0 b Initials aie not neeueu foi in-text iefeience. Foi full iefeience, the oiuei of
suiname anu initials shoulu be ieveiseu. Theie is no title, publishei oi place of
publication.
c Theie is no authoi anu no publishei oi place of publication.
u The oiuei of suiname anu initials shoulu be ieveiseu. Theie is no place of
publication.
e Theie is no uate of publication.
./1 The in-text iefeience inuicates wheie in the text iueas have been boiioweu;
the full text iefeience enables a ieauei to finu the souice of the boiioweu iueas.

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 0
, T
4 F
5 T
6 T
( F
7 F
; T
G T

+,)- 1
1/& , 4
4 S
5 2
6 1
( 6
7 S
1/. , oiganization
4 founuation
5 giowth
6 movement
( benefits
7 movement
; piinciples
G oiganizations


'())*" 2

+,)- &
, The essay titles contain the same woius; the only uiffeiences aie
4#D#5)2 ! -"0(/#; #T250&( *"#&$ #66#-* ! $#50*# *"#'# *)
4 Chen: uevelopments in softwaie applications
uuy: changes in business piactices

+,)- .
, Intiouuction 1
4 Intiouuction 2
5 The beginnings of the sentences show the topic. The sentence at the enu guiues
the ieauei by giving a biief outline of what the essay will covei anu by showing
the viewpoint of the wiitei.

+,)- 0
, No, she thinks it is not acceptable because the univeisity sees this as a ciime
anu can fail both stuuents.
4 Yes, hei tone of voice is veiy stiong anu she is veiy uiiect at the beginning: !"&'
&' 7),$ 0''&/(+#(*F ?,* U,7 .$)*# &*V anu >* &' 4#6&(&*#57 ()* <=A Latei, she tiies to
soften hei iesponse: W), 4)(X* $#05&Y# ."0* 7),XD# 4)(#A

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 1
Accountants ¡ piepaie financial infoimation ¡ with a spieausheet application.
Eveiyone in a company ¡ can be contacteu ¡ easily by e-mail.
Woiu piocessois ¡ aie useu by manageis ¡ to piouuce theii own iepoits
Spieausheet applications ¡ aie useu by accountants ¡ to piesent uetaileu
financial infoimation.

+,)- 2
, key woius ielating to the topic (business in Intiouuction 1 anu softwaie in
Intiouuction 2)
4 to point out the essay topic to the ieauei at the beginning of each sentence
5 methou oi puipose statements

+,)- 3
, & Beat the beans gently in a pan.
Stii the beans with a spoon so that they uo not buin.
. 0se the pan to heat the beans.
0se the spoon to stii the beans so that they uo not buin.
4 0 Beat-iesistant gloves aie useu to piotect hanus.
Lab coats aie woin to piotect clothes fiom chemicals.
1 Banus aie piotecteu using heat-iesistant gloves.
Clothes aie piotecteu fiom chemicals by weaiing lab coats.
5 2 The Inteinet can be useu to finu up-to-uate infoimation quickly.
The libiaiy pioviues moie ieliable infoimation.
3 0p-to-uate infoimation can be founu quickly using the Inteinet.
Noie ieliable infoimation is pioviueu by the libiaiy.

+,)- 8
, 2
4 S
5 1


EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 8

'())*" &

+,)- &
, meeting, suppoit, awaieness
4 open
5 =*))#4>( ,")?(@
so that these neeus can be auuiesseu anu so that inteinational stuuents get the
suppoit they neeu

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
./& Be can see how othei inteinational stuuents speak at meetings;
he can tiy to speak himself, i.e., take a iisk anu finu out that he's 0K.
./. If theie aie a small numbei of people, he will piobably have to intiouuce
himself. Be may say veiy little if he uoes not feel confiuent.

+,)- 0
0/& , S
4 4
5 1
6 2
( S
0/. , }uan Cailos
4 Patti
5 Piiscilla
6 Bilal
( Ibiahim

+,)- 1
, The chaii thankeu them foi coming anu seemeu pleaseu to see them;
the committee membeis maue people laugh; the chaii spoke to Chen uiiectly anu
saiu how goou it was to have a Chinese stuuent; the chaii anu otheis suggesteu
things Chen coulu uo to get involveu
4 veiy inteiesteu ¡ exciteu ¡ impiesseu
They sounueu inteiesteu when they saiu <"; M#0557; :#7
5 to ieassuie hei; to make hei feel confiuent that she was uoing a goou job.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, !"0(8' 6)$ -)+&(/F #D#$7)(#AZ >*X' /$#0* *) '## ')+# (#. 60-#' "#$# *)(&/"*AZ &*X'
$#0557 /$#0* *"0* 7),X$# "#$#AZ [07?# 7), -0( "#52 ,'Z +07?# .# -0( -"0* 0?),* &*Z
:# 8##2' )$4#$ 0(4 *#55 ,' ."0* *) 4)AZ > ")2# > 0+ ()* *)) +,-" 5&8# *"# ?&/ ?)''A
4 <"; M#0557; :#7F *"0*X' /$#0*
5 .#X$# B,'* 25#0'#4 7), 4) *"# "0$4#'* B)?

+,)- 3
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
, Patti. She apologizes foi hei English anu she is not veiy fluent (she says +++ a
lot).
4 All the stuuents. A few hesitations anu false staits uo not ieally mattei.
5 Chen shoulu feel moie ielaxeu anu confiuent because people can unueistanu
him anu aie inteiesteu in what he has to say.

+,)- 9
9/. 1 syllable: pleaseu
2 syllables: China; Thailanu; Biazil; Suuan
S syllables: Nexico; Inuia
4 syllables: uemociatic
S syllables: -

+,)- <
</& 1 syllable: 'chaii
2 syllables: 'membei; uis'cuss
S syllables: 'tieasuiei; a'genua
4 syllables: 'secietaiy; pub'licity; uemo'ciatic
S syllables: intei'national
</. 1 syllable: 'pleaseu
2 syllables: 'China; 'Thailanu; Bia'zil; Su'uan
S syllables: Nexico
</0 1 syllable: 'Wales
2 syllables: 'Scotlanu
S syllables: 'Canaua; 'Libya
4 syllables: Aus'tialia; Nal'aysia
S syllables: Inuo'nesia

+,)- &U
&U/& [7 (0+# &' N ; > -)+# 6$)+ AAA ; >X+ AAAF 6$)+ AAA ; >X+ AAA 6$)+ AAAF ?,* 25#0'# -055 +#
...
&U/. open


'())*" .

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
, Yes
4 }uan Cailos will iepoit theii uecision at the next stuuents' union committee
meeting.

+,)- 0
0/& , S
4 S
5 6
6 1
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
( 4
7 2
0/. uuy: b
Chen: a

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
1/& stait the uiscussion: <= ') 5#*X' +)D# *) *"# +0&( &*#+ )( *"# 0/#(40
ask people to contiibute: 1"#(F 7), 5))8 5&8# 7), .0(* *) '07 ')+#*"&(/ 0?),*
*"0*A
keep the contiibutions ielevant: > *"&(8N &' 0( &+2)$*0(* &'',#F ?,* &*X' ()* $#0557N
1),54 .# 8##2 *) *"0* *)2&-V
summaiize iueas: 2#$"02' > -0( ',++0$&Y# *"# 2)&(*' ') 60$ \ ?0'&-0557N
1/. open

+,)- 2
2/& =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
giving iueas: See Task 2.
asking foi iueas: 3) ."0* 4) .# *"&(8 0?),* *"0*V 10( .# ',22)$* *"#+V; ]"0*
'"),54 > .$&*# &( *"# +&(,*#'V; ^)#' *"0* &(-5,4# #D#$7*"&(/ .# '0&4V
asking foi confiimation oi help to iefine an iuea: ^) *"#7 "0D# *&+#V; >' *"&'
6##4?0-8F $#0557V
confiiming an iuea: W#0"; M&/"*; W#0"; [++; U))4 2)&(*;; > *"&(8 *"0*X' 0 /))4
2)&(*A; 3,$#; !"0*X' 0 8&(4 )6 6##4?0-8A
iefining an iuea: > *"&(8 *"# 2)&(* 0?),* *&+# &' $#5#D0(*F ?#-0,'# AAAZ > *"&(8 *"0*X' 0
/))4 2)&(*A _)$ #T0+25# AAA ; `(4 *"# '*,4#(*' "0D# *) AAA ') 7), "0D# *) AAA
showing inteiest in an iuea: ]).; <";; W#0";; [# *));
2/. open

+,)- 3
open

+,)- 8
8/& . anu I'm the chaii of the committee.; I'm the tieasuiei.
8/. I'm Bilal, fiom Inuia. I'm the publicity officei
I'm Ibiahim, fiom Suuan. I'm just a membei.
I'm Patti, fiom Thailanu. So I'm the secietaiy anu I take the minutes.

+,)- 9
open

+,)- <
</& , seconu ¡ fiist
4 is ¡ couisewoik ¡ exams
5 business ¡ thiee ¡ hunuieu
6 quickly ¡ useful
( online ¡ look ¡ check ¡ answeis
7 what ¡ minutes ¡ action

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

'())*" 0

+,)- &
=*))#4>( ,")?(@
Chen neeus to uefine 'malwaie' anu give some examples that the listeneis may
know.

+,)- .
open

+,)- 0
, It was geneially not successful. The auuience uiun't unueistanu it. uuy saiu it
was too technical foi him. But the sliues weie cleai anu helpeu Naysoun.
4 open
5 slow uown, look at the auuience, say goou evening, give youi name, uon't ieau
fiom a text

+,)- 1
1/& \*6(> "*$()
Bef. malwaie = uangeious coue

|Basic tiee uiagiamj

malwaie



viiuses woims Tiojan hoises



iesiuent non-iesiuent
1/. Be enjoyeu it. Be thought it was inteiesting but not acauemic. Be foigot some
points.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@
2/& It was much moie inteiesting anu easy to follow. Chen intiouuceu himself
anu his topic anu spoke moie uiiectly to the auuience. Be also useu a simple
question to intiouuce his uefinition.
Chen neeus to check the woiu stiess in his key woius, e.g., !$)B0( :)$'# anu
)2#$0*)$.
2/. Both aie impoitant. Nemoiization of the main points is goou, but not
memoiization of the exact woius.
2/0 Theie weie no false staits in fiist piesentation (because Chen ieau it). Theie
aie thiee in the seconu piesentation - they show that Chen is thinking about
explaining as he speaks. They aie not a pioblem. Besitations aie not a pioblem
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
eithei, as theie aie only a few anu even goou speakeis have hesitations anu false
staits.

+,)- 3
, ge'netics
4 expec'tations
5 'technical
6 compati'bility
( pub'licity
7 e'xemplify
; ma'teiial
G nu'tiitious
# pio'fessionally
H veiifi'cation

+,)- 8
8/& Bello. uoou evening. Ny name's Chen Zhiqiang anu I'm going to talk about
malwaie.
=*))#4>( N,@#,$#*")B
Bi; goou 'moining ¡afteinoon; I'm |namej; I'm fiom |place oi univeisityj; I'm
going to tell you about¡my topic is ...


'())*" 1

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
open

+,)- 0
, They make appioximately equal contiibutions, both in teims of length anu in
teims of impoitance.
4 & uuy; Chen
. Naysoun
0 uuy; Chen
1 Naysoun; uuy
2 Chen; Naysoun
3 uuy

5 .#55 AAA 7), 8(). AAA ; 7), 8().
]"0* 4) *"#7 +#0(V
>' &* 5&8# *"0*VZ AAA +07?#V
W#'F *"0*X' )(# AAA
>*X' 5&8# 1"#( '07; > *"&(8 > '## AAA >*X' 0()*"#$
I)F &*X' ()* AAA a#-0,'# AAA; I) 0-*,0557 > 8(). AAA &* .0' 5&8# AAA
<"F <= AAA (using iise-fall intonation)

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 1
1/& a complete cycle (e.g., of a machine oi wheel)
1/. a complete (i.e., laige oi impoitant) change

C$D6E )F,@$
=*))#4>( $(@F)
family tiee; peak piice; foou chain; computei bug; stock maiket ciash

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
open

+,)- 8
open

+,)- 9
open


'())*" 2

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
, Nick staits the uiscussion, summaiizes iueas anu asks people to contiibute.
4 Chen makes the othei speakeis feel ielaxeu by making them laugh anu
suppoits Nick by saying that he's a goou teachei. Be also puts a little piessuie on
the Chinese stuuents to speak.
5 Nick contiibutes two main iueas (he also likes to piepaie; it's impoitant not to
woiiy about making mistakes).

+,)- 0
, 1
4 1u
5 4
6 8
( S
7 6
; 9
G 2
# S
H 7

+,)- 1
, eveiyone who spoke
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 Nick Chen: ."0* .),54 7), '07 &' *"# ?&//#'* -"055#(/#V ]"0* 4)#' &* +#0(V;
Alexei: W),X$# D#$7 O,&#* *)407; ]"0* 4) 7), *"&(8V Chen: 1)+# )(F ')+#?)47
'2#08;
5 Xiaohua: `$# 055 '*,4#(*' &( >$0( 5&8# 7),V
6 All use confiimation intonation. Nimi: W#'A 30+# &( !"0&50(4A Amii: W#'A > *"&(8
*"0* *))A Xiaohua: >*X' *$,#
( Chen: > *"&(8 &*X' 20$* )6 *"0*A Amii: > *"&(8 ()* )(57 1"&(#'#A >( >$0( &*X' *"# '0+#A
Alexei: .# 4) "0D# *"&' &4#0 )6 b60-#X AAAA Chen: > *"&(8 0()*"#$ *"&(/ &'A Nick: a,* >
*"&(8 AAA
7 All speakeis show inteiest by commenting fuithei on iueas. Nick: M&/"* 0theis:
M#0557; W#0"; |using iise-fall intonationj

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
open



EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ 9

'())*" &

+,)- &
u

+,)- .
, Chen is happy because his cuiient assignment is piogiamming, so he uoesn't
have to wiite much English.
4 Xiaohua is woiiieu because she has misseu some classes anu she is having
pioblems with acauemic wiiting.

+,)- 0
Woiiieu face
Name: Xiaohua
aiiiveu late ! misseu some wiiting classes ! is having pioblems with acauemic
wiiting

Smiling face
Name: Chen
cuiient assignment is piogiamming ! has to wiite only a little English
ANB has hau goou feeuback ANB has met a new fiienu

+,)- 1
4 ieason: Bis cuiient assignment is piogiamming
iesult: he has to wiite only a little English
5 ieason: she joineu the couise late
iesult: Xiaohua misseu some wiiting classes
6 iesult: she is having pioblems with wiiting acauemic texts
ieason: |not given; given in sentence cj
( ieason: she is woiiieu
iesult: she asks Chen to help hei to unueistanu some feeuback fiom hei subject
lectuiei

+,)- 2
linking woius:
because ¡ so ¡ anu

signpost woius:
also ¡ as a iesult

+,)- 3
open

+,)- 8
Quiz answeis
& because pooi people hau no chance to leain science anu mechanics
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
. It was nameu aftei the famous engineei who inventeu the fiist steam
locomotive.
0 women joineu the couises
1 the institute became veiy populai
2 uelays anu high costs of builuing woik
3 he became iich as a iesult of stuuying theie
8 because he gave them money to help finish the new builuings
9 they coulu get uegiees
< it was the only olu builuing left when the new univeisity campus was built
&U a iise in the numbei of inteinational stuuents anu uistance leaining stuuents

+,)- 9
ieason foi; iesult of; causeu; factois; contiibuteu to; maue; mean; leu to

+,)- <
, confiuent
4 flexible
5 efficient, bug-fiee
6 unstable
( cleaiei
7 visible
; specific
G peisuasive
# safei

+,)- &U
open


'())*" .

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, high
4 high
5 meuium
6 low
( zeio
7 low
; low
G zeio
# high

+,)- 0
0/& c
0/. AAA 0(4 > +#0( AAA ; ?#5&#D# +#
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 1
see Task S answeis

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
2/& high: - ¡ piobably; uefinitely; most likely ¡ at all times
meuium: may, can ¡ possible ¡ -
low: unlikely ¡ low piobability ¡ not common
none¡zeio: we aie not ¡ no iisk ¡ -
2/. high: - ¡ ceitain ¡ most; often
meuium: might; coulu ¡ - ¡ some; sometimes
low: - ¡ - ¡ few; iaiely
none¡zeio: - ¡ - ¡ none; nevei

+,)- 3
open

+,)- 8
, cause
4 uepenus on
5 ieuuce
6 because
( iesults fiom
7 ieuuces¡pievents
; to ieuuce
G cause
# so
H as a iesult of¡because of

+,)- 9
open


'())*" 0

+,)- &
, The topic is stuuents. It becomes moie specific with each sentence, fiist using
pionouns, then naming a stuuent: *"# '*,4#(*', ')+# )6 *"#+, *"#7, [07'),(.
4 It changes to websites. The enu of sentence 4.
5 Aftei the topic, in the seconu pait of the sentence.

+,)- .
a specific health iisk¡Lyme uisease

+,)- 0
iaie seiious uiseases
symptoms of Lyme uisease
bacteiia
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 1
, enviionmental
4 Enviionmental¡iaie uiseases
5 uisease¡uisease
6 Lyme uisease¡bacteiia
( bacteiia¡ticks
7 ticks

+,)- 2
, the same
4 New infoimation is at the beginnings of sentences.
5 This makes the text haiuei to ieau.

+,)- 3
4 2
( 1
; 1

+,)- 8
8/& 4 bacteiia;
5 uelay
6 tick
( bite
7 symptom
; effects

8/. all (1-7)
8/0 b bacteiia (iepeateu noun); c uelay (geneial noun); u tick (iepeateu noun); e
bite (iepeateu noun); f symptom (geneial noun); g effects (geneial noun)

+,)- 9
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, because
4 because
5 cause
6 so
( iesults in
7 because of

+,)- <
open


'())*" 1

+,)- &
, & X
. C
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
0 C
1 X
4 Be tells hei not to woiiy anu that they can make the essay moie acauemic.
Also, he has some infoimation about the Inuustiial Revolution.

+,)- .
, instiuctions
4 infoimation¡iueas
5 ieauei
6 linkeu
( geneial
7 specific
; familiai
G new
# cause
H iueas¡infoimation

+,)- 0
open

+,)- 1
, global climate change
4 links between the Inuustiial Revolution, global climate change anu ueveloping
economies
5 Xiaohua's classmates anu Naitin uibson. She neeus to think about what hei
ieaueis may oi may not know.

+,)- 2
open

+,)- 3
, coal ¡ oil ¡ gieenhouse effect / global waiming
4 The seconu uiaft is easiei to follow because the causes anu effects aie cleaily
linkeu. Xiaohua's oiiginal paiagiaphs aie uifficult to follow because hei iueas aie
not piesenteu anu linkeu well.

+,)- 8
, =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
oiiginal uiaft: peisonal iefeiences; title paiaphiaseu; task only paitially
auuiesseu
new uiaft: impeisonal; coiiect title; task auuiesseu
4 oiiginal uiaft: specific>geneial>specific
new uiaft: specific>geneial
5 the oiiginal uiaft
6 the new uiaft
( the oiiginal uiaft
7 They aie moie accuiate in the new uiaft.

+,)- 9
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
see ielevant paiagiaph in mouel essay

\*6(> ()),E

+G( >#"- 4($?((" $G( Y"6D)$@#,> Z(N*>D$#*"] ;>*4,> 5>#F,$( 5G,";( ,"6
6(N(>*T#"; (5*"*F#()

The Inuustiial Revolution was a majoi change in technology in Euiope aiounu
2uu yeais ago. This change biought machines anu efficient piouuction. As a
iesult, Euiopean economies giew. The expansion neeueu eneigy fiom buining
laige amounts of coal anu oil. Buining these fuels piouuces C02, a gas which
contiibutes to global climate change by the gieenhouse effect. ulobal climate
change has seiious impacts which affect eveiy countiy in the woilu. This essay
will fiist explain how the gieenhouse effect makes the climate waimei, anu then
it will examine some of the effects of this change in oui climate, incluuing the
impacts on ueveloping countiies.

The gieenhouse effect is a veiy impoitant factoi in global waiming. It is a natuial
piocess in which some gases, such as C02, let eneigy fiom the sun thiough the
atmospheie to waim the Eaith but uo not let much of this eneigy out again. Now,
a veiy laige amount of C02 is getting into the atmospheie fiom inuustiies that
buin fossil fuels like coal anu oil. The C02 is incieasing because of global
inuustiial uevelopment, especially in countiies like Inuia anu also in China,
which has many coal powei stations. As a iesult, the tempeiatuie is iising anu
the climate is changing.

ulobal climate change is having seiious impacts on global watei systems. 0ne
effect is a iise in sea level. Theie is moie watei in the ocean because of melting
ice in the Noith anu South Polai iegions. This can iesult in seiious floouing anu
ueaths, especially on small islanus anu in coastal iegions. Foi example,
Banglauesh anu some countiies in the Pacific have alieauy lost faimlanu to the
sea. In auuition, some ieseaicheis say that global waiming is making weathei
systems such as typhoons anu huiiicanes much moie uangeious. This has
alieauy happeneu in the 0SA anu in China.

ulobal climate change is also having seiious impacts on the lanu. Winu anu iain
patteins aie moving. These changes can mean that some aieas now have no iain
anu faimeis have to move to new places with theii animals anu ciops. The new
aieas may not have enough giass oi watei, leauing to uamage to the soil. As a
iesult, some ueseits aie expanuing anu sanustoims aie ieaching cities, like
Beijing. The changing climate is also spieauing some uiseases to new aieas.
These uiseases can be uangeious foi plants anu animals as well as human
populations, making faiming moie uifficult.

In conclusion, inuustiial uevelopment uses coal anu oil. This is making the woilu
waimei as a iesult of C02 piouuction anu the gieenhouse effect. It is impoitant
to uevelop alteinative souices of eneigy that will not have this effect on the
climate, but this technology is not veiy auvanceu yet. Although many ueveloping
countiies will be bauly affecteu by climate change, some, foi example Inuia anu
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
China, neeu eneigy foi theii uevelopment. It is uifficult foi these countiies to
ieuuce C02 piouuction without slowing theii economic uevelopment.

+,)- <
open


'())*" 2

+,)- &
, a geneial uefinition followeu by moie specific infoimation: puipose, oveiview
of co-op histoiy, followeu by outline of this assignment
4 paiagiaph S: !"# &+20-* )6 *"# -)E)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(*X' 2$&(-&25#' )( *"# 2))$
.0' 2$)6),(4A
paiagiaph 4: !"# D05,#' )6 '#56E"#52 0(4 $#'2)('&?&5&*7 6)$ )*"#$ 2#)25# &( *"# 5)-05
4&'*$&-* -$#0*#4 )$/0(&Y0*&)(' *"0* .#$# 0 '&/(&6&-0(* -)++,(&*7 0''#* AAA
paiagiaph S: [0B)$ -"0(/#' &( *"# '#-)(4 "056 )6 *"# cP
*"
-#(*,$7 "04 0 '&/(&6&-0(*
&+20-* )( *"# /$).*" )6 *"# -)E)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(* &( *"# Q=A
paiagiaph 6: !"# 5)-05 -)E)2#$0*&D# ')-&#*&#' AAA -),54 ()* -$#0*# 0 ,(&6&#4 $#'2)('#
*) *"# -"055#(/#' )6 (#. +0$8#*' 0(4 (#. *72#' )6 -)+2#*&*&)(A
paiagiaph 7: N *"#$# "0D# ?##( ')+# +)$# $#-#(* 4#D#5)2+#(*' ."&-" 0$# 5&8#57
*) ?$&(/ 0 $#D&D05 )6 *"# -)E)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(*A; !"# )$&/&(05 2$&(-&25#' )6 *"# -)E
)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(*F N +07 .#55 "#52 &* *) ',--##4 ."#$# )*"#$' 60&5 &( *"# cK
'*

-#(*,$7A

+,)- .
open

+,)- 0
, uiaue A, possibly
4 the fact that he has ieally thought about it; his explanation of how the co-
opeiative's piinciples aie helping it to become moie competitive again
5 expanu the last paiagiaph, auu moie specific examples anu moie examples of
uiffeient ethical conceins, look at piouucts anu competitois, auu souices

+,)- 1
, It uiun't accuiately show what is happening in the co-op movement. ¡ It was
out of uate.
4 positively
5 open

+,)- 2
nouns: factois; ieasons foi; an impact on; a iesponse to; a ieaction to
veibs: pioviue; contiibute to; biinging; pieventeu fiom; affecteu; influence;
meant; cieateu; woikeu against; iesponu; iesulting fiom; make; help
piepositions: with
linking woius: because; so
signpost woius: fuitheimoie; consequently

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
+,)- 3
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
people: otheis; young men anu women
ioles: owneis; membeis; the pooi; manageis; uiiectois; competitois;
shaieholueis; ieciuits; consumei; customeis; woikei
gioups¡oiganizations: communities; maiket; ueveloping countiies; businesses;
suivivois; ietail giants

+,)- 8
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, Enviionmental Stuuies: ieseaicheis; scientists; biologists; faimeis; agiicultuial
communities; manufactuieis; clients; walkeis; touiists; useis; polluteis;
volunteeis
Computei Science: piogiammeis; softwaie engineeis; web uesigneis; analysts;
useis; bloggeis; hackeis; clients; customeis; web uevelopeis
4 open

+,)- 9
9/& , paiagiaphs S anu 4
4 paiagiaphs S anu 6
5 paiagiaph 6
6 paiagiaphs S anu 7
9/. open



EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ <


'())*" &

+,)- &
&/& Bata 2
Bata S
Bata 1
&/. Bata 1 = Figuie 1
Bata 2 = Figuie 2
Bata S = Table 1
&/0] &/1 : &/2
Bata 2 ¡ bai chait ¡ Souices of income in 2u1u (a) ¡ to compaie the amounts of
uisciete items (c) ¡ million pounus (a)
Bata S ¡ table ¡ Couises applieu foi by oveiseas stuuents (b) ¡ to show tienus
ovei seveial yeais (a) ¡ numbeis (b)
Bata 1 ¡ pie chait ¡ Stuuent applications by iegion in 2u1u (c) ¡ to see the
piopoition of a pait to the whole (b) ¡ peicentages (c)

+,)- .
, 0K stuuents
4 teaching, ieseaich anu publishing
5 oveiseas stuuents
6 Computei Science anu Life Sciences

+,)- 0
, b is not answeieu completely, as the text focuses only on teaching income anu
not on ieseaich oi publishing income.
4 =*))#4>( ,")?(@
Infoimation about couises with falling numbeis of stuuents is not incluueu.

+,)- 1
because Roy Williams' puipose is to piomote stuuent ieciuitment

+,)- 2
, T
4 T
5 F
6 F
( T (Accept also F. Accoiuing to the uata, they aie slightly moie populai, but
accoiuing to the uata, theii populaiity has iemaineu stable.)
7 F
; T

+,)- 3
0veiseas stuuents pay the full cost of theii euucation, so theii fees aie much
laigei than home oi E0 stuuents, who aie subsiuiseu with teaching giants fiom
the goveinment to the univeisity.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 8
claim: `5+)'* )(#E"056 )6 U0*#.07 Q(&D#$'&*7 '*,4#(*' -)+# 6$)+ ),*'&4# *"# Q=F
suppoit: .&*" )(# O,0$*#$ 6$)+ )*"#$ J,$)2#0( -),(*$&#'
suppoit: 5#'' *"0( )(#E6&6*" 6$)+ $#/&)(' ),*'&4# J,$)2#

claim: . 0225&-0*&)( (,+?#$' 6)$ 1)+2,*#$ 3-&#(-# "0D# $&'#( '&/(&6&-0(*57
suppoit: *) +)$# *"0( dPP
inteipiet: !"# +)'* 5&8#57 $#0')( 6)$ *"&' &' *"# /$#0* &(*#$#'* &( 1)+2,*#$ 3-&#(-#
6$)+ 1"&(#'# 0225&-0(*'
inteipiet: 0(4 *"# (##4 6)$ .#55EO,05&6&#4 .)$8#$' &( >! 0(4 2$)B#-* +0(0/#+#(* &(
+0(7 4#D#5)2&(/ -),(*$&#'

claim: N *"#$# "0' ?##( 0 '"0$2 &(-$#0'# &( *"# (,+?#$ )6 0225&-0*&)(' 6)$ 4#/$##'
&( e&6# 3-&#(-#'
suppoit: .&*" 6&D# *&+#' 0' +0(7 0225&-0*&)(' &( cPKP 0' &( cPPL
inteipiet: U0*#.07 Q(&D#$'&*7 "0' 0 $02&457 /$).&(/ $#2,*0*&)( &( #(D&$)(+#(*05
+0(0/#+#(* $#'#0$-"F ."&-" -),54 #T250&( *"# &(-$#0'&(/ 2)2,50$&*7 )6 *"#'#
4#/$##'

+,)- 9
=*))#4>( ,")?(@
This infoimation comes fiom backgiounu knowleuge about the univeisity. Roy
Williams knows a lot about the type anu quality of couises which the univeisity
offeis because he has to maiket these couises to oveiseas stuuents. Be can use
this knowleuge to inteipiet the uata.

+,)- <
</& c, e, u, a, b
</. , S
4 I
5 C
6 C
( S

+,)- &U
, The wiitei has changeu the infoimation by giouping some of the categoiies in
Figuie 2 togethei to give a moie geneial oveiview.
4 She wants a cleai contiast between uiiect anu inuiiect income fiom teaching.


'())*" .

+,)- &
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
&/& , money which is ieceiveu by the univeisity fiom a iange of souices.
4 applications fiom oveiseas stuuents foi a iange of couises.
&/. , oveiseas stuuents pioviue the laigest souice of uiiect income fiom fees.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 the most populai couises aie in the fielus of management anu Computei
Science.
&/0 , ieseaich giants pioviue a significant amount of income.
4 theie has been a shaip inciease in the numbei of applicants foi Life Sciences.

+,)- .
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, Application numbeis ¡ have iisen
4 a shaip inciease ¡ the numbei of applications
5 The numbei of applications ¡ has fallen
6 a significant fall ¡ application numbeis
( Application numbeis ¡ have iemaineu
7 iapiuly giowing

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, at S6%.
4 . About S4% of income is fiom this souice.
5 to 2S in 2u1u.
6 . The numbei of applications has fallen to just ovei one-half the numbei in
2uu8.
( with S2u applications in 2u1u.
7 at Su.

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
1/& , maximizeu - )D#$; minimizeu - )(57, 5#'' *"0(
4 iepoiteu as shown - B,'* )D#$
5 maximizeu - +)$# *"0(
6 maximizeu - 6&D# *&+#' 0' +0(7

+,)- 2
, 2
4 4
5 1
6 S

+,)- 3
\*6(> ,")?(@
Bi }ian,
I'm soiiy that youi giaues aien't goou enough foi Balmoial. It's a ieally uifficult
univeisity to go to. But that's goou foi me, because maybe you can ueciue to
come to uateway. You shoulu stuuy !"# U0*#8##2#$ league tables on the web.
They give a ianking foi uiffeient univeisities, so you can compaie them. The top
univeisity has a scoie of 1uu, anu all the othei univeisities have points out of
1uu. 0niveisities move up anu uown the ianking each yeai, uepenuing on theii
peifoimance. This yeai, uateway moveu up nine places, which is ieally goou.

EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
uateway has an oveiall scoie of 69, which is a little less than St Nungo's,
although the stuuents say the quality of teaching at both univeisities is the same.
Stuuents aie moie satisfieu with the teaching at Biashei but much less happy
with Bougson, which only gets 72% foi stuuent satisfaction. This is piobably
because the class sizes at uateway anu Bougson aie quite laige, with an aveiage
of 2u stuuents in a class, wheieas St Nungo's anu Biashei only have 1S stuuents
in a class on aveiage.

Bowevei, the chances of getting a job at the enu of youi stuuies aie bettei if you
come to uateway. Seventy-five pei cent of uateway stuuents finu woik at the enu
of theii stuuies, compaieu with 74% foi St Nungo's anu 7S% foi Biashei.

So, I hope I've peisuaueu you that uateway is a goou univeisity. It is moving up
the league table veiy iapiuly, which means that the quality is impioving a lot.
You also have a goou chance of getting a job at the enu of youi uegiee.

See you, I hope.

Chen


'())*" 0

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
./& , 2
4 4
5 1
6 S
./. , uuy thinks English is uominant, but Chen is not so suie. Be thinks Chinese
coulu be uominant now.
4 uuy's claims: English is the global language.; The Inteinet staiteu with English,
so it's piobably still the main language.
Chen's claims: A lot moie people in China can now access the Inteinet.; Theie aie
lots of websites in Chinese now anu lots of people in China.
5 , uuy
4 uuy
5 Chen
6 Chen

+,)- 0
0/& stiong language to show ceitainty: &*X' )?D&),'; #D#$7)(# 8().' *"0*; &*X'
#D#$7."#$#; 5)*' )6 N ; +)'*
cautious language to show unceitainty: B,'* ?#-0,'# N *"0* 4)#'(X* +#0(N ;
2$)?0?57; +07?#
0/. 2$)?0?57; +07?#
A*$(B +07?# is useu in speaking but not in acauemic wiiting.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- 1
1/& uuy piesents his aiguments stiongly. Chen also uses some stiong language
(5)*' )6; +)'*), but he is moie unceitain than uuy. uuy's style is often useu foi
spoken aigument anu Chen's is moie like acauemic aigument, although he uses
+07?#, which is foi speaking anu not foi acauemic wiiting.
1/. They ueciue to consult the seaich engine uoogle to tiy to finu out how many
people speak English as fiist oi foieign language.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Table 1: , English
4 Chinese
5 }apanese; ueiman

Table 2: 6 Asia; Euiope; Noith Ameiica
( These iegions aie compaiatively wealthy (laige uBP), so they aie moie likely
to be able to affoiu to buy computeis.
7 Noith Ameiica; Euiope
; all the otheis, especially Asia

+,)- 3
3/& answeis as foi Task S
3/. uuy wins in the shoit teim, as the figuies show that English is still the
uominant language, but only just. They concluue that China's online population
will giow quickly compaieu with the populations of Noith Ameiica anu Euiope,
so Chinese will be uominant on the Inteinet soon.

+,)- 8
8/& , F
4 T
5 F
6 T
( F
7 F
8/. The uata is ieliable enough to help uuy anu Chen iesolve theii aigument.
8/0 If they wanteu to use the uata to suppoit a wiitten aigument, they woulu
have to make theii claims moie cautious, e.g., 'English still seems to be the
uominant language on the Inteinet, but Chinese is likely to oveitake English in
the neai futuie.'

+,)- 9
open

+,)- <
open


'())*" 1
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

+,)- &
, Inteinet useis who speak English
4 The numbei of Chinese speakeis woiluwiue
5 The piopoition of English speakeis with Inteinet access
6 The numbei of Inteinet useis in Asia
( The size of the population in Noith Ameiica
7 The piopoition of people in the Afiican iegion who have access to the Inteinet

+,)- .
, Inteinet useis who speak English foim the laigest gioup online.
4 The numbei of Chinese speakeis woiluwiue is slightly laigei than the numbei
of English speakeis.
5 The piopoition of English speakeis with Inteinet access is laigei than the
piopoition of Chinese speakeis who can access the Inteinet.
6 The numbei of Inteinet useis in Asia is the laigest in the woilu.
( The size of the population in Noith Ameiica is smallei than the size of the
Euiopean population.
7 The piopoition of people in the Afiican iegion who have access to the Inteinet
is the smallest of all the woilu iegions.

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, }ust unuei Su pei cent of the total online population uses English.
4 Theie aie 1,S6S million Chinese speakeis but only 1,247 million English
speakeis.
5 Wheieas S7 pei cent of English speakeis can access the Inteinet, only 24 pei
cent of Chinese speakeis can.
6 0vei 4u pei cent of Inteinet useis come fiom the Asian iegion.
( 0nly SS8 million people live in Noith Ameiica wheieas 8u4 million people live
in Euiope.
7 Inteinet penetiation in the Afiican iegion is only 6 pei cent.

+,)- 1
1/& , cause: The numbei of Inteinet useis
effect: the uBP
4 cause: The uBP
effect: the numbei of Inteinet useis
1/. =*))#4>( ,")?(@
It is moie likely that the wealth of a iegion causes moie people to be able to
affoiu computeis anu to go online.

+,)- 2
2/& c
2/. b
2/0 =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
a It seems fiom Table 2 that theie coulu be a link between the uBP of a iegion
anu the numbei of Inteinet useis in that iegion.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
u The uBP of a iegion coulu be one factoi in ueteimining the numbei of Inteinet
useis in that iegion.

+,)- 3
3/& Fiench
3/. , C+R
4 C+R
5 C+R
6 C+R+L (*"&' 50(/,0/#)
( L (*"&' 5). 6&/,$#)
7 L (*"#'# -),(*$&#')
; C+R

+,)- 8
Sentence 4 staits with new infoimation fiom the cells in the table. This sentence
is auuing new uetails to the pievious sentence (S), which pioviue suppoit foi
sentence 2. Sentence 4 coulu have been piesenteu as a piepositional phiase
auueu to sentence S, e.g., 'with only aiounu 74 million people using Fiench
online'. Bowevei, this woulu have maue sentence S too long anu unwieluy.


'())*" 2

+,)- &
, 2
4 2
5 S
6 1
( 1 anu S
7 S

+,)- .
, & uWS
. NS
4 & NS
. uWS
5 & uWS
. NS

+,)- 0
Naysoun can tiy to finu uata to suppoit the claims of eithei siue, in the same way
that uuy anu Chen ueciueu to uo to iesolve theii aigument in Lesson S.

+,)- 1
1/& Puipose: The website has been publisheu to examine the aiguments of global
waiming sceptics anu to countei theii claims with eviuence fiom peei-ievieweu
scientific ieseaich.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
viewpoint: The website shows the two opposing siues of the global waiming
uebate. The sceptics' aiguments aie shown fiist, so that the authoi can countei
them using uata fiom publisheu ieseaich.
Authoi: The authoi is a scientist who stuuieu solai physics at the 0niveisity of
Queenslanu, Austialia. Be uoes not ieceive money to publish the website anu is
not connecteu to any oiganizations oi political gioups.
Quality: The authoi bases his claims on uata fiom publisheu ieseaich. Be gives
the souices of this ieseaich anu pioviues links to the papeis. All these papeis
weie checkeu by expeits befoie they weie publisheu in acauemic jouinals.
1/. Yes, because theie aie satisfactoiy answeis to all the questions. Naysoun
coulu iefei to this website in hei seminai. It is a goou place to finu the aiguments
all collecteu togethei.

+,)- 2
The giaph seems to challenge this claim. 0ntil 197S, the two tienus appeai to be
similai, suggesting that theie is a ielationship between heat fiom the sun anu the
aveiage global tempeiatuie. Bowevei, aftei 197S, tempeiatuies iose while heat
fiom the sun iemaineu stable. This means that iecent global waiming must have
a uiffeient cause.

+,)- 3
The giaph seems to challenge this claim. Theie is a cleai uiffeience between
tempeiatuies in uiban sites anu iuial sites, with iaiseu tempeiatuies in the
foimei. Bowevei, the continuous lines which show the oveiall tienus have the
same giauient foi both uiban anu iuial sites. This suggests that the unueilying
waiming is the same foi both types of site, anu the effect of uiban heat is not
significant.



EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
!"#$ &U


'())*" &

+,)- &
, uuy (Be is not systematic.)
4 Chen (Be seems willing to tiy new ways of ievising anu to look foi infoimation
himself.) Naysoun (She makes notes anu looks foi examples.)
5 Naysoun (She matches hei ievision to hei stiengths.)
6 open

+,)- .
, column 2; functions
4 open (Functions aie useu to get things uone in wiitten anu spoken text. They
aie tiansfeiable to all uisciplines which use language to communicate iueas.)

+,)- 0
, : 4
, 2; in oiuei to
4 4; is opposite
5 1; Keep
6 7; is usually moie ieliable than
( 8; is a piocess which
7 S; useu to be . became
; S; because
G 6; Almost one half

5 open

+,)- 1
1/& =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
technical vocabulaiy: 6))4 2)&')(&(/; ?0-*#$&0; D&$,'#'; '7+2*)+'; D)+&*&(/;
4&0$$")#0; -0+275)?0-*#$; ,(20'*#,$&Y#4; '05+)(#550
geneial acauemic vocabulaiy: '")$*E*#$+; -)(*0+&(0*#4; -0,'#; $0(/#; *$#(4;
-)(-#$(; 60-*)$'; &( 044&*&)(; *$0('6#$$#4; (-)+# &(*)) -)(*0-*; '#D#$#; 0D)&4
1/. =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
explaineu in the text: 6))4 2)&')(&(/ (uefineu); -0+275)?0-*#$ (geneial noun:
?0-*#$&,+); 40&$7 (examples: +&58, -"##'#) $0. (contiast with -))8#4)
appioximate unueistanuing: D&$,'#'; '7+2*)+'; D)+&*&(/; 4&0$$")#0;
-0+275)?0-*#$; ,(20'*#,$&Y#4; '05+)(#550
1/0 =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
gieen: cause anu effect
blue: uesciibe piocesses
pink: compaie, contiast, evaluate
yellow: explain change anu uevelopment
1/1 open

+,)- 2
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
open

+,)- 3
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Compaiison-contiast
uominance: -)++)(
ielative cause (C)¡effect (E): 40(/#$),' ¡ '#D#$#
link woius: ?,*
ielative fiequency: 6$#O,#(*57
ielative uuiation: 5)(/#$

Cause-effect
nouns anu noun phiases: -0,'# ¡ $0(/# ¡ $#0')( ¡ 60-*)$'
veib patteins: &' ¡ 5#04
link woius: ?#-0,'#

+,)- 8
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
*"&'¡*"# + geneial noun: *"# $#0')(; *"# &(-$#0'#; *"# ?0-*#$&,+
aujective + noun: &(-$#0'&(/ &(*#$(0*&)(05 *$0D#5; $0. +#0*'f6))4'; ,(20'*#,$&Y#4
40&$7 2$)4,-*'; -))8#4 6))4'; '#D#$# &55(#''; 2$)2#$ -))8&(/; $,((&(/ .0*#$; *"#
'0+# 250-#; ')+# '&+25# '*#2'
noun + noun¡uoing noun: '*)+0-" 20&(; 40&$7 2$)4,-*'; '")$*E*#$+ &55(#'';
8&*-"#( .)$8 ',$60-#'
uoing noun + noun: 2$#20$&(/ 6))4
noun + )6 + noun¡6)$ + noun: !"# (,+?#$ )6 -0'#' )6 6))4 2)&')(&(/; 0 -)(-#$( 6)$
2,?5&- "#05*"; !"# $#0')( 6)$ *"# &(-$#0'#; 0 (,+?#$ )6 60-*)$'; !"# +)'* -)++)(
-0,'# )6 6))4 2)&')(&(/; 0 '+055 (,+?#$ )6 ?0-*#$&0

+,)- 9
open


'())*" .

+,)- &
, =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
to help stuuents unueistanu the oveiall exam foimat
to help stuuents unueistanu the types of questions
to enable stuuents to iuentify theii own weaknesses anu stiengths anu what they
neeu to woik on
4 =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
S (anu possibly 2)
(The analysis in S gives stuuents a stiategic view of exams, so they can pick out
geneial aspects which will apply to all the exams they meet. With appioach 1,
stuuents uo not gain a geneial unueistanuing of exams.)

+,)- .
./& , =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
1 Enviionmental Stuuies
2 Inteinational Business
S Enviionmental Stuuies
4 Computei Science
S Inteinational Business
6 Computei Science
7 Enviionmental Stuuies
8 Computei Science
9 Inteinational Business
4 2; 4 (seveial uefinitions iequiieu); S; 6; 8; 9
./. , 1 cause anu effect
2 uefine; cause anu effect
S uefine; classify anu give examples
4 uefine
S uefine; compaie anu contiast
6 uefine; uesciibe piocess
7 evaluate; compaie anu contiast
8 explain change; evaluate
9 uefine; classify anu give examples; compaie anu contiast
4 cause anu effect: ]"0* 0$# *"# #66#-*' )6 N V; !) ."0* #T*#(* &' N '&+&50$ *) NA V
uefine: ]"0* &' N V ; JT250&( ."0* &' +#0(* ?7 N ; JT250&( *"# -)(-#2* )6 N
compaie anu contiast: ]"0* 0$# *"# 4&66#$#(-#' ?#*.##( N V ; !) ."0* #T*#(* &' N
'&+&50$ *) NV ; 1)+20$# *"&' N
uesciibe piocess: JT250&( "). N
explain change: :). "0' N -"0(/#4V

+,)- 0
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
0/& , topic: 2)55,*&)(
specific aspects: &( 0 $,$05 #(D&$)(+#(*
functional language: *"# +0&( '),$-#' )6 .
4 topic: &(650*&)(
specific aspects: "&/" &(650*&)(
functional language: *"# #66#-*' )6 N
5 topic: >(*#$(#*
specific aspects: -"0(/#4 2#)25#X' 5&D#'
functional language: -"0(/#4 Z -"0(/#'
0/. Yes, c

+,)- 1
, topic: -)+2,*#$E?0'#4 5#0$(&(/; -50''$))+ 5#0$(&(/
specific aspects: 04D0(*0/#' 0(4 4&'04D0(*0/#'
functional language: -)+20$#4 .&*"
4 topic: -)E)2#$0*&D# +)D#+#(*
specific aspects: 4#-5&(#; &( *"# Q=
functional language: 60-*)$' -)(*$&?,*#4 *)
5 topic: >(4,'*$&05 M#D)5,*&)(; /5)?05 -5&+0*# -"0(/#; #-)()+7
specific aspects: &( 7),$ -),(*$7
functional language: *"# 5&(8 ?#*.##(
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
6 topic: >(*#$(#*
specific aspects: 50(/,0/# &' 4)+&(0(*
functional language: -"0(/# &( *"# 6,*,$#

Questions a anu u iequiie viewpoints.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, 6 mins
4 S mins
5 1u mins
6 18 mins
( 6 mins
7 9 mins
; 1S mins
G 1S mins
# Su mins

(The text is 77u woius long. At aiounu 12u-1Su woius pei minute it shoulu take
6 minutes to ieau. The total numbei of maiks is Su foi ieauing anu 2u foi
wiiting, i.e., 7u in total. This gives an appioximate time foi each maik of 1.S
minutes.)

+,)- 3
3/& No, you can usually uo the tasks in any oiuei, although you neeu to ieau anu
take notes befoie you wiite.
3/. If you iun out of time, you shoulu usually leave the task anu come back to it.


'())*" 0

+,)- &
open

+,)- .
./& e; fiom the title of the book at the enu of the text
./. =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, explain how; staiteu
4 uefine; aims
5 explain; uevelopment
6 evaluate; effectiveness
( uesciibe; cuiient maiket situation
7 infoim consumeis
; explain; piinciples; how; maintaineu
G uesciibe; activities; oiganizations; similai aims

+,)- 0
, The inciease in sales volume is given in paiagiaph 1 of the text.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 : 5 Compaie columns foi 2uu7 anu 2uu8 in Table 1 to calculate giowth iate,
but it shoulu be easy to see that sales foi tea anu cotton have uoubleu.
6 : ( Finu the laigest numbeis in the column foi 2uu8 in Table 1 foi 0K sales.
The peicentage giowth coulu be calculateu to check, because this is given in the
iepoit.
7 : ; Look at Table 2 in the column foi giowth iates to finu the uata |4S pei cent
anu 1u pei centj anu match to the countiies.
G : # Finu countiies with giowth iates of sales between Su pei cent anu 7u pei
cent, i.e., not above 7u pei cent.
H, - : > Finu countiies with sales giowth above 7u pei cent.

+,)- 1
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, 1; 2; 4; S; 6
4 1; 2; 4; 6
5 1; S; 6

+,)- 2
2/& , 0nueistanu the uiffeience between giving money anu ieceiving a piouuct
anu giving money but ieceiving nothing in ietuin.
4 0nueistanu that chiluien woulu be fieeu fiom uoing unpaiu woik anu coulu
affoiu to attenu school.
0nueistanu that the stability fiom the long-teim paitneiship coulu inciease
employment piospects foi auults anu ieinvestment to make woik piactices
safei.
5 0nueistanu that the volume of sales is laigei in a supeimaiket than a Faiitiaue
shop anu that people go to supeimaikets iegulaily foi othei puiposes but not to
Faiitiaue shops.
2/. This answei is copieu exactly fiom the text anu uoes not answei the
question. It uesciibes the uevelopment of Faiitiaue sales but uoes not explain
the auvantages of a supeimaiket ovei a Faiitiaue shop.

+,)- 3
3/& The main function is inuicateu by the woiu 60-*)$', which shows that the
essay is about ieasons why Faiitiaue is successful. In auuition, theie is a
uefinition anu a shoit checklist - .07' *) +#0',$# - which can be useu to
evaluate the success of the Faiitiaue movement.
3/. Task 4, question b is the answei iequiieu in the notes next to the heauing
',--#''. Question c ielates uiiectly to the thiiu factoi, '*0(40$4'.
Task S, question b ielates uiiectly to the seconu factoi, 20$*(#$'"&2', anu
question S ielates to the fouith factoi, +0$8#*&(/.
3/0 open

+,)- 8
open




EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u

=@,5$#5( (e,F &

+,)- &
&/& f
&/. , 2
4 1
5 4
6 6
( 1
; S
G S

+,)- .
, 22%
4 tea
5 cotton
6 coffee¡bananas
( bananas¡coffee
7 the 0niteu Kinguom
; the 0niteu States
G Canaua¡ueimany
# ueimany¡Canaua
H Austialia anu New Zealanu¡Noiway¡Sweuen
- Austialia anu New Zealanu¡Noiway¡Sweuen
> Austialia anu New Zealanu¡Noiway¡Sweuen

+,)- 0
, S
4 S
5 1
6 2

+,)- 1
, =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
Consumeis can benefit pooiei people in a piactical way that is guaianteeu by the
system. They get a goou piouuct. Consumeis feel moie connecteu to piouuceis
in ueveloping countiies anu moie awaie of the effects of giving.
4 The success of the Faiitiaue movement coulu be measuieu in teims of:
- incieaseu sales anu expanuing maikets foi Faiitiaue piouucts;
- bettei quality of life foi piouuceis: incieaseu income, impioveu piouuction
piactices, moie political powei to ensuie theii views aie heaiu.
5 It is impoitant because it helps to ensuie that consumeis know that the label
can be tiusteu anu that the benefits ieach piouuceis in ueveloping countiies.

+,)- 2
=*))#4>( ,")?(@)
, When uonating money to a chaiity, giveis gets nothing in ietuin except the
knowleuge that they aie uoing something goou. Receiveis aie not able to iepay
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
the money anu may not be able to use it to builu a bettei life. 0ften, ieceiveis uo
not have the powei to say how the money shoulu be useu.
4 The incieaseu income fiom faii piices coulu help to pay foi school fees anu the
chiluien in the family woulu not be iequiieu to leave school in oiuei to woik on
the faim.
0luei membeis of the family might be able to affoiu bettei health caie.
The long-teim paitneiship between piouuceis anu buyeis, which leaus to
stability anu a chance to expanu piouuction, might cieate moie jobs.
Safei piouuction piactices mean less injuiy anu so less time off woik.
5 Nany moie people shop in supeimaikets than in Faiitiaue shops, so theie is
potential foi incieasing sales. All kinus of people go into supeimaikets anu might
be peisuaueu to buy Faiitiaue piouucts, wheieas only people who alieauy know
about Faiitiaue go into Faiitiaue shops.

+,)- 3
see mouel notes

\*6(> "*$()
Faiitiaue (uefinition)
= social movement
- help faimeis get faii piices
- impiove lives by extia payment

Success (two ways to measuie)
- giowth: steauy giowth since 19Sus; 2uu8 Faiitiaue global consumei spenuing
= £2.S billion, 22% inciease fiom 2uu7
- impact on piouuceis' quality of life ! moie employment¡bettei euucation

Factois leauing to success
1. faiiness
- |natuial tenuency foi people to want to help otheisj
- consumeis¡piouuceis linkeu moie uiiectly ! consumeis awaie of
issues
- a uepenuence on maikets which fix piices
- people in West help ueveloping countiies uuiing famine¡natuial
uisasteis
- Tiaiuciaft¡ieligious gioups piomote faiiness in inteinational tiaue
2. paitneiships
- Tiaiuciaft¡ieligious gioups¡links to tiaue oiganizations in ueveloping
countiies
- |Faiitiaue benefit as pait of laigei uevelopmentj
- Long-teim paitneiships buyeis¡piouuceis ! stability ! plan¡impiove
piactices
S. stanuaius
- piinciples piomote faiiness
- piouuceis foim co-opeiative¡tiaue union ! gain powei ! challenge
unfaii piactices
- Faiitiaue labelling ! guaiantees stanuaius ! |consumeis tiust labelj
4. maiketing
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
- Faiitiaue labels ! piouucts solu in supeimaikets ! |ieach moie
peoplej


+,)- 8
see mouel answei

\*6(> ,")?(@
Faiitiaue is a social movement which aims to pay faimeis in ueveloping
countiies a faii piice foi theii goous with an auuitional payment to help them
impiove theii local communities (Aguilai, 2uu9). The movement began in the 0K
in the 19Sus anu has spieau to many countiies aiounu the woilu. 0ne way to
measuie the bianu's success is to look at its sales values, which in the 0K
uoubleu between 2uu4 anu 2uu6 anu moie than uoubleu again between 2uu6
anu 2uu8 (Faiitiaue Founuation). Anothei way is to consiuei the impact on the
quality of life of faimeis anu theii communities in ueveloping countiies. Seveial
stuuies have shown that this impioves significantly with a Faiitiaue paitneiship.
A numbei of factois contiibute to this success. Nost people feel goou about
buying piouucts which enable them to help people in ueveloping countiies, anu
this seems a faii thing to uo. Faiitiaue makes consumeis moie awaie of the issue
of faiiness in woilu tiaue anu enables them to make a small contiibution.
Paitneiships aie anothei impoitant factoi. The Faiitiaue movement has
benefiteu fiom paitneiships establisheu by uevelopment oiganizations anu
ieligious gioups in the uevelopeu countiies with tiaue oiganizations in
ueveloping countiies. In tuin, it maintains long-teim paitneiships between
piouuceis anu buyeis. This enables the faiming community to plan foi the futuie
anu impiove piactices.
It is impoitant foi Faiitiaue to follow piinciples to piomote faiiness anu set
stanuaius, so that consumeis tiust the bianu anu continue to buy it. The
piinciples incluue co-opeiative owneiship oi the iight to foim tiaue unions. The
Faiitiaue Labelling 0iganization is iesponsible foi maintaining stanuaius by
caiiying out inspections.
The Faiitiaue label, intiouuceu in the 198us, meant that Faiitiaue piouucts
coulu be solu in supeimaikets, ieaching moie consumeis anu competing with
oiuinaiy goous. Laigei companies then became awaie of the label anu useu
Faiitiaue ingieuients so theii own piouucts coulu benefit fiom the bianu's
populaiity.


=@,5$#5( (e,F .

'#)$("#";

+,)- &
a; b; e

+,)- .
, uuy is going to go to the libiaiy to piepaie foi the seminai so he can
paiticipate, iathei than going home anu missing the seminai.
EBITEB BRAFT NAN0SCRIPT 0NLY, }une 2u1u
4 uuy is going to a libiaiy woikshop, getting help fiom his fiienus anu
completing the stuuy plan himself.
5 uuy asks Bi Nalik foi specific help with a Naths pioblem.

+,)- 0
4 foi infoimation
5 stiategic ¡ uominant
6 take contiol of youi ieauing
( shop ¡ shopping ¡ stoie guiue
7 essay ¡ ieseaich
; Bewey Becimal system ¡ SSS.7S
G to get a summaiy of the main featuies ¡ to finu (ielevant pages foi) the specific
topic
# quickly ¡ to get an oveiview¡the main topics ¡ slowly anu caiefully
H to uiscovei the authoi's viewpoint ¡ to get an oveiview
- uevelopeu ¡ eailiei¡pievious¡oiiginal
> libiaiy ¡ contents

+,)- 1
, a uepaitment stoie.
4 families.

+,)- 2
, 4
4 7
5 2
6 S
( 1
7 S
; 6

+,)- 3
, =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
2, because it examines a specific cause of pollution; S might pioviue a
backgiounu foi compaiisons with Syiia; 6, because although not about Syiia, the
locations aie close geogiaphically anu possibly at a similai stage of uevelopment;
7 will suggest answeis to pioblems of pollution
4 =*))#4>( ,")?(@)
1 is mainly about fish, although it may have infoimation about pollution in
ielation to fish faiming; 4 is not about pollution; S is about Biitain anu not
uiiectly about pollution



|Answei key enusj

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