PIPING DESIGN BASIS

___________________________________________________________________

















Pages modified under this revision: 12, 29




C1 Approved for Design
C. BACHELET R. ZAJ DMAN J . PANOSSIAN 17/11/2010
B2 Issued for Client approval
M. CHOLLET S. KADDOUR P H . R E S B E U T 21/07/2010
B1 Issued for Client approval
M. CHOLLET S. KADDOUR P H . R E S B E U T 06/05/2010
MARK DESCRIPTION BY CHKD APVD DATE
REVISIONS
CLIENT : Qatar Liquefied Gas Company Ltd.
PROJ ECT : Plateau Maintenance Project Onshore Facilities
J OB N°. : LTC/PMP/215/09
DOC N°. : 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
TCJ V N° : 9833N-0000-J SD-1300-002

















Cyril Bachelet
2010.11.17
10:55:11
+01'00'







Romain Zajdman
2010.11.17
11:53:08 +01'00'













Julie Panossian
2010.11.18
14:46:57 +01'00'

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Revision Table

All modifications between the previous and current revision are highlighted by a
vertical line in the left margin of the text.

Main changes are shown below:

N° Para / Section n° Explanation / Reason
1 4.4 reference of Attachment 1 for valve accessibility added
2 ATTACHMENT 1 Attachment 1 added














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CONTENTS

PROJECT SCOPE .....................................................................................................4
1. REFERENCES DOCUMENTS............................................................................4
1.1 DEFINITIONS AND ABREVIATIONS.................................................................................... 4
1.2 PROJ ECT SPECIFICATION AND STANDARD DRAWING................................................. 4
1.3 CODES AND STANDARD..................................................................................................... 5
2. GENERAL ...........................................................................................................5
3. DESIGN...............................................................................................................6
3.1 MATERIALS........................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Pressure and Temperature Criteria....................................................................................... 6
3.3 Determination of Wall Thickness ........................................................................................... 7
3.4 Sizing..................................................................................................................................... 8
3.5 Branch Connections............................................................................................................... 8
4. LAYOUT AND ARRANGEMENT........................................................................9
4.1 GENERAL.............................................................................................................................. 9
4.2 Clearance............................................................................................................................. 11
4.3 access and escape way....................................................................................................... 11
4.4 Valve Accessibility. .............................................................................................................. 12
4.5 Underground Piping............................................................................................................. 14
5. EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY ......................................................................14
6. PIPE SUPPORTS..............................................................................................15
7. JOINTS..............................................................................................................15
8. BLANKS AND STRAINERS .............................................................................16
9. VALVING...........................................................................................................17
10. VENTS, DRAINS, PUMP-OUT AND SAMPLE CONNECTIONS...................... 18
11. FITTINGS, BENDS AND MITERS.....................................................................18
12. UTILITY PIPING................................................................................................19
13. RELIEF SYSTEM PIPING.................................................................................19
14. STEAM PIPING.................................................................................................20
15. WATER PIPING ................................................................................................20
16. ANNEX A...........................................................................................................21
17. ANNEX B...........................................................................................................26
18. ANNEX C...........................................................................................................28

ATTACHMENT 1 – ACCESS CRITERIA FOR VALVE OPERATION

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PROJECT SCOPE

The present Project Procedure is established for the implementation of the Plateau Maintenance
Project – Onshore Facilities only (PMP) to be located nearby the Ras Laffan Industria City, on the
northern part of the Qatar peninsula.
1. REFERENCES DOCUMENTS
The latest edition of the following codes and standards as of Feb 25
th
2010 shall be applicable.
1.1 DEFINITIONS AND ABREVIATIONS

COMPANY: Qatar Liquefied Gas Company Ltd.
CONTRACTOR: Technip Chiyoda joint venture (TCJ V).
PMP: Plateau Maintenance Project – Onshore Facilities.

1.2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION AND STANDARD DRAWING

199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101 Piping Service Class
199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000001 Piping Flexibility and Stress Analysis Criteria
199/00/00/MP/TS/NA/000005 Technical Specification Pipe Supports Design and Fabrication
199/00/00/SP/TS/NA/000012 Technical Specification Protective Coatings.
199/00/00/SP/TS/NA/630032 Amendments to Technical Specification for Fabrication and
Installation of Piping
199/00/87/CI/DB/NA/000004 Amendments to Technical Specification - Design Specification
for Sewer and Drainage
199/00/00/MP/DR/TD/000103 Standard Drawing for Piping Arrangements
199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000072 plant layout guideline.
199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000072 Specification for Human Factors.
199/00/00/SP/TS/NA/000006 Amendments to Technical Specification installation of hot service
piping.
199/00/00/SP/TS/NA/000029 Amendments to Specification material & installation of cold
temperature service piping.
199/00/83/FF/DP/NA/000001 Fire protection & personal protection specification.
199/00/87/CS/PC/NA/000818 Tie-in procedure.



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1.3 CODES AND STANDARD

ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Standards

ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.34 Valves-Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60
ASME B31.1 Power Piping
ASME B31.3 Process Piping

API (American petroleum Institute) publications
API RP 520 Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in
Refineries
API RP 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurizing System S.
API Std 570 Piping inspection code.
API Std 600 Bolted bonnet steel gate valve, flanged & butt welding ends, bolted&
pressure seal bonnet.
API Std 602 Compact steel gate valve, flanged, threaded, welding & extended body
ends.

NEMA (National Electric Manufacturers Association) Code
SM23 Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service
2. GENERAL

2.1- Piping shall conform to the requirements of this specification and ASME B31.3 except where
superseded by more stringent local codes or regulations. In case of conflict between Project
Specification and ASME B31.3, the Project Specification shall govern.

2.2- This Specification modifies and supplements the requirements of ASME B31.3 (hereinafter
referred to as B31.3).

2.3- Boiler external piping between the boiler and the first block valve shall be in accordance with
ASME B31.1. All piping downstream the boiler first block valve (non boiler external piping)
shall be in accordance with this specification and B31.3.

2.4- Drainage & sewer piping shall be in accordance with project specification: Amendments to
Technical Specification - Design Specification for Sewer and Drainage
199/00/87/CI/DB/NA/000004.

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3. DESIGN
3.1 MATERIALS
The piping materials shall be in accordance with the specification 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101.

3.2 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CRITERIA

3.2.1- The design pressure and temperature shall be determined in accordance with this Section
and B31.3.

3.2.2- The design pressure of a piping system shall not be less than:

(a)The maximum pressure which can be attained in service when the pressure is not
limited by a relieving device, except the allowance for occasional pressure and
temperature variations permitted in B31.3.

(b) The set pressure of the pressure relieving device when a relieving device is installed.

3.2.3- The design of piping should provide the most severe coincident (occurring at the same
time) conditions of temperature, pressure and loading. The most severe conditions are
those which result in the greatest component thickness and the highest pressure rating.
When two or more conditions exist, they should be separately evaluated using design
pressure, design temperature, and loadings applicable to each case.

3.2.4 - In determining the operating pressure and temperature of a piping system, variations may
be expected because of operating fluctuations, other than upsets. When establishing
maximum operating conditions, these fluctuations should be considered as well as liquid
static head, fluid friction losses under clean and fouled conditions, pump and compressor
head characteristics, and pressure pulsations.

3.2.5 - The B31.3 Code does not require any margin between maximum operating conditions
(pressure and temperature) and design condition, however, it does not permit continuous
operation of a piping system at conditions exceeding design conditions. Short term (upset)
operation above the design conditions within the limits of B31.3 is acceptable.

3.2.6 - The design temperature should be the highest or lowest temperature to which the piping
system is subjected, plus a margin to cover uncertainties in temperature prediction. The
following are examples of conditions that may determine the piping system design
temperature.

(a) A maximum temperature which can occur when bypassing a heat exchanger or
cooler for cleaning.

(b) A high metal temperature on un-insulated pipe due to solar radiation.

(c) The lowest temperature that may be caused by auto-refrigeration.

(d) The maximum metal temperature that can occur during steam out or decoking
operation.


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(e) When flanges, valves and other components are not insulated, the temperature
allowance for un-insulated components described in B31.3 should not be used without
CONTRACTOR APPROVAL.

(Note: Many times, operating plants will decide to insulate these components at some
late date.)

3.2.7 - For piping subject to auto-refrigeration, the design minimum temperature shall be the
lowest metal temperature, which may be caused by auto-refrigeration.

3.2.8 - When external pressure (for example, in jacketed piping) is specified for design, possible
absence of internal pressure in the pipe shall be taken into consideration.

3.2.9 - Thermal relief valves shall be used to protect offsite piping when it can be blocked in and
over- pressured by solar radiation. Consideration should also be given to relieving any
possible excessive pressure in a blocked-in section of piping on process unit, particularly
in systems with class 150 flanges. Typical causes of pressure rises are solar radiation and
heat exchanger lines that are blocked.

3.2.10 - Piping downstream of equipment, such as heat exchangers and control valves, shall not
be designed for the lower pressure resulting from pressure drop through the equipment if
the pressure can increase because of downstream fouling or inadvertent closing valve.
Valves that are locked or sealed open during operation and closed only for maintenance
should not be used, but if they are installed, closing of such valves need not be considered
in determination of the design pressure.

3.2.11 - LNG rundown loading and circulation lines, as well as boil-off gas lines, shall be designed
for full vacuum to enable vacuum drying during commissioning. MCR and propane
compressor suction lines shall also be designed for full vacuum.

3.3 DETERMINATION OF WALL THICKNESS

3.3.1 - The thickness of pipe and other components not having specific pressure ratings shall be
determined using the process design conditions and the formulas in B31.3. The corrosion
allowance, mechanical allowances and manufacturer’s minus tolerance, when applicable,
shall be included in determining minimum required thickness for pressure containment.

3.3.2 - Pressure classes, wall thickness of pipe and other components shall be determined using
design conditions. Where calculated wall thickness (considering manufacturer’s minus
tolerance) exceeds the nearest commercially available wall thickness by 0.1 mm, the
corrosion allowance may be adjusted but is subjected to COMPANY APPROVAL.

3.3.3 - The allowance for corrosion or erosion in piping shall be determined by the intended
service and shall be added to all surfaces exposed to flowing medium.

3.3.4 - Nipples between equipment and the first block valve shall be made of material that at least
equals whichever of the following is most corrosion resistant, connected equipment liner,
or connecting piping. In case of impossibility (cladded equipment) battery limit between
equipment/piping should be relocated.

3.3.5 – The calculated stresses for non-pressure parts should not exceed the basic allowable
stresses for the non-pressure parts at their maximum operating temperatures. The
calculated stresses for non-pressure parts for the erection, or short-time conditions, when
combined with wind or seismic loads, should not exceed 1.33 of the basic allowable
stresses.

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3.4 SIZING

3.4.1 - Hydraulic calculations must be performed to confirm the total pressure drops and pressure
balance within the piping system, regardless of whether the lines meet the allowable
pressure drop and velocity.

3.4.2 - Except for instrument takeoff, heat tracers, and connections to equipment, the minimum
size of piping shall be NPS 3/4 when located aboveground. When buried, the minimum
size of piping shall be NPS 2. Instrument piping and heat tracers shall be NPS 1/2 or 10
mm (3/8 in.) O.D. tubing minimum. The maximum tubing size shall be 25 mm (1 in.) O.D.

3.4.3 - Process lines in pipe racks shall be NPS 2 minimum, unless flow velocity is critical. Utility
lines installed on main pipe racks shall be a minimum of NPS 2, to provide for future
takeoffs and to reduce the need for intermediate supports.

3.4.4 - Unless needed to make a correction with equipment or instrument, pipe size NPS 3/8, 1-
1/4, 2-1/2, 3-1/2, 4-1/2, 5, 7,9 and 22 shall not be used.

3.4.5 - Connections to LNG piping at top of LNG tanks shall be at least NPS 2 and properly
installed.
3.5 BRANCH CONNECTIONS
3.5.1 - Branch connections shall be in accordance with 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101.

3.5.2- For small branches such as drain and vent connections, instrument air takeoffs and
instrument taps, the block valves shall be installed within 9 in. (229 mm) from O.D. of the
run pipe.

3.5.3 Care should be exercised in the detail design of branch connections to prevent
mechanical damage or breakage due to vibration or excessive force. All connections NPS
1.5 and smaller that may be subject to vibration mai require bracing. Connections that may
require bracing include instruments, vent, drain connections, particularly where two block
valves are required.


3.5.4 - Full-sized or reduced branches at angle other than 90 degrees shall not be employed
except when required because of flow and pressure drop considerations (for example, in
flare lines and blow-down lines). The following restrictions apply:

(a) The angle between branch and the run pipe shall not be less than 45 degrees. It is
preferred that the centerlines of the branch intersect the centerline of the run pipe.

3.5.5 - Flexibility shall be provided in branch connections, especially small connections such as
drain and trap lines, instrument connections, etc., where piping is subject to large thermal
movements. The preferred location for the connections near anchors or guides where the
movements of the main lines are the smallest

3.5.6 - NPT 1/8 tapped holes should be provided in branch reinforcement pads for pressure
testing purpose and to serve as telltale hole. For no insulated lines, the hole should be
sealed with suitable plastic plug, grease or putty for corrosion protection. Threaded
metallic plugs should not be used.

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4. LAYOUT AND ARRANGEMENT
4.1 GENERAL

4.1.1 - Lines shall be located in as neat and orderly manner (in groups or banks when feasible) as
is consistent with economical design, pressure loss and other process considerations, and
satisfactory supporting arrangements. Unit areas shall not be cluttered with scattered pipe
support columns supporting randomly placed overhead lines.

4.1.2 - When designing new pipe ways (pipe racks), ensure that adequate space (corridors) is
allocated for the following, where appropriate:
• Cable trays
• Firewater piping
• Ducting
• Access platforms
• Operation and maintenance access ways

4.1.3 - For the new pipe racks within existing LNG process area train, a future spare (about 5%)
is required.
For the pipe racks and sleeper ways, such as utility pipe rack shall be designed for the full
staged development, and include 20% spare space available for future expansion.

4.1.4 - In process units where the layout requires that main unit pipe racks intersect, different
elevations shall be established for lines running north-south and east-west. Pipes should
change elevations where entering or leaving the pipe way and, where feasible, at each
change of direction of the piping to avoid interference with the routing of future lines or
additions to the pipe way. Change in elevation should not be used if their use interferes
with the routing of futures lines.
.
4.1.5 - Piping shall be arranged to allow the removal of equipment without removing the block
valves adjacent to the equipment and large quantities of associated equipment or piping.

4.1.6 - Pockets shall be avoided in lines carrying caustic, acid, or materials that may congeal or
freeze or in lines containing solids that may settle out (especially in flare lines and in lines
where water can accumulate and subsequently be flashed to steam when the unit is
brought on stream). Pockets shall also be avoided in which corrosive condensate may
form.

4.1.7 - Equipment subject to damage by heat, such as motor-operated valves, should not be
located where heat can exceed the design temperature of the equipment. Avoid routing
lines containing cold high-vapour pressure fluid near un-insulated hot lines or equipment,
especially suction lines to pumps handling such fluids.

4.1.8 - Avoid routing lines with flanged joints, threaded connections, high radiant heat, or high
pressures near instrument / electrical cable trays

4.1.9 - The piping layout should consider the need for symmetrical piping around equipment for
flow and mechanical considerations

4.1.10 - At battery limits, provide steam out manifolds where facility requires steam out operation.
Each manifold shall have a minimum of 3 outlets.


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4.1.11 - Un-insulated lines passing through firewalls / dikes shall be coated for corrosion
protection. When the lines are installed in sleeves, the sleeve shall be coated steel pipe
or glass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe and each end of the sleeve shall be provided with a
seal having an appropriate fire rating (for example, Thunderline Link Seals, stainless steel
bellows, or lean mortar mixture).

4.1.12 – Insulated lines passing through firewalls/ dikes mai be installed by either of the following
methods:

1) Insulated with the appropriate insulation and covered with a moisture proof
jacketing, such as stainless steel or glass reinforced plastic (GRP). If a pipe
sleeve is not used, the stress analysis of the piping system shall consider the
earth dike a fixed point in the system.
2) Insulated with the appropriate insulation and installed in a pipe sleeve with
each end of the sleeve provided with a seal having the appropriate fire rating
(for example, Thunderline link Seals or stainless steel bellows).

4.1.13 - Both insulated and un-insulated lines passing through concrete such as walls, decks, and
paving shall be installed in sleeves. Both pipe and sleeve shall be coated for corrosion
protection. Each end of the sleeve shall be sealed with material having appropriate fire
rating (for example, Thunderline link seals, lean mortar mixture, or stainless steel bellows).

4.1.14 - Piping shall be designed with sufficient random length and field welds, especially at
rotating equipment, to permit the efficient installation of spool pieces and completion of the
tie-ins without strain to equipment or piping.

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4.2 CLEARANCE

Consideration shall be given to access for maintenance equipment such as fork lifts, crane,
bundle pullers for heat exchangers, and clear lifts required to pick up equipment such as pumps
and the drivers in addition to human access. Suitable clearance, both vertically and horizontally,
shall be provided for maintenance of equipment. For minimum clearance, see Table-1.


Table-1 Clearances
Item Minimum
Clearance (m) (*)
Roads, access ways and crane ways (truck and mobile) – Headroom
for primary access road (where major maintenance vehicles are
expected to pass)
6.4
Railroads (subject to local regulations) – Headroom from top of rail 6.5
Horizontal clearance from track centerline to obstruction 2.6
Internal area unit: clearance from edge of road to platforms, equipment,
pipe, etc.
1.5
Unit area crane way – Headroom 5.5
Pump maintenance access way horizontal clearance, not necessarily
in straight line
3.0
Pump maintenance access way – Headroom 3.7
Maintenance passage ways and walk ways – Horizontal clearance,
not necessarily in straight line
1.0 (**)
Headroom (except for hand-wheels, which may be 2 m.) 2.3
Pipe on sleepers – Clearance, bottom of pipe to finished grade,
unless otherwise specified in Project Specifications
0.4
Pipe (aboveground) – Clearance between outside diameter of flange
and outside diameter of pipe and/or the insulation
25 mm (***)
Clearance outside diameter of flange, pipe, or the insulation and
structural member.
See Annex A
Notes
(*) Clearance is defined as the clear space between extreme projections.
(**) For infrequently used access way including equipment platform, use 0.8 m. Where valves or
instruments requiring working space are located in an access way, minimum clearance shall be
1 m.
(***) The minimum clearance listed is in addition to the clearance required for thermal
displacement of the piping.

4.3 ACCESS AND ESCAPE WAY.
Platform access - See Annex -C

The maximum height of ladder between 2 platforms shall not exceed 9 meters.

4.3.1 - In high hazard occupancy area: A minimum of 2 separate and remote exits shall be provided for
every building, floor, structure, section, area or module Valve Accessibility.


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4.4 VALVE ACCESSIBILITY.

Valve Clearance - See annex A.
Valve Accessibility – See ATTACHMENT 1

4.4.1 – For all valves large bore >/=10 inches or the total weight of valve requiring a hoisting
device, minimum overhead clearance above hand-wheels valve shall be at 2000 mm.

4.4.2 - All piping equipment, especially valves, requiring regular attention by the operating and
maintenance personnel shall be accessible from grade or platform. Motor-operated valves
and emergency isolation valves, battery limit valves, and relief valves shall be accessible
from permanent platform or grade.

4.4.3 - Control valves shall be located at grade or at permanent platform. Locations at grade
should be along pipe rack columns, at tower bases, or adjacent to equipment, so as not to
interfere with the operation or maintenance of other equipment. Sufficient clearance, both
vertically and horizontally, shall be provided for maintenance of the control valves.

4.4.4 - To the extent possible, manually operated valves shall be located so that hand wheels are
operable from platform or grade level. When hand wheels are more than 1.8 m from
platform or grade level, or are otherwise inaccessible, the valves shall be equipped with
extension stems, gear operators, or chain operators. The applications of chain operators
require COMPANY APPROVAL. The following restrictions shall apply to chain operators.

(a) Chain operators for screwed valves should be avoided. Use extension stems instead.
In no case should chain operators be used on screwed-end valves unless the ends of
the valves are seal welded or the valves are in vertical line.

(b) Chain operators for NPS 1-1/2 and smaller should be avoided. NPS 1-1/2 and
smaller valves, which are not frequently used, may be accessed from a fixed ladder.

(c) Valves with chain operators shall be located to have their stems turned so that chains
do not hang in passage ways or interfere with other equipment. Provision should be
made for hooking chains to columns or walls to maintain proper headroom clearance.

(d) Chain shall extend to within 1.0 m from the operating level.

(e) The centerline of all valves with chain operators shall not be more than 5.5 m from
operating level.

(f) Chain wheels shall be made of ductile or malleable iron and shall be hot dip
galvanized. Chains, and all bolting for attaching operator to hand-wheel, shall be 316
stainless steel.

4.4.5 - Where possible, locating valves at elevation 1.2 m to 1.9 m above an operating level with
stem horizontal (face / head hazard zone) should be avoided.

4.4.6 - Unit isolation valves shall be grouped together at battery limits and provided with
permanent platform(s) for access to the valves and for blanking.
All battery limit block valves shall be operable either directly or with the use of permanent
extension stems from the battery limit platform.


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4.4.7 - Valve location & orientation.

Set center of valve hand-wheel or handle to the following heights above grade or platform.

(a) Vertical stem valves (refer to Annex B Figure 1)
• Use the “first choice” location for:
- Category I or II valves or when
- Valve requires forces over 264 N to open or close.
• Use the “second choice” location for all other valves.
• Use the “third choice” location if the first two cannot be met.

Remark: Avoid placing valves above the shoulder.

(b) Horizontal stem valves (refer to Annex B Figure 2)
• Use the “first choice” location for:
- Category I or II valves or when
- Valve requires forces over 308 N to open or close.
• Use the “second choice” location for all other valves.
• Use the “third choice” location if the first two cannot be met.

Remark: Avoid placing valves below the knee (with the exception of low-point drains).

(c) Angled stem valves (refer to Annex B Figure 3)
• Use the “first choice” location for:
- Category I or II valves or when
- Valve requires forces over 264 N to open or close.
• Use the “second choice” location for all other valves..

Remark: Avoid placing valves in “third choice” location. If used, install a step-up.

4.4.9 – Category I – Accessible valves.

Valves that are essential to maintain the integrity of the unit where rapid and / or
unobstructed access is essential.
Examples of valves in this category include:

• Fire water isolation / deluge valves.
• Emergency block valves, and manually operated relief and depressuring valves.
• Process control or safeguarding valves.
• Pump and compressor suction and discharge valves and associated isolation valves.
• PSV block valves, manifold valves.
• Control valves and their associated block and by-pass valves.
• Battery limit valves.
• Motor operated valves.

4.4.10 – Category II – Non-critical valves.

Valves that are not critical to the integrity of the unit.
Examples of valves in this category include:

• Drain and vent valves.
• Instrument or analyser isolation valves.
• Input and output isolation valves on filters.


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4.4.11 - NPS 1-1/2 and smaller branches on utility headers shall be valved. The valves shall be
located near the edge of the pipe rack for accessibility. For gas and vapours, including
steam, the connection shall be to the top of the headers.

4.4.12 Process branches shall be equipped with the block valve at the main line if shown on
P&IDs.

4.4.13 - Valves located underground shall be provided with extension stems or post indicators,
however, such hand-wheels shall not be located in walkways or aisles. Additional
requirements are:

(a) NRS (non-rising stem) and ISRS (inside screw rising stem) gate valves, along with
ball and butterfly valves not in open trenches, but located below grade, shall be
provided with service boxes and extension stems which extend a minimum of 1.0 m
above grade or above access platform.

(b) OS&Y (outside screw and yoke) gate and globe valves not in open trenches but
located below grade, shall be provided with concrete valve boxes or equivalent
means to protect the stem threads, packing gland bolts, and flange bolting.

(c) Butterfly valves below grade shall be installed in valve pits. Refer to specification
199/00/83/FF/DP/NA/000001

4.5 UNDERGROUND PIPING

4.5.1 - Generally, hydrocarbon and chemical piping shall be placed above grade. When they must
be buried, signs spaced along the route of the line shall mark their location. Additionally,
local regulations, such as secondary contaminant (if required), shall be followed.

4.5.2 - Buried piping shall have the sufficient strength against earth load and vehicle load.

4.5.3 - For pressurized buried pipe the minimum diameter shall be NPS 2.
5. EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY

5.1 - Requirements for calculation, evaluation of flexibility and the movements shall be in
accordance with Project Specification 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000001.

5.2 - Piping systems should have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction
from causing:

a) Failure of piping or supports from overstress or fatigue.

b) Leakage at joints.

c) Detrimental stresses or distortion in piping and valves or in connected
equipment.


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5.3 - When the routing of a piping system does not inherently provide adequate flexibility, the
needed flexibility should be provided by additional expansion loops or offsets, adjustment of
dimensions of pipe section and location and conditions of pipe supports, etc. Bellow
expansion joints are the least preferred means of providing required flexibility, and should
not be used without prior COMPANY APPROVAL. If approved, they shall be designed to
meet the requirements of Appendix in B 31.3 and shall have a minimum design of 1000
cycles. Bellows expansion joints not be installed in piping system that are subject to water
hammer. Where they are approved bellows expansion joints shall be equipped with
adequate tie rods or restraints. In addition, removable external protective shields shall be
provided for metallic joints.

5.3 - Tank piping should be designed with adequate loops or offsets to accommodate tank
settlement.

5.4 - Piping connected to rotating equipment shall be provided with sufficient flexibility and
reaction forces and moments as specified in Project Specification
199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000001. When matching flange to the equipment is disconnected,
the alignment of the flange shall be within the acceptable limits except that sagging of
flange due to the weight can be adjusted by tools within the allowable forces in vertical
plane of the nozzles.

5.5 - The installation arrangement of expansion joints should be subject to COMPANY
APPROVAL and should be reviewed by the joint manufacturer. This approval and review
should consider service conditions, anchors, guides, supports, piping configuration and all
necessary calculations.

5.6 - It is preferred that expansion bends be located in a horizontal plane and clear of any
access way. Underground expansion bends require expansion pits. Where expansion pits
are provided, suitable anchors should be furnished to ensure that the pipe expansion is
contained within the pit dimensions.


6. PIPE SUPPORTS
Requirements for pipe supports shall be in accordance with Project Specification
199/00/00/MP/TS/NA/000005.
7. JOINTS
7.1 - Welded construction (butt-welded and socket-welded) shall be used for pipe and fittings,
except for certain service where threaded fittings and slip-on flanges are permitted in
accordance with Project Specification 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101.

7.2 - The junction of piping of different pressure class shall be made only at a valve that
conforms to the specifications of the higher class. The junction of piping of the same
pressure class, but of different materials, should be made at a flanged joint (preferably) or
butt-weld.

7.3 – Pipe unions and other piping joints involving straight threads shall not be used in severe
cyclic service or for pulsation service piping. NPS 2 and smaller joints of this type may be
used in Category D fluid service. In non Category D service, their use shall be restricted to
NPS 1 and smaller.
Category D fluid service as defined in ASME B31.3.


Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 16 of 28

7.4 - Proprietary joints, such as Dresser and Victaulic couplings, shall not used in flammable or
toxic service. In non flammable service they shall not be used above 85° C or above 1034
kPa gauge. They shall not be used absorb axial expansion in any service.

7.5 - No proprietary or special joints shall be used without COMPANY APPROVAL. Proprietary
joints, such as the Grayloc type connector, may be considered as alternative to ASME
B16.5 flanges for class 1500 and above.

7.6 - Use of tube fittings other than bite type compression fittings requires COMPANY
APPROVAL.

7.7 - The design and use of swivel joints in piping systems requires COMPANY APPROVAL.

8. BLANKS AND STRAINERS

8.1 - Blanking locations, consisting of a pair of flanges (one of which may be on a valve or other
equipment), shall be provided as follows:

(a) At battery limits in all process, utility, relief and blow-down lines. Platform shall be
provided for easy installation and removal of battery limit blanks.

(b) As required for inspection, maintenance, testing or alternative operation of equipment
such as vessels or exchangers.

(c) For segregation of fluid. When frequent use is required, use of block and bleed
valves should be considered as an alternative to blanking.

8.2 - Valved vent and/or drain connections shall be installed at blanking locations, except for
lines in Category D fluid service. The connections shall be located so that line can be
drained or depressurized prior to removing the line blank.

8.3 - Blanks should be located in horizontal lines as possible. Do not use blanks in vertical water
and steam lines where the possibility of freezing exists. Blanks shall be accessible from
grade or permanent platform. Temporary blinds for tie-in purposes if not accessible are to
made accessible by means of temporary scaffolding. Blanks for pumps shall not be located
at the pump nozzles. Flanges for maintenance and process blanks shall be located so that
faces are vertical for all blanks weighing more than 34 kg.

8.4 - Piping at blanks shall be arranged (with spool pieces if necessary) to permit removal of the
bolts and swinging of the blanks.

8.5 - Operating blanks shall conform to B31.3 and B16.48 respectively. Permanent blanks shall
be of the figure-8 type for NPS 8 and smaller with class 150, 300 and 600 and NPS 4 and
smaller with class 900 and above.

8.6 - Thin plate blanks (maintenance isolation blank) should be used only for lines that are not
under pressure and which must be sealed off to permit inspection or welding during
shutdown.

8.7 - Sufficient pipe supports shall be installed around blanks to maintain the joint alignment
during blanking when heavy piping components such as valves are located near the blanks.


Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 17 of 28

8.8 - Strainers shall be provided in piping system for protection of equipment as shown on the
P&ID’s and as required by 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101 (Piping Service Class).

8.9 - Permanent strainers shall have baskets that can be flushed clean during operation or be
easily removed for cleaning. Where considerable clogging of strainers is anticipated,
strainers shall be of either the self-cleaning or duplex type to permit continuous flow of
clean fluid.

8.10 - Permanent handling equipment shall be provided for all blanks weighing more than 45 kg,
unless mobile lifting equipment can be used.

9. VALVING

9.1 - Main block valves shall be provided with a globe valve as a bypass valve (when shown on
PID) as follows.
(a) Where balancing the pressure on both sides of the main valve significantly facilitate
the operation of the valve (for example, Class 600 and above).

(b) Where slow warm-up of a system would require for the main valve (for example,
steam main) to be “cracked” for a period of time to prevent valve seating surface from
damages.

The minimum size of the bypass valve shall be:
▪ NPS 1/2 for valves NPS 4 and smaller
▪ NPS 3/4 for valves NPS 6 and 8
▪ NPS 1 for valves NPS 10 and larger.

9.2 - Check valves shall not be installed in vertical lines with downward flow. Check valves on
process pump discharge lines shall be oriented for access from grade or platform.

9.3 - Wafer type check valves shall not be installed directly upstream of the valves or equipment.

9.4 - Bypass valves for control valves shall be accessible from grade or platform.

9.5 - Valve stems and hand-wheels should not project into passage ways or be installed with the
stem inclined below the horizontal axis.

9.6 - Gate, globe, ball and butterfly valves for low temperature services shall be installed in
horizontal lines and stem vertical or within the maximum stem inclination of the following
limitation in order to maintain gas cap which prevent the valves from malfunctioning due to
freezing.
Unless otherwise approved by COMPANY for special consideration, valves for cryogenic
service shall not be installed in vertical lines.
▪Low temperature service (down to -46゚ C) : 60 degree from vertical
▪Cryogenic service (-46 to -196゚ C) : 30 degree from vertical
However, valves in no-flow connections such as vent, pressure instrument connections and
inlet block valve for pressure relief valves, where trapped gas bubble protects the valve
packing from too low temperature, can be installed in stem horizontal.

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PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 18 of 28

10. VENTS, DRAINS, PUMP-OUT AND SAMPLE CONNECTIONS

10.1 - Valved vent connections shall be installed at high points of all liquid service piping. High
point vents which are used only for hydrostatic test purpose should be provided with plug
but no valve. The plug shall be seal welded after the test.

10.2 - Valved drain connections shall be installed at low points of all aboveground piping, on each
side of control valves and on all lines at battery limit block valves on the unit side.

10.3 - Vent and drain connections in piping shall be NPS 3/4. Vent and drain connections with a
higher diameter (1” and above) are used when requested by process or maintenance
reasons.

10.4 - Drains in hydrocarbon liquid service piping that are subject to auto-refrigeration (such as
butane and propane) shall be equipped with two block valves if the drains will be used to
de-pressure the line to the atmosphere. The first valve shall be a ball valve and the second
valve shall be a globe valve with a threaded plug at downstream end. The valves shall be
installed approximate 2 feet (600 mm) apart.

10.5 - Sample coolers shall be provided for all sample connections from piping or equipment
when the service temperature is 61゚ C or higher.
11. FITTINGS, BENDS AND MITERS

11.1 - Butt-welding fittings shall be used for piping NPS 2 and larger.

11.2 - The bends shall only be made from pipe specified in Project Specification
199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000101.

Cold bending (R=5d) will be used as specified in some piping classes for diameters ½” to 1”
½ where space allows it.

11.3 - Contour outlet fittings (for example, Sweepolet or Vessellet) may be used in place of tees
or laterals provided the weld is examined the same manner as the circumferential weld in
accordance with Project Specification 199/00/00/SP/TS/NA/630032.

11.4 - The distance between the centerlines of adjacent branch connections shall not be less than
1.5 times their average outside diameter.

11.5 - The use of an angular offset greater than 3 degrees shall be considered as miter joint. The
use of angular offsets of 1 to 3 degrees is limited to Class 150.

11.6 - Three-weld 90 degree and two-weld 45 degree miter bends may be used only for Category
D fluid service piping as follows:

(a) At temperatures of 0゚ C to 38゚ C, all sizes.
(b) At temperatures of 39゚ C to 185゚ C, NPS 26 and larger.

11.7 - Two-weld 90 and one-weld 45 degree miter bends may be used for atmospheric air
compressor intake lines and air vent lines to atmosphere. One-weld 90 degree miter bends
may be used only for manhole vent.

Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 19 of 28

12. UTILITY PIPING

12.1- Utility stations shall have an isolation valve and a bleeder valve, and end with a hose
coupling which shall be different for each service to prevent misuse.

12.2 - When an air line is connected to acid or caustic piping, two block valves, a check valve and
a bleeder shall be provided. Consideration shall be given to providing an easy dismantled
section of piping in the air line so that the line can be plugged or blanked when not in use.

12.3 - Steam, nitrogen, air and water headers and unit sub-headers shall be arranged to allow
free blowing through a full size opening prior to system commissioning.

12.4 - Steam for utility stations, smothering, snuffing, space heating and protective heating should
be connected from a source that will not be shut off during shutdowns or when the steam to
a piece of associated or un-associated equipment is shut off.

12.5 - Whenever steam is exhausted continuously to atmosphere, the line should be fitted with an
exhaust head with a drain to sewer. The exhaust head should be viewed from the operating
valve to ensure that sound levels and flow induced vibration levels are within acceptable
limits.

12.6 - The ends and just upstream of expansion loop or other risers of steam main and sub
headers shall be provided with drip leg to connect steam trap piping. The maximum
distance between drip legs in each straight section of piping should be 90 m.

12.7 - Utility branches to/from equipment shall be connected on upper section of the headers
except that cooling water to/from heat exchangers located at lower than the headers may
be branched on lower section of the headers.
13. RELIEF SYSTEM PIPING

13.1 - Relief valve discharge lines to flare header shall be designed as the minimum change in
direction and restrained to accommodate axial and lateral reaction forces due to
discharging. Relief valves that discharge into a closed system header shall discharge into
the top of the header.

13.2 - Flare headers and sub-headers shall be sloped as indicated in P&ID. The headers shall be
provided with horizontal expansion loops as minimum required. Use of expansion bellow is
not permitted.

13.3 - Relief valve discharge lines and headers shall be designed to accommodate the thermal
effects of discharge, such as auto-refrigeration due to sudden expansion of liquefied gases,
or sudden heating during high-temperature release.

13.4 - The following requirements shall be applied to flare headers when there is possibility that
the line will be subjected to condensed liquid during upset conditions.

(a) Both static and slug flow analysis at upset conditions shall be conducted to decide
system forces, displacements and stress.


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Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 20 of 28

(b) At support points near each change in direction (for example, elbows and tees), the
header shall be "boxed in” with structural members on each side and top side. The
structural members shall be designed for the loads calculated in (a) above. There
should be a minimum clearance between the pipe and structural members of 50 mm,
in addition to the clearance required for thermal displacements of the header.

13.5 - Block valves and bleeders shall be provided both inlet and discharge sides of relief valves
for the maintenance.

13.6 - For open system, discharge piping shall be terminated vertically with square cut at the point
at least 3 m above adjacent platform.
14. STEAM PIPING

14.1 - Utility stations should remain in service at all times, except when isolated for repairs. Steam
should be supplied by a source that will not be closed off during shutdowns.

14.2 - The steam supply for smothering, snuffing, space heating and protective heating should be
connected to a source that will not be shut off during shutdowns or when the steam to a piece of
associated, or un-associated, equipment (such as a turbine) is shut off.

14.3 - Whenever steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, the line should be fitted with an exhaust head
with a drain to a sewer. The exhaust system should be viewed to ensure that sound levels and
flow induced vibration levels are within acceptable limits.

14.4 - The ends of steam mains and all low points in steam lines (except steam tracer lines) should be
provided with drip legs. The maximum distance between drip legs should be 90 m (300 ft).

14.5 - Steam traps should be provided for the removal of condensate from collection points. Each trap
should serve only one collection point.

14.6 - Steam traps and associated block valves will be accessible for maintenance from grade or
platform.
Permanent platform is not required for root valve.

15. WATER PIPING

15.1 - A vent should be provided for each high point between block valves on large water mains. These
vents should be protected from mechanical damage as required.

15.2 - Provision should be made to ensure that water is available for sanitary facilities, safety showers,
and eyewash fountains during unit shutdowns.

Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 21 of 28


16. ANNEX A.


16.1 - Minimum Spacing valve or Flange (Horizontal lines)





Line Size X (mm)
2” & below 150
3” – 4” 200
6” to 8” 375
10” to Over 800



16.2 - Bottom of pipe (flange)




Line Size X (mm)
2” & below 150
3” – 4” 200
6” to 8” 375


Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 22 of 28

16.3 - Minimum Spacing valve and line (Vertical lines)






Line Size X (mm)
2” & below 150
3” – 4” 200
6” & over size 375


























Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 23 of 28

16.5 - Minimum Spacing around horizontal set of lines small flange (with 4 bolts)



ASME flange with 4 bolts
Rating of flange Diameter
150# 3 “ & below
300# 1”1/2 & below
600#/900#/1500# 1”1/2 & below





A –Set of lines with one access side.



Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
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B – Horizontal set of lines with both access sides.




16.6 - Minimum Spacing around vertical set of lines small flange (with 4 bolts)

A – Set of lines with access to the front and two sides.





Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 25 of 28




B – Set of lines with access to the front and one side (Right or left).





C – Set of lines with access to both front and back sides.




Date : 17/11/2010 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099
Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 26 of 28


17. ANNEX B.

17.1 – Figure 1 (Vertical stem valves)




17.2 – Figure 2 (Horizontal stem valves)


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Rev : C1
PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 27 of 28

17.3 – Figure 3 (Angled stem valves)





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PIPING DESIGN BASIS
Page 28 of 28

18. ANNEX C.








Emergency exits should be provided the ladders will be arranged in such manner that no point
of the service platform shall be more than 20 m in horizontal plane from the main or auxiliary
exit and that the dead length of the platform shall not exceed 7 m.

CLIENT : Qatar Liquiefied Gas Company Ltd.
PROJ ECT : Plateau Maintenance Project - Onshore Facilities
TITLE : PIPING DESIGN BASIS - ATTACHMENT 1
J OB NO. : LTC/PMP/215/09
DOC. NO. : 199/00/00/MP/DB/NA/000099 REV. C1
Legend:
"O" Acceptable
"X" Not Acceptable
( I or II &
others)
Groung
level
5) Limited
Elevation
6) Unlimited
Elevation
7) Grade
Access
Fixed
Platform
2) Movable
Platform
Fixed Stair
Fixed
Ladder
8) Temporary
Scaffolding
ISOLATION VALVE
Trains area battery valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
Unit Isolation valve in trains area
Process valve (if necessary / maintenance use) Others O O O O O O O O O
Utility valve (if necessary / maintenance use) Others O O O O O O O O O
INSTRUMENT VALVE
Contrôle valve
Contrôle valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
C/V block valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
C/V by-pass valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
Emergency shut down valve
ESDV Ι O O X O O X X X X
Pressure safety valve
PSV Ι X X O O O X X X X
PSV block valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
PSV by-pass valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
PSV (termal expension for cooling water) Ι O O X O O X X X X
PSV (to atmosphere) Ι O O O O O X X X X
Motor operated valve
MOV Ι O O X O O X X X X
MOV block valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
MOV by-pass valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
Blow down valve to flare system
BDV Ι X X O O O X X X X
BDV block valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
BDV by-pass valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
Anti surge valve
anti-surge valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
anti-surge block valve Ι X X O O O X X X X
anti-surge by-pass Ι X X O O O X X X X
Instrument root valve on equipment nozzle
stand pipe root valve (2") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
level gauge root valve (3/4") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
displacer root valve (2") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
Diaphragmroot valve (3") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
Pressure transmitter connection (3/4" - 2") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
Pressure gauge connection (3/4") ΙΙ O O X O O X O [O] X
Instrument root valve tapped on pipe (Operation only)
Orifice tap connection (1/2") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
Venture flowmater connection (1/2") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
Pressure transmitter connection (3/4") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
Pressure gauge connection (3/4") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
sample connection root valve (3/4" - 1") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
Analyser connection root valve (3/4" - 1") ΙΙ O O O O O X O [O] X
EQUIPMENT VALVE
Drain / Vent
Colum/ Vessel vent (Maintenance use) Others O O O X X X X X O
Colum/ Vessel drain (Maintenance use) Others O O X O X X X X O
Filter vent / drain (frequentry maintenance) ΙΙ O O X O O X X X X
Heat Exchanger vent (maintenance use) Others O O O X X X X X O
Heat Exchanger drain (maintenance use) Others O O X O X X X X X
Pump casing vent (maintenance use) Others O O O X X X X X O
Pump casing drain (maintenance use) Others O O X O X X X X X
Compressor casing drain (maintenance use) Others O O X O X X X X X
Steamdrumvent valve (Maintenance use) Others O O O X X X X X O
Package equipment vent (maintenance use) Others O O O O X X X X O
Package equipment drain (maintenance use) Others O O X O X X X X X
Root valve
Steamout connection (maintenance use) Others O O O O O O O X X
Purge systemconnection (maintenance use) Others O O O O O O O X X
PIPE MONTED VALVE (execpt above items)
Process block valve
Liquid disposal valve (maintenance use) Others O O O O O O O O O
Block valve for start up purpose only Others O O O O O O O O O
Switching valve for filter Ι O O X O O X X X X
Switching valve for reactor Ι O O X O O X X X X
Pump block valve Ι O O X O O X X X X
Purge gas valve (maintenance use) Others O O X O O O O X X
Valve associated sampling device Ι O X X O X X X X X
Process root/branch valve allocated in the pipe rack Others
Utility block valve
Hose station piping root valve (1") Others
Hose station piping operational valve (1") Ι O O O O O X X X X
Utility root/branch valve allocated in the pipe rack Others
Temporary connection for purge / flushing purpose (1" - 3") Others
Drain / Vent
Process drain (Specified in P&ID) ΙΙ O O O O O X O O X
Line vent for pressure test (connection use) Others
Line vent for high point (maintenance use) Others X O O O O O O O O
Line vent for lowpoint (maintenance use) Others O O X O O O O O O
Fire water system
Deluge manifold root valve Ι O X X O X X X X X
Buried post indicator valve Ι O X X O X X X X X
Process Requirement valve
"In-view" requirement to PG, TG or LG ΙΙ
Note:
1) This table is based on the project specification N° PMP/00/00/SP/DB/NA/001 " SPECIFICATION FOR HUMAN FACTOR"
2) Movable platformcan be utilized at ground level not on the elevated platform.
3) [O] - It shall be allowed incase "single hand operation" is not applicable both hand.
4)
5) Limited elevation - 1st level platformfromground ( The platformas single access fromground level) or the level at which the associated equipment is located.
6) Unilimited elevation - On the pipe rack floor , on the structure floor (2nd level and higher), on the equipmentplatformor surrounded them
7) Grade access - the mean of "grade" is ground level or elevated platformwhere accessible by stair not ladder.
8) Temporary scaffolding accesss - This is considered only for in -service maintenance or shut down work.
ACCESS CRITERIA FOR VALVE OPERATION
Category
of valve
Valve Allocation at site Access for valve operation by:
REMARKS
(Basis of piping design) (As per Human factor point of view)

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