You are on page 1of 40

301

0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 1

Introduction to Routing

Session 301

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 2

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 1
Agenda

• Addressing
• Concepts
• Routing Protocols
• Statics and Defaults

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 3

ISO—OSI Reference Model

Routing Information
Protocol (RIP and RIPv2)

Interior Gateway Routing
L7 Application Protocol (IGRP)
L6 Presentation
Open Shortest Path First
L5 Session (OSPF) Protocol

L4 Transport NetWare Link Services
Protocol (NLSP)
L3 Network Layer
L2 Data Link Control Intermediate System to
Intermediate System (IS-IS)
L1 Physical Layer
Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 4

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 2
Router Functions

• Routing = building
maps and giving
directions
• Switching =
moving packets
between interfaces
• Routers are packet
switches
• Path determination
is overhead
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 5

Introduction to IP Addresses
UNIX Host UNIX Host
Internet
TCP/IP

Company A Company B

• Unique addressing allows communication
between end stations
• Path choice is based on location
• Location is represented by an address
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 6

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 3
IP Addressing

32 Bits

Network Host

8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits

172 . 16 . 122 . 204

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7

IP Address Classes

• Class A: N H H H

• Class B: N N H H

• Class C: N N N H
• Class D: for multicast

N = Network number assigned by NIC
H = Host number assigned by network administrator
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 8

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 4
Host Addresses

172.16.200.11 10.1.1.1
E0 E1

172.16.3.10 10.250.8.11

172.16.12.12 10.180.30.118

IP: 172.16.2.1 IP: 10.6.24.2

Routing Table
Network Interface
172 .16 . 12 . 12
172.16.0.0 E0
Network Host
10.0.0.0 E1
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 9

Subnet Addressing

172.16.2.11 172.16.3.5
E0 E1

172.16.2.2 172.16.3.100

172.16.2.160 172.16.3.150

IP: 172.16.2.1 IP: 172.16.3.1

Routing Table
Network Interface
172 .16 2 160
. . 172.16.2.0 E0
Network Subnet Host
172.16.3.0 E1
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 10

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 5
Subnet Mask
Network Host

IP
Address 172 16 0 0
Network Host
Default
Subnet 255 255 0 0
Mask
Network Subnet Host
8-bit
Subnet 255 255 255 0
Mask

Use Host Bits, Starting at the High Order Bit Position
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 11

Discontiguous IP Subnet

A
Where Is 172
172.16.50.1
172.16.0.0? 255.255.255.0
192.168.1.4 .5
255.255.255.252 .13

B
.6
172.16
172.16.40.1
255.255.255.0 192.168.1.12
255.255.255.252
.9

192.168.1.8 .14
255.255.255.252 .10 172.16
172.16.60.1
255.255.255.0
C

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 12

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 6
Variable Length Subnet Mask

A
172.16.50.1
.5 255.255.255.0
172.16.1.4
255.255.255.252 .13

B
.6
172.16.40.1
255.255.255.0 172.16.1.12
255.255.255.252
.9

172.16.1.8 .14
255.255.255.252 .10 172.16.60.1
255.255.255.0
C
• Conserve IP addresses
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 13

IPX Addressing

80 Bits

Network Node

32 Bits 48 Bits

000C 15C0 0077.0650.2328

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 14

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 7
Address Configuration

Router (config-if) #
ip address ip-address subnet-mask

• Assigns an address and subnet mask
• Starts IP processing on an interface

ipx network network

• Assigns a network number
• Starts IPX processing on an interface
• Must have ipx routing configured
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 15

Classless Prefix Notation

• 131.108.0.0/16 versus 255.255.0.0
• Summarizable blocks of subnets
131.108.48.0 /24 131.108.48.0 /21
131.108.49.0 /24
131.108.50.0 /24
131.108.51.0 /24
131.108.52.0 /24
131.108.53.0 /24
131.108.54.0 /24
131.108.55.0 /24
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 16

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 8
IP Address Configuration

Router (config) #

ip netmask-format
{bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal}

• Sets format of network mask as seen in show
commands
• bitcount 172.16.31.6/24
• decimal 172.16.31.6 255.255.255.0
• hexadecimal 172.16.31.6 0xFFFFFF00
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 17

Agenda

• Addressing
• Concepts
• Routing Protocols
• Statics and Defaults

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 18

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 9
Convergence

• Time required for router to identify and
use an alternate path
• Dependent on timer values and algorithm
• Difficult to predict precisely

x

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 19

Load Balancing

T1 T1
R2

N1 N2

R1 R4

T1 R3 T1

• Equal cost paths
• Rapid failover
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 20

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 10
Load Balancing

R2 768K

N1 N2

R1 512K R4
R3 T1

• Unequal cost paths
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 21

Holddown

I Will Ignore
Routes to X
While in
Holddown
x

• Sets minimum convergence time
• Prevents routing loops
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 22

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 11
Routing Loop:
A Routing Disagreement

Packets for Network X

• Packets do not get to the destination
• Temporary traffic surge until convergence
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 23

Split Horizon


Do not send routing data
back in the direction from
which it came


301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 24

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 12
Split Horizon

Frame Relay Network
A
PVC
D 1

PVC
D B
S0
PVC
C

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 25

Turn off Split Horizon
A 1,3
Frame Relay Network B 2
C 2
A 2
D 2
B 2
A
C 2
PVC
D 1

PVC
D B
S0
PVC
C

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 26

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 13
Split Horizon

Frame Relay Network

B 2
A
C 2
PVC
S0.1 D 1

PVC
D B

S0.3 A 2 PVC
B 2 C
D 1

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 27

Metrics (Cost)

• Numeric value used to choose
among paths
• RIP/RIPv2 is hop count and ticks (IPX)
• OSPF/ISIS is interface cost (bandwidth)
• (E)IGRP is compound
• BGP can be complicated
• Path determination depends on metric
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 28

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 14
Agenda

• Addressing
• Concepts
• Routing Protocols
• Statics and Defaults

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 29

Routing Table

One Forwarding Table Per Protocol (IP, IPX)

Network # Interface Next Hop Metric Age Source

198.113.181.0 Ethernet0 192.150.42.177 [170/304793] 02:03:50 D

198.113.178.0 Ethernet0 192.150.42.177 [110/9936] 02:03:50 O

192.168.96.0 Ethernet0 192.150.42.177 [120/3] 00:00:20 R

192.168.97.0 Ethernet0 C

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 30

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 15
Building the Routing Table

• Hardware state
• Dynamic
Routes are learned from a protocol

• Static
Routes are manually defined
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 31

Routing Protocols

I Know About: I Know About:
Network A Network X
Network B Network Y
A Network C Routing Update Network Z X
B Y
C Exchanges Network Knowledge Z

• Routers are packet switches that forward traffic
based on layer 3 logical addresses
• Routing protocol updates are exchanged by routers
to learn about paths to other logical networks
• Each routing protocol offers features that can make it
desirable as part of an internetwork design
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 32

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 16
Routing Protocol Goals

• Optimal path selection • Easy to configure
• Loop-free routing • Adapts to changes
easily and quickly
• Fast convergence
• Does not create a lot
• Limited design
of traffic
administration
• Scales to a large size
• Minimize update traffic
• Compatible with existing
• Handle address limitations
hosts and routers
• Support hierarchical
• Supports variable length
topology
subnet masks and
• Incorporate rapid discontiguous subnets
convergence
• Supports policy routing
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 33

IP RIP

• Routing • RFC 1058
Information
• Simple = limited
Protocol
• Slow convergence
• Widely available
• No VLSM
• Hop count metric
• No discontiguous
• Periodic update
subnets
• Easy to implement
• Routing loops
• Usually free
• Count to infinity
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 34

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 17
RIP—Distance Vector

Net A Net D
R1 R2 R3
Net B Net C
E0 S0 S0 S1 S0 E0

Network Interface Network Interface Network Interface
A E0 B S0 C S0
B S0 C S1 D E0
C S0 A S0 B S0
D S0 D S1 A S0

Send Routing Table to Neighbors
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 35

Broadcast Routing Updates

RIP V1

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 36

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 18
RIP Metric

1 Hop
Hops
Path A
R2

T1 T1

56k
R1 R3

Path B
0 Hops

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 37

When to Use RIP

• Implementation in a few hours
• Good for stable links
• Good for small networks
• routed in host environment
• Multivendor environment
• Non-redundant network
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 38

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 19
RIP V2

• RFC 1723
• Cisco IOS® 11.1 support
• Advertises masks
• Variable length subnet masks
• Route summarization
• Routing updates use multicast
• Authenticated updates using MD5
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 39

Multicast Routing Updates

RIP V2

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 40

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 20
When to Use RIPv2

• Same as RIP
• Subnet mask support
• Reduce broadcast load
• Validated updates
• Multivendor environment
• Non-redundant network
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 41

IPX RIP

• Widely available • Tied to SAP
protocol
• Hop count metric
• Simple = limited
• Ticks (1/18 sec)
• Slow convergence
• Periodic update
• No default route
• Easy to implement
• Routing loops
• Free on servers
• Count to infinity

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 42

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 21
IPX RIP—Ticks

• Ticks are used • IPXWAN
to determine calculates for
server timeout its interfaces
• Default for LAN • can be set via
interfaces is 1 the ipx delay
number interface
• Default for WAN
sub command
interfaces is 4

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 43

IGRP

• Interior Gateway • Cisco IOS 9.21
Routing Protocol
• Periodic update
• Cisco developed
• No VLSM
• Distance vector
• Default timers
• Compound produce slow
metric convergence

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 44

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 22
IGRP Compound Metric

• Administrative
weight T1
R2
• Delay
• Bandwidth T1

• Reliability 56k

• Load R1 R3

(K2 * BW) K
= ((K1 * BW + (256-load) + K3* delay)) * (reliability5 + K ))
4
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 45

How the IGRP Metrics Work

Delay Metric- D1 D2 D3
Based on
D1 + D2 + D3

Bandwidth 1.5 Mbps 64 kbps 1.5 Mbps
Metric-Based
on 64kbps

• Bandwidth dominates short paths
• Delay dominates long paths
• Configure bandwidth on all interfaces
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 46

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 23
When to Use IGRP

• Simplicity of RIP
• Good for small and medium networks
• When metrics are important
• Reduced routing overhead

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 47

Enhanced IGRP

• Extremely fast • Best of DV and LS
convergence
• Low overhead
• VLSM support
• Guaranteed
• Discontiguous loop-free
subnets
• Reliable, incremental
• Arbitrary route update-based
summarization
• Multiprotocol:
• Supports prefix and IP, IPX®, AppleTalk
host routing
• Easy to configure
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 48

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 24
Advanced Distance Vector
On Startup Routing Tables
Are Exchanged; Routing
A 27
Table Built Based on Best
B 12 Paths from Topology Table
A 1 Z C 35
B 13
C 20
A 27 Z
A Q 2 1 Q
B Z 13
Q Y 5 X
C X 13 B 12 Z
.. .. ..
Y’s Table
A 5 Topology Table
B 3
C 3 X • Construct neighbor tables
X’s Table
• Construct topology tables
• Compute routes
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 49

EIGRP Tables

• Topology table • Neighbor table
• Acted upon by DUAL • Keeps adjacent
neighbor’s address
• All routes advertised
by neighbors • Keeps the hold time
• List of neighbors for • Information for
each route reliable transport
• Routes passive
or active
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 50

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 25
Diffusing Update
Algorithm (DUAL)
• DUAL is a loop-free routing algorithm
that performs a diffused computation
of a routing table
Uses a new routing algorithm
Achieves fast convergence
Network changes propagate only to affected
nodes (“bounded updates”)
• No need for route holddown
• Researched and developed by SRI
International
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 51

IPX EIGRP

• Automatic redistribution of routes
into RIP/SAP
• Maximum network size is 224 hops
vs 15 for RIP
• Incremental SAPs sent, reducing
bandwidth usage
• All other benefits of EIGRP
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 52

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 26
When to Use EIGRP

• Very large, complex networks
• VLSM
• For fast convergence
• Little network design
• Multiprotocol support

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 53

Link State Routing

Z’s Link State
Q’s Link State
Topology Information Is
Z Kept in a Database Separate
from the Routing Table

A Q 2
B Z 13
Q Y C X 13

• OSPF
X • IS-IS
X’s Link State
• NLSP
• DECnet V
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 54

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 27
Link State Routing

• Neighbor discovery
• Constructing an LSA (Link State
Advertisement)
• Distribute LSA
• Compute routes using SPF
(Shortest Path First)
• On network failure
New LSAs flooded
All routers recompute routing tables
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 55

OSPF

• Open Shortest • Fast convergence
Path First
• Variable-length
• Link state or SPF subnet masks
technology
• Discontiguous
• Developed by OSPF subnets
working group of
• No periodic updates
IETF (RFC 1253)
• Route authentication
• Designed expressly
for TCP/IP Internet • Delivered two years
environment after IGRP
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 56

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 28
OSPF Areas and Rules
Area
• Backbone area (0) Border
Router
must be present
• All other areas Area 2 Area 3
must have
Area 0 Internal
connection Backbone
Router
to backbone Router

• Backbone must Area 4
be contiguous Area 1

• Do not partition
area (0) Autonomous
Internet
System (AS)
Border Router
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 57

When to Use OSPF

• Large hierarchical networks
• Complex networks, except…
Topology restrictive
Additional network design
• VLSM
• Fast convergence
• Multivendor
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 58

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 29
IS-IS

• IS = Intermediate • ISO 10589
System
• Two types of areas:
• Dual IS-IS Level-1 other areas
• Integrated IS-IS Level-2 backbone
• Metric is 6 bits • Default for
wide (1-63)* each level
• All interfaces • Much like OSPF
default to 10
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 59

NetWare Link Services Protocol

• Derived from ISIS
• NLSP specs 3 levels of routers
• Only 2 levels are defined
• Spec is Novell NLSP version 1.1
http://developer.novell.com
/devres/langrp/specs/nlspspec.exe
http://www.novell.com/documentation
/en/kayak/nw411com/ipxrtenu/docmodul/ch3.html
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 60

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 30
BGP

• RFC 1771 • Many options for
policy enforcement
• Border Gateway
Protocol • Classless Inter
Domain Routing
• Version 4 is current
(CIDR)
• Exterior routing
• Widely used for
protocol (vs.
Internet backbone
interior)
• Autonomous
• Uses TCP for systems
transport
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 61

BGP Basics

Peering

A C
AS 100 AS 101
B D

E
• Runs over TCP AS 102
• Path vector
protocol
• Incremental update
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 62

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 31
Internal BGP (IBGP) Peering

AS 100
D
A
B

E

• BGP peer within the same AS
• Not required to be directly connected
• IBGP neighbors should be fully meshed
• Few BGP speakers in corporate network
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 63

External BGP (EBGP) Peering

A
AS 100 AS 101
C

B

• Between BGP speakers in different AS
• Should be directly connected
• Don’t run an IGP between EBGP peers

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 64

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 32
Policy Drives
BGP Requirements

AS 200 Static
Route
BGP

AS 100 BGP AS 400

BGP
AS 300

• Policy for AS 100: Always use AS 300
path to reach AS 400

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 65

When Not to Use BGP
Network
Static Number
C
A ISP Runs BGP
BB

Advertise Default
Network Via IGP Use a Static Route to
Provide Connectivity

• Avoid BGP configuration by using
default networks and static routes
Appropriate when the local policy is the
same as the ISP policy
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 66

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 33
Agenda

• Addressing
• Concepts
• Routing Protocols
• Statics and Defaults

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 67

Static Routes

• Routes configured manually
• Useful when few or just one
route exist
• Can be administrative burden
• Frequently used for default route

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 68

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 34
Floating Static Routes

• A static route with a high distance
• Can be overridden by dynamic info

T1

172.16.3.2
3 172.16.1.0
ISDN
C15C0
172.16.3.1
3
ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.3.1 140

ipx route C15C0 3.0000.0c15.3628 floating-static
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 69

Default Routes

• Route used if no match is found in
routing table
• Can be carried by routing protocols
• Two models
Special network number:
0.0.0.0 (IP)
-2 (IPX)
Flagged in routing protocol
• Protocols support multiple models
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 70

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 35
Creating a Default Route

• RIP, RIPv2: network 0.0.0.0
• IGRP, EIGRP: ip default-network
• OSPF: default originate
• IPX: ipx route default
• default gateway is for “host mode”

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 71

Default IP Subnet

172.16.0.0 Internet
s0 s1

172.16.1.0

• Two defaults
For unknown networks
For unknown subnets

• Controlled by ip classless
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 72

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 36
Comparison of Routing Protocols

Link Traditional Advanced
State Distance Distance
Vector Vector

Scalability Good Low Excellent
Bandwidth Low High Low

Memory High Low Moderate
CPU High Low Low

Convergence Fast Slow Fast
Configuration Moderate Easy Easy

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 73

Internet Routing Protocols

• IP routing protocols are
characterized as
Name Type Proprietary Function Updates Metric VLSM Summ

RIP DV No Interior 30 Sec Hops No Auto
RIPv2 DV No Interior 30 Sec Hops Yes Auto
IGRP DV Yes Interior 90 Sec Comp No Auto
EIGRP Adv DV Yes Interior Trig Comp Yes Both
OSPF LS No Interior Trig Cost Yes Man
IS-IS LS No Int/Ext Trig Cost Yes Auto
BGP DV No Exterior Trig N/A N/A Man
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 74

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 37
Topology/Technology
Considerations

• Routing and services overhead is usually
not a big deal when you have a lot of
bandwidth (i.e. LANs)
• Protect WAN bandwidth using update-based
protocols—more bandwidth and buffers for
application traffic
• High densities of sub(interfaces) can cause
“hot spots” and router CPU overload
• NBMA (Non-Broadcast Multi-Access)
technologies always require good
design practices
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 75

For Further Reference…

• Computer Networks, Third Edition
by Andrew Tanenbaum (ISBN: 0-13349-945-6)
• Interconnections : Bridges and Routers
by Radia Perlman (ISBN: 0-20156-332-0)
• Internetworking with TCP / IP, Volume 1:
Principles, Protocols, and Architecture
by Douglas Comer (ISBN: 0-13216-987-8)
• IP Routing Fundamentals
by Mark Sportack (ISBN: 1-57870-071-x)
• IP Routing Primer
by Robert Wright (ISBN: 1-57870-108-2)
• OSPF Network Design Solutions
by Thomas, Thomas M. (ISBN: 1-57870-046-9)
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 76

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 38
Thank You!

• Please fill out the survey
• This was #301 Introduction
to Routing
• Related sessions:
304 Intro to IP Switching
307 Deploying IGRP/EIGRP
308 Deploying OSPF/NLSP/IS-IS
309 Deploying BGP
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 77

Introduction to Routing

Session 301

301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 78

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 39
301
0947_05F9_c2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 79

Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr 40