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Regular "ar" Verbs

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In Spanish, there are three categories of
verbs. The category is eter!ine by
the last t"o letters of the infinitive#
$ar verbs %like hablar&
$er verbs %like co!er&
$ir verbs %like vivir&
The infinitive is the base for! of the
verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live,
etc. In Spanish, all infinitives en in $ar,
$er, or $ir.
$ar verb
hablar %to speak&
$er verb
co!er %to eat&
$ir verb
vivir %to live&
To con'ugate a verb !eans to
!anipulate the infinitive so that it
agrees "ith the ifferent possible
sub'ects. (ere is the present tense
con'ugation of the infinitive )to speak)#
to speak
I speak
you speak
he speaks
she speaks
"e speak
you$all speak
they speak
The present tense in Spanish can !ean
three things. The Spanish phrase )yo
hablo) can !ean#
yo hablo
I speak
yo hablo
I a! speaking
yo hablo
I o speak
*any Spanish verbs are co!pletely
regular, !eaning that they follo" a
specific pattern of con'ugation. In this
lesson you "ill learn to con'ugate
regular $ar, $er, an $ir verbs %in the
present tense&. +efore you can o that,
you !ust !e!orize the follo"ing
sub'ect pronouns.
yo %I&
t, %you $ infor!al&
-l %he&
ella %she&
uste %you $ for!al&
nosotros.nosotras %"e&
vosotros.vosotras %you$all $ infor!al&
ellos.ellas %they&
ustees %you$all for!al&
/or a revie" of the sub'ect pronouns,
click here.
Spanish infinitives are ivie into t"o
parts# the ening an the ste!. The
ening is the last t"o letters.
0e!e!ber, all infinitives en in $ar, $er,
or $ir. The ste! is everything that1s left
after you re!ove the ening.
habl 2 ar 3 hablar
co! 2 er 3 co!er
viv 2 ir 3 vivir
In this lesson, "e "ill use the !oel $ar
verbs# hablar. In Spanish, you con'ugate
verbs by changing the ening. If the
sub'ect is I %yo&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an a $o.
yo hablo %hablar $ ar 2 o 3 hablo&
I speak, I a! speaking, I o speak
If the sub'ect is you $ infor!al %t,&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
a $as %for $ar verbs&.
t, hablas %hablar $ ar 2 as 3 hablas&
you speak, you are speaking, you o
speak
If the sub'ect is he %-l&, she %ella& or you
$ for!al %uste&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an a $a %$ar verbs&.
-l.ella.uste habla %hablar $ ar 2 a 3
habla&
he speaks, she is speaking, you %for!al&
o speak
If the sub'ect is "e %nosotros.nosotras&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
a $a!os for $ar verbs.
nosotros habla!os %hablar $ ar 2 a!os 3
habla!os&
"e speak, "e are speaking, "e o speak
If the sub'ect is you$all $ infor!al
%vosotros.vosotras&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an a $4is for $ar
verbs.
vosotros habl4is %hablar $ ar 2 4is 3
habl4is&
you$all speak, you$all are speaking,
you$all o speak
If the sub'ect is they %ellos.ellas& or you$
all $ for!al %ustees&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an a $an %$ar
verbs&.
ellos.ellas.ustees hablan %hablar $ ar 2
an 3 hablan&
they speak, they are speaking, you$all
%for!al& o speak
5s you can see, to con'ugate regular $ar
verbs, si!ply rop the ening %$ar& an
a one of the follo"ing#
o
as
a
a!os
4is
an
Regular "er" Verbs
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In Spanish, there are three categories of
verbs. The category is eter!ine by
the last t"o letters of the infinitive#
$ar verbs %like hablar&
$er verbs %like co!er&
$ir verbs %like vivir&
The infinitive is the base for! of the
verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live,
etc. In Spanish, all infinitives en in $ar,
$er, or $ir.
$ar verb
hablar %to speak&
$er verb
co!er %to eat&
$ir verb
vivir %to live&
To con'ugate a verb !eans to
!anipulate the infinitive so that it
agrees "ith the ifferent possible
sub'ects. (ere is the present tense
con'ugation of the infinitive )to speak)#
to speak
I speak
you speak
he speaks
she speaks
"e speak
you$all speak
they speak
The present tense in Spanish can !ean
three things. The Spanish phrase )yo
hablo) can !ean#
yo hablo
I speak
yo hablo
I a! speaking
yo hablo
I o speak
*any Spanish verbs are co!pletely
regular, !eaning that they follo" a
specific pattern of con'ugation. In this
lesson you "ill learn to con'ugate
regular $ar, $er, an $ir verbs %in the
present tense&. +efore you can o that,
you !ust !e!orize the follo"ing
sub'ect pronouns.
yo %I&
t, %you $ infor!al&
-l %he&
ella %she&
uste %you $ for!al&
nosotros.nosotras %"e&
vosotros.vosotras %you$all $ infor!al&
ellos.ellas %they&
ustees %you$all for!al&
/or a revie" of the sub'ect pronouns,
click here.
Spanish infinitives are ivie into t"o
parts# the ening an the ste!. The
ening is the last t"o letters.
0e!e!ber, all infinitives en in $ar, $er,
or $ir. The ste! is everything that1s left
after you re!ove the ening.
habl 2 ar 3 hablar
co! 2 er 3 co!er
viv 2 ir 3 vivir
In this lesson, "e "ill use the !oel
verb# co!er. In Spanish, you con'ugate
verbs by changing the ening. If the
sub'ect is I %yo&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an a $o.
yo co!o %co!er $ er 2 o 3 co!o&
I eat, I a! eating, I o eat
If the sub'ect is you $ infor!al %t,&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
aing $es %for $er verbs&.
t, co!es %co!er $ er 2 es 3 co!es&
you eat, you are eating, you o eat
If the sub'ect is he %-l&, she %ella& or you
$ for!al %uste&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an aing $e %$er verbs&.
-l.ella.uste co!e %co!er $ er 2 e 3
co!e&
he eats, she is eating, you %for!al& o
eat
If the sub'ect is "e %nosotros.nosotras&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
a $e!os for $er verbs.
nosotros co!e!os %co!er $ er 2 e!os 3
co!e!os&
"e eat, "e are eating, "e o eat
If the sub'ect is you$all $ infor!al
%vosotros.vosotras&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an aing $-is for
$er verbs.
vosotros co!-is %co!er $ er 2 -is 3
co!-is&
you$all eat, you$all are eating, you$all
o eat
If the sub'ect is they %ellos.ellas& or you$
all $ for!al %ustees&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an aing $en %$er
verbs&.
ellos.ellas.ustees co!en %co!er $ er 2
en 3 co!en&
they eat, they are eating, you$all
%for!al& o eat
5s you can see, to con'ugate regular $er
verbs, si!ply rop the ening %$er& an
a one of the follo"ing#
o
es
e
e!os
-is
en
Regular "ir" Verbs
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
In Spanish, there are three categories of
verbs. The category is eter!ine by
the last t"o letters of the infinitive#
$ar verbs %like hablar&
$er verbs %like co!er&
$ir verbs %like vivir&
The infinitive is the base for! of the
verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live,
etc. In Spanish, all infinitives en in $ar,
$er, or $ir.
$ar verb
hablar %to speak&
$er verb
co!er %to eat&
$ir verb
vivir %to live&
To con'ugate a verb !eans to
!anipulate the infinitive so that it
agrees "ith the ifferent possible
sub'ects. (ere is the present tense
con'ugation of the infinitive )to speak)#
to speak
I speak
you speak
he speaks
she speaks
"e speak
you$all speak
they speak
The present tense in Spanish can !ean
three things. The Spanish phrase )yo
hablo) can !ean#
yo hablo
I speak
yo hablo
I a! speaking
yo hablo
I o speak
*any Spanish verbs are co!pletely
regular, !eaning that they follo" a
specific pattern of con'ugation. In this
lesson you "ill learn to con'ugate
regular $ar, $er, an $ir verbs %in the
present tense&. +efore you can o that,
you !ust !e!orize the follo"ing
sub'ect pronouns.
yo %I&
t, %you $ infor!al&
-l %he&
ella %she&
uste %you $ for!al&
nosotros.nosotras %"e&
vosotros.vosotras %you$all $ infor!al&
ellos.ellas %they&
ustees %you$all for!al&
/or a revie" of the sub'ect pronouns,
click here.
Spanish infinitives are ivie into t"o
parts# the ening an the ste!. The
ening is the last t"o letters.
0e!e!ber, all infinitives en in $ar, $er,
or $ir. The ste! is everything that1s left
after you re!ove the ening.
habl 2 ar 3 hablar
co! 2 er 3 co!er
viv 2 ir 3 vivir
In this lesson, "e "ill use the !oel
verb# vivir. In Spanish, you con'ugate
verbs by changing the ening. If the
sub'ect is I %yo&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an a $o.
yo vivo %vivir $ ir 2 o 3 vivo&
I live, I a! living, I o live
If the sub'ect is you $ infor!al %t,&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
aing $es %for $ir verbs&.
t, vives %vivir $ ir 2 es 3 vives&
you live, you are living, you o live
If the sub'ect is he %-l&, she %ella& or you
$ for!al %uste&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an aing $e %$ir verbs&.
-l.ella.uste vive %vivir $ ir 2 e 3 vive&
he lives, she is living, you %for!al& o
live
If the sub'ect is "e %nosotros.nosotras&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
aing $i!os for $ir verbs.
nosotros vivi!os %vivir $ ir 2 i!os 3
vivi!os&
"e live, "e are living, "e o live
If the sub'ect is you$all $ infor!al
%vosotros.vosotras&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an aing 6s %$ir
verbs&.
vosotros viv6s %vivir $ ir 2 6s 3 viv6s&
you$all live, you$all are living, you$all
o live
If the sub'ect is they %ellos.ellas& or you$
all $ for!al %ustees&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an aing $en %$ir
verbs&.
ellos.ellas.ustees viven %vivir $ ir 2 en
3 viven&
they live, they are living, you$all
%for!al& o live
5s you can see, to con'ugate regular $ir
verbs, si!ply rop the ening %$ir& an
a one of the follo"ing#
o
es
e
i!os
6s
en
Regular Spanish Verbs
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
In Spanish, there are three categories of
verbs. The category is eter!ine by
the last t"o letters of the infinitive#
$ar verbs %like hablar&
$er verbs %like co!er&
$ir verbs %like vivir&
The infinitive is the base for! of the
verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live,
etc. In Spanish, all infinitives en in $ar,
$er, or $ir.
$ar verb
hablar %to speak&
$er verb
co!er %to eat&
$ir verb
vivir %to live&
To con'ugate a verb !eans to
!anipulate the infinitive so that it
agrees "ith the ifferent possible
sub'ects. (ere is the present tense
con'ugation of the infinitive )to speak)#
to speak
I speak
you speak
he speaks
she speaks
"e speak
you$all speak
they speak
The present tense in Spanish can !ean
three things. The Spanish phrase )yo
hablo) can !ean#
yo hablo
I speak
yo hablo
I a! speaking
yo hablo
I o speak
*any Spanish verbs are co!pletely
regular, !eaning that they follo" a
specific pattern of con'ugation. In this
lesson you "ill learn to con'ugate
regular $ar, $er, an $ir verbs %in the
present tense&. +efore you can o that,
you !ust !e!orize the follo"ing
sub'ect pronouns.
yo %I&
t, %you $ infor!al&
-l %he&
ella %she&
uste %you $ for!al&
nosotros.nosotras %"e&
vosotros.vosotras %you$all $ infor!al&
ellos.ellas %they&
ustees %you$all for!al&
/or a revie" of the sub'ect pronouns,
click here.
Spanish infinitives are ivie into t"o
parts# the ening an the ste!. The
ening is the last t"o letters.
0e!e!ber, all infinitives en in $ar, $er,
or $ir. The ste! is everything that1s left
after you re!ove the ening.
habl 2 ar 3 hablar
co! 2 er 3 co!er
viv 2 ir 3 vivir
In this lesson, "e "ill use three !oel
verbs# hablar, co!er, an vivir. In
Spanish, you con'ugate verbs by
changing the ening. If the sub'ect is I
%yo&, con'ugate by ropping the ening
an a $o.
yo hablo %hablar $ ar 2 o 3 hablo&
I speak, I a! speaking, I o speak
yo co!o %co!er $ er 2 o 3 co!o&
I eat, I a! eating, I o eat
yo vivo %vivir $ ir 2 o 3 vivo&
I live, I a! living, I o live
If the sub'ect is you $ infor!al %t,&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
a $as %for $ar verbs& or $es %for $er an
$ir verbs&.
t, hablas %hablar $ ar 2 as 3 hablas&
you speak, you are speaking, you o
speak
t, co!es %co!er $ er 2 es 3 co!es&
you eat, you are eating, you o eat
t, vives %vivir $ ir 2 es 3 vives&
you live, you are living, you o live
If the sub'ect is he %-l&, she %ella& or you
$ for!al %uste&, con'ugate by ropping
the ening an a $a %$ar verbs& or $e %$
er an $ir verbs&.
-l.ella.uste habla %hablar $ ar 2 a 3
habla&
he speaks, she is speaking, you %for!al&
o speak
-l.ella.uste co!e %co!er $ er 2 e 3
co!e&
he eats, she is eating, you %for!al& o
eat
-l.ella.uste vive %vivir $ ir 2 e 3 vive&
he lives, she is living, you %for!al& o
live
If the sub'ect is "e %nosotros.nosotras&,
con'ugate by ropping the ening an
a $a!os, $e!os, or $i!os, epening
on "hether the verb is $ar, $er or $ir.
nosotros habla!os %hablar $ ar 2 a!os 3
habla!os&
"e speak, "e are speaking, "e o speak
nosotros co!e!os %co!er $ er 2 e!os 3
co!e!os&
"e eat, "e are eating, "e o eat
nosotros vivi!os %vivir $ ir 2 i!os 3
vivi!os&
"e live, "e are living, "e o live
If the sub'ect is you$all $ infor!al
%vosotros.vosotras&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an a $4is, $-is,
or 6s.
vosotros habl4is %hablar $ ar 2 4is 3
habl4is&
you$all speak, you$all are speaking,
you$all o speak
vosotros co!-is %co!er $ er 2 -is 3
co!-is&
you$all eat, you$all are eating, you$all
o eat
vosotros viv6s %vivir $ ir 2 6s 3 viv6s&
you$all live, you$all are living, you$all
o live
If the sub'ect is they %ellos.ellas& or you$
all $ for!al %ustees&, con'ugate by
ropping the ening an a $an %$ar
verbs& or $en %$er an $ir verbs&.
ellos.ellas.ustees hablan %hablar $ ar 2
an 3 hablan&
they speak, they are speaking, you$all
%for!al& o speak
ellos.ellas.ustees co!en %co!er $ er 2
en 3 co!en&
they eat, they are eating, you$all
%for!al& o eat
ellos.ellas.ustees viven %vivir $ ir 2 en
3 viven&
they live, they are living, you$all
%for!al& o live
5s you can see, to con'ugate regular $ar
verbs, si!ply rop the ening %$ar& an
a one of the follo"ing#
o
as
a
a!os
4is
an
To con'ugate regular $er verbs, si!ply
rop the ening %$er& an a one of the
follo"ing#
o
es
e
e!os
-is
en
To con'ugate regular $ir verbs, si!ply
rop the ening %$ir& an a one of the
follo"ing#
o
es
e
i!os
6s
en
Ser and Estar
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In Spanish, there are t"o verbs that can
be translate as )to be.) These t"o
verbs are ser an estar. This lesson "ill
not focus on their correct usage7 rather,
it is esigne to give you lots of practice
con'ugating these t"o verbs. /or
etaile e8planations of "hen to use ser
an "hen to use estar, see the follo"ing
lessons#
Ser an estar $ the funa!entals
Uses of ser
Uses of estar
Contrasting uses
/or these quizzes, you only nee kno"
ho" to con'ugate ser an estar.
estar ser
estoy
est4s
soy
eres
est4
esta!os
est4is
est4n
es
so!os
sois
son
+y practicing "ith these quizzes, you
"ill start to gain a subconscious
kno"lege of the rules for using ser an
estar. Thus, these quizzes "ill be a great
help not only in learning to con'ugate
the verbs, but also in learning to
auto!atically use the! correctly.
Stem Changing Verbs e:i
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The !ain for! of the verb is calle the
infinitive. The infinitive consists of t"o
parts# the ending an the stem. The
ending is the last t"o letters. There are
only three ifferent enings# $ar, $er,
an $ir. The stem is everything else,
e8cept the ening.
hablar# ening 3 ar, ste! 3 habl
co!er# ening 3 er, ste! 3 com
vivir# ening 3 ir, ste! 3viv
So!e spanish verbs are calle stem-
changers because "hen they are
con'ugate, the ste! changes in a
preictable "ay. In one group of ste!$
changing verbs, the letter e in the ste!
changes to i in all but the nosotros an
vosotros for!s. This particular type of
ste!$changing verb is foun only in $ir
verbs.
pedir
yo pio
t, pies
-l, ella, U. pie
nosotros.as pei!os
vosotros.as pe6s
ellos, ellas, Us. pien
/or a !ore co!plete iscussion of verbs
that change e#i click here.
(ere are so!e co!!on e#i ste!$
changing verbs.
competir
to co!pete
concebir
to conceive
despedir
to fire
impedir
to i!pee
medir
to !easure
pedir
to ask for
reir
to scol, quarrel
repetir
to repeat
servir
to serve
teir
to color, ye, stain
vestir
to ress
Stem Changing Verbs e:ie
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
The !ain for! of the verb is calle the
infinitive. The infinitive consists of t"o
parts# the ending an the stem. The
ending is the last t"o letters. There are
only three ifferent enings# $ar, $er,
an $ir. The stem is everything else,
e8cept the ening.
hablar# ening 3 ar, ste! 3 habl
co!er# ening 3 er, ste! 3 com
vivir# ening 3 ir, ste! 3 viv
So!e spanish verbs are calle stem-
changers because "hen they are
con'ugate, the ste! changes in a
preictable "ay. In one group of ste!$
changing verbs, the letter e in the ste!
changes to ie in all but the nosotros an
vosotros for!s. This particular type of
ste!$changing verb is foun in all three
verb types.
cerrar
yo cierro
t, cierras
-l, ella, U. cierra
nosotros.as cerra!os
vosotros.as cerr4is
ellos, ellas, Us. cierran
/or a !ore co!plete iscussion of verbs
that change e#ie click here.
(ere are so!e co!!on e#ie ste!$
changing verbs.
acertar
to !anage to
advertir
to alert
atender
to atten to
atravesar
to cross
calentar
to heat
cerrar
to close
comenzar
to begin
confesar
to confess
convertir
to convert
defender
to efen
despertar
to "ake up
divertir
to a!use
empezar
to begin
encender
to light
entender
to unerstan
enterrar
to bury
fregar
to scrub
herir
to in'ure
hervir
to boil
mentir
to lie
merendar
to have lunch
negar
to eny
pensar
to think
perder
to lose
preferir
to prefer
uerer
to "ant
regar
to "ater
sugerir
to suggest
temblar
to tre!ble
tender
to sprea over
tropezar
to stu!ble on
verter
to spill
Stem Changing Verbs o:ue
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The !ain for! of the verb is calle the
infinitive. The infinitive consists of t"o
parts# the ending an the stem. The
ending is the last t"o letters. There are
only three ifferent enings# $ar, $er,
an $ir. The stem is everything else,
e8cept the ening.
hablar# ening 3 ar, ste! 3 habl
co!er# ening 3 er, ste! 3 com
vivir# ening 3 ir, ste! 3 viv
So!e spanish verbs are calle stem-
changers because "hen they are
con'ugate, the ste! changes in a
preictable "ay. In one group of ste!$
changing verbs, the letter o in the ste!
changes to ue in all but the nosotros an
vosotros for!s. This particular type of
ste!$changing verb is foun in all three
verb types.
contar
yo cuento
t, cuentas
-l, ella, U. cuenta
nosotros.as conta!os
vosotros.as cont4is
ellos, ellas, Us. cuentan
/or a !ore co!plete iscussion of verbs
that change o#ue click here.
(ere are so!e co!!on o#ue ste!$
changing verbs.
acordar
to agree, ecie
acostar
to put to be
almorzar
to eat lunch
aprobar
to approve
colgar
to hang
contar
to count, to tell
costar
to cost
demostrar
to e!onstrate, prove
devolver
to return an ob'ect
dormir
to sleep
encontrar
to fin
envolver
to "rap
forzar
to force
morder
to bite
morir
to ie
mostrar
to sho"
mover
to !ove an ob'ect, to !otivate
poder
to be able to
probar
to test, taste
recordar
to re!e!ber
resolver
to solve
rogar
to beg, pray
soler
to be in the habit of
sonar
to soun, ring
soar
to rea!
tostar
to toast
volar
to fly
volver
to return
"!r" and ""ar"
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The verbs ir an ar are irregular,
!eaning they o not follo" the stanar
rules for con'ugating $ir an $ar verbs.
They o, ho"ever, share a pattern of
con'ugation#
ir dar
voy
vas
va
va!os
vais
van
oy
as
a
a!os
ais
an
5itional practice can be foun by
clicking here.
"#ener" and "Venir"
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The verbs tener an venir are irregular,
!eaning they o not follo" the stanar
rules for con'ugating $er an $ir verbs.
They o, ho"ever, share a pattern of
con'ugation#
tener - to have venir - to come
tengo
tienes
tiene
tene!os
ten-is
tienen
vengo
vienes
viene
veni!os
ven6s
vienen
5itional practice can be foun by
clicking here.
Verbs $ith !rregular %irst &ersons
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
The follo"ing verbs are irregular in the
present tense in the first person only#
caer %to fall&
'o caigo
traer %to bring&
'o traigo
caber %to fit&
'o uepo
hacer %to o, !ake&
'o hago
poner %to put, place&
'o pongo
saber %to kno" so!ething&
'o s(
salir %to leave&
'o salgo
valer %to be "orth&
'o valgo
ver %to see&
'o veo
!mportant note: learning these is
oubly i!portant, since the verb for!s
of the present sub'unctive !oo are
base upon the yo for! of the present
inicative9 5itional practice can be
foun by clicking here.
)rthographic Changing Verbs
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:erbs that en in $ger an $gir change
the g to ' in the yo for!.
*ist of Verbs E+ample
coger
colegir %e#i&
corregir %e#i&
irigir
elegir %e#i&
escoger
e8igir
fingir
proteger
recoger
su!ergir
surgir
co,o
coges
coge
coge!os
cog-is
cogen
:erbs that en in $guir change the gu to
g in the yo for!.
*ist of Verbs E+ample
conseguir %e#i&
istinguir
erguir %e#i&
e8tinguir
perseguir %e#i&
seguir %e#i&
consigo
consigues
consigue
consegui!os
consegu6s
consiguen
:erbs that en in a consonant 2 $cer or
$cir change the c to z in the yo for!.
*ist of Verbs E+ample
coercer
convencer
e'ercer
esparcir
!ecer;
re!ecer;
vencer
zurcir
convenzo
convences
convence
convence!os
convenc-is
convencen
;!ecer an re!ecer follo" this pattern,
even though they en in a vo"el 2 $cer
:erbs that en in a vo"el 2 $cer or $cir
a z before the c in the yo for!.
E+ceptions: hacer, ecir
*ist of Verbs E+ample
conucir
eucir
eslucir
inucir
introucir
lucir
proucir
reucir
reproucir
traucir
conocer
agraecer
aparecer
carecer
co!paecer
crecer
esaparecer
establecer
!erecer
nacer
obeecer
ofrecer
parecer
pertenecer
placer
reconocer
yacer
conduzco
conuces
conuce
conuci!os
conuc6s
conucen
:erbs that en in $uir %not guir& a y
before o, e, an a.
*ist of Verbs E+ample
atribuir
concluir
constituir
construir
contribuir
istribuir
estruir
is!inuir
e8cluir
fluir
atribu'o
atribu'es
atribu'e
atribui!os
atribu6s
atribu'en
huir
incluir
influir
instruir
sustituir
So!e verbs that en in $iar an nearly
all verbs that en in $uar take a "ritten
accent to the i or the u in all but the
nosotros an vosotros for!s.
*ist of Verbs E+ample
acentuar
continuar
actuar
a!pliar
confiar
criar
enviar
espiar
fiar
grauar
habituar
liar
situar
valuar
variar
acent-o
acent-as
acent-a
acentua!os
acentu4is
ace
Regular &reterite Verbs
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The preterite tense is use to refer to
actions that occurre at a fi8e point in
ti!e.
I calle at <#==.
*lam( a la una.
The preterite tense is also use to refer
to actions in the past that "ere
perfor!e a specific nu!ber of ti!es.
I calle you t"ice.
Te llam( os veces.
The preterite tense is also use to refer
to actions that occurre uring a
specific enclose perio of ti!e.
(e live there for > years.
?l vivi. all6 por cinco a@os.
The preterite is also use for actions
that are part of a chain of events.
I bought a hat, sat o"n on a bench an
fell asleep.
Compr( un so!brero, !e sent( en un
banco y !e dorm/.
The preterite is also use for suen
changes of !oo, feelings or opinions.
5t that !o!ent, I "as not afrai.
An ese !o!ento, no tuve !ieo.
The preterite is frequently associate
"ith phrases that pinpoint a particular
occasion or specific ti!e fra!e.
a'er
yesteray
a'er por la maana
yesteray !orning
a'er por la tarde
yesteray afternoon
antea'er
the ay before yesteray
anoche
last night
desde el primer momento
fro! the first !o!ent
despu(s
after"ars
durante dos siglos
for t"o centuries
el ao pasado
last year
el lunes por la noche
*onay night
el mes pasado
last !onth
el otro d/a
the other ay
en ese momento
at that !o!ent
entonces
then
esta maana
this !orning
esta tarde
this afternoon
hace dos d/as0 aos
t"o ays, years ago
la semana pasada
last "eek
If the action is in the past, an you can
eter!ine precisely "hen it occurre, or
ho" !any ti!es it occurre, then you
"ill use the preterite.
0egular for!s of the preterite are
for!e by aing the follo"ing enings
to the ste! of the verb#
-ar verbs e+ample: hablar
-
aste
B
a!os
asteis
aron
habl-
hablaste
hablB
habla!os
hablasteis
hablaron
-er verbs0 -ir
verbs
e+amples: comer0
vivir
6
iste
iB
i!os
isteis
ieron
co!6
co!iste
co!iB
co!i!os
co!isteis
co!ieron
viv6
viviste
viviB
vivi!os
vivisteis
vivieron
&reterite Stem Changing Verbs
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$ar an $er verbs that change their ste!
in the present tense o not change in the
preterite. They are con'ugate 'ust like
other regular preterite verbs, using the
regular enings.
cerrar
cerr-
cerraste
cerrB
cerra!os
cerrasteis
cerraron
entender
enten6
enteniste
enteniB
enteni!os
entenisteis
entenieron
$ir verbs that change their ste! in the
present tense do change in the preterite,
but in a ifferent "ay. They change e#i
an o#u in the thir person, singular an
plural.
preferir
prefer6
preferiste
prefiriB
preferi!os
preferisteis
prefirieron
dormir
or!6
or!iste
ur!iB
or!i!os
or!isteis
ur!ieron
&reterite )rthographic Changing
Verbs
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The follo"ing changes occur in the 'o
for! only#
:erbs that en in -gar change g to gu
:erbs that en in -car change c to u
:erbs that en in -zar change z to c
E+amples:
'ugu- %'ugar&
busqu- %buscar&
al!orc- %al!orzar&
(ere are so!e e8a!ples of co!!on
verbs in this category#
'ugar
llegar
pagar
rogar
aparcar
buscar
clasificar
tocar
al!orzar
co!enzar
e!pezar
organizar
/or verbs that en in $aer, $eer, $o6r, an
$oer, the -l,.ella.uste for! uses the
ening '. %rather than iB& an the thir
person plural uses the ening 'eron
%rather than ieron&. The re!aining for!s
gain a "ritten accent over the letter i.
E+ample: creer
cre/
cre/ste
cre'.
cre/!os
cre/steis
cre'eron
Cther verbs like creer inclue#
caer
leer
o6r
poseer
proveer
roer
A8ceptions to this rule inclue#
traer
atraer
istraer
:erbs that en in $uir change in the
sa!e "ay, but the "ritten accent over
the letter i only occurs in the yo for!.
E+ample: huir
hu/
huiste
hu'.
hui!os
huisteis
hu'eron
Cther verbs like huir inclue#
construir
contribuir
estruir
fluir
incluir
influir
&reterite: ser0 ir0 dar0 hacer
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
*any verbs in the preterite are irregular
an !ust be !e!orize. There are three
very effective !ethos for learning
these verbs# practice, practice, practice.
ser ir dar hacer
fui
fuiste
fue
fui!os
fuisteis
fueron
fui
fuiste
fue
fui!os
fuisteis
fueron
i
iste
io
i!os
isteis
ieron
hice
hiciste
hizo
hici!os
hicisteis
hicieron
1ote: This is not a typo7 ser an ir o
have ientical con'ugations in the
preterite9
#he !mperfect
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The i!perfect tense is use to refer to
actions in the past that occurre
repeately.
I use to "alk every ay.
Do caminaba caa 6a.
The i!perfect tense is also use to refer
to actions in the past that occurre over
an e8tene perio of ti!e.
I use to eat paella frequently.
Do com/a frecuente!ente paella.
The i!perfect tense is also use to )set
the stage) for an event that occurre in
the past.
Ee "ere co!ing ho!e "hen "e sa"
Fuan.
Ven/amos para casa cuano vi!os a
Fuan.
5ctions "hich are not physical, that is
feelings an !ental actions, usually use
the i!perfect tense.
Fuan "as feeling sick.
Fuan estaba enfer!o.
The i!perfect is frequently associate
"ith phrases that escribe the frequency
of past actions.
a menudo
often
a veces
so!eti!es
cada d/a
every ay
cada ao
every year
con frecuencia
frequently
de vez en cuando
fro! ti!e to ti!e
en auella (poca
at that ti!e
frecuentemente
frequently
generalmente
usually
muchas veces
!any ti!es
mucho
a lot
nunca
never
por un rato
for a"hile
siempre
al"ays
tantas veces
so !any ti!es
todas las semanas
every "eek
todos los d/as
every ay
todo el tiempo
all the ti!e
varias veces
several ti!es
0egular for!s of the i!perfect are
for!e by aing the follo"ing enings
to the ste! of the verb#
-ar verbs e+ample: hablar
aba
abas
aba
4ba!os
abais
aban
hablaba
hablabas
hablaba
habl4ba!os
hablabais
hablaban
-er verbs0 -ir verbs e+ample: vivir
6a
6as
6a
6a!os
6ais
6an
viv6a
viv6as
viv6a
viv6a!os
viv6ais
viv6an
Cnly three verbs are irregular in the
i!perfect#
ser ver ir
era
eras
era
-ra!os
erais
eran
ve6a
ve6as
ve6a
ve6a!os
ve6ais
ve6an
iba
ibas
iba
6ba!os
ibais
iban
#he &resent Sub,unctive
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
The sub'unctive is not a tense7 rather, it
is a !oo. Tense refers "hen an action
takes place %past, present, future&, "hile
!oo !erely reflects ho" the speaker
feels about the action. The sub'unctive
!oo is rarely use in Anglish, but it is
"iely use in Spanish.
Use this verb quizzer to practice
con'ugating verbs in the present
sub'unctive. To learn "hen to use the
sub'unctive, please refer to the
appropriate e8ercises in the Gra!!ar
Tutorial.
/or !ost verbs, the present sub'unctive
is for!e by follo"ing these three
steps#
<. Start "ith the 'o for! of the
present inicative.
G. Then rop the -o ening.
H. /inally, a the follo"ing
enings#
-ar verbs:
$e, $es, $e, $e!os, $-is, en
-er and -ir verbs:
$a, $as, $a, $a!os, $4is, $an
0egular $ar verbs like hablar %yo
hablo&.
hablo $ o 3 habl
habl 2 e 3 hable
habl 2 es 3 hables
habl 2 e 3 hable
habl 2 e!os 3 hablemos
habl 2 -is 3 habl(is
habl 2 en 3 hablen
0egular $er verbs like comer %yo
co!o&.
como $ o 3 co!
co! 2 a 3 coma
co! 2 as 3 comas
co! 2 a 3 coma
co! 2 a!os 3 comamos
co! 2 4is 3 com2is
co! 2 an 3 coman
0egular $ir verbs like vivir %yo vivo&.
vivo $ o 3 viv
viv 2 a 3 viva
viv 2 as 3 vivas
viv 2 a 3 viva
viv 2 a!os 3 vivamos
viv 2 4is 3 viv2is
viv 2 an 3 vivan
The for!ula also "orks for verbs that
have irregular )yo) for!s in the present
inicative. Stuy these e8a!ples#
conocer %yo conozco&
conozco $ o 3 conozco
conozc 2 a 3 conozca
conozc 2 as 3 conozcas
conozc 2 a 3 conozca
conozc 2 a!os 3 conozcamos
conozc 2 4is 3 conozc2is
conozc 2 an 3 conozcan
tener %yo tengo&
tengo $ o 3 teng
teng 2 a 3 tenga
teng 2 as 3 tengas
teng 2 a 3 tenga
teng 2 a!os 3 tengamos
teng 2 4is 3 teng2is
teng 2 an 3 tengan
salir %yo salgo&
salgo $ o 3 salg
salg 2 a 3 salga
salg 2 as 3 salgas
salg 2 a 3 salga
salg 2 a!os 3 salgamos
salg 2 4is 3 salg2is
salg 2 an 3 salgan
/or $ar an $er ste!$changing verbs, the
for!ula applies e8cept that there is no
ste! change in the nosotros an
vosotros for!s. Stuy these e8a!ples#
pensar %yo pienso&
pienso $ o 3 piens
piens 2 e 3 piense
piens 2 es 3 pienses
piens 2 e 3 piense
pens 2 e!os 3 pensemos
pens 2 -is 3 pens(is
piens 2 en 3 piensen
perder %yo piero&
pierdo $ o 3 pier
pier 2 a 3 pierda
pier 2 as 3 pierdas
pier 2 a 3 pierda
perd 2 a!os 3 perdamos
perd 2 4is 3 perd2is
pier 2 an 3 pierdan
contar %yo cuento&
cuento $ o 3 cuent
cuent 2 e 3 cuente
cuent 2 es 3 cuentes
cuent 2 e 3 cuente
cont 2 e!os 3 contemos
cont 2 -is 3 cont(is
cuent 2 en 3 cuenten
volver %yo vuelvo&
vuelvo $ o 3 vuelv
vuelv 2 a 3 vuelva
vuelv 2 as 3 vuelvas
vuelv 2 a 3 vuelva
volv 2 a!os 3 volvamos
volv 2 4is 3 volv2is
vuelv 2 an 3 vuelvan
/or $ir ste!$changing verbs, the
for!ula applies e8cept that the ste!
change in the nosotros an vosotros
for!s follo"s these patterns# o#ue verbs
change o to u7 e#ie verbs change e to i7
e#i verbs change e to i. Stuy these
e8a!ples#
dormir %yo uer!o&
duermo $ o 3 uer!
uer! 2 a 3 duerma
uer! 2 as 3 duermas
uer! 2 a 3 duerma
durm 2 a!os 3 durmamos
durm 2 4is 3 durm2is
uer! 2 an 3 duerman
sentir %yo siento&
siento $ o 3 sient
sient 2 a 3 sienta
sient 2 as 3 sientas
sient 2 a 3 sienta
sint 2 a!os 3 sintamos
sint 2 4is 3 sint2is
sient 2 an 3 sientan
pedir %yo pio&
pido $ o 3 pi
pi 2 a 3 pida
pi 2 as 3 pidas
pi 2 a 3 pida
pid 2 a!os 3 pidamos
pid 2 4is 3 pid2is
pi 2 an 3 pidan
/or verbs that en in -zar, the z changes
to c "hen it co!es before the letter e.
empezar %e#ie&
e!piece
e!pieces
e!piece
e!pece!os
e!pec-is
e!piecen
/or verbs that en in -ger or -gir, the g
changes to , "hen it co!es before the
letter a.
escoger
esco,a
esco,as
esco,a
esco,a!os
esco,4is
esco,an
elegir %e#i&
eli,a
eli,as
eli,a
eli,a!os
eli,4is
eli,an
/or verbs that en in -guir, the gu
changes to g "hen it co!es before the
letter a.
seguir %e#i&
siga
sigas
siga
siga!os
sig4is
sigan
/or verbs that en in -car, the c changes
to u "hen it co!es before the letter e.
buscar
busue
busues
busue
busue!os
busu-is
busuen
/or verbs that en in uir, a the letter
' before the letter a.
huir
hu'a
hu'as
hu'a
hu'a!os
hu'4is
hu'an
(ere are the si8 verbs that are irregular
in the present sub'unctive#
dar $ to give
-
es
-
e!os
eis
en
estar $ to be
est-
est-s
est-
este!os
est-is
est-n
haber $ to have %au8iliary verb&
haya
hayas
haya
haya!os
hay4is
hayan
ir $ to go
vaya
vayas
vaya
vaya!os
vay4is
vayan
saber $ to kno"
sepa
sepas
sepa
sepa!os
sep4is
sepan
ser $ to be
sea
seas
sea
sea!os
se4is
sean
#he &resent Sub,unctive: Regular
Verbs
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
The sub'unctive is not a tense7 rather, it
is a !oo. Tense refers "hen an action
takes place %past, present, future&, "hile
!oo !erely reflects ho" the speaker
feels about the action. The sub'unctive
!oo is rarely use in Anglish, but it is
"iely use in Spanish.
Use this verb quizzer to practice
con'ugating verbs in the present
sub'unctive. To learn "hen to use the
sub'unctive, please refer to the
appropriate e8ercises in the Gra!!ar
Tutorial.
/or !ost verbs, the present sub'unctive
is for!e by follo"ing these three
steps#
<. Start "ith the 'o for! of the
present inicative.
G. Then rop the -o ening.
H. /inally, a the follo"ing
enings#
-ar verbs:
$e, $es, $e, $e!os, $-is, en
-er and -ir verbs:
$a, $as, $a, $a!os, $4is, $an
0egular $ar verbs like hablar %yo
hablo&.
hablo $ o 3 habl
habl 2 e 3 hable
habl 2 es 3 hables
habl 2 e 3 hable
habl 2 e!os 3 hablemos
habl 2 -is 3 habl(is
habl 2 en 3 hablen
0egular $er verbs like comer %yo
co!o&.
como $ o 3 co!
co! 2 a 3 coma
co! 2 as 3 comas
co! 2 a 3 coma
co! 2 a!os 3 comamos
co! 2 4is 3 com2is
co! 2 an 3 coman
0egular $ir verbs like vivir %yo vivo&.
vivo $ o 3 viv
viv 2 a 3 viva
viv 2 as 3 vivas
viv 2 a 3 viva
viv 2 a!os 3 vivamos
viv 2 4is 3 viv2is
viv 2 an 3 vivan
#he &resent Sub,unctive: !rregular
%irst &ersons
Click to Generate Unique Quiz
The sub'unctive is not a tense7 rather, it
is a !oo. Tense refers to "hen an
action takes place %past, present, future&,
"hile !oo !erely reflects ho" the
speaker feels about the action. The
sub'unctive !oo is rarely use in
Anglish, but it is "iely use in
Spanish.
Use this verb quizzer to practice
con'ugating verbs in the present
sub'unctive. To learn "hen to use the
sub'unctive, please refer to the
appropriate e8ercises in the Gra!!ar
Tutorial.
/or !ost verbs, the present sub'unctive
is for!e by follo"ing these three
steps#
<. Start "ith the 'o for! of the
present inicative.
G. Then rop the -o ening.
H. /inally, a the follo"ing
enings#
-ar verbs:
$e, $es, $e, $e!os, $-is, en
-er and -ir verbs:
$a, $as, $a, $a!os, $4is, $an
This for!ula "orks for verbs that have
irregular )yo) for!s in the present
inicative. Stuy these e8a!ples#
conocer %yo conozco&
conozco $ o 3 conozc
conozc 2 a 3 conozca
conozc 2 as 3 conozcas
conozc 2 a 3 conozca
conozc 2 a!os 3 conozcamos
conozc 2 4is 3 conozc2is
conozc 2 an 3 conozcan
tener %yo tengo&
tengo $ o 3 teng
teng 2 a 3 tenga
teng 2 as 3 tengas
teng 2 a 3 tenga
teng 2 a!os 3 tengamos
teng 2 4is 3 teng2is
teng 2 an 3 tengan
salir %yo salgo&
salgo $ o 3 salg
salg 2 a 3 salga
salg 2 as 3 salgas
salg 2 a 3 salga
salg 2 a!os 3 salgamos
salg 2 4is 3 salg2is
salg 2 an 3 salgan
Spanish Commands: %ormal
Commands
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Co!!ans are use "hen orering, or
telling so!eone to o so!ething. This
is often referre to as the )i!perative)
for! of the verb.
Compre 3d. el anillo.
%Dou& +uy the ring.
4aga 3d. la tarea.
%Dou& Io the ho!e"ork.
Compren 3ds. los libros.
%Dou$all& +uy the books.
4agan 3ds. el traba,o.
%Dou$all& Io the "ork.
+y no", you are "ell acquainte "ith
the fact that Spanish has both a for!al
an an infor!al style of speech %t, .
U.&. This istinction applies to
co!!ans.
Compre 3d. el anillo.
+uy the ring. %for!al&
Compra 5t-6 los dulces.
+uy the cany. %fa!iliar&
Infor!al, or fa!iliar, speech is use
a!ong friens, co"orkers, relatives, or
"hen aressing a chil. /or!al speech
is generally use to be polite or to
e8press respect. /or that reason, the
for!al co!!ans are often referre to
as polite commands.
The for!al co!!ans are for!e the
sa!e "ay as the present sub'unctive#
<. Start "ith the 'o for! of the
present inicative.
G. Then rop the -o ening.
H. /inally, a the follo"ing
enings#
-ar verbs:
$e %for U.&, $en %for Us.&
-er and -ir verbs:
$a %for U.&, $an %for Us.&
The follo"ing e8a!ples of for!al
co!!ans use three regular verbs#
hablar, co!er, an escribir.
4able 3d. m2s lentamente.
4ablen 3ds. m2s lentamente.
Speak !ore slo"ly.
Coma 3d. la cena.
Coman 3ds. la cena.
Aat the inner.
Escriba 3d. la carta.
Escriban 3ds. la carta.
Erite the letter.
0e!e!ber, if the first person singular
%yo& for! is irregular, that irregularity is
carrie over into the for!ation of the
for!al co!!an.
#engan 3ds. un buen via,e. %yo tengo&
(ave a goo trip.
#raiga 3d. el dinero. %yo traigo&
+ring the !oney.
Venga 3d. conmigo. %yo vengo&
Co!e "ith !e.
This also applies to ste!$changing
verbs.
Cuente 3d. sus beneficios. %yo cuento&
Count your blessings.
Vuelvan 3ds. pronto. %yo vuelvo&
0eturn quickly.
&ida dinero. %yo pio&
5sk for !oney.
5s "ith the present sub'unctive, the
follo"ing verbs are irregular#
ar
d( 3d.
den 3ds.
estar
est( 3d.
est(n 3ds.
ir
va'a 3d.
va'an 3ds.
ser
sea 3d.
sean 3ds.
saber
sepa 3d.
sepan 3ds.
Jote that affir!ative an negative
co!!ans use the sa!e verb for!s.
4able 3d.
Speak.
1o hable 3d.
Ion1t speak.
Coma 3d.
Aat.
1o coma 3d.
Ion1t eat.
Escriba 3d.
Erite.
1o escriba 3d.
Ion1t "rite.
5lso note that the sub'ect pronouns U.
an Us. !ay or !ay not be use.
Using the! as a egree of for!ality
or politeness to the co!!an.
4able.
Speak.
4able 3d.
Speak %sir&. %!ore respectful&
Coma.
Aat.
Coma 3d.
Aat %sir&. %!ore polite&
!nformal Commands - #- Commands
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In the previous lesson, you learne that
co!!ans are use "hen orering, or
telling so!eone to o so!ething. This
is often referre to as the )i!perative)
for! of the verb.
Compra 5t-6 el anillo.
%Dou& +uy the ring.
Escribe 5t-6 la tarea.
%Dou& Io the ho!e"ork.
Compra 5t-6 los libros.
%Dou& +uy the books.
Come 5t-6 la patata.
%Dou& Aat the potato.
0e!e!ber that Spanish has both a
for!al an an infor!al style of speech
%t,.U.&. This istinction applies to
co!!ans.
Compre 3d. el anillo.
+uy the ring. %for!al&
Compra 5t-6 los dulces.
+uy the cany. %fa!iliar&
0e!e!ber, for!al speech is generally
use to be polite or to e8press respect.
Infor!al, or fa!iliar, speech is use
a!ong friens, co"orkers, relatives, or
"hen aressing a chil.
The affir!ative infor!al %t,& co!!ans
are for!e the sa!e "ay as the present
inicative U. for!#
5hablar - ar 7 a 8 habla6
5comer - er 7 e 8 come6
5escribir - ir 7 e 8 escribe6
+e sure to note that the )t,) co!!ans
use the usted for!, not the t, for!9
The follo"ing e8a!ples of co!!ans
use three regular verbs# hablar, co!er,
an escribir.
4abla 5t-6 m2s lentamente.
%Dou& Speak !ore slo"ly.
Come 5t-6 la cena.
%Dou& Aat the inner.
Escribe 5t-6 la carta.
%Dou& Erite the letter.
Jote that the negative infor!al
co!!ans use the t, for! of the
present sub'unctive.
1o cuentes tus beneficios.
Ion1t count your blessings.
1o hables m2s lentamente.
Ion1t speak !ore slo"ly.
+e sure to note that this is the t, for!9
Co!pare the affir!ative infor!al %t,&
co!!ans "ith the negative infor!al
%t,& co!!ans#
Cuenta tus beneficios.
Count your blessings.
1o cuentes tus beneficios.
Ion1t count your blessings.
4abla m2s lentamente.
Speak !ore slo"ly.
1o hables m2s lentamente.
Ion1t speak !ore slo"ly.
5lso note that the sub'ect pronoun t, is
not nor!ally use "ith i!perative for!.
4abla m2s lentamente.
%Dou& Speak !ore slo"ly.
Come la cena.
%Dou& Aat the inner.
Escribe la carta.
%Dou& Erite the letter.
!rregular "t-" Commands
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The follo"ing eight verbs have irregular
fa!iliar co!!ans in the affir!ative#
ecir
i
salir
sal
hacer
haz
ser
s-
ir
ve
tener
ten
poner
pon
venir
ven
Jote that these irregularities only occur
"ith affir!ative t, co!!ans. 5s "ith
all other verbs, to for! negative
infor!al co!!ans "ith these verbs,
use the )t,) for! of the present
sub'unctive.
"i la verdad. %Tell the truth.&
1o digas mentiras. %Ion1t tell lies.&
4az tu tarea. %Io your ho!e"ork.&
1o hagas eso. %Ion1t o that.&
#he %uture #ense in Spanish
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The future tense is use to tell "hat
)"ill) happen, or "hat )shall) happen.
I $ill go to the beach ne8t !onth.
I shall "rite the letter ne8t "eek.
+ut, the future tense is not use to
e8press a "illingness to o so!ething.
/or this, use the verb )querer.)
9:uieres ir a la tienda;
Eill you go to the storeK
The future tense is also use to e8press
"oner or probability in the present
state.
9:ui(n ser2 ella;
I "oner "ho she isK %Eho coul she
beK&
Estar2 via,ando solo.
(e is probably traveling alone.
/or actions that "ill occur in the near
future, the present tense is !ore
co!!only use.
Esta noche vo' al cine.
Tonight I1! going to the !ovies.
/urther in the future, use the future
tense.
El ao ue viene ir( a Espaa.
Je8t year I1! going to Spain.
0egular verbs in the future tense are
con'ugate by aing the follo"ing
enings to the infinitive for! of the
verb# -(0 -2s0 -20 -emos0 -(is0 -2n.
hablar-
hablar4s
hablar4
hablare!os
hablar-is
hablar4n
There are t"elve co!!on verbs that are
irregular in the future tense. Their
enings are regular, but their ste!s
change. Since the enings are the sa!e
as all other future tense verbs, "e sho"
only the )yo) for!, an have put the
irregular ste! in bol. Ee have also
groupe the! accoring to their
patterns of change.
caber
yo cabr-
haber
yo habr-
poer
yo podr-
querer
yo uerr-
saber
yo sabr-
poner
yo pondr-
salir
yo saldr-
tener
yo tendr-
valer
yo valdr-
venir
yo vendr-
ecir
yo dir-
hacer
yo har-
Jote that co!poun verbs base on the
irregular verbs inherit the sa!e
irregularities. (ere are a fe" e8a!ples#
desuerer
yo esquerr-
resaber
yo resabr-
anteponer
yo anteponr-
mantener
yo !antenr-
prevaler
yo prevalr-
Spanish Conditional
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/requently, the conitional is use to
e8press probability, possibility, "oner
or con'ecture, an is usually translate
as "oul, coul, !ust have or probably.
The stuent sai that he $ould stud'
one !ore hour. %probability, possibility&
Ehat ti!e could it have beenK
%"oner, con'ecture&
(e must have been at ho!e. %"oner,
con'ecture&
Ee $ere probabl' busy "hen you
calle. %probability, possibility&
1ote: "hen )"oul) is use in the
sense of a repeate action in the past,
the i!perfect is use.
To con'ugate regular $ar, $er an $ir
verbs in the conitional, si!ply a one
of the follo"ing to the infintive#
/a
/as
/a
/amos
/ais
/an
(ere are all three regular conitional
verb for!s together#
hablar comer vivir
hablar6a
hablar6as
hablar6a
hablar6a!os
hablar6ais
hablar6an
co!er6a
co!er6as
co!er6a
co!er6a!os
co!er6ais
co!er6an
vivir6a
vivir6as
vivir6a
vivir6a!os
vivir6ais
vivir6an
(ere are the previous e8a!ples,
translate to Spanish.
El alumno di,o ue estudiar/a una
hora m2s.
The stuent sai that he "oul stuy
one !ore hour.
9:u( hora ser/a;
Ehat ti!e coul it have beenK
Estar/a en su casa.
(e !ust have been at ho!e.
Estar/amos ocupados cuando
llamaste.
Ee "ere probably busy "hen you
calle.
The sa!e t"elve co!!on verbs that are
irregular in the future tense are also
irregular in the conitional tense. Their
enings are regular, but their ste!s
change in the sa!e "ay they change in
the future tense. +ecause the enings
are the sa!e as all other conitional
tense verbs, "e sho" only the )yo)
for!, an have !ae the irregular ste!
bol. Ee have also groupe the!
accoring to their patterns of change.
caber
yo cabr6a
haber
yo habr6a
poer
yo podr6a
querer
yo uerr6a
saber
yo sabr6a
poner
yo pondr6a
salir
yo saldr6a
tener
yo tendr6a
valer
yo valdr6a
venir
yo vendr6a
ecir
yo dir6a
hacer
yo har6a
Je8t, let1s look at so!e specific uses of
the conitional.
#o e+press speculation about the
past:
<u(l d/a correr/an m2s de
veinticinco =il.metros.
That ay they !ust have run !ore than
G> kilo!eters.
#o e+press the future from the
perspective of the past:
>o sab/a ue abrir/an la tienda a las
siete.
I kne" that they "oul open the store at
seven o1clock.
#o e+press h'pothetical actions or
events $hich ma' or ma' not occur:
Ser/a interesante estudiar chino.
It "oul be interesting to stuy Chinese.
#o indicate $hat $ould happen $ere
it not for some certain specific
circumstance:
>o via,ar/a pero no tengo dinero.
I "oul travel but I on1t have !oney.
%or polite use to soften reuests:
&or favor0 9podr/a decirme a u(
hora abre la gasolinera;
Coul you please tell !e "hat ti!e the
gas station opensK
#o as= for advice:
9Cu2l comprar/a 3d.;
Ehich one "oul you buyK
%or reported speech:
?uan di,o ue terminar/a el traba,o.
Fuan sai that he "oul finish the "ork.
#o e+press $hat $ould be done in a
particular situation:
94ablar/as ingl(s en Espaa;
Eoul you speak Anglish in SpainK
1o. 4ablar/a espaol.
Jo. I "oul speak Spanish.
Let1s look at one !ore use of the
conitional.
#o e+press an action $hich is
contrar' to fact:
Si 'o tuviera tiempo0 ir/a al cine esta
noche.
If I ha ti!e, I "oul go to the !ovies
tonight.
1ote: This last e8a!ple uses a verb
tense you are not yet fa!iliar "ith $$ the
i!perfect sub'unctive %tuviera&. This
topic "ill be covere in epth in a later
lesson.
/inally, a fe" "ors nee to be sai to
call attention to the contrasting uses of
the future an the conitional. 5s
previously state, the conitional is
use for con'ecture an to e8press
probability "ith regars to a past
action, as in the follo"ing e8a!ple#
9:u( hora ser/a;
Ehat ti!e coul it have beenK
Ser/an las cinco.
It "as probably five o1clock.
If, ho"ever, the con'ecture or
e8pression of probability is about the
present, the future tense is use#
9:u( hora ser2;
Ehat ti!e can it beK
Ser2n las cinco.
It is probably five o1clock.
Eith regars to reporte speech, notice
that if the !ain clause is in the past, the
conditional is use.
?uan di,o ue terminara el traba,o.
Fuan sai that he "oul finish the "ork.
+ut if the !ain clause is in the present,
the future is use.
?uan dice ue terminar el traba,o.
Fuan says that he "ill finish the "ork.
&resent &erfect
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The present perfect is for!e by
co!bining the au8iliary verb )has) or
)have) "ith the past participle.
I have studied.
(e has $ritten a letter to *ar6a.
Ee have been strane for si8 ays.
+ecause the present perfect is a
co!poun tense, t"o verbs are
require# the main verb an the
au+iliar' verb.
! have studied.
%!ain verb# stuie 7 au8iliary verb#
have&
4e has $ritten a letter to @ar/a.
%!ain verb# "ritten 7 au8iliary verb#
has&
Ae have been stranded for si+ da's.
%!ain verb# been 7 au8iliary verb# have&
In Spanish, the present perfect tense is
for!e by using the present tense of the
au8iliary verb )haber) "ith the past
participle. (aber is con'ugate as
follo"s#
he
has
ha
hemos
hab(is
han
The past participle is for!e by
ropping the infinitive ening an
aing either $ao for $ar verbs, or $io
for $ir an $er verbs. So!e past
participles are irregular.
%or a revie$ of the formation of the
past participle Bclic= hereC.
The follo"ing e8a!ples all use the past
participle for the verb )co!er.)
%yo& 4e comido.
I have eaten.
%t,& 4as comido.
Dou have eaten.
%-l& 4a comido.
(e has eaten.
%nosotros& 4emos comido.
Ee have eaten.
%vosotros& 4ab(is comido.
Dou$all have eaten.
%ellos& 4an comido.
They have eaten.
Ehen use as an a'ective, the past
participle changes to agree "ith the
noun it !oifies. (o"ever, "hen use
in the perfect tenses, the past participle
never changes.
&ast participle used as an ad,ective:
La cuenta est4 pagada.
The bill is pai.
&ast participle used in the present
perfect tense:
(e pagado la cuenta.
I have pai the bill.
(ere1s a couple of !ore e8a!ples#
&ast participle used as an ad,ective:
Las cuentas est4n pagadas.
The bills are pai.
&ast participle used in the present
perfect tense:
Fuan ha pagado las cuentas.
Fuan has pai the bills.
Jote that "hen use to for! the present
perfect tense, only the base for!
%pagao& is use.
Let1s look !ore carefully at the last
e8a!ple#
?uan ha pagado las cuentas.
Fuan has pai the bills.
Jotice that "e use )ha) to agree "ith
)Fuan). Ee o JCT use )han) to agree
"ith )cuentas.) The au8iliary verb is
con'ugate for the sub'ect of the
sentence, not the ob'ect. Co!pare these
t"o e8a!ples#
?uan ha pagado las cuentas.
Fuan has pai the bills.
?uan ' @ar/a han via,ado a Espaa.
Fuan an *aria have travele to Spain.
In the first e8a!ple, "e use )ha)
because the sub'ect of the sentence is
)Fuan.) In the secon e8a!ple, "e use
)han) because the sub'ect of the
sentence is )Fuan y *ar6a.)
The present perfect tense is frequently
use for past actions that continue into
the present, or continue to affect the
present.
4e estado dos semanas en @adrid.
I have been in *ari for t"o "eeks.
"iego ha sido mi amigo por veinte
aos.
Iiego has been !y frien for G= years.
The present perfect tense is often use
"ith the averb )ya).
>a han comido.
They have alreay eaten.
*a empleada 'a ha limpiado la casa.
The !ai has alreay cleane the house.
The au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. To !ake
the sentence negative, a the "or
)no) before the con'ugate for! of
haber.
%yo& 1o he comido.
I have not eaten.
%t,& 1o has comido.
Dou have not eaten.
%-l& 1o ha comido.
(e has not eaten.
%nosotros& 1o hemos comido.
Ee have not eaten.
%vosotros& 1o hab(is comido.
Dou$all have not eaten.
%ellos& 1o han comido.
They have not eaten.
5gain, the au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. Cb'ect
pronouns are place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb.
&ablo le ha dado mucho dinero a su
hermana.
Mablo has given a lot of !oney to his
sister.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the inirect
ob'ect pronoun %le&.
&ablo no le ha dado mucho dinero a
su hermana.
Mablo has not given a lot of !oney to
his sister.
Eith refle8ive verbs, the refle8ive
pronoun is place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb. Co!pare ho" the
present perfect iffers fro! the si!ple
present, "hen a refle8ive verb is use.
@e cepillo los dientes. %present&
I brush !y teeth.
@e he cepillado los dientes. %present
perfect&
I have brushe !y teeth.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the refle8ive
pronoun %!e&.
1o me he cepillado los dientes.
I have not brushe !y teeth.
%or a revie$ of refle+ive verbs clic=
BhereC and BhereC.
Questions are for!e as follo"s. Jote
ho" the "or orer is ifferent than the
Anglish equivalent.
94an salido 'a las mu,eres;
(ave the "o!en left yetK
94as probado el chocolate alguna
vez;
(ave you ever trie chocolateK
(ere are the sa!e sentences in negative
for!. Jotice ho" the au8iliary verb an
the past participle are not separate.
91o han salido 'a las mu,eres;
(aven1t the "o!en left yetK
91o has probado el chocolate
ninguna vez;
(aven1t you ever trie chocolateK
#he &ast &erfect in Spanish
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The past perfect is for!e by
co!bining the au8iliary verb )ha) "ith
the past participle.
I had studied.
(e had $ritten a letter to *ar6a.
Ee had been strane for si8 ays.
+ecause the past perfect is a co!poun
tense, t"o verbs are require# the !ain
verb an the au8iliary verb.
! had studied.
%!ain verb# stuie 7 au8iliary verb#
ha&
4e had $ritten a letter to @ar/a.
%!ain verb# "ritten 7 au8iliary verb#
ha&
Ae had been stranded for si+ da's.
%!ain verb# been 7 au8iliary verb# ha&
In Spanish, the past perfect tense is
for!e by using the i!perfect tense of
the au8iliary verb )haber) "ith the past
participle. (aber is con'ugate as
follo"s#
hab/a
hab/as
hab/a
hab/amos
hab/ais
hab/an
Dou have alreay learne in a previous
lesson that the past participle is for!e
by ropping the infinitive ening an
aing either $ao or $io. 0e!e!ber,
so!e past participles are irregular. The
follo"ing e8a!ples all use the past
participle for the verb )vivir.)
%yo& 4ab/a vivido.
I ha live.
%t,& 4ab/as vivido.
Dou ha live.
%-l& 4ab/a vivido.
(e ha live.
%nosotros& 4ab/amos vivido.
Ee ha live.
%vosotros& 4ab/ais vivido.
Dou$all ha live.
%ellos& 4ab/an vivido.
They ha live.
%or a revie$ of the formation of the
past participle Bclic= hereC.
Ehen you stuie the past participle,
you practice using it as an a'ective.
Ehen use as an a'ective, the past
participle changes to agree "ith the
noun it !oifies. (o"ever, "hen use
in the perfect tenses, the past participle
never changes.
&ast participle used as an ad,ective:
La puerta est4 cerrada.
The oor is close.
&ast participle used in the past
perfect tense:
Do hab6a cerrado la puerta.
I ha close the oor.
(ere1s a couple of !ore e8a!ples#
&ast participle used as an ad,ective:
Las puertas est4n abiertas..
The oors are open.
&ast participle used in the past
perfect tense:
Fuan hab6a abierto las puertas.
Fuan ha opene the oors.
Jote that "hen use to for! the perfect
tenses, only the base for! %abierto& is
use.
Let1s look !ore carefully at the last
e8a!ple#
Fuan hab/a abierto las puertas.
Fuan ha opene the oors.
Jotice that "e use )hab6a) to agree "ith
)Fuan). Ee o JCT use )hab6an) to
agree "ith )puertas.) The au8iliary verb
is con'ugate for the sub'ect of the
sentence, not the ob'ect. Co!pare these
t"o e8a!ples#
Fuan hab/a abierto las puertas.
Fuan ha opene the oors.
Fuan y *ar6a hab/an puesto !ucho
inero en el banco.
Fuan an *aria ha put a lot of !oney
in the bank.
In the first e8a!ple, "e use )hab6a)
because the sub'ect of the sentence is
)Fuan.) In the secon e8a!ple, "e use
)hab6an) because the sub'ect of the
sentence is )Fuan y *ar6a.)
The past perfect tense is use "hen a
past action "as co!plete prior to
another past action. A8pressions such as
)ya), )antes), )nunca), )toav6a) an
)espu-s) "ill often appear in sentences
"here one action "as co!plete before
another.
Cuando llegaron los padres0 los nios
'a hab/an comido.
Ehen the parents arrive, the chilren
ha alreay eaten.
>o hab/a comido antes de llamarles.
I ha eaten prior to calling the!.
This iea of a past action being
co!plete before another past action
nee not al"ays be state7 it can be
i!plie.
Fuan hab6a cerrao la ventana antes de
salir. %state&
Fuan ha close the "ino" before
leaving.
?uan hab/a cerrado la ventana.
%i!plie&
Fuan ha close the "ino".
The au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. To !ake
the sentence negative, a the "or
)no) before the con'ugate for! of
haber.
%yo& Jo hab/a vivido.
I ha not live.
%t,& Jo hab/as vivido.
Dou ha not live.
%-l& Jo hab/a vivido.
(e ha not live.
%nosotros& Jo hab/amos vivido.
Ee ha not live.
%vosotros& Jo hab/ais vivido.
Dou$all ha not live.
%ellos& Jo hab/an vivido.
They ha not live.
5gain, the au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. Cb'ect
pronouns are place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb.
Mablo le hab/a dado !ucho inero a su
her!ana.
Mablo ha given a lot of !oney to his
sister.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the inirect
ob'ect pronoun %le&.
Mablo no le hab/a dado !ucho inero a
su her!ana.
Mablo ha not given a lot of !oney to
his sister.
Eith refle8ive verbs, the refle8ive
pronoun is place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb. Co!pare ho" the
present perfect iffers fro! the si!ple
present, "hen a refle8ive verb is use.
@e lavo las !anos. %present&
I "ash !y hans.
@e hab/a lavado las !anos. %past
perfect&
I ha "ashe !y hans.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the refle8ive
pronoun %!e&.
1o me hab/a lavado las !anos.
I ha not "ashe !y hans.
%or a revie$ of refle+ive verbs clic=
BhereC and BhereC.
Questions are for!e as follo"s. Jote
ho" the "or orer is ifferent than the
Anglish equivalent.
94ab/an llegado 'a las chicas;
(a the girls arrive yetK
94ab/as probado 'a el postre;
(a you trie the essert yetK
(ere are the sa!e questions in negative
for!. Jotice ho" the au8iliary verb an
the past participle are not separate.
N1o hab/an llegado ya las chicasK
(an1t the girls arrive yetK
N1o hab/as probado ya el postreK
(an1t you trie the essert yetK
%uture &erfect in Spanish
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5s "ith the other perfect tenses, the
future perfect is for!e by co!bining
the au8iliary verb )haber) "ith the past
participle. In this case, )haber) is
con'ugate in the future tense.
habr(
habr2s
habr2
habremos
habr(is
habr2n
The future perfect tense is use to
escribe "hat $ill have happened in
the future before a ifferent action takes
place, or by a specific ti!e.
I $ill have studied before I take the
test.
(e $ill have completed the task by si8
o1clock.
0e!e!ber, so!e past participles are
irregular. 5lso re!e!ber that the past
participle never changes for! in the
perfect tenses.
%yo& 4abr( escrito el libro antes del
ao nuevo.
I "ill have "ritten the book before the
ne" year.
%t,& 94abr2s comprado una casa en
un ao;
Eill you have bought a house in a yearK
%-l& 4abr2 pagado todas las deudas
para el dos de octubre.
(e "ill have pai all the ebt by
Cctober G.
%nosotros& 4abremos vuelto de
Espaa para el doce de ,unio.
Ee "ill have returne fro! Spain by
Fune <G.
%vosotros& &ara cuando ?uan llegue0
vosotros 'a habr(is salido.
+y the ti!e Fuan arrives, you$all "ill
alreay have left.
%ellos& &ara cuando @ar/a vuelva0
ellos 'a habr2n comido.
+y the ti!e *aria returns, they "ill
have alreay eaten.
%or a revie$ of the formation of the
past participle Bclic= hereC.
The au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. To !ake
the sentence negative, a the "or
)no) before the con'ugate for! of
haber.
%yo& 1o habr( comido.
I "ill not have eaten.
%t,& 1o habr2s le/do el libro.
Dou "ill not have rea the book.
%-l& 1o habr2 escrito la carta.
(e "ill not have "ritten the letter.
%nosotros& 1o habremos aprendido
nada.
Ee "ill not have learne anything.
%vosotros& 1o habr(is dormido.
Dou$all "ill not have slept.
%ellos& 1o habr2n llegado.
They "ill not have arrive.
5gain, the au8iliary verb an the past
participle are never separate. Cb'ect
pronouns are place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb.
&ablo le habr2 dado un regalo a su
esposa.
Mablo "ill have given a gift to his "ife.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the inirect
ob'ect pronoun %le&.
&ablo no le habr2 dado ning-n regalo
a su esposa.
Mablo "ill not have given a gift to his
"ife.
Eith refle8ive verbs, the refle8ive
pronoun is place i!!eiately before
the au8iliary verb. Co!pare ho" the
present perfect iffers fro! the si!ple
present, "hen a refle8ive verb is use.
@e lavo las manos. %present&
I "ash !y hans.
@e habr( lavado las manos. %future
perfect&
I "ill have "ashe !y hans.
To !ake this sentence negative, the
"or )no) is place before the refle8ive
pronoun %!e&.
1o me habr( lavado las manos.
I "ill not have "ashe !y hans.
%or a revie$ of refle+ive verbs clic=
BhereC and BhereC.
Questions are for!e as follo"s.
94abr2n llegado 'a las chicas;
Eill the girls have arriveK
94abr2s comido 'a;
Eill you have alreay eatenK
(ere are the sa!e questions in negative
for!. Jotice ho" the au8iliary verb an
the past participle are not separate.
91o habr2n llegado 'a las chicas;
Eill the girls not have alreay arriveK
91o habr2s comido 'a;
Eill you not have alreay eatenK