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# Pie chart

A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating
proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central
angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. When angles are
measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same
number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its
resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. The earliest known pie chart is generally
credited to William Playfair's Statistical Breviary of 1801.
[1][2]

The pie chart is perhaps the most ubiquitous statistical chart in the business world and
the mass media.
[3]
However, it has been criticized,
[4]
and some recommend avoiding
it
[5][6][7]
, pointing out in particular that it is difficult to compare different sections of a given
pie chart, or to compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be an effective
way of displaying information in some cases, in particular if the intent is to compare the
size of a slice with the whole pie, rather than comparing the slices among them.
[1]
Pie
charts work particularly well when the slices represent 25 to 50% of the data,
[8]
but in
general, other plots such as the bar chart or the dot plot, or non-graphical methods such
as tables, may be more adapted for representing certain information.It also shows the
frequency within certain groups of information
Example
The following example chart is based on preliminary results of the election for the
European Parliament in 2004. The table lists the number of seats allocated to each
party group, along with the derived percentage of the total that they each make up. The
values in the last column, the derived central angle of each sector, is found by
multiplying the percentage by 360.

Group Seats Percent (%) Central angle ()
EUL 39 5.3 19.2
PES 200 27.3 98.4
EFA 42 5.7 20.7
EDD 15 2.0 7.4
ELDR 67 9.2 33.0
EPP 276 37.7 135.7
UEN 27 3.7 13.3
Other 66 9.0 32.5
Total 732 99.9* 360.2*
*Because of rounding, these totals do not add up to 100 and 360.
The size of each central angle is proportional to the size of the corresponding quantity,
here the number of seats. Since the sum of the central angles has to be 360, the
central angle for a quantity that is a fraction Q of the total is 360Q degrees. In the
example, the central angle for the largest group (European People's Party (EPP)) is
135.7 because 0.377 times 360, rounded to one decimal place(s), equals 135.7.
 Use, effectiveness and visual perception

Three sets of data plotted using pie charts and bar charts.
Pie charts are common in business and journalism, perhaps because they are
perceived as being less "geeky" than other types of graph. However statisticians
generally regard pie charts as a poor method of displaying information, and they are
uncommon in scientific literature. One reason is that it is more difficult for comparisons
to be made between the size of items in a chart when area is used instead of length and
when different items are shown as different shapes. Stevens' power law states that
visual area is perceived with a power of 0.7, compared to a power of 1.0 for length. This
suggests that length is a better scale to use, since perceived differences would be
linearly related to actual differences.
Further, in research performed at AT&T Bell Laboratories, it was shown that comparison
by angle was less accurate than comparison by length. This can be illustrated with the
diagram to the right, showing three pie charts, and, below each of them, the
corresponding bar chart representing the same data. Most subjects have difficulty
ordering the slices in the pie chart by size; when the bar chart is used the comparison is
much easier.
[9]
. Similarly, comparisons between data sets are easier using the bar chart.
However, if the goal is to compare a given category (a slice of the pie) with the total (the
whole pie) in a single chart and the multiple is close to 25 or 50 percent, then a pie chart
can often be more effective than a bar graph.
Line graph
line chart.
In graph theory, the line graph L(G) of an undirected graph G is another graph L(G) that
represents the adjacencies between edges of G. The name line graph comes from a
paper by Harary & Norman (1960) although both Whitney (1932) and Krausz (1943)
used the construction before this.
[1]
Other terms used for the line graph include edge
graph, the theta-obrazom, the covering graph, the derivative, the edge-to-vertex dual,
the interchange graph, the adjoint, the conjugate, the derived graph, and the
representative graph.
[2]

One of the earliest and most important theorems about line graphs is due to Hassler
Whitney (1932), who proved that with one exceptional case the structure of G can be
recovered completely from its line graph. In other words, with that one exception, the
entire graph can be deduced from knowing the adjacencies of edges ("lines").
Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that
each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and
two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a
common endpoint ("are adjacent") in G.
That is, it is the intersection graph of the edges of G, representing each edge by the set
of its two endpoints.
Example construction
The following figures show a graph (left, with blue vertices) and its line graph (right, with
green vertices). Each vertex of the line graph is shown labeled with the pair of endpoints
of the corresponding edge in the original graph. For instance, the green vertex on the
right labeled 1,3 corresponds to the edge on the left between the blue vertices 1 and 3.
Green vertex 1,3 is adjacent to three other green vertices: 1,4 and 1,2 (corresponding to
edges sharing the endpoint 1 in the blue graph) and 4,3 (corresponding to an edge
sharing the endpoint 3 in the blue graph).

Graph G

Vertices in L(G) constructed
from edges in G

L(G)

The line graph
L(G)
 Line graphs of convex polyhedra
A source of examples from geometry are the line graphs of the graphs of simple
polyhedra. Taking the line graph of the graph of the tetrahedron one gets the graph of
the octahedron; from the graph of the cube one gets the graph of a cuboctahedron; from
the graph of the dodecahedron one gets the graph of the icosidodecahedron, etc.
Geometrically, the operation consists in cutting each vertex of the polyhedron with a
plane cutting all edges adjacent to the vertex at their midpoints; it is sometimes named
rectification.
If a polyhedron is not simple (it has more than three edges at a vertex) the line graph
will be nonplanar, with a clique replacing each high-degree vertex. The medial graph is
a variant of the line graph of a planar graph, in which two vertices of the medial graph
are adjacent if and only if the corresponding two edges are consecutive on some face of
the planar graph. For simple polyhdera, the medial graph and the line graph coincide,
but for non-simple graphs the medial graph remains planar. Thus, the medial graphs of
the cube and octahedron are both isomorphic to the graph of the cuboctahedron, and
the medial graphs of the dodecahedron and icosahedron are both isomorphic to the
graph of the icosidodecahedron.
Properties
Properties of a graph G that depend only on adjacency between edges may be
translated into equivalent properties in L(G) that depend on adjacency between vertices.
For instance, a matching in G is a set of edges no two of which are adjacent, and
corresponds to a set of vertices in L(G) no two of which are adjacent, that is, an
independent set.
Thus,
The line graph of a connected graph is connected. If G is connected, it contains a
path connecting any two of its edges, which translates into a path in L(G)
containing any two of the vertices of L(G). However, a graph G that has some
isolated vertices, and is therefore disconnected, may nevertheless have a
connected line graph.
A maximum independent set in a line graph corresponds to maximum matching
in the original graph. Since maximum matchings may be found in polynomial time,
so may the maximum independent sets of line graphs, despite the hardness of
the maximum independent set problem for more general families of graphs.
The edge chromatic number of a graph G is equal to the vertex chromatic
number of its line graph L(G).
The line graph of an edge-transitive graph is vertex-transitive.
If a graph G has an Euler cycle, that is, if G is connected and has an even
number of edges at each vertex, then the line graph of G is Hamiltonian.
(However, not all Hamiltonian cycles in line graphs come from Euler cycles in this
way.)
Line graphs are claw-free graphs, graphs without an induced subgraph in the
form of a three-leaf tree.
Characterization and recognition

The nine minimal non-line graphs, from Beineke's forbidden-subgraph characterization
of line graphs. A graph is a line graph if and only if it does not contain one of these nine
graphs as an induced subgraph.
A graph G is the line graph of some other graph, if and only if it is possible to find a
collection of cliques in G, partitioning the edges of G, such that each vertex of G
belongs to at most two of the cliques. In order to do this, it may be necessary for some
of the cliques to be single vertices. By the result of Whitney (1932),
[3]
if G is not a
triangle, there can be only one partition of this type. If such a partition exists, we can
recover the original graph for which G is a line graph, by creating a vertex for each
clique, and connecting two cliques by an edge whenever G contains a vertex belonging
to both cliques. Therefore, except for the case of K
3
and K
1,3
, if the line graphs of two
connected graphs are isomorphic then the graphs are isomorphic. Roussopoulos (1973)
used this observation as the basis for a linear time algorithm for recognizing line graphs
and reconstructing their original graphs.

Scatter Plot
Definition of Scatter Plot
A scatter plot is a graph made by plotting ordered pairs in a coordinate plane to
show the correlation between two sets of data.
More about Scatter Plot
A scatter plot describes a positive trend if, as one set of values increases, the
other set tends to increase.
A scatter plot describes a negative trend if, as one set of values increases, the
other set tends to decrease.
A scatter plot shows no trend if the ordered pairs show no correlation.
Examples of Scatter Plot
The scatter plot shows the hours of study and test scores of 20 students.
As the number of hours of study increases, the marks scored tend to increase.
So, the scatter plot describes a positive trend.

Solved Example on Scatter Plot
Emily measured the depth of water in a bathtub at two-
minute intervals after the tap was turned on. The table
shows her data. Make a scatter plot for the data.
Time (in minutes) Depth (in cm)
2 7
4 8
6 13
8 19
10 20
12 24
14 32
16 37
18 38
20 41
22 47

Choices:
A. Graph 2
B. Graph 1
C. Graph 3
D. Graph 4
Solution:
Step 1: In a graph paper,
represent the time in minutes
along the x-axis and the
depth of water in the bathtub
along the y-axis.
Step 2: Plot the values in the table. The
scatter plot would look like the one below.
Step 3: Graph 4 matches the given data.
Related Terms for Scatter Plot
Ordered pair
Coordinate plane
Correlation
Graph
Data

Bar chart

Example of a bar chart, with 'Country' as the discrete data set.
A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the
values that they represent. The bars can also be plotted horizontally.
Bar charts are used for plotting discrete (or 'discontinuous') data i.e. data which has
discrete values and is not continuous. Some examples of discontinuous data include
'shoe size' or 'eye colour', for which you would use a bar chart. In contrast, some
examples of continuous data would be 'height' or 'weight'. A bar chart is very useful if
you are trying to record certain information whether it is continuous or not continuous
data.
Example
The following table lists the number of seats allocated to each party group in European
elections in 1999 and 2004. The results of 1999 have been multiplied by 1.16933, to
compensate for the change in number of seats between those years. Sometimes it can
be horizontal.
This bar chart shows both the results of 2004, and those of 1999:

Histogram
In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabular frequencies, shown as
adjacent rectangles. Each rectangle is erected over an interval, with an area equal to
the frequency of the observations in the interval. The height of a rectangle is also equal
to the frequency density of the interval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the
interval. The total area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. A histogram may
also be based on relative frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into
each of several categories, with the total area equaling 1. The categories are usually
specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The categories
(intervals) must be adjacent, and often are chosen to be of the same size.
[1]

Histograms are used to plot density of data, and often for density estimation: estimating
the probability density function of the underlying variable. The total area of a histogram
used for probability density is always normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the
x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot.
An alternative to the histogram is kernel density estimation, which uses a kernel to
smooth samples. This will construct a smooth probability density function, which will in
general more accurately reflect the underlying variable.
The histogram is one of the seven basic tools of quality
control.
Examples
As an example we consider data collected by the U.S.
Census Bureau on time to travel to work (2000 census,
[1], Table 2). The census found that there were 124
million people who work outside of their homes. An
interesting feature of this graph is that the number recorded for "at least 15 but less than
20 minutes" is higher than for the
bands on either side. This is likely to
have arisen from people rounding
their reported journey time. This
rounding is a common phenomenon
when collecting data from people.
Histogram of travel time, US 2000
census. Area under the curve
equals the total number of cases. This diagram uses Q/width from the table.
Data by absolute numbers
Interval Width Quantity Quantity/width
0 5 4180 836
5 5 13687 2737
10 5 18618 3723
15 5 19634 3926
20 5 17981 3596
25 5 7190 1438
30 5 16369 3273
35 5 3212 642
40 5 4122 824
45 15 9200 613
60 30 6461 215
90 60 3435 57
This histogram shows the number of cases per unit interval so that the height of each
bar is equal to the proportion of total people in the survey who fall into that category.
The area under the curve represents the total number of cases (124 million). This type
of histogram shows absolute numbers.

Histogram of travel time, US 2000
census. Area under the curve
equals 1. This diagram uses
Q/total/width from the table.

Data by proportion
Interval Width Quantity (Q) Q/total/width
0 5 4180 0.0067
5 5 13687 0.0221
10 5 18618 0.0300
15 5 19634 0.0316
20 5 17981 0.0290
25 5 7190 0.0116
30 5 16369 0.0264
35 5 3212 0.0052
40 5 4122 0.0066
45 15 9200 0.0049
60 30 6461 0.0017
90 60 3435 0.0005
This histogram differs from the first only in the vertical scale. The height of each bar is
the decimal percentage of the total that each category represents, and the total area of
all the bars is equal to 1, the decimal equivalent of 100%. The curve displayed is a
simple density estimate. This version shows proportions, and is also known as a unit
area histogram.

In other words, a histogram represents a frequency distribution by means of rectangles
whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportional to the
corresponding frequencies. The intervals are placed together in order to show that the
data represented by the histogram, while exclusive, is also continuous. (E.g., in a
histogram it is possible to have two connecting intervals of 10.5-20.5 and 20.5-33.5, but
not two connecting intervals of 10.5-20.5 and 22.5-32.5. Empty intervals are
represented as empty and not skipped.)

Pictograph
http://www.tutorvista.com/math/math-pictographs
Introduction for Math Pictographs:
In math, graph is a representation of data by means of diagrams. There are various
types of graphs. The basic type of representation of data is a pictograph. The
representation of data by means of pictures are said to be pictograph. In this article we
shall discuss about pictographs in math. Also we shall draw sample pictographs in math.
How to Draw a Pictograph in Math:
Pictograph is a method of representing statistical data by means of symbolic facts to
competition the frequencies of different kinds of data. Basically, the pictographs are very
interactive for the students to study data easily.
Let us draw a pictograph to represent the students who are playing different games in a
school.
There are 650 students in a school. There are 4 types of games that the school is
affording. They are Baseball, basket ball, rugby and soccer.
There are 140 students who are playing baseball.
There are 120 students who are playing basket ball.
There are 220 students who are playing rugby.
There are 170 students playing soccer.

The pictogram for the given data in shown below:

In this pictograph, we can
see the different types of
games are represented with
different pictures. The
representation like this are
said to be pictographs.
The pictographs are very
similar to histograms. In
histograms, we represent
data by means of bars, while
in pictograph; we use pictures in the place of bar graphs.
Example for Pictogram in Math:
Draw a pictograph to represents variety of apples available in super market.
Solution:
In this pictograph, there are 30 Red
Delicious apples available in the
supermarket.
There are 25 Golden Delicious
apples available in the super market.
There are 40 Red Rome apples
available in the super market.
There are 20 McIntosh variety
of apples are available in the super
market.
There are 35 Jonathan apples
available in the super market.
So, the total number of apples in the
super market is 30 + 25 + 40 + 20 +
35 = 150
There are totally 150 apples available in the super market.