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Reviewer in FORENSIC MEDICINE:

Reviewer in FORENSIC MEDICINE By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim



Q1 :
Q1 The scope of forensic medicine can be summed in two words. Absolute and complicated Broad and
encompassing Definite and wide-ranging Specific and delimiting answer 8/20/2012 2

Q2 :
Q2 It is the inner framework of the body. It gives form and rigidity to the body, and serves to protect
many vital organs. Digestive system Integumentary system Muscular system Skeletal system answer
8/20/2012 3

Q3 :
Q3 An effect of injury that takes place when the stimulus applied is insufficient to cause injury and the
body resistance is great. Apparent Real Immediate Delayed answer 8/20/2012 4

Q4 :
Q4 Under the physics of wound production, this factor explains why an M-16 will do more damage than
.38 caliber bullet. Area of Transfer Elasticity and plasticity of tissue Kinetic energy Time answer
8/20/2012 5

Q5 :
Q5 Sensation of heat or increase in temperature. Rubor Calor Dolor Loss of function answer 8/20/2012 6

Q6 :
Q6 Wound brought about by blunt instrument could be any of the following, EXCEPT Contusion
Hematoma Laceration Incision answer 8/20/2012 7

Q7 :
Q7 X, a doctor, wanted to kill his wife by poisoning. During dinner time, he put poison on the food of his
wife. Moments after, his wife suffered excruciating pain in the stomach. Seeing his wife in agony, he
pitied his wife and administered an antidote. Thus, his wife did not die. What is the crime committed by
X? Frustrated parricide Attempted parricide Serious physical injuries Murder answer 8/20/2012 8

Q8 :
Q8 answer 8/20/2012 9

Q9 :
Q9 answer 8/20/2012 10

Q1 :
Q1 The scope of forensic medicine can be summed in two words. Absolute and complicated Broad and
encompassing Definite and wide-ranging Specific and delimiting TOPIC: Medical Science in Crime
Investigation 8/20/2012 11

Legal Medicine definition:
Legal Medicine definition Branch of medicine Application of medical knowledge to law & admin of
justice Application of basic & clinical, medical & paramedical sciences to elucidate legal matters
8/20/2012 12

Scope of Legal Medicine:
Scope of Legal Medicine Broad & encompassing Applies medical & paramedical sciences Wounds:
surgery Abortion: gynecology Sudden death & effects of trauma: pathology Basic medical sciences:
Anatomy Physiology Biochemisty , Physics Other allied sciences 8/20/2012 13

Nature of Study:
Nature of Study Knowledge in Pathology Surgery Gynecology Toxicology Other branches of medicine
Next Question 8/20/2012 14

Q2 :
Q2 It is the inner framework of the body. It gives form and rigidity to the body, and serves to protect
many vital organs. Digestive system Integumentary system Muscular system Skeletal system TOPIC:
Human Anatomy & Physiology 8/20/2012 15

Systems of Human Body:
Systems of Human Body Integumentary System Outer covering of body Function: protection, regulation
of temperature, sensation & excretion Skeletal System Inner framework of body Gives form & rigidity to
body Protects vital organs 8/20/2012 16

Systems of Human Body:
Systems of Human Body Muscular System Changes energy from food to mechanical energy Enables
parts of body to move & perform work Digestive System Changes food to soluble form: absorbed by
blood & utilized by body 8/20/2012 17

Systems of Human Body:
Systems of Human Body Circulatory System Brings food & oxygen to cells of body Removes waste
materials Helps maintain even temperature of body Provides defenses against disease Respiratory
System Supplies oxygen to cells: used for production of energy 8/20/2012 18

Systems of Human Body:
Systems of Human Body Excretory System: Anim. 1 & Anim. 2 Collects & eliminates metabolic wastes of
body Reproductive System: Male & Female Ensures perpetuation of species Nervous & Endocrine
Systems Coordinate all other systems of body Make other systems work together harmoniously &
efficiently Next Question 8/20/2012 19

Q3 :
Q3 An effect of injury that takes place when the stimulus applied is insufficient to cause injury and the
body resistance is great. Apparent Real Immediate Delayed 8/20/2012 20 TOPIC: Medico Legal Aspects
of Physical Injuries

Concept of Physical Injury :
Concept of Physical Injury Effect of some forms of stimulus on body Effect: Apparent : stimulus applied
insufficient to cause injury & body resistance great Real : effect visible Immediate : sharp pointed &
sharp edged instrument immediate production of stab wound Delayed : blund object delayed
production of contusion 8/20/2012 21 SOURCE: Except as otherwise stated, the materials taken from
this slide and subsequent slides were taken from - Solis, P. P. (1987). Medico-Legal Aspects of Physical
Injuries. In Legal Medicine (pp. 240-285). Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company.

Causes of Physical Injuries:
Causes of Physical Injuries Physical violence Heat or cold Electrical energy Chemical energy Radiation by
radio-active substances Change of atmospheric pressure (barotrauma) Infection 8/20/2012 22 Next
Question

Q4 :
Q4 Under the physics of wound production, this factor explains why an M-16 will do more damage than
.38 caliber bullet. Area of Transfer Elasticity and plasticity of tissue Kinetic energy Time 8/20/2012 23
TOPIC: Physical Injuries Brought about by Physical Violence

Effect of Physical Violence :
Effect of Physical Violence Production of wound Wound: Solution of natural continuity of any tissue of
living body Disruption of anatomic integrity of tissue of body Interchangeably used w/ wound NOTE:
physical violence not always resulting to wound but wound always result of physical violence 8/20/2012
24

Physics of Wound Production:
Physics of Wound Production Wound = kinetic energy X time X area X other factors Kinetic Energy =
MV 2 /2 Kinetic Energy: Explains why M-16 bullet (speed: 3,200 ft/sec) will do more damage than .38
caliber bullet (heavier but has much slower velocity) Time: Shorter time of transfer of energy, greater
production of damage 8/20/2012 25

Physics of Wound Production:
Physics of Wound Production Area of transfer Larger area of contact, lesser damage to body Instrument
for stabbing greater than blunt instrument Other factors Less elastic & plastic tissue, greater laceration
Movement of parts of body resulting from force applied & local stretching of tissue cause internal
injuries 8/20/2012 26 Next Question

Q5 :
Q5 Sensation of heat or increase in temperature. Rubor Calor Dolor Loss of function 8/20/2012 27
TOPIC: Vital Reaction

Vital Reaction:
Vital Reaction Sum total of all reactions of tissue or organ to trauma Reaction observable
macroscopically & microscopically Reactions of living to tissue to trauma: Rubor : redness or congestion
of area due to increase of blood supply as part of reparative mechanism 8/20/2012 28

Vital Reaction:
Vital Reaction Reactions of living to tissue to trauma: Calor : sensation of heat or increase in
temperature Dolor: pain on account of involvement of sensory nerve Loss of function: tissue losing
ability to function normally 8/20/2012 29

Vital Reaction:
Vital Reaction Importance: differentiates ante-mortem injury vs post-mortem injury Vital reactions not
observable: Physical injuries inflicted during agonal state Sudden death, ex: sudden coronary occlusion
8/20/2012 30 Next Question

Q6 :
Q6 Wound brought about by blunt instrument could be any of the following, EXCEPT Contusion
Hematoma Laceration Incision 8/20/2012 31 TOPIC: Classification of wounds

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds As to Severity Mortal wound: capable of causing death Heart & big blood
vessels Brain & upper portion of spinal cord Lungs Stomach, liver, spleen & intestine Non-Mortal
Wound: not capable of producing death 8/20/2012 32

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Instrument Used Blunt instrument: contusion , hematoma , lacerated wound
Sharp instrument: (1) incised wound sharp-edged instrument; (2) punctured wound sharp-pointed
instrument; (3) stab wound : sharp-edged & sharp pointed instrument Tearing force: lacerated wound
Change of atmospheric pressure: barotrauma 8/20/2012 33

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Instrument Used Heat/Cold: frostbite , burns or scald Chemical explosion:
gunshot / shrapnel wound Infection 8/20/2012 34

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Manner of Infliction Hit: bolo, blunt instrument, axe Thrust/Stab: bayonet
dagger Gunpowder explosion: projectile/shrapnel wound Sliding/rubbing or abrasion 8/20/2012 35

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Depth of Wound Superficial: only layers of skin Deep: inner structure beyond
layers of skin Penetrating no exit: punctured, stab & gunshot wounds Perforating w/ exit 8/20/2012
36

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Relation of Site of Application of Force & Location of Injury Coup Injury : injury
@ site of application of force Contre-Coup Injury: injury opposite site of application of force Coup
Contre-Coup Injury: injury @ site & opposite site of application of force 8/20/2012 37

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Relation of Site of Application of Force & Location of Injury Locus Minoris
Resistencia: injury not @ site & opposite but areas offering least resistance. Ex: blow on forehead,
contusion @ eyeball Extensive injury: injury on greater area more than site of application of force. Ex:
fall from height, run-over victim of vehicular accident 8/20/2012 38

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Special Types of Wounds Defense wound : result of instinct of self-protection
Patterned wound: w/ nature & shape of object/instrument Self-inflicted wound : produced on oneself
but no intention to end life 8/20/2012 39

Classification of Wounds:
Classification of Wounds Self-Inflicted Wounds: Motive Pension/workmans compensation Escape
obligations/punishment New identity/destroy existing one Attention/sympathy Psychotic behavior
8/20/2012 40 Next Question

Q7 :
Q7 X, a doctor, wanted to kill his wife by poisoning. During dinner time, he put poison on the food of his
wife. Moments after, his wife suffered excruciating pain in the stomach. Seeing his wife in agony, he
pitied his wife and administered an antidote. Thus, his wife did not die. What is the crime committed by
X? Frustrated parricide Attempted parricide Serious physical injuries Murder 8/20/2012 41 TOPIC: Legal
Classification of Physical Injuries

Legal Classification of Physical Injuries:
Legal Classification of Physical Injuries Mutilation (Art. 262) Elements Penalty Important Points to
Remembers Serious Physical Injuries (Art. 263) Element & Penalty Important Points to Remember
8/20/2012 42

Legal Classification of Physical Injuries:
Legal Classification of Physical Injuries Administering Injurious Substances/Beverages (Art. 264) Elements
Penalty Important Points to Remembers Less Serious Physical Injuries (Art. 265) Elements Penalty
Important Points to Remembers 8/20/2012 43

Integumentary System Animation:
Integumentary System Animation Skin: true integument covering surface of body Largest organ of
vertebrate body 15-16% of total body weight of adult human 17.5 sq ft for ave . woman; 20 sq ft for ave
. man 1-2 mm thick 8/20/2012 44

Integumentary System:
Integumentary System Layers Epidermis (thinner; 10-30 cells thick) Dermis (thicker) Melanocytes
Scattered at juncture between deep layers of epidermis & dermis Cells producing dark pigment melanin
8/20/2012 45

Integumentary System:
Integumentary System Melanin Absorbs UV rays Tanning: increase in melanin production by much
exposure of UVR Light vs Dark: Production of melanin back 8/20/2012 46

PowerPoint Presentation:
8/20/2012 Stratum Corneum : a.k.a. cornified layer or horny layer; outermost layer; flat, arranged in
rows as dead cells. Stratum Lucidum : a.k.a. hyalin layer; flat & translucent dead cells; appears only on
palms & soles Stratum Granulosum : a.k.a. granular layer; initiates process of keratinization (dying
process of cells); last of living cells. Stratum Spinosum : a.k.a. spinous layer; pickle cells many sided
cells w/ spines protruding from surface. Stratum Basale : a.k.a. stratum germinativum or generating
layer; creates new cells; deepest layer; parallel to basement membrane. back 47

Dermis :
Dermis Contains: Muscle fibers Glands Pigment cells Blood vessels Sensory nerves 15-40 times thicker
than epidermis Subcutaneous layer Beneath dermis fat-rich cells of adipose tissue: acts as (1) shock
absorbers & (2) insulation to conserve body heat 8/20/2012 48

The Skin Animation:
The Skin Animation back 8/20/2012 49

Skeletal System Animation:
Skeletal System Animation Skeleton: framework of animal body, composed of Cartilage Bone
Combination of both 2 Parts Axial Skeleton Appendicular 8/20/2012 50

Axial Skeleton:
Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral Column Ribs Sternum 8/20/2012 51

Appendicular Skeleton:
Appendicular Skeleton Upper pectoral appendages (arms) & girdle ( scapula : shoulder blade& clavicle :
collarbone) Lower pelvic appendages (legs) & girdle ( ilium , ischium , & pubis, collectively called as hips )
8/20/2012 52

Appendicular Skeleton:
Appendicular Skeleton Arms Legs Upper arm Humerus Thigh Femur Forearm Radius & Ulna Shank Tibia
& Fibula Wrist Carpals Knee Cap Patella Palm metacarpals ankle Tarsals Fingers Phalanges Sole
Metatarsals Toes Phalanges 8/20/2012 53

Appendicular Skeleton:
Appendicular Skeleton Distribution of Bones: (1) adult human: 206 bones; (2) Infants: over 270 bones
Skeleton No. Skeleton No. Cranium 8 Face 14 Ears 6 Hyoid 1 Vertebral column 26 Sternum 1 Ribs 24
Pectoral girdle & arms 64 back 8/20/2012 54

Muscular System:
Muscular System Tissues w/ ability to contract Myofibril: basic unit of all muscles; minute, thread-like
structure Muscle fiber: each muscle cell; contains several myofibrils: myofilaments of 2 types, thick &
thin. Thick myofilament : several hundred molecules of protein myosin Thin myofilament : 2 strands of
protein actin 8/20/2012 55

Muscular System Animation:
Muscular System Animation Human body has 3 types of muscles : Skeletal muscles Smooth muscles &
Cardiac muscles 8/20/2012 56 back

Digestive System:
Digestive System Chain of organs: Mouth Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large
intestine Anus 8/20/2012 57

Digestive System Animation:
Digestive System Animation 8/20/2012 58 back

Circulatory System Animation:
Circulatory System Animation After process of digestion, digested food delivered to all parts of body by
blood stream Blood picks up nutrients @ small intestine, & transports to approx. 17 billion cells;
transports oxygen to cells; collects waste materials for elimination Heart: pumping station of blood
system; cone, muscular organ size of fist; middle of chest cavity; lower end pointed to left 8/20/2012 59

Circulatory System Animation:
Circulatory System Animation Heart: 4 chambers Atria (upper 2) Ventricles (lower 2) Heart Beat :
Systole: alternate contraction Diastole: relaxation Separated by atrio -ventricular valves ; tricuspid valve:
right & bicuspid valve: left. Valves: allow blood to flow down only, never up. VEINS: carry blood into
atria; ARTERIES: carry blood out of ventricles of muscular walls 8/20/2012 60

Circulatory System:
Circulatory System Blood Vessels: circulates thru body by means of tubes that varyin size & function
Arteries Veins Capillaries back 8/20/2012 61

Respiratory System:
Respiratory System Breathing mechanism operates throughout lifetime: taking in oxygen & giving off
carbon dioxide Comparative absence & survival W/out food for 40 days: survives W/out water for 5
days: survives W/out oxygen for only a few minutes: death 8/20/2012 62

Respiratory System Animation:
Respiratory System Animation Respiratory Tract: Nostrils Pharynx (throat) Glottis Larynx (voice box)
Trachea (windpipe) Bronchi lungs 8/20/2012 63

Respiratory System Animation:
Respiratory System Animation back 8/20/2012 64

Skull :
Skull Framework of head Most complex of all parts of endoskeleton Cartilaginous during embryonic
stage Includes: Cranium (primary brain case) 3 pairs of sense capsule for organs of smell, sight & hearing
Visceral skeleton for tongue (hyoid apparatus) Ear ( incus , malleus , & stapes) for sound conduction
Throat 8/20/2012 65

Skull :
Skull 8/20/2012 66

Skull Animation :
Skull Animation 8/20/2012 67 back

Vertebral Column:
Vertebral Column Backbone Main axial support of vertebrates Composition: segmentally arranged
vertebrae from base of skull to tip of tail Protects spinal cord Provides rigidity of body Direct or indirect
attachment of appendicular skeleton 8/20/2012 68

Vertebral Column:
Vertebral Column 8/20/2012 69 Adult human: 26 vertebrae 7 cevical vertebrae (neck) 12 thoracic
vertebrae (chest) 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower back) 1 on pelvis (sacrum) 1 on tail (coccyx) SOURCE:
General Anatomy & Physiology. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc -Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104

Vertebral Column:
Vertebral Column back 8/20/2012 70

Ribs :
Ribs Series of cartilaginous/elongated bony structures attached to vertebrae Stout, arched structures
surrounding thoracic cavity & uniting ventrally w/ sternum Forms thoracic cage 12 pairs of ribs 1st-7 th
pairs: true ribs , directly attached to sternum; 8 th -10 th pairs: false ribs , ends unite w/ cartilages of
true ribs; 11 th -12 th pairs: floating ribs , ends terminate freely 8/20/2012 71

Ribs :
Ribs back 8/20/2012 72

Sternum :
Sternum Breatbone Elongated structure lying in central portion of chest Flat & narrow 3 parts: (1)
manubrium : upper part; (2) gladiolus: middle/body & largest part; (3) xiphoid : lowest portion Protect
heart; holds sternal ends of ribs & some abdominal muscles 8/20/2012 73

Sternum :
Sternum back 8/20/2012 74

PowerPoint Presentation:
back 8/20/2012 75

Skeletal Muscles:
Skeletal Muscles back Attached to skeleton by tendon Responsible for voluntary movement of body
A.k.a. striated muscles: striations made by alternating light & dark bands of myofibrils 8/20/2012 76

Smooth Muscles:
Smooth Muscles A.k.a. visceral muscles Found in internal organs (involuntary movement) Involved in
automatic process w/out conscious actions: disgestion & blood pressure back 8/20/2012 77

Cardiac Muscles:
Cardiac Muscles back Only in heart W/ striations like striated muscles (skeletal muscles) Involuntary
contraction of heart 8/20/2012 78

3 Types of Muscles:
3 Types of Muscles back 8/20/2012 79

Arteries :
Arteries Large, elastic, thick-walled tubes Carry blood away from heart Location: deep w/in body;
exception: in wrists, temples, & neck felt pulsating very near surface back 8/20/2012 80

Veins :
Veins Large, inelastic tubes Carry blood back to heart Walls: equipped w/ valves preventing blood from
flowing backward back 8/20/2012 81

Capillaries :
Capillaries Extremely fine tubes Form network throughout body Connect small arteries (arterioles) &
small veins ( venules ) Pathway for exchange of dissolved materials between blood & cells back
8/20/2012 82

Heart: 4 Chambers:
Heart: 4 Chambers back 8/20/2012 83

Heart Beat:
Heart Beat back 8/20/2012 84

Melanocytes :
Melanocytes back 8/20/2012 85

7 Cervical Vertebrae:
7 Cervical Vertebrae 8/20/2012 86 back SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Seven Cervical
Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc -Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104

12 Thoracic Vertebrae:
12 Thoracic Vertebrae 8/20/2012 87 back SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Twelve Thoracic
Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc -Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104

5 Lumbar Vertebrae:
5 Lumbar Vertebrae 8/20/2012 88 back SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Five Lumbar
Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc -Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104

Sacrum & Coccyx :
Sacrum & Coccyx 8/20/2012 89 SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Sacrum and the Coccyx.
(2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc -Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104 back

Elasticity & Plasticity:
Elasticity & Plasticity Ability of tissue to return to its normal size & shape after being deformed by
pressue 8/20/2012 90 back

Agonal :
Agonal pertaining to death or extreme suffering. SOURCE: agonal . (2012). Retrieved August 18, 2012,
from The Free Dictionary by Farlex : http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/agonal 8/20/2012
91 back

Sudden Coronary Occlusion:
Sudden Coronary Occlusion Coronary refers to arteries carry blood containing oxygen and other
nutrients essential to the normal functioning of the heart muscle. Occlusion refers to blockage SOURCE:
Team, T. N. (2010, January 11). What is coronary occlusion? Retrieved August 18, 2012, from netdoctor :
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ate/heartandblood/203287.html 8/20/2012 92 back

Contusion :
Contusion 8/20/2012 93 back Soft Tissue Emergencies . (2007, January 27). Retrieved August 18, 2012,
from http://www.raems.com/softtissueemergencies.htm

Hematoma :
Hematoma 8/20/2012 94 back Dreisbach , B. (2011, July 16). Boxing: See Pictures of Pawel Wolak's Face
After Brutal Fight with Delvin Rodriguez . Retrieved August 18, 2012, from bleacher report:
http://bleacherreport.com/articles/769287-see-pictures-of-pawel-wolaks-face-after-brutal-fight-with-
delvin-rodriguez

Lacerated Wound:
Lacerated Wound 8/20/2012 95 back Cosmell , H. (2011, May 3). 9 Of The Worst Beatings in
Boxing/MMA History . Retrieved August 18, 2012, from totalprosports.com:
http://www.totalprosports.com/2011/05/03/9-of-the-worst-beatings-in-boxing-mma-history/

Incised Wound:
Incised Wound 8/20/2012 96 back Eriksson, S. (2012). The Med Cell: The Foot . Retrieved August` 18,
2012, from Fight Times: http://www.fighttimes.com/magazine/magazine.asp?article=396

Punctured Wound:
Punctured Wound 8/20/2012 97 Home Treatment for Puncture Wound . (2009, September 18).
Retrieved August 18, 2012, from hometreatment net: http://hometreatment.net/home-
remedies/common-injuries/home-treatment-for-puncture-wounds/ back

Stab Wound:
Stab Wound 8/20/2012 98 Lyle, D. (2010, February 20). Stab Wounds Dont Always Kill . Retrieved
August 18, 2012, from The Writer's Forensic Blog:
http://writersforensicsblog.wordpress.com/2010/02/20/stab-wounds-don%E2%80%99t-always-kill/
back

Barotrauma :
Barotrauma 8/20/2012 99 Sinus Barotrauma Symptoms and Treatment . (2012). Retrieved August 18,
2012, from best-diving.org: http://best-diving.org/barotrauma-and-diving/137-sinus-barotrauma/162-
sinus-barotrauma-symptoms-and-treatment back

Frostbite :
Frostbite 8/20/2012 100 SOURCE: Stppler , M. C. (2012). Frostbite (cont.) . Retrieved August 19, 2012,
from emedicinehealth : http://www.emedicinehealth.com/frostbite/page3_em.htm back

Scald :
Scald 8/20/2012 101 Scald Prevention . (2012). Retrieved August 19, 2012, from National Fire Protection
Association:
http://www.nfpa.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=2360&itemID=55362&URL=Safety%20Information/For
%20consumers/Unintentional%20injuries/Scald%20prevention back

Gunshot Wound:
Gunshot Wound 8/20/2012 102 Grey, T. ( n.d .). Firearms Tutorial . Retrieved August 19, 2012, from
http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR018.html back

Shrapnel Wound:
Shrapnel Wound 8/20/2012 103 Addario , L. ( n.d .). Retrieved August 19, 2012, from
lynseyaddario.com: http://www.lynseyaddario.com/#/iraq-medics/42-15133312 back

Coup Injury:
Coup Injury 8/20/2012 104 SOURCE: Child Head Injury - Brain Injury in Children . ( n.d .). Retrieved
August 19, 2012, from braininjury.com: http://www.braininjury.com/children.shtml back

Contre-Coup Injury:
Contre-Coup Injury 8/20/2012 105 back SOURCE: El Sayed , T., Mota , A., Fraternali , F., & Ortiz, M. ( n.d
.). Biomechanics of traumatic brain injury . Retrieved August 19, 2012, from Fernando Fraternali
research: http://www.fernandofraternaliresearch.com/article.asp?id=7&pg=3

Defense Wound:
Defense Wound 8/20/2012 106 back SOURCE: Taylor, J. R. (2009, November 17). Love Hurts: Theories
on Relationship Violence . Retrieved August 20, 2012, from Living Las Vegas: http://living-las-
vegas.com/2009/11/preventing-relationship-violence/

Self-Inflicted Wound:
Self-Inflicted Wound 8/20/2012 107 back SOURCE: Marazzi , P. ( n.d .). Self-inflicted wounds on arm .
Retrieved August 20, 2012, from Sciencephotolibrary :
http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/264295/view

Elements of Mutilation:
Elements of Mutilation Castration (intentional mutilation (totally/partially) of organ for reproduction
Castration Intention Mayhem lopping/clipping off any part of body other than organ for reproduction
8/20/2012 108 back

Penalty of Mutilation:
Penalty of Mutilation Castration RT-RP Mayhem PM med & Max 8/20/2012 109 back

Mutilation: Important Points to Remembers:
Mutilation: Important Points to Remembers Castration: intentional 1 degree higher: victim 12 yrs old
Offender has intention to deprive offended party of part of his body Mutilation lopping/clipping off of
some part of body Mayhem other intentional mutilation 8/20/2012 110 back

Elements & Penalty of SPI:
Elements & Penalty of SPI Becomes insane, imbecile, impotent or blind by PI = PM Loses: (a) use of
speech/power to hear/smell, eye, hand, foot, arm, leg, (b) use of any such member; becomes
incapacitated for work = PC med & max (a) becomes deformed; (b) loses of any member of body; (c)
loses use thereof, (d) becomes ill/incapacitated for work for 90 days = PC min & med Becomes
ill/incapacitated for labor for days & not 90 days = AM max to PC min 8/20/2012 111 back

Mutilation: Important Points to Remember:
Mutilation: Important Points to Remember Commission: wounding, beating, assaulting/administering
injurious substance Also by reckless imprudence/simple imprudence/negligence No intent to kill
Blindness (complete) & loss of eye: (a) par 1 both eyes; (b) par 2 1 eye only Loss of power to hear: (a)
par 2 both ears; (b) par 3 1 ear only Loss of hand/incapacity of usual work: permanent Par 2:
principal members of body; par 3: any other member not principal member of body Deformity: (a)
physical ugliness, (b) permanent & definite abnormality, & (c) conspicuous & visible Deformity by loss of
teeth: not reparable by nature Illness: not healing w/in period Medical attendance not important in SPI
Pars 2 & 3: must have work at time of injury Par 4: incapacity for labor Illness/incapacity for labor: needs
proof; otherwise, slight PI only SPI by excessive chastisement by parents: not qualified. 8/20/2012 112
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