This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
UthmĀn bin ĂAffĀn (Dhul-NĈrayn):
The Third of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ė)
By Waqas Ahmed, MD
t was the 9th years of Hijrah. The expedition was to head towards TabĈk, approximately 400 miles from the city of Medinah. 400 miles in sweltering heat and the prospect of facing a massive well equipped army of the Empire made 30,000 state did the of journey them. have an extremely distance undesirable the to prospect. number out such The of an
Noble Prophet Ē had ordered all able bodied men to march with him, approximately nascent city The and large carry Companions Ė necessitated extra supplies and that was a serious problem – the not enough resources expedition. As the Noble Prophet Ē sat in Masjid al-Nabawi watching his Companions Ė bring what little they had in their homes, the man called UthmĀn bin ĂAffĀn walked in with 1000 gold dinars and scattered them at the feet of the Prophet Ē. but that was not it, this extraordinary sacrifice was also followed by 1000 camels and horses for the Muslim army. The Prophet jubilated and has been reported to have said in an authentic hadąth, “Nothing UthmĀn does after today, will harm him.” He is the third in the venerated list of “The Ten” (ĂAsharah Mubasharah) who were given glad tidings of Paradise by the Noble Prophet Ē. His name was UthmĀn bin ĂAffĀn bin Abil-ĂĊs bin Umayyah bin ĂAbd Shams bin ĂAbd MunĀf. His clan was the respectable Banu Umayyah. His lineage meets that of the Noble Prophet Ē in ĂAbd MunĀf. He was born in TĀif and was also the cousin (from his maternal grandmother’s side) of the Noble Prophet Ē. When he grew older, he took up trade as his profession in which he became exceptionally proficient and successful. During one of his trips to Syria, he had a dream in which he heard a caller in the desert, “Sleepers, awake, for verily
2 Ahmad has come forth in Makkah.” On his return to Makkah, he met Abu Bakr and on his invitation, proclaimed the Shahadah, he was 35 years old then. Subsequently, the Noble Prophet Ē gave UthmĀn the hand of his daughter Ruqayya Ĕ in marriage after her divorce by ĂUtbah bin Abi LaĄab on the insistence of his parents Abu LaĄab and Umm Jameel. UthmĀn and Ruqayya were among the small group of early Muslims who undertook the first emigration to Abyssinia on the orders of the Prophet Ē. After migration to Medinah, Ruqayya Ĕ, the wife of UthmĀn became seriously ill, when the expedition which eventually became the battle of Badr, left Medinah. The Prophet Ē expressly permitted UthmĀn to stay in Medinah to look after her and made it clear that UthmĀn would share the reward of those who actually took part in the expedition and subsequent battle, as well as in the war booty. Ruqayyah Ĕ died during the period of the battle of Badr and in the following year, the husband of Hafsa bint ĂUmar bin KhattĀb also died. ĂUmar approached UthmĀn and asked him to marry Hafsa. UthmĀn remained quite. ĂUmar made the same suggestion to Abu Bakr who also remained quite (since the Noble Prophet Ē had hinted to him that he Ē would marry Hafsa). ĂUmar was hurt by the apparent rejection of his daughters hand in marriage and approached the Noble Prophet Ē, who said to him, “UthmĀn will be married to someone better than Hafsa and Hafsa will have a husband better than UthmĀn.” The words materialized when the Noble Prophet Ē himself married Hafsa and gave the hand of his other daughter Umm KalsĈm to UthmĀn, hence the appellation of Dhul-NĈrayn (the one with two lights), an honor not shared by anyone in the Ummah of Muhammad Ē. The enormous love the Noble Prophet Ē had for UthmĀn was made more evident after Umm KalsĈm also died following the expedition of TabĈk, when he Ē said, “If I had another daughter left, I would have given her hand in marriage to UthmĀn as well.”
3 Even in the time of his Ignorance, UthmĀn never indulged in a sinful life. He was famous for his chastity and his kindness. The Noble Prophet Ē said, “Even the angels show modesty to UthmĀn as he shows it to Allah and His Messenger.” When the Muslims migrated to Medinah, there was a shortage of fresh water and the only fresh water well, Bāir RĈmah was owned by a Jew and he would only sell the water to the Muslims. The Prophet Ē said, “Who will buy this well and share it with the Muslims in return for Paradise?” UthmĀn bought the well for several thousand Dirhams and donated it to all the Muslims. In the 6th year of the Hijrah, the Noble Prophet Ē set out for Makkah with approximately 1400 Companions to perform Umrah. They camped at Hudaybiyah and UthmĀn was sent to Makkah as the emissary of the Prophet Ē. After their refusal to allow the Muslims to enter Makkah for the pilgrimage, the Quraysh did not allow UthmĀn to return. Word spread that UthmĀn had been killed by the Quraysh. Upon hearing this, the Prophet Ē sat under a tree and took the pledge from his Companions to fight till death to avenge UthmĀn. Every man came and presented his hand to the Prophet Ē, who then used one of his own hands as the hand of UthmĀn and the other as the pledge taking hand, another unique honor for UthmĀn. Later when the Quraysh learned of the intention of the Muslims, they allowed UthmĀn to return back. Once the Prophet Ē climbed the mountain UĄud in the company of Abu. Bakr, ĂUmar and UthmĀn Ė. The mountain shook and the Prophet Ē put a firm step on it and said, “Steady O UĄud! There is none over you except a Prophet, a siddąque and two shuhadah,” foretelling the martyrdom of ĂUmar and UthmĀn ĕ.
4 He was chosen as caliph and the leader of the believers (Ameer-ul-MoĂminąn) by a group of seven august Companions Ė handpicked by the second caliph ĂUmarbin-KhattĀb ē after he was mortally wounded by an assassin’s dagger. During his reign as Caliph, the Muslim Empire spread in the West to Morroco and in the East to the Sub-Continent and in the North to Azerbaijan. His caliphate was also credited with the establishment of the first Muslim naval force, which was later to become the entry route for Muhammad bin Qasim and his army into the Sub-Continent. UthmĀn also undertook the expansion of Masjid Al-Nabawi and the Kabbah during his caliphate. Though he was a businessman par-excellence, after becoming a caliph, he devoted his entire energies to the affairs of the Muslims state and slid into a life of utmost modesty and simplicity. Never a day went by when he did not perform an act of charity. After embracing Islam, he used to free a bondsman every week. Once during a famine in Medinah, he donated hundreds of loaded camels for the inhabitants of the city. His life was a model of the QurāĀnic injunction of infĀq fi sabąl illah (to spend in the Way of Allah) One of his greatest contributions was in the service of the QurĂĀn. After all, he was the one who narrated from the Noble Prophet Ē, “The best amongst you are the ones who learn and teach the QurāĀn,” He personified this hadąth by becoming a hĀfiz of the Glorious QurāĀn. To this day and till the end of time, we the Ăajami’s (the non-Arabs) owe our correct recitation of the QurāĀn to UthmĀn bin ĂAffĀn ē for it was he, who during his caliphate, had uniform copies of the QurāĀn written in the dialect of the Quraysh (in whose language the Divine Text was revealed) and distributed to all the corners of the Muslim Empire. His caliphate lasted for twelve years. The latter part was marred by a rebellion instigated by a master plotter, a Jew by the name of Abdullah bin Saba. This rebellion ultimately lead to the martyrdom of the brave and forbearing caliph in his home, close to the holy burial ground of the Noble Prophet Ē. Despite repeated offers by several prominent Companions Ė as well as MuāĀwiyah bin Abu SufyĀn ē, the Governor of Damascus to send an army to protect the caliph
5 from the rebels, he refused, saying that he did not want the blood of Muslims spelt for his sake. He was reading the QurāĀn when he was struck by the sword of one of the rebels. His blood stained the MusĄaf on the verse, “Verily, Allah will be sufficient for you against them.”2-137. He was buried in al-BaqiĂ. May Allah Ī shower His Mercy and Blessings on UthmĀn bin ĂAffĀn ē. References: 1. Lings, Martin (Abu bakr SirĀj uddin). Μuhammad: his life based on the earliest sources. Suhayl Academy Lahore, Pakistan 2. Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah. The History of Islam. Darussalam, Riyadh 3. Raz, Muhammad Daud. BukhĀrą, SaĄąĄ, vol-5 (Urdu with sharh). Maktabah Naumania, Lahore, Pakistan. 4. Muslim, SaĄąĄ. English Translation. Al-Alim V-6.0
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.