Chemical Bond II

Ionic Bonding 1. Ionic bonds are formed by one atom transferring electrons to another atom to form ions. Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, which have lost or gained electrons. 2. The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (a cation) and is usually a metal. The overall charge on the ion is positive due to excess positive nuclear charge (protons do NOT change in chemical reactions). 3. The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (an anion) and is usually a non-metallic element. The overall charge on the ion is negative because of the gain, and therefore excess, of negative electrons. 4. Ions of opposite charge will attract one another, thus creating an ionic bond. 5. The examples below combining a metal from Groups 1 (Alkali Metals), or 2, with a non-metal from Group 6 or Group 7 (The Halogens) Example: A Group 1 metal + a Group 7 non-metal

A Group 2 metal + a Group 7 non-metal

1. In terms of electron arrangement, the sodium donates its outer electron to a chlorine atom forming a single positive sodium ion and a single negative chloride ion. 2. The valencies of Na and Cl are both 1, that is, the numerical charge on the ions. NaF, KBr, LiI etc. will all be electronically similar. 3. The atoms have become stable ions, because electronically, sodium becomes like neon and chlorine like argon.

1. In terms of electron arrangement, the magnesium donates its two outer electrons to two chlorine atoms forming a double positive magnesium ion and two single negative chloride ions. 2. The atoms have become stable ions, because electronically, magnesium becomes like neon and chlorine like argon. 3. NOTE you can draw two separate chloride ions, but in these examples a number subscript has been used, as in ordinary chemical formula. The valency of Mg is 2 and chlorine 1, ie the numerical charges of the ions. BeF2, MgBr2, CaCl2 or CaI2 etc. will all be electronically similar. 1

A Group 2 metal + a Group 6 non-metal

Predicting The Formula Compound Element that combine
Element X from Charge of the ion Element Y from

for

Ionic
Formula of the ionic compound

Charge of the ion

1. In terms of electron arrangement, one Magnesium atom donates its two outer electrons to one oxygen atom. 2. This results in a double positive magnesium ion to one double negative oxide ion. 3. All the ions have the stable electronic structures 2.8.8 (argon like) or 2.8 (neon like). the valency of both calcium and oxygen is 2. MgO, MgS, or CaS will be similar electronically (S and O both in Group 6) Example 1

Group I Group I Group I Group II Group II Group II Group III Group III Group III

Group V Group VI Group VII Group V Group VI Group VII Group V Group VI Group VII

Example 3

Example 2

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Example 4

Exercise 1 The formation of the charged particles to produce an ionic compound is due to A the charging of the atoms by friction as they collide with each other. B the sharing of electrons between metallic and non-metallic atoms C the passage of an electric current through the compound. D the action of water on the compound when it dissolves. E the transfer of electrons from metallic to non-metallic atoms. 2 Element P has an electronic configuration of 2. 8. 6. Element R has an electronic configuration of 2. 8. 8. 1. What is likely to form if P and R combine? A a covalent compound PR. B a covalent compound P6R6 C an ionic compound RP. D an ionic compound RP2. E an ionic compound R2P.

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In which of the following sets do all the compounds contain only ionic bonds? A calcium oxide, carbon dioxide, magnesium oxide B calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, sodium chloride C carbon dioxide, copper(II) sulphate, hydrogen chloride D carbon dioxide, copper(II) sulphate, sodium chloride E copper(II) sulphate, hydrogen chloride, magnesium oxide The symbol for the element rhenium is Re. What is the formula of rhenium(IV) oxide? A ReO D Re4O B ReO2 E Re4O2 C ReO4

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Answer
Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Exercise 1 E 2 E D C A B

3 4

B B

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