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Chemical Bond II

Ionic Bonding
1. Ionic bonds are formed by one atom transferring electrons to another atom to form ions. Ions are
atoms, or groups of atoms, which have lost or gained electrons.
2. The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (a cation) and is usually a metal. The overall
charge on the ion is positive due to excess positive nuclear charge (protons do NOT change in
chemical reactions).
3. The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (an anion) and is usually a non-metallic
element. The overall charge on the ion is negative because of the gain, and therefore excess, of
negative electrons.
4. Ions of opposite charge will attract one another, thus creating an ionic bond.
5. The examples below combining a metal from Groups 1 (Alkali Metals), or 2, with a non-metal
from Group 6 or Group 7 (The Halogens)

Example:
A Group 1 metal + a Group 7 non-metal A Group 2 metal + a Group 7 non-metal

1. In terms of electron arrangement, the 1. In terms of electron arrangement, the


sodium donates its outer electron to a magnesium donates its two outer electrons
chlorine atom forming a single positive to two chlorine atoms forming a double
sodium ion and a single negative chloride positive magnesium ion and two single
ion. negative chloride ions.
2. The valencies of Na and Cl are both 1, that 2. The atoms have become stable ions,
is, the numerical charge on the ions. NaF, because electronically, magnesium
KBr, LiI etc. will all be electronically becomes like neon and chlorine like argon.
similar. 3. NOTE you can draw two separate chloride
3. The atoms have become stable ions, ions, but in these examples a number
because electronically, sodium becomes subscript has been used, as in ordinary
like neon and chlorine like argon. chemical formula. The valency of Mg is 2
and chlorine 1, ie the numerical charges of
the ions. BeF2, MgBr2, CaCl2 or CaI2 etc.
will all be electronically similar.

1
A Group 2 metal + a Group 6 non-metal Predicting The Formula for Ionic
Compound
Element that combine Formula of
Charge Charge the ionic
Element of the Element of the compound
X from ion Y from ion
Group Group
I V
Group Group
I VI
Group Group
I VII
Group Group
II V
Group Group
1. In terms of electron arrangement, one II VI
Magnesium atom donates its two outer Group Group
electrons to one oxygen atom. II VII
2. This results in a double positive magnesium Group Group
ion to one double negative oxide ion. III V
3. All the ions have the stable electronic Group Group
structures 2.8.8 (argon like) or 2.8 (neon III VI
like). the valency of both calcium and Group Group
oxygen is 2. III VII
MgO, MgS, or CaS will be similar
electronically (S and O both in Group 6)

Example 1
Example 3

Example 2

2
Example 4

Exercise
1 The formation of the charged particles to 3 In which of the following sets do all the
produce an ionic compound is due to compounds contain only ionic bonds?
A the charging of the atoms by friction A calcium oxide, carbon dioxide,
as they collide with each other. magnesium oxide
B the sharing of electrons between B calcium oxide, magnesium oxide,
metallic and non-metallic atoms sodium chloride
C the passage of an electric current C carbon dioxide, copper(II) sulphate,
through the compound. hydrogen chloride
D the action of water on the compound D carbon dioxide, copper(II) sulphate,
when it dissolves. sodium chloride
E the transfer of electrons from metallic E copper(II) sulphate, hydrogen
to non-metallic atoms. chloride, magnesium oxide

2 Element P has an electronic 4 The symbol for the element


configuration of 2. 8. 6. Element R has an rhenium is Re. What is the
electronic configuration of 2. 8. 8. 1. formula of rhenium(IV) oxide?
What is likely to form if P and R A ReO D Re4O
combine? B ReO2 E Re4O2
A a covalent compound PR. C ReO4
B a covalent compound P6R6
C an ionic compound RP.
D an ionic compound RP2. Answer
E an ionic compound R2P. Example 1 D
Example 2 C
Example 3 A
Example 4 B

Exercise
1 E 3 B
2 E 4 B