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Chemical Bond III

Covalent Bonding
1. Covalent bonds are formed by atoms Number of Covalent bonds depends on how
sharing electrons to form molecules. many pairs of electron been shared.
This type of bond usually formed between Number of Example and type of covalent
two non-metallic elements. electron bond
2. The molecules might be that of an 1 pair
element ie one type of atom only OR
from different elements chemically type of covalent bond
combined to form a compound.
3. The covalent bonding is caused by the
mutual electrical attraction between the 2 pair
two positive nuclei of the two atoms of
the bond, and the electrons between them.
type of covalent bond
4. One single covalent bond is a sharing of
1 pair of electrons, two pairs of shared
electrons between the same two atoms
gives a double bond and it is possible for 3 pair
two atoms to share 3 pairs of electrons
and give a triple bond. type of covalent bond

Examples of Covalent Bond


Chlorine phosphorus
carbon dioxide
oxygen
Tetrachloro-
nitrogen
methane
sulfur dioxide
Hydrogen

Example of covalent bond


Single Bond
Chlorine Water

1
Ammonia Tetrachloromethane

Double Bond
Oxygen Carbon Dioxide

2
Triple Bond

Predicting The Molecular Formula


Non-metal element that bond together Molecular
Element X valency Element Y valency Formula
Group IV Group VII

Group IV Group VI

Group V Group VII

Group VI Group VII

Example 1
The diagram below shows the electron Example 3
arrangements in a molecule of
compound YZ2.

Example 2

Which one of the following pairs of


Exercise
elements could be Y and Z?
1 What is the total number of shared
X Y
electrons in the ethene molecule?
A argon neon
B calcium fluorine
C carbon oxygen
D oxygen hydrogen A 6 D 12
E sulphur chlorine B 8 E 16
Example 2 C 10
2 In which of the following pairs do the
elements form a compound by sharing
electrons?
A carbon and chlorine
B lithium and iodine
C neon and oxygen
D potassium and bromine

3
Structure Question

Figure 1 shows the position of ten elements, E, G, J, M, L, Q, R, U, V, W, in the Periodic Table.


By using the letters in the Periodic Table as the symbols of particles, answer the following
questions.
(a) Which element has the largest atomic radius?
[1 mark]
(b) Which of the elements are metals?
[1 mark]
(c) Explain why M is more electronegative than R.

[2 marks]
(d) How does Q form ion? Write down the formula for this ion.

[2 marks]
(e) Write down the electronic arrangement for atom U.
[1 mark]
(f) (i) What type of bond is in the compound formed by element J and R?
[1 mark]
(ii) Sketch the electronic arrangement for the compound formed by element J and R.

[2 marks]
(g) Write down the chemical equation for the reaction between element L and G.
[1 mark]
Answer
Example 1 E
Example 2 B
Example 3 A
Example 4 B

Exercise
1 D 2 A