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Chemical Bond IV

4. Salts and metal oxides are typical ionic
compounds.
5. Some of these compounds, like magnesia
(MgO) and alumina (Al2O3), are so stable
that they are used as refractory material,
to line the inside of furnaces. Such
substances must be stable up to at least
1500 °C.
6. Another property of crystal lattices is that
they are non-conductors of electricity.
This is because the ions are in fixed
positions and are unable to move.

The properties of Ionic Compounds
1. This strong bonding force makes the
structure hard (if brittle) and has high
melting and boiling points, so they are not
The Structure of Ionic Compounds: very volatile!
Crystal Lattices 2. The bigger the charges on the ions the
1. The alternate positive and negative ions stronger the bonding attraction eg
in an ionic solid are arranged in an orderly magnesium oxide Mg2+O2- has a higher
way in a giant ionic lattice structure melting point than sodium chloride Na+Cl-.
shown on the left. 3. Unlike covalent molecules, ALL ionic
compounds are crystalline solids at room
temperature.
4. They are hard but brittle, when stressed
the bonds are broken along planes of ions
which shear away. They are NOT malleable
like metal.
5. Many ionic compounds are soluble in
water but not all, so don't make
assumptions.
6. The solid crystals DO NOT conduct
electricity because the ions are not free
to move to carry an electric current.
7. However, if the ionic compound is
2. The ionic bond is the strong electrical melted or dissolved in water, the liquid
attraction between the positive and will now conduct electricity, as the ion
negative ions next to each other in the particles are now free.
lattice.
3. The bonding extends throughout the
crystal in all directions.

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5. In covalent liquids like water. strong. so the bonds to give a giant three-dimensional van der Waals' forces are weaker still. diamond and sand (see Figure 6. and in covalent gases like ammonia and 3. These weak attractions are known as Molecular Compounds **intermolecular forces and consequently 1. covalent tend to be volatile liquids. However. that is the chemical bond*. these forces are almost non. 2. melting and boiling points.Small Molecules! 1. They are very stable.The Structure of Covalent Compounds: Molecules and Macromolecules moderate heating. methane. in water. or low melting point solids. 5.(* sometimes referred to 1. On heating the inter-molecular forces are 3. These are made up of independent the bulk material is not usually very molecular units. lattice. Macromolecular compounds 1. Examples of such macromolecules are attractive forces between molecules. further on heating. covalent molecules with extremely large molecular lattices. four others. as all the atoms 4. there are other 4. 6. 3. the are joined together by strong covalent molecules are even further apart.8). between atoms in any molecule are strong and most molecules do not change chemically on 2 . Covalent compounds can be divided into as the intramolecular bond) those which form small (simple) 2. the electrical forces** between independent molecules and those which molecules are weak and easily weakened form giant molecular lattices. 7. Often the lattice is tetrahedral in shape. Consequently small covalent molecules forces between molecules in solid. Most small molecules will dissolve in a solvent to form a solution. The electrical forces of attraction. molecular lattice energy gain of the particles and so have low with low melting points. 2. These forces are called hydrogen bonds and they give water much higher melting and boiling points than expected with such weak van der Waals' forces. easily compounds like iodine and sulphur are vapourised.7. the attractive 4. They are also poor conductors of electricity because there are no free electrons or ions in any state to carry electric charge. However. As there are no ions formed. The Properties Of Simple Covalent Molecular Substances . much weaker. These have giant. as every atom is covalently linked to existent. They are called van der Waals' forces easily overcome with the increased kinetic and produce a weak. as shown in Figure 6.

it same element in the same physical state feels slippery. Oxygen O2 (dioxygen) and ozone O3 lubricant. The weak forces enable the layers to slip 1. This type of structure is thermally very weak intermolecular forces shown by the stable and they have high melting and dotted lines NOT by strong covalent bonds. from the 'shared bond'. 3. over each other so where as diamond is Allotropes are different forms of the hard material graphite is a 'soft' crystal. 6. 4. because of the strong bonding they are often very hard. Like diamond and silica (above) the large 2. They are usually poor conductors of molecules of the layer ensure graphite has electricity because the electrons are not typically very high melting point usually free to move as they can in metallic because of the strong 2D bonding structures. BUT. There are three strong covalent bonds 1. compared to diamond . described above are put to a common 3. is 'delocalised' or shared between the carbon atoms to form the equivalent of a Large Covalent Molecules And Their 4th bond per carbon atom. electrons). The hardness of diamond enables it to (diamond is an electrical insulator and a be used as the 'leading edge' on cutting poor heat conductor). Graphite will not dissolve in solvents bonding in all directions in the structure.. Also because of the strength of the 7. can 3D structure and properties. Such molecules.Diamond and Silica(Sand) 4. A diamond crystal or a grain of sand is per carbon (3 C-C bonds in a planar just one giant molecule. These two different characteristics the element oxygen. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon. Graphite is used in tools.. arrangement from 3 of its 4 outer because they are so rigid and strong. Graphite 10. shown below move freely through each layer. Silicon dioxide (silica. Graphite is used as a 2. Carbon also occurs in the form of use with the electrical contacts in electric graphite. strong and will 8. The carbon atoms form joined motors and dynamos. The layers are only held together by 1. Properties 5. SiO2) has a similar 9. 3 . These contacts hexagonal rings forming layers 1 atom (called brushes) are made of graphite thick. network (note: NOT 3D network). so diamond. (trioxygen) are two gaseous allotropes of 11. sprung onto the spinning brass contacts of the armature. Electrons. BUT there are two crucial differences not dissolve in solvents like water. The graphite brushes provide good electrical contact and are self-lubricating as the carbon layers slide over each other.. graphite is a conductor like a metal 5. electrical contacts eg electrodes in electrolysis. the fourth outer electron have very high melting points. boiling points.

2. Soft. Very high melting 1. shiny black and boiling point.Summary substance NaCl iodine diamond graphite bonding ionic covalent covalent covalent structure giant ionic lattice simple molecular giant molecular giant molecular 1. 3. 4. arrangement. Insoluble in water. Conducts electricity 3. Conducts when molten or in water. 1. physical 3. Weak van der Waal's forces between layers. 2. electricity. Insoluble in water. 3. Does not conduct electricity. The in an extended atoms to form layers of surrounded by six molecules in solid tetrahedral atoms in a hexagonal notes sodium ions (it has 6:6 iodine form a regular arrangement. Hard and brittle. electricity. array with weak van der Delocalised electrons Waal's forces between above and below each molecules. purple vapour. and each atoms joined by a four other carbon atoms three other carbon chloride ion is covalent bond. coordination). Soft and brittle. Low solubility in 4. Example 1 Example 3 Which of the following are properties of The diagram below represents the carbon in the form of diamond? arrangement of the atoms in the crystal of conductivity melting point a solid element. solid which forms a 2. A nil -101° B nil 119°C C nil 3500°C D good 30°C E good 2600°C Example 2 In which group of the Periodic Table is this element? A III D VI B IV E VII C V Example 4 Which of the following is most likely to be the melting point of an ionic solid? A -182°C D 114°C B -78°C E 943°C C 0°C 4 . solution. Each sodium ion is Each molecule Each carbon atom is Each carbon atom is surrounded by six comprises two iodine covalently bonded to covalently bonded to chloride ion. Soluble in water. and boiling point. properties 4. layer. High melting and 1. Hard and brittle. Very high melting boiling point. Does not conduct 4. 2. Low melting point.

5 . A Graphite is ionic but diamond is D Complete combustion of equal covalent. one another in different ways. E Under suitable conditions. graphite D Diamond has a macromolecular can be partially converted into structure but graphite has not. equal masses of carbon dioxide as C They contain carbon atoms joined to the only product. masses of both solids produces B They contain different elements. C isotopes B Graphite conducts electricity whereas diamond does not.Example 5 Example 6 Hints: ¾ Oxide of metal is basic ¾ Oxide of non-metal is acidic ¾ Reducing agent is a substance that can donate electron. Example 8 Which substances conducts electricity in Example 7 both the solid and the molten states? A paraffin wax B poly(ethene) C sodium D sodium bromide E sulphur Exercise 1 What are different forms of the same 3 Which of the following statements most element in the same physical state called? clearly indicates that diamond and A allotropes D monomers graphite are allotropic forms of carbon? B isomers E polymers A Both are crystalline solids. 2 Why do graphite and diamond have C Both have giant molecular different physical properties? structures. diamond E Diamond occurs naturally but graphite is made artificially.

What is the most probable value of r? Give the symbol for element Y. what are the most probable values of p and q? [proton number of argon = 18] b. c. what is the chemical formula for this compound? e. If element Z forms a compound with element Y. Explain the meaning of isotope and state two other isotopes for element Y. State the electronic structure for element Z. Y2−. d. and Z. Element Y has a few other isotopes. Particle X+ Y2− Z Number of electron P 10 14 Number of proton q r 14 Table 1 Table 1 shows the number of electrons and neutrons for particles X+.4 The table gives information about the ability What could these four substances be? of four substances to conduct electricity. a. W X Y Z substance property A HCl S NaCl Pb W does not conduct under any B Pb HC1 NaCl S conditions C S HC1 NaCl Pb X conducts only in aqueous D S HC1 Pb NaCl solution E S NaCl HC1 Pb Y conducts in both the molten and solid states Z conducts in both the molten and aqueous states Structure Question 1. 6 . Given that particle X has equal number of electrons as the atoms of argon. Give two properties of the compound formed in (d).

(c) Complete the diagram showing the formation of potassium fluoride using • for potassium electrons and x for fluorine electrons. 2. (a) Complete the sodium chloride lattice (b) Complete the graphite structure by by inserting • for sodium ions. drawing the bonds between the carbon atoms. (d) Complete the molecule of tetracloromethane using . for chlorine electrons and X for carbon electrons. Show the outer electrons only. x carbon electron • chlorine electron Answer Answer Example 1 C Example 2 C Example 3 B Example 4 E Example 5 C Example 6 C Example 7 B Example 8 C Exercise 1 A 3 D 2 C 4 D 7 . and adding more • for carbon atoms and for chloride ions. Complete each of the following diagrams as instructed.