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MlNlMM STANDARDS FOR

CHILD PROTECTION
lN HMANlTARlAN AOTlON
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !
Save the Oh||dren and Terre des Hommes each contr|buted a sen|or staff
member to coord|nate and manage the draft|ng process. Spec|a| thanks are
due to these organ|sat|ons, and to these two peop|e, M|nja Peusche| and
Sab|ne Rakotoma|a|a.
Further thanks are a|so g|ven to over 400 |nd|v|dua| rev|ewers from a|| over
the wor|d whose comments on ear||er vers|ons of these standards |mproved
them |mmeasurab|y; and to the many human|tar|ans and teams |n the fe|d
who tested the standards to ensure the|r re|evance and app||cab|||ty |n a w|de
range of human|tar|an contexts. We thank these profess|ona|s for the|r |nput,
and for the|r ongo|ng ded|cat|on to ch||d protect|on.
F|na||y, our deepest grat|tude goes to the ch||dren around the wor|d who |nsp|re,
|nstruct and encourage us |n our human|tar|an work.
!"#$%$ '() Save the Oh||dren, Terre des Hommes, NlOEF
*%+,-#%$ '() KKKA Stud|o
."--%+/%$ 0,/1/,2#) M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an
act|on. Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group (OPWG} (2012}.
For feedback or suggest|ons for the |mprovement of th|s pub||cat|on, p|ease
contact the Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group v|a 3//4)556667046-7#%/
ChildFund
Child Soldiers International
Columbia University
Danish Refugee Council
Geneva Call
Handicap International
ICRC
International Rescue Committee
Islamic Relief Worldwide
International Labour Organization
Keeping Children Safe
Norwegian Refugee Council
Plan International
Save the Children
SOS Childrens Villages
Terre des Hommes
UNDPKO
UNHCR
UNICEF
War Child
Women's Refugee Commission
World Vision International
Acknowledgements
The Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group w|shes to thank everybody who has
co||aborated on the deve|opment of these standards. Spec|a| thanks are
due to the fo||ow|ng agenc|es, most but not a|| of wh|ch are members of the
OPWG, and whose staff p|ayed a centra| ro|e |n the draft|ng process:
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "
Foreword
ln human|tar|an sett|ngs across the wor|d today, ch||dren are ||ke|y to
make up ha|f or more of the popu|at|on affected by conf|cts or d|sasters.
The many r|sks fac|ng these g|r|s and boys have a devastat|ng |mpact on the|r
we||-be|ng, phys|ca| secur|ty, and future. Some ch||dren are k|||ed or |njured.
Others face separat|on from the|r fam|||es and careg|vers or recru|tment |nto
armed forces or armed groups; and far too many suffer sexua| v|o|ence or other
forms of exp|o|tat|on and abuse.
The protect|on of ch||dren from v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse and neg|ect |s
an urgent pr|or|ty for a|| those work|ng |n human|tar|an s|tuat|ons, |nc|ud|ng,
of course, protect|on actors but a|so the broad range of sectora| spec|a||sts.
Our efforts need to be qu|ck, we|| p|anned and effect|ve - and we need
to be ab|e to measure whether they are reach|ng ch||dren and proper|y
protect|ng them. Furthermore, |n our human|tar|an act|on, we need to ensure
that we strengthen systems that w||| protect ch||dren |n the |onger term, when
the emergency response |s over.
These |ong-awa|ted |nter-agency m|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on
have the potent|a| to transform the qua||ty and the r|gour of our work to
protect ch||dren, and they w||| ho|d us to account aga|nst our comm|tments as
human|tar|ans. We urge a|| those |nvo|ved |n human|tar|an act|on to se|ze th|s
opportun|ty, and to |mp|ement and promote these Standards.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on
Table
of ContentS
Acknow|edgements 3
Introduct|on 11
What |s ch||d protect|on |n emergenc|es? DE
The |nternat|ona| |ega| bas|s for ch||d protect|on |n emergenc|es DF
How does ch||d protect|on ft w|th|n human|tar|an act|on? DG
What |s the purpose of these standards? DH
How do these standards ||nk w|th the Sphere Project
and other standards? DH
What does each standard conta|n? DI
Who are the standards |ntended for? DJ
How were the standards deve|oped and what are they based on? KL
What |s meant by 'm|n|mum" standards,
and what happens |f they cannot be met? KD
How do l use the standards |n my context? KK
At what stage of human|tar|an act|on do the standards app|y? KE
Pr|nc|p|es and approaches 25
Pr|nc|p|e 1: Avo|d expos|ng peop|e to further harm
as a resu|t of your act|ons KH
Pr|nc|p|e 2: Ensure peop|e`s access to |mpart|a| ass|stance KI
Pr|nc|p|e 3: Protect peop|e from phys|ca| and psycho|og|ca| harm
ar|s|ng from v|o|ence and coerc|on KJ
Pr|nc|p|e 4: Ass|st peop|e to c|a|m the|r r|ghts, access ava||ab|e
remed|es and recover from the effects of abuse KJ
Pr|nc|p|e 5: Strengthen ch||d protect|on systems EL
Pr|nc|p|e 6: Strengthen ch||dren`s res|||ence |n human|tar|an act|on ED
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on
Standards to ensure a qua||ty ch||d protect|on response 35
Standard 1 Ooord|nat|on EH
Standard 2 Human resources FF
Standard 3 Oommun|cat|on, advocacy and med|a ML
Standard 4 Programme cyc|e management MG
Standard 5 lnformat|on management GK
Standard 6 Oh||d protect|on mon|tor|ng GJ
Standards to address ch||d protect|on needs 77
Standard 7 Dangers and |njur|es HJ
Standard 8 Phys|ca| v|o|ence and other harmfu| pract|ces IM
Standard 9 Sexua| v|o|ence JD
Standard 10 Psychosoc|a| d|stress and menta| d|sorders JH
Standard 11 Oh||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces
or armed groups DLE
Standard 12 Oh||d |abour DDD
Standard 13 naccompan|ed and separated ch||dren DDH
Standard 14 Just|ce for ch||dren DKI
Standards to deve|op adequate ch||d protect|on strateg|es 133
Standard 15 Oase management DEM
Standard 16 Oommun|ty-based mechan|sms DFE
Standard 17 Oh||d-fr|end|y spaces DFJ
Standard 18 Protect|ng exc|uded ch||dren DMM
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on
Standards to ma|nstream ch||d protect|on
|n other human|tar|an sectors 163
Standard 19 Econom|c recovery and ch||d protect|on DGH
Standard 20 Educat|on and ch||d protect|on DHE
Standard 21 Hea|th and ch||d protect|on DIL
Standard 22 Nutr|t|on and ch||d protect|on DIG
Standard 23 Water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene (WASH}
and ch||d protect|on DJE
Standard 24 She|ter and ch||d protect|on DJI
Standard 25 Oamp management and ch||d protect|on KLE
Standard 26 D|str|but|on and ch||d protect|on KLI
Annexes and g|ossary 215
INTRODUCTION
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!
What is child protection
in emergencies?
The defn|t|on of ch||d protect|on, as agreed by the Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng
Group, |s 'the prevent|on of and response to abuse, neg|ect, exp|o|tat|on and
v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren". Thus, ch||d protect|on |s not the protect|on of a||
ch||dren`s r|ghts, but refers |nstead to a subset of these r|ghts.
A cr|s|s or emergency |s broad|y defned as a threaten|ng cond|t|on that requ|res
urgent act|on. Effect|ve emergency act|on can avo|d the esca|at|on of such an
event |nto a d|saster, wh|ch |s seen as a ser|ous d|srupt|on of the funct|on|ng
of a commun|ty or a soc|ety |nvo|v|ng w|despread human, mater|a|, econom|c
or env|ronmenta| |osses and |mpacts that exceeds the ab|||ty of the affected
commun|ty or soc|ety to cope us|ng |ts own resources, and wh|ch therefore
requ|res urgent act|on.
Emergenc|es can be man-made, such as conf|ct or c|v|| unrest; they can
resu|t from natura| hazards, such as foods and earthquakes; or they can
be a comb|nat|on of both. They often have devastat|ng effects on ch||dren`s
||ves. They resu|t |n g|r|s and boys be|ng k|||ed or |njured, becom|ng orphaned,
becom|ng separated from the|r fam|||es, be|ng recru|ted |nto armed forces
or groups, be|ng sexua||y abused, becom|ng ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, be|ng
traffcked or, worse, exper|enc|ng severa| of these at the same t|me.
The ch||d protect|on r|sks |n an emergency w||| depend on factors such as: the
numbers of ch||dren affected; the types of ch||d protect|on prob|ems; the |eve|
of organ|sat|on and stab|||ty of the state before and dur|ng the emergency; the
country`s capac|ty to respond; and the nature of the emergency.
Oh||d protect|on |n emergenc|es |nc|udes spec|fc act|v|t|es by ch||d protect|on
actors, whether nat|ona| or commun|ty-based, and/or by human|tar|an staff
support|ng |oca| capac|t|es. lt a|so |nc|udes act|v|t|es |n other human|tar|an
sectors that have the effect of |mprov|ng ch||dren`s safety, even where th|s |s
not the|r spec|fc purpose.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #$
The international legal basis
for child protection in emergencies
The M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on are
grounded |n an |nternat|ona| |ega| framework that regu|ates the ob||gat|ons of
the State towards |ts c|t|zens and other persons |n that State, and therefore
references to re|evant |nternat|ona| |ega| |nstruments have been made under
each standard. The standards do not, however, set out to prov|de an exhaust|ve
exp|anat|on of the var|ous |ega| |nstruments; |nstead, they prov|de a start|ng
po|nt from wh|ch human|tar|an workers can seek more |nformat|on |f necessary.
The |nternat|ona| |ega| framework |s ma|n|y composed of three |nterre|ated
and mutua||y re|nforc|ng bod|es of treaty |aw: |nternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw,
human|tar|an |aw, and refugee |aw.
lnternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw sets out the r|ghts of persons, and app||es both
|n peacet|me and |n conf|ct. Oerta|n r|ghts can be suspended (derogated} |n
t|mes of emergenc|es, but fundamenta| r|ghts such as the r|ght to ||fe and the
r|ght not to be tortured can never be suspended. The respons|b|||ty of the State
to protect, respect and fu|f| human r|ghts has been agreed between States
|n d|fferent treat|es or convent|ons (forma| contractua| agreements between
States that carry |ega| ob||gat|ons}. lt |s |mportant to know wh|ch convent|ons
each government has rat|fed, as on|y those convent|ons w||| be |ega||y b|nd|ng
on that State.
lnternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw regu|ates the behav|our of combat|ng part|es
dur|ng conf||cts, both |nternat|ona| and |nterna|, and prov|des spec|a|
protect|on for c|v|||ans. lnternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw can be found |n the
Geneva Oonvent|ons. Add|t|ona| Protoco| l of the Geneva Oonvent|on re|ates
to |nternat|ona| armed conf|ct, and Add|t|ona| Protoco| ll re|ates to |nterna|
armed conf|ct.
lnternat|ona| refugee |aw dea|s w|th the r|ghts and protect|on of refugees.
Refugees are |nd|v|dua|s who:
D7 Are outs|de the|r country of nat|ona||ty or norma| res|dence
K7 Have a we||-founded fear of persecut|on because of the|r race, re||g|on,
nat|ona||ty, membersh|p of a part|cu|ar soc|a| group or po||t|ca| op|n|on
E7 Oannot or do not want to be protected by that country, or to return there,
for fear of persecut|on.
There are some |nternat|ona| standards - referred to as 'soft" |aw - that are
not |ega||y b|nd|ng. ln other words, they cannot tr|gger State respons|b|||ty.
Neverthe|ess, they are cons|dered as mora||y b|nd|ng, and they prov|de
|mportant gu|dance.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #"
Four key principles
set out by the CRC,
and their relevance
to humanitarian action:
S08V|VAL Ah0 0VL0PNhT
As well as children's right to life, humanitarian workers must also
consider the effects of the emergency and the response on the
physical, psychological, emotional, social and spiritual development
of children.
h0h-0|S08|N|hAT|0h
Emergencies often magnify existing differences and further
marginalise those already at risk of discrimination.
Humanitarians must identify and monitor existing and new patterns
of discrimination and power, and tackle them in the response.
0h|L0 PA8T|0|PAT|0h
Humanitarian workers must ensure that girls and boys are given
space and time to meaningfully participate at all possible stages
of an emergency preparedness and response. Boys and girls of
different ages and abilities, and with different perspectives, should
be supported to express their views in safety, and these views
should be regarded with respect and taken seriously. Humanitarian
workers must be aware of their own values, beliefs and assumptions
about childhood and the roles of the child and the family, and avoid
imposing these on children. They should enable developmentally
appropriate ways of child participation, share power with children
in decision making, and be sensitive to how children's participation
can, when done poorly, upset children's social roles and power
relations.
Th 8ST |hT8STS 0F Th 0h|L0
ln all actions concerning children, the best interests of the child
shall be a primary consideration. This principle should guide the
design, monitoring, and adjustment of all humanitarian programmes
and interventions. Where humanitarians take decisions regarding
individual children, agreed procedural safeguards should be
implemented to ensure this principle is upheld.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%
How does child protection fit within
humanitarian action?
There are threats to the safety and we||be|ng of ch||dren |n every emergency.
For th|s reason, ch||d protect|on |s an |mportant cons|derat|on |n a|| human|tar|an
act|on, and ch||d protect|on object|ves are often an exp||c|t component of
human|tar|an preparedness and response.
Sphere defnes Human|tar|an Act|on and Human|tar|an Response as fo||ows:
h0NAh|TA8|Ah A0T|0h: The object|ves of human|tar|an act|on are to save
||ves, a||ev|ate suffer|ng and ma|nta|n human d|gn|ty dur|ng and |n the aftermath
of man-made cr|ses and natura| d|sasters, as we|| as to prevent and strengthen
preparedness for the occurrence of such s|tuat|ons. Human|tar|an act|on has
two |nextr|cab|y ||nked d|mens|ons: protect|ng peop|e and prov|d|ng ass|stance
(see Human|tar|an response}. Human|tar|an act|on |s rooted |n human|tar|an
pr|nc|p|es - human|ty, |mpart|a||ty, neutra||ty and |ndependence.
h0NAh|TA8|Ah 8SP0hS: Human|tar|an response |s one d|mens|on of
human|tar|an act|on (see Human|tar|an act|on, above}. lt focuses on the prov|s|on
of ass|stance |n a g|ven emergency s|tuat|on.
ln the |n|t|a| human|tar|an response, urgent ch||d protect|on needs |n an
emergency are ||ke|y to |nc|ude |nter|m care for unaccompan|ed and separated
ch||dren, fam||y trac|ng, qu|ck |ntervent|ons to prevent fam|||es from be|ng
separated, psychosoc|a| support for d|stressed ch||dren and the|r fam|||es,
and protect|on from d|fferent k|nds of v|o|ence and r|sks such as recru|tment
|nto armed forces or groups or other forms of exp|o|tat|on. ln most cases,
fam|||es and those from the affected commun|ty w||| natura||y respond to these
needs as best they can, and outs|de agenc|es may fnd ways to support and
supp|ement these efforts.
Human|tar|an act|on for ch||d protect|on a|so |nvo|ves preparedness, |nc|ud|ng
the strengthen|ng of ch||d protect|on systems before, dur|ng and after an
emergency, to |ncrease state, commun|ty, fam||y and ch||d res|||ence to the
emergency and m|t|gate |ts effects.
The |nternat|ona| human|tar|an system recogn|ses ch||d protect|on as ||fe-sav|ng,
and as such ch||d protect|on act|v|t|es are |nc|uded |n the cr|ter|a of the N`s
Oentra| Emergency Re||ef Fund (OERF}. NlOEF |s the |ead agency for ch||d
protect|on w|th|n the c|uster system, and ch||d protect|on |s embedded w|th|n
the NHOR-|ed g|oba| protect|on c|uster.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&
What is the purpose of these standards?
ln 2010 the members of the g|oba| Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group agreed
on the need for ch||d protect|on standards |n human|tar|an sett|ngs, to tack|e
what was seen as a cr|t|ca| gap. The M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on
|n Human|tar|an Act|on have been deve|oped to support ch||d protect|on work
|n human|tar|an sett|ngs. ln such contexts, the standards are |ntended to:
Estab||sh common pr|nc|p|es amongst those work|ng |n ch||d protect|on, and
to strengthen coord|nat|on between them
lmprove the qua||ty of ch||d protect|on programm|ng, and |ts |mpact for ch||dren
lmprove accountab|||ty w|th|n ch||d protect|on work
Further defne the profess|ona| fe|d of ch||d protect|on
Prov|de a synthes|s of good pract|ce and |earn|ng to date
Enab|e better advocacy and commun|cat|on on ch||d protect|on r|sks, needs
and responses.
How do these standards link with the
Sphere Project and other standards?
The Sphere Project |s an |n|t|at|ve a|med at |mprov|ng the qua||ty of human|tar|an
ass|stance and the accountab|||ty of human|tar|an actors to the|r const|tuents,
donors and affected popu|at|ons.
The Sphere Handbook, wh|ch compr|ses the Human|tar|an Oharter, four
Protect|on Pr|nc|p|es and a ser|es of M|n|mum Standards |n Human|tar|an
Response, |s a un|versa| gu|de and reference for a|| human|tar|an act|on.
The handbook has been deve|oped by human|tar|ans from a range of d|fferent
sectors, on the prem|se that a|| peop|e affected by d|saster or conf|ct have
a r|ght to rece|ve protect|on and ass|stance to ensure the bas|c cond|t|ons of
||fe w|th d|gn|ty.
The M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on are
grounded |n th|s same bas|c prem|se, and the|r structure |s cons|stent w|th
that of the Sphere standards. lt |s |ntended that the M|n|mum Standards
for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on be used |n conjunct|on w|th the
Sphere Handbook, and that they prov|de a comp|ementary set of agreed
norms that re|ate spec|fca||y to ch||d protect|on work |n human|tar|an sett|ngs.
Accord|ng|y, references are made to the Sphere project throughout th|s
handbook.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'
Other protect|on po||c|es that |nformed these ch||d protect|on-spec|fc standards
|nc|ude:
The NlOEF Oore Oomm|tments for Oh||dren |n Human|tar|an Act|on
(OOOs, updated 2010}
The lORO`s Profess|ona| Standards for Protect|on Work (lORO, 2009}
The Gu|d|ng Pr|nc|p|es on naccompan|ed and Separated Oh||dren
(Save the Oh||dren, NlOEF, lRO, lORO, NHOR, Word v|s|on, 2004}
The standards a|so bu||t on ex|st|ng |nter-agency po||cy and too|s, name|y:
The lASO Gu|de||nes on menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support |n emergency
sett|ngs (2007}
The M|n|mum standards for educat|on: preparedness, response, recovery
(lNEE, updated 2011}
Work|ng w|th peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es |n forced d|sp|acements
(NHOR, 2011}
Further |mportant resources were found on p|atforms such as the webs|te for
the Oh||d Protect|on |n Or|s|s (OPO} Network, the Better Oare Network (BON}
and the v|o|ence Prevent|on A|||ance (vPA}.
Ouest|ons that were used to test and |mprove each standard |nc|ude the
fo||ow|ng:
Do the act|v|t|es refect cons|derat|ons for ch||dren be|ow 5 years as we|| as
ado|escents?
Do the act|v|t|es refect cons|derat|ons for boys and g|r|s?
Do the act|v|t|es refect cons|derat|ons for d|fferent ethn|c, re||g|ous or cu|tura|
groups?
Do the act|v|t|es refect an |nc|us|ve approach for ch||dren w|th d|fferent types
of d|sab|||t|es?
Do the act|v|t|es prov|de cons|derat|ons for strengthen|ng ch||d protect|on
systems?
What does each standard contain?
The M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on fo||ow
the structure of the Sphere standards. Each standard |s accompan|ed by key
act|ons, measurements (|nc|ud|ng |nd|cators and targets}, and gu|dance notes.
Each standard descr|bes |n one sentence what shou|d be ach|eved |n one
area of human|tar|an act|on, to ensure adequate protect|on for ch||dren.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #(
The key act|ons are suggested act|v|t|es to he|p meet each standard.
They are not necessar||y app||cab|e |n a|| contexts but g|ve an |dea of the k|nd
of steps to cons|der when the context a||ows.
The measurements |nc|ude two types of |nd|cators, w|th targets, to use as
's|gna|s" |nd|cat|ng whether a standard has been ach|eved.
Outcome |nd|cators re|ate to the one sentence standard, wh||st act|on
|nd|cators re|ate to some of the key act|ons for that standard.
Standards have severa| |nd|cators. Those work|ng on ch||d protect|on |n the
same context shou|d agree wh|ch are most re|evant and mean|ngfu| to use.
ln some contexts targets may need to be adjusted, and other adapt|ons may
be necessary. Data shou|d a|ways be d|saggregated at |east by age and sex.
Depend|ng on the context further d|saggregat|on may be he|pfu|, for examp|e
by geograph|ca| |ocat|on, (d|s}ab|||ty, or popu|at|on group.
The gu|dance notes prov|de further |nformat|on and adv|ce on pr|or|ty |ssues
re|at|ng to the standard. Some prov|de pract|ca| suggest|ons, wh||e others
h|gh||ght eth|ca| cons|derat|ons or gaps |n current know|edge.
The references s|gna| re|evant |nternat|ona| |ega| |nstruments re|at|ng to the
standard, as we|| as usefu| gu|de||nes and tra|n|ng mater|a|s. The references
are not exhaust|ve, but rather are |ntended to prov|de a start|ng po|nt for the
search for more |nformat|on, as needed.
Who are the standards intended for?
These standards are |ntended for use by those work|ng on ch||d protect|on or
re|ated areas of human|tar|an act|on. Th|s |nc|udes those work|ng d|rect|y w|th
ch||dren, fam|||es and commun|t|es; p|anners and po||cy makers; coord|nators;
donors; academ|cs; and those work|ng on advocacy, med|a or commun|cat|ons.
lt |nc|udes government personne| and those work|ng |n |ndependent or
mu|t||atera| organ|sat|ons; and |t may a|so |nc|ude those work|ng |n the just|ce
system and secur|ty personne|, as we|| as armed forces and groups.
The standards a|so a|m to support re|at|onsh|ps of accountab|||ty between
surv|vors of conf|ct or d|saster and human|tar|an workers, through part|c|pat|on
by surv|vors prov|d|ng the poss|b|||ty to |nfuence dec|s|ons about the ass|stance
they rece|ve, and through the prov|s|on of |nformat|on and channe|s to comp|a|n
|f human|tar|an ass|stance |s not we|| prov|ded.
The fo||ow|ng are some ways |n wh|ch the standards can be used:
To p|an and cost human|tar|an |ntervent|ons
To estab||sh common and measurab|e expectat|ons regard|ng the scope and
qua||ty of ch||d protect|on serv|ces prov|ded to ch||dren, the|r fam|||es and the|r
commun|t|es
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*
To estab||sh agreement on common pr|nc|p|es between d|fferent actors, such
as the d|fferent members of a ch||d protect|on coord|nat|on mechan|sm
To mon|tor and eva|uate the qua||ty and effect|veness of human|tar|an
|ntervent|ons, |nc|ud|ng those of peer and partner organ|sat|ons
To gu|de and eva|uate the a||ocat|on of fund|ng to partners. For examp|e,
the standards can be used as a reference for fund|ng app||cat|ons, contracts
and partnersh|p agreements
To |nduct and tra|n new staff or partners
As a se|f-|earn|ng too| and a reference text for ch||d protect|on workers and
others
To enab|e advocacy on ch||d protect|on |ssues, and to br|ef dec|s|on-makers
on ch||d protect|on pr|nc|p|es and pr|or|t|es
To mot|vate and enab|e those work|ng |n other sectors of human|tar|an act|on
to protect ch||dren better.
How were the standards developed
and what are they based on?
There |s current|y ||m|ted ev|dence on wh|ch ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons
are most effect|ve and appropr|ate |n d|fferent contexts. These standards are
therefore based on the expert|se and exper|ence of pract|t|oners work|ng |n
the sector today.
The standards were formu|ated between January 2011 and September 2012. A
team conta|n|ng ch||d protect|on pract|t|oners, other human|tar|ans, academ|cs
and po||cy makers, based |n d|fferent countr|es and organ|sat|ons, worked
together to deve|op an |n|t|a| draft. Th|s was done through carefu| rev|ew of
ex|st|ng po||c|es, too|s and |earn|ng from d|fferent human|tar|an s|tuat|ons.
Fo||ow|ng th|s, the draft standards were rev|ewed for the|r re|evance and
app||cab|||ty |n a range of human|tar|an contexts by pract|t|oners at nat|ona|
and |oca| |eve|s, and subsequent|y rev|sed and refned.
A|together, over 400 |nd|v|dua|s from 30 agenc|es and 40 countr|es around the
wor|d contr|buted to the deve|opment of the standards.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#
What is meant by minimum standards,
and what happens if they cannot be met?
The standards set out a common agreement on what needs to be ach|eved
|n order for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an sett|ngs to be of adequate qua||ty.
Those p|ann|ng and budget|ng for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an sett|ngs
shou|d therefore use the ent|re set of standards as a start|ng po|nt when
determ|n|ng the scope and qua||ty of act|on to be taken.
The degree to wh|ch the standards can be met |n pract|ce w||| depend on a range
of factors, |nc|ud|ng access to the affected popu|at|on, the |eve| of cooperat|on
from the re|evant author|t|es and the |eve| of |nsecur|ty |n the |oca| context.
||m|ted capac|ty and resources of those work|ng |n ch||d protect|on, comb|ned
w|th urgent and fast-chang|ng ch||d protect|on needs, |s ||ke|y to necess|tate
pr|or|t|sat|on of some standards above others, or a phased approach to meet|ng
the standards. Another cons|derat|on |s that |f ch||d protect|on was extreme|y
weak |n a context pr|or to an emergency, |t may not be rea||st|c or appropr|ate
to try and meet the standards |n the response phase. F|na||y, some standards
may s|mp|y have ||m|ted re|evance |n the |oca| context.
There may therefore be |mportant reasons why at t|mes |t |s not poss|b|e, or
adv|sab|e, to meet a|| the standards. Where the standards cannot be met,
however, they st||| app|y as an agreed un|versa| benchmark, and they can
be used - for examp|e - to art|cu|ate eventua| or asp|rat|ona| goa|s for ch||d
protect|on.
sed |n th|s way, the standards may enab|e human|tar|ans to h|gh||ght gaps
|n the scope or qua||ty of the ch||d protect|on response, and the |nvestment or
cond|t|ons requ|red to c|ose these gaps. An emergency may h|gh||ght cha||enges
and spec|fc|t|es |n the context wh|ch restr|ct the standard of ch||d protect|on |n
the response, but |t may a|so be an opportun|ty to make changes - |mmed|ate
or more gradua| - that strengthen ch||d protect|on for the |onger term.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))
How do I use the standards in my context?
ln order to be proper|y used, the standards need to be adapted to the re|evant
context. They a|so need to be d|ssem|nated and promoted so that a|| those
w|th a ro|e |n ch||d protect|on can refer to them.
Adaptat|on shou|d not be understood as an opportun|ty to reset the |eve| of
ch||d protect|on that each standard app||es, and the one sentence standard
shou|d not norma||y be changed. ln order to atta|n each standard, however, |t
may make sense to pr|or|t|se key act|ons, and adjust or remove others or add
new ones. The gu|dance notes may be he|pfu| |n th|s exerc|se.
Add|t|ona||y, the |nd|cators and targets may need to be adapted or reset -
a|though there shou|d be a c|ear just|fcat|on |f a target |s |owered, and, wherever
poss|b|e, a c|ear|y s|gna||ed |ntent|on eventua||y to a|m for the or|g|na| target,
or a h|gher one.
The fo||ow|ng are some suggested ways to adapt and promote the standards
|n your context:
Beg|n by se|ect|ng a few standards that cover pr|or|ty or weaker aspects of
ch||d protect|on work |n your context
D|scuss and agree targets and target defn|t|ons (where re|evant} to the key
act|ons and measurements, and, where targets need to be |owered, agree
on subsequent steps to promote eventua| atta|nment of the or|g|na| target
Present and d|scuss the standards w|th|n d|fferent organ|sat|ons and groups,
|nc|ud|ng |nter-agency coord|nat|on mechan|sms
Work w|th those cover|ng other sectors of human|tar|an act|on to adapt and
|nsert the re|evant standards |nto the|r processes
se the re|evant standard and agreed |nd|cators to structure and |nform
preparedness p|ans, response p|ans, and the too|s used to mon|tor
|mp|ementat|on
Trans|ate the standards, s|mp||fy|ng as requ|red and us|ng re|evant head|ngs
lnc|ude |nformat|on on the standards |n |nduct|on packs for human|tar|ans new
to the response
Oons|der us|ng an event to ra|se awareness about the standards and promote
the v|s|b|||ty of ch||d protect|on |ssues. The event cou|d be focused on the
standards spec|fca||y (such as a |aunch} or another event on a re|ated top|c
(such as a mother`s day ce|ebrat|on or the |ssue of a new report about
human|tar|an |ssues |n the context}
Arrange br|efngs on the standards for sen|or po||cy makers, dec|s|on-makers
and spokespeop|e work|ng |n d|fferent aspects of the human|tar|an response
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!
Organ|ze or|entat|ons and tra|n|ng on the standards for ch||d protect|on
workers and other human|tar|ans
D|scuss the standards w|th g|r|s and boys as we|| as parents and other
commun|ty representat|ves, |nc|ud|ng those w|th part|cu|ar |nfuence, such
as fa|th |eaders and ro|e mode|s for ch||dren
Produce ch||d- and commun|ty-fr|end|y mater|a|s and messages based on the
standards, th|nk|ng about how to reach adu|ts and ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es
se spot checks or more systemat|c rev|ews to mon|tor and |mprove the
|eve| of awareness and use of the standards |n your context.
At what stage of humanitarian action
do the standards apply?
The standards a|m to strengthen a|| stages of human|tar|an act|on. The key
act|ons |n each standard are d|v|ded |nto 'preparedness act|ons" and 'response
and ear|y recovery act|ons". ln s|tuat|ons where there has been n|| or m|n|ma|
preparedness, preparedness act|ons shou|d be cons|dered a|ongs|de the
response and ear|y recovery act|ons.
On|y a few spec|fc d|saster r|sk reduct|on (DRR} act|ons have been |ncorporated
|n the standards, most notab|y |n Standard 7. Th|s refects the ||m|ted gu|dance
and |earn|ng to date on comb|n|ng DRR and ch||d protect|on act|ons. lt |s
expected that DRR cons|derat|ons w||| be more fu||y |nc|uded |n future vers|ons
of the standards.
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PRINCIPLES
AND APPROACHES
Principles
and approaches
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )&
Principle 1:
Avoid exposing people to further harm
as a result of your actions
"7|ose |nvo|ved |n |0man|ta||an |esoonse m0st do a|| t|ey |easonao|y can
to avo|d exoos|ng oeoo|e affected oy d|saste| o| a|med conh|ct to f0|t|e|
|a|m", |n oa|t|c0|a| t|e ||s| of exoos|ng c|||d|en to |nc|eased dange| o|
ao0se of t|e|| ||g|ts.
ln add|t|on to the gu|dance prov|ded |n the Sphere handbook, the fo||ow|ng
po|nts, wh|ch are more spec|fca||y focused on ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons,
shou|d be cons|dered.
Before |ntroduc|ng new |ntervent|ons, fnd out how the |ssues to be addressed
were hand|ed prev|ous|y by ch||dren, fam|||es, the commun|ty and the
author|t|es;
Ana|yse ex|st|ng re|at|ons between ch||dren and adu|ts and between d|fferent
groups of ch||dren, try|ng to reduce potent|a| causes of tens|on or conf|cts
of |nterest;
Ga|n a fu|| understand|ng of the expected behav|ours and soc|a| norms for
g|r|s and boys of d|fferent ages, and take th|s |nto account when p|ann|ng
|ntervent|ons, |nc|ud|ng t|m|ngs, transportat|on and san|tary arrangements;
Promote mean|ngfu| and safe ch||d part|c|pat|on |n programme p|ann|ng and
eva|uat|on so that the v|ews and |nterests of ch||dren, as we|| as those of
adu|ts, can be determ|ned;
Avo|d restr|ct|ng serv|ces and benefts to spec|fc categor|es of ch||dren or
fam|||es - for examp|e 'separated ch||dren" or 'ex-combatants" - as th|s may
|ncent|v|se separat|on or recru|tment;
When dea||ng w|th sens|t|ve |ssues, guarantee confdent|a||ty and |nformed
consent for ch||dren, and ensure that |ntervent|ons are carefu||y p|anned to
respect pr|vacy;
Set up and adhere to Oh||d Safeguard|ng Protoco|s, |nc|ud|ng procedures for
report|ng and address|ng suspected |nfr|ngements.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )'
Principle 2:
Ensure peoples access to impartial assistance
"Ens0|e t|at |0man|ta||an ass|stance |s ava||ao|e to a|| t|ose |n need,
oa|t|c0|a||y t|ose w|o a|e most v0|ne|ao|e o| w|o face exc|0s|on on oo||t|ca|
o| ot|e| g|o0nds." Ass|stance |s o|ov|ded w|t|o0t d|sc||m|nat|on and |s not
w|t||e|d f|om c|||d|en |n need o| t|e|| fam|||es and ca|eg|ve|s, and access
fo| |0man|ta||an agenc|es |s o|ov|ded as necessa|y to meet t|e standa|ds.
ln re|at|on to th|s pr|nc|p|e, a centra| cons|derat|on for ch||d protect|on workers
and other human|tar|ans |s the need to |dent|fy pro-act|ve|y those ch||dren who
may be |nadvertent|y or de||berate|y exc|uded from |ntervent|ons.
G|r|s or boys of d|fferent ages may be |ess ab|e to access ch||d protect|on
or other serv|ces. Some ch||dren may be exc|uded because of the|r soc|a|
pos|t|on or the|r ethn|c|ty, refect|ng broader d|scr|m|nat|on patterns |n the
popu|at|on. Spec|fc ch||dren may a|so be exc|uded because of the|r own
c|rcumstances, |nc|ud|ng domest|c dut|es (|nc|ud|ng care of other ch||dren
and of s|ck or e|der|y adu|ts}, the|r work|ng hours, the|r mob|||ty or d|sab|||ty or
the|r care arrangement (for examp|e |f they are |n res|dent|a| care or |n a ch||d-
headed househo|d, or |f one or more of the adu|ts |n the fam||y has d|ed or |eft
the fam||y |n search of work}.
Oh||d protect|on |ntervent|ons need to use |nnovat|ve and creat|ve ways to reach
these ch||dren, who are often those most |n need of protect|on. Oh||d protect|on
workers and other human|tar|ans need to respond qu|ck|y when patterns or
cases of d|scr|m|nat|on or exc|us|on are |dent|fed. Fo||ow|ng consu|tat|on w|th
these ch||dren and the|r fam|||es and commun|t|es, adjustments shou|d be
made to |ntervent|ons to max|m|se access for these ch||dren.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )(
Principle 3:
Protect people from physical
and psychological harm arising
from violence and coercion
C|||d|en a|e o|otected f|om "v|o|ence, f|om oe|ng fo|ced o| |nd0ced to act
aga|nst t|e|| w|||," and f|om fea| of s0c| ao0se.
A|though the pr|mary respons|b|||ty to protect ch||dren from harm rests w|th
government, a|| ch||d protect|on responses shou|d seek to make ch||dren more
secure, fac|||tate ch||dren`s and fam|||es` own efforts to stay safe, and reduce
ch||dren`s exposure to r|sks.
Principle 4:
Assist people to claim their rights,
access available remedies and recover
from the effects of abuse
C|||d|en a|e ass|sted to c|a|m t|e|| ||g|ts, t||o0g| |nfo|mat|on,
doc0mentat|on and ass|stance |n see||ng |emed|es. C|||d|en a|e s0ooo|ted
aoo|oo||ate|y |n |ecove||ng f|om t|e o|ys|ca|, osyc|o|og|ca| and soc|a|
effects of v|o|ence and ot|e| ao0ses.
Oh||dren are r|ghts-ho|ders. Oh||d protect|on workers and other human|tar|ans
must ensure that wherever poss|b|e, |ntervent|ons support ch||dren |n
c|a|m|ng the|r own r|ghts, and support others such as parents and carers |n
c|a|m|ng ch||dren`s r|ghts on the|r beha|f. Th|s |nc|udes the promot|on of b|rth
reg|strat|on and efforts to secure or rep|ace |ost documents. lt a|so |nc|udes
enab||ng ch||dren to access remed|es such as |ega| redress at |oca|, nat|ona| or
|nternat|ona| |eve|s. F|na||y, |t |nc|udes support|ng ch||dren to c|a|m ent|t|ements
under |aw, such as |nher|tance or rest|tut|on of property - wh|ch may be an
|mportant factor |n ch||dren`s ab|||ty to protect themse|ves, and to c|a|m other
r|ghts.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !*
Principle 5:
Strengthen child protection systems
ln human|tar|an sett|ngs, the peop|e, processes, |aws, |nst|tut|ons and
behav|ours that norma||y protect ch||dren - the ch||d protect|on systems - may
have become weakened or |neffect|ve. However, the response phase may
prov|de an opportun|ty to deve|op and strengthen nat|ona| ch||d protect|on
systems, |nc|ud|ng commun|ty-based systems.
The fo||ow|ng cons|derat|ons may be he|pfu| |n ensur|ng that human|tar|an
|ntervent|ons, as far as poss|b|e, rebu||d and strengthen e|ements of the pr|or
or potent|a| ch||d protect|on system at nat|ona| and commun|ty |eve|s (see a|so
next sect|on on strengthen|ng ch||dren`s res|||ence |n human|tar|an act|on}.
ldent|fy and bu||d on ex|st|ng capac|t|es and structures. Avo|d the creat|on
of para||e| structures, such as agency-based staff that rep|ace or bypass
government- or commun|ty-emp|oyed soc|a| workers.
Dur|ng the response, bu||d the capac|ty of nat|ona| and state-|eve| author|t|es as
we|| as c|v|| soc|ety. ln some contexts |t may be more effect|ve and appropr|ate
to channe| support to the more |nforma| parts of the ch||d protect|on system,
such as fam|||es and commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms.
Ensure and systemat|ze representat|ve part|c|pat|on of the commun|ty,
|nc|ud|ng mean|ngfu| part|c|pat|on of ch||dren, |n ana|yses, p|ann|ng and
eva|uat|ons.
||nk and coord|nate w|th others work|ng on ch||d protect|on and re|ated
|ssues. Each actor w||| have d|fferent strengths and opportun|t|es |n re|at|on to
strengthen|ng the overa|| system. Try to generate |nterest |n, and comm|tment
to, th|s shared goa|.
Pr|or|t|se |oca| ownersh|p of ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons wherever poss|b|e.
Engage ear|y on w|th deve|opment actors and processes to p|an the trans|t|on
to the post-emergency phase, |f appropr|ate. Th|s phase may see s|gn|fcant
|nvestments, new|y estab||shed nat|ona| agendas or other opportun|t|es to
extend and |ntens|fy efforts to strengthen the ch||d protect|on system.
ln some contexts, an armed force or group or non-state actor may be the de
facto author|ty. Where re|evant, poss|b|e and appropr|ate, neutra| and |mpart|a|
organ|sat|ons w|th the r|ght expert|se can d|scuss ch||d protect|on |ssues w|th
such groups, |nc|ud|ng the |ega| ob||gat|ons of the group |n re|at|on to ch||d
protect|on, and the|r ro|e |n the pract|ce of ch||d protect|on.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !#
Principle 6:
Strengthen childrens resilience
in humanitarian action
A|though ch||dren are often portrayed as pass|ve and dependent, they are
natura||y act|ve part|c|pants |n the|r fam|||es and commun|t|es. Before a cr|s|s,
many ch||dren have fam||y respons|b|||t|es, take the|r own dec|s|ons, and may
be |eaders |n the|r schoo|s or peer groups. Dur|ng cr|ses, ch||dren attempt to
cope w|th the added r|sks and pressures that emergenc|es br|ng by prob|em
so|v|ng or obta|n|ng support from others, |nc|ud|ng fam||y members and others
such as peers or re||g|ous |eaders.
How successfu| ch||dren are |n address|ng and cop|ng w|th the|r s|tuat|on
depends on the pattern of r|sks and protect|ve factors |n the|r soc|a|
env|ronments, and a|so on the|r |nterna| strengths and capab|||t|es. vu|nerab|||ty
ar|ses when a ch||d faces mu|t|p|e r|sks and has few protect|ve factors, such
as ||v|ng w|th a car|ng parent, hav|ng support|ve fr|ends, and hav|ng good sk|||s
for seek|ng he|p. Res|||ence ar|ses when a ch||d has more protect|ve factors
than r|sk factors. S|m||ar|y, ch||dren w|th strengths such as good prob|em-so|v|ng
sk|||s are often ab|e to nav|gate the cr|s|s env|ronment re|at|ve|y effect|ve|y,
and to make dec|s|ons that support the|r we||be|ng and that of the|r fam|||es.
From th|s standpo|nt, the task of ch||d protect|on programm|ng |n emergenc|es
|s to strengthen protect|ve factors that re|nforce ch||dren`s res|||ence, and to
dea| w|th those that expose ch||dren to r|sk. ln des|gn|ng programmes that
strengthen res|||ence and dea| w|th threats, and wh|ch support pos|t|ve
re|at|ons between ch||dren, fam|||es, and commun|t|es, the fo||ow|ng quest|ons
are re|evant:
Are programmes access|b|e to a|| ch||dren, and do they bu||d on and
re|nforce ch||dren`s sk|||s and strengths? Oons|der the character|st|cs of
|nd|v|dua| ch||dren that may |nfuence the|r vu|nerab|||ty or res|||ence (for
examp|e, the|r age, ab|||ty, ethn|c background, |anguage, sex, hea|th, menta|
hea|th, re||g|on, and so on}.
Do programmes |nvo|ve those c|ose to ch||dren, and re|nforce support|ve
re|at|onsh|ps between ch||dren and the|r parents, careg|vers, peers and
other |mportant peop|e? Oons|der the character|st|cs of ch||dren`s fam||y
re|at|onsh|ps and other c|ose re|at|onsh|ps (for examp|e, care arrangements,
c|ose and support|ve fam||y env|ronments, pos|t|ve re|at|onsh|ps w|th peers
and teachers, and so on}.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !)
Do programmes strengthen the structures, pract|ces and serv|ces that he|p
to protect ch||dren |n the commun|ty? Oons|der the ro|es, sk|||s, access|b|||ty
and regu|at|on of commun|ty |eaders, groups, |nst|tut|ons and serv|ces.
For examp|e, |dent|fy aware and act|ve |eaders, re|evant |nformat|on about
ch||d protect|on r|sks, access|b|e and ch||d-fr|end|y hea|th centres, sk|||ed
and ava||ab|e soc|a| workers, and so on.
Are programmes tak|ng account of the soc|a| and |ega| norms that |nfuence
ch||dren`s ||ves and c|rcumstances? Oons|der the |ega| context and the
cu|ture and how these affect ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng (for examp|e,
|aws and po||c|es, regu|at|on pract|ces, econom|c act|v|t|es, cu|tura| and
re||g|ous be||efs, structura| |nequa||t|es, and so on}.
Do programmes t|e a|| of the above e|ements together and take a cons|stent
approach? Oons|der the re|at|onsh|ps between ch||dren, other ch||dren,
fam|||es, commun|t|es and cu|tures, and how one part |nfuences the others.
STANDARDS
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STANDARDS TO
ENSURE A QUALITY
CHILD PROTECTION
RESPONSE
standards to ensure a quality
child protection response
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !&
STANDARD 1
COORDINATION
Ooord|nat|on he|ps to make sure that ch||d protect|on responses are pr|or|t|zed,
effc|ent, pred|ctab|e and effect|ve. lt avo|ds part|a| responses or dup||cat|on,
and ensures that a prov|der of |ast resort |s |dent|fed when partners are not
ab|e to respond to |dent|fed needs. lt a|so a||ows everyone |nvo|ved |n ch||d
protect|on to agree on a shared set of object|ves and d|v|s|on of |abour. ln
do|ng so, |t can he|p create an |nter-agency or mu|t|-sectora| response that
strengthens the nat|ona| or commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on system |n the
|ong run. Poor coord|nat|on can reduce the effect of programm|ng and may
even resu|t |n harmfu| programm|ng - for examp|e, programm|ng that weakens
fam||y or commun|ty protect|on structures, or wh|ch responds on|y to certa|n
r|sks to wh|ch a ch||d may be exposed, wh||e cont|nu|ng to |eave them exposed
to other r|sks.
A number of the key act|ons |n th|s standard spec|fca||y re|ate to |ead agenc|es
- the organ|sat|ons or government departments that have been agreed or
des|gnated as respons|b|e for meet|ng the coord|nat|on funct|on. Other key
act|ons re|ate to the members of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm (and th|s |s ||ke|y
to |nc|ude |ead agenc|es}. Th|s does not mean they have to be forma| members
for these act|ons to be re|evant: the|r scope |nc|udes a|| those organ|sat|ons that
are act|ve |n the context and wh|ch therefore have a duty to ensure the|r act|ons
are coord|nated w|th those of other actors, and for wh|ch the coord|nat|on
mechan|sm prov|des th|s opportun|ty.
Standard
Relevant and responsible authorities, humanitarian agencies, civil
society organisations and representatives of affected populations
coordinate their child protection efforts in order to ensure full, effcient
and timely response.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Assess ex|st|ng coord|nat|on mechan|sms and determ|ne how |ssues of
human|tar|an ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons can best be coord|nated, |nc|ud|ng
w|th |oca| c|v|| soc|ety;
|dent|fy a |ead for ch||d protect|on coord|nat|on;
|dent|fy the |atest ava||ab|e stat|st|cs on ch||d protect|on |ssues and, |f
poss|b|e, agree on pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on concerns (for examp|e fam||y-
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !'
based care, ch||d we||be|ng, the worst forms of ch||d |abour and v|o|ence}
(see Standards 4 and 5};
deve|op a jo|nt preparedness or cont|ngency p|an, bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng
(commun|ty and other} structures as we|| as |essons |earned from prev|ous
emergenc|es, and make sure that preparedness act|ons (such as staff tra|n|ng,
trans|at|on of too|s, creat|on of Mos and stockp|||ng} are comp|eted and up
to date;
ensure that the ch||d protect|on rap|d assessment has been adapted to the
|oca| context (see Standard 5};
trans|ate and adapt key |nter-agency too|s such as WWWW ('Who does What,
Where, When"} too|s, ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng too|s and performance
mon|tor|ng too|s;
|dent|fy and prepare staff who can take up nat|ona| and sub-nat|ona|
respons|b|||t|es |n terms of coord|nat|on and manag|ng |nformat|on;
|obby to deve|op ch||d safeguard|ng po||c|es by agency, as we|| as |nter-agency
ch||d safeguard|ng cooperat|on;
prepare ch||d protect|on messages address|ng ||ke|y protect|on r|sks for
ch||dren (separat|on, sexua| v|o|ence, psychosoc|a| support, |njury, etc.} and
agree on a strategy to share and use them |n the event of an emergency (see
Standard 3};
advocate for the |mportance of coord|nat|ng fund|ng for ch||d protect|on;
ensure |nter-agency ch||d protect|on and coord|nat|on tra|n|ng |s carr|ed out;
set up |nternet p|atforms and ma|||ng ||sts;
|dent|fy sources of |nformat|on and data on ch||d protect|on |ssues and, |f
poss|b|e, estab||sh a base||ne data set for ch||d protect|on; and
where necessary, trans|ate these standards, and d|ssem|nate them w|de|y.
8SP0hS (LA0 A6h0Y}
Bu||d on pre-ex|st|ng coord|nat|on structures, |nc|ud|ng those |n government
and c|v|| soc|ety;
appo|nt a nat|ona|-|eve| coord|nator, sub-nat|ona| coord|nators and |nformat|on
management staff as necessary;
assess the needs for estab||sh|ng |oca| coord|nat|on mechan|sms;
promote the |nvo|vement of |oca| c|v|| soc|ety |n terms of coord|nat|on (for
examp|e, |oca| non-governmenta| organ|sat|ons (NGOs}, commun|ty-based
organ|sat|ons (OBOs} and commun|ty |eaders as we|| as government and
|oca| author|t|es where appropr|ate;
estab||sh to what degree part|c|pants have a mandate to take dec|s|ons on
beha|f of the|r organ|sat|on, author|ty or group;
deve|op object|ves and terms of reference for the nat|ona| coord|nat|on
mechan|sm;
c|ar|fy d|v|s|on of respons|b|||t|es and means of coord|nat|on w|th other groups
(for examp|e, areas of respons|b|||ty may |nc|ude protect|on, gender-based
v|o|ence, psychosoc|a| |ntervent|ons, m|ne act|on, educat|on, econom|c
recovery, etc.};
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on !(
|n|t|ate and oversee the deve|opment of an agreed, |nter-agency strateg|c
response p|an for ch||d protect|on that bu||ds on ex|st|ng structures and
capac|t|es, and agree common |nd|cators for th|s;
|n|t|ate and oversee the process to deve|op agreed performance systems,
|nc|ud|ng a WWWW too|, to track progress towards object|ves set out |n the
strateg|c p|an, and systems to mon|tor the qua||ty of |ntervent|ons |n re|at|on
to these standards;
set up common too|s for jo|nt commun|cat|on and to support coord|nat|on,
such as web pages, report|ng temp|ates and so on (see Standard 5};
ensure the most re|evant standards |n th|s handbook are ava||ab|e to members
of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm |n the appropr|ate |anguage(s}, and that
br|efng or tra|n|ng on the standards |s ava||ab|e as soon as poss|b|e;
|n|t|ate |nter-agency rap|d assessments as requ|red (w|th s|tuat|on or context
ana|yses |n |ater phases} and estab||sh jo|nt ongo|ng ch||d protect|on
mon|tor|ng systems;
|obby dec|s|on-makers |n government and the human|tar|an system |n-country
to ensure that ch||d protect|on pr|or|t|es are |nc|uded |n strateg|c p|ann|ng and
fundra|s|ng processes;
advocate on beha|f of the members of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm on urgent
|ssues ar|s|ng, such as access to affected ch||dren, or government po||cy |n
re|at|on to care, adopt|on, or other pr|or|t|es;
use |nformat|on from the WWWW too|, rap|d assessments, s|tuat|on or context
ana|yses and ongo|ng ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng to pr|or|t|ze |ntervent|ons,
|dent|fy gaps |n the response, and ensure that these gaps are dea|t w|th; and
|dent|fy gaps |n the capac|ty of the human|tar|an workforce to address ch||d
protect|on |ssues, and organ|se br|efngs, tra|n|ngs and techn|ca| ass|stance
for the co||ect|ve as requ|red.
8SP0hS (00080|hAT|0h N0hAh|SN NN88S}
Oons|der co-|ead|ng or |ead|ng the coord|nat|on mechan|sm at the nat|ona|
or sub-nat|ona| |eve|, or prov|d|ng |eadersh|p, tra|n|ng or techn|ca| ass|stance
to the membersh|p of the group on your organ|sat|ons` areas of expert|se;
take an act|ve part |n strateg|c p|ann|ng and s|gn off on the common strateg|c
p|an as soon as poss|b|e;
organ|se and take part |n jo|nt or coord|nated assessments, avo|d|ng s|ng|e-
agency or uncoord|nated assessments, and use the assessment fnd|ngs to
or|ent programm|ng;
share |nformat|on on p|anned and current programm|ng, |nc|ud|ng progress
aga|nst agreed targets, and cha||enges;
share |nformat|on on current fund|ng for ch||d protect|on programm|ng and
make sure that a|| fund|ng rece|ved |s documented |n OOHA`s F|nanc|a|
Track|ng Serv|ce or another re|evant |nter-agency mechan|sm for track|ng
fund|ng;
agree on a jo|nt ch||d protect|on strateg|c p|an, |nc|ud|ng |dent|fcat|on of pr|or|ty
needs, d|v|s|on of |abour, agreed |nd|cators, and a common performance
mon|tor|ng system to track progress aga|nst object|ves;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $*
agree procedures for address|ng shortcom|ngs |n programme qua||ty or
dev|at|ons from agreed object|ves that are |dent|fed through the performance
mon|tor|ng system;
|dent|fy pro-act|ve|y any dup||cat|ons, |ncons|stenc|es or gaps |n the response,
and work w|th others to ensure these are addressed qu|ck|y;
make sure that agency staff, partners and other re|evant actors have access
to these standards |n the|r |anguage(s}, and that they have access to the
tra|n|ng and techn|ca| he|p they need to app|y them |n the|r programmes;
agree on a jo|nt |nformat|on-shar|ng procedure (see Standard 5};
adapt, test and d|ssem|nate ch||d protect|on messages (see Standard 3};
set up agreements w|th other ch||d protect|on actors for referra|s or common
advocacy;
agree shared rates of pay or |ncent|ves for ch||d protect|on workers;
keep to agreed po||c|es |n re|at|on to the med|a (see Standard 3};
share re|evant resources us|ng the coord|nat|on mechan|sm;
ra|se re|evant ch||d protect|on concerns w|th the protect|on sector or other
sectors; and
deve|op a coord|nated strategy for bu||d|ng capac|ty of ch||d protect|on workers.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. A documented strategic plan for the child protection
response has been agreed by relevant and responsible
authorities, humanitarian agencies and local civil society
actors
Yes
2. lmplementation against the strategic plan is regularly
monitored
Minimum once/
quarter
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Terms of reference for the child protection working
group exists at national level, with responsibilities clearly
defned
Yes
4. Child protection and coordination training were organised
before an emergency
Yes
5. A dedicated coordinator appointed no later than one
week after the onset of the emergency
Yes
6. Percentage of coordination mechanism members who
regularly send in WWWW information
90%
7. Percentage of surveyed CP practitionners who fnd the
CP coordination mechanism satisfactory
80%
h0TS
Some targets
can be modifed
for emergencies
which happen
often, or
slow-onset
emergencies
(5j Timeline should
be defned for
each context
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Guidance notes
D7 >%+42#+,',@,/( N2O 022O$,#1/,2#)
ln most contexts the government has the ma|n respons|b|||ty for co-ord|nat|ng
ch||d protect|on act|v|t|es, and may |ead or co-|ead the coord|nat|on mechan|sm.
Where th|s does happen, |t |s ||ke|y to make the eventua| trans|t|on or phase
out of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm fo||ow|ng the emergency s|mp|er and more
effect|ve. ln s|tuat|ons where |t |s not poss|b|e for government author|t|es to be
permanent members of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm, |t |s the respons|b|||ty
of the members of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm to ||a|se w|th them, as much
as |s poss|b|e and appropr|ate. W|th|n the |nternat|ona| human|tar|an c|uster
system, NlOEF |s respons|b|e for the Oh||d Protect|on Area of Respons|b|||ty
and |s respons|b|e for sett|ng up and staffng the coord|nat|on mechan|sm, or
mak|ng sure that another organ|sat|on does th|s. Oo-|eadersh|p or |eadersh|p
by another organ|sat|on a|together are poss|b|e at both the nat|ona| and sub-
nat|ona| |eve|s. The ch||d protect|on coord|nat|on mechan|sm at the nat|ona| |eve|
usua||y forms part of a broader protect|on coord|nat|on mechan|sm. ln contexts
where a c|uster system |s act|vated, the area of respons|b|||ty on ch||d protect|on
|s p|aced w|th|n the protect|on c|uster and |ts coord|nator(s} shou|d work w|th
the protect|on c|uster coord|nator(s} and other human|tar|an coord|nat|on groups
to make sure that the ch||d protect|on response |s we|| coord|nated w|th|n the
overa|| protect|on response and w|th a|| other aspects of human|tar|an act|v|ty.
2. Stafng the coordination mechanism.
A||ocat|ng resources |s |mportant for coord|nat|on and manag|ng |nformat|on.
Ooord|nat|on mechan|sms |n |arge-sca|e emergenc|es are ||ke|y to need at |east
one ded|cated coord|nator at nat|ona| |eve| and one |nformat|on management
offcer, as we|| as a budget for equ|pment, trave|, trans|at|on, meet|ngs and
tra|n|ng events. Ooord|nat|on at sub-nat|ona| |eve| may a|so |nvo|ve fu||- or
part-t|me staff. Ooord|nat|on ro|es, such as coord|nat|ng themat|c techn|ca|
groups, organ|s|ng or host|ng |nter-agency meet|ngs or events, or sub-
nat|ona| coord|nat|on, are not restr|cted to the |ead agency and may be taken
on by anyone depend|ng on the s|tuat|on. Somet|mes |t may be effc|ent for
organ|sat|ons to share the ro|e of manag|ng |nformat|on w|th another sector,
such as when address|ng gender-based v|o|ence, MHPSS, or educat|on.
E7 PO2B,$%O 2N @1+/ O%+2O/)
W|th|n the |nternat|ona| human|tar|an c|uster system, the |ead agency a|so
has the 'prov|der of |ast resort` respons|b|||ty. Th|s means that the agency |s
respons|b|e for mak|ng sure that gaps |n the ch||d protect|on response are
dea|t w|th. Strateg|es for address|ng gaps |nc|ude advocacy and us|ng further
resources. Gaps may be geograph|c but may a|so be themat|c - for |nstance,
|nadequate responses for ado|escents, work|ng ch||dren, or ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $)
4. Decision-making.
There must be c|ear and transparent |nter-agency processes for mak|ng
dec|s|ons w|th|n the coord|nat|on mechan|sm. Dec|s|ons w||| |nc|ude those
affect|ng geograph|ca| zones, types of act|on, strateg|c pr|or|t|es, and fund|ng,
and are made by the group. Oons|der hav|ng a core group for strateg|c p|ann|ng
and dec|s|on-mak|ng w|th|n the coord|nat|on mechan|sm. Work|ng groups may
be set up to oversee tra|n|ng, |nduct|on for new members, management of
|nformat|on, and representat|on |n other groups, sectors or c|usters. As much
as poss|b|e, women shou|d be fa|r|y represented |n the work|ng groups.
M7 .%#+,/,B% ,++"%+)
Ooord|nat|on mechan|sms for ch||d protect|on, protect|on, or other sectors may
be good p|atforms to d|scuss and fnd ways to address cha||eng|ng cu|tura|
|ssues, such as abort|on, adopt|on, ear|y marr|age, soc|a| percept|ons of d|sab|||ty
and sexua| or|entat|on. However, |ssues wh|ch are part|cu|ar|y po||t|ca|, otherw|se
sens|t|ve, or wh|ch may put peop|e at r|sk - such as v|o|at|ons comm|tted by the
author|t|es or a member of the coord|nat|on mechan|sm, or spec|fc |nformat|on
on a conf|ct zone - may be more appropr|ate|y addressed more d|screet|y, |n
b||atera| conversat|ons or sma||er groups. Spec|fc case |nformat|on shou|d never
be shared open|y |n a coord|nat|on mechan|sm.
6. Invo|ving actors in the coordination mechanisms.
Act|ve measures may be requ|red to |nvo|ve |oca| peop|e and organ|sat|ons w|th
|ess exper|ence |n human|tar|an responses. Strateg|es |nc|ude reach|ng out to
|oca| OBOs and NGOs, reach|ng out as broad|y as poss|b|e |n terms of gender,
ethn|c|ty, re||g|on, work focus, etc.; organ|s|ng meet|ngs |n |oca| |anguages;
ho|d|ng meet|ngs |n d|fferent organ|sat|ons` prem|ses; organ|s|ng meet|ngs
between d|fferent stakeho|ders; and produc|ng techn|ca| mater|a|s |n access|b|e
formats. Th|s w||| he|p create greater understand|ng and comm|tment, as we||
as ensur|ng the ch||d protect|on response |s susta|nab|e and does not create
para||e| structures.
H7 Q@2'1@R@%B%@ =PSQ)
The g|oba|-|eve| OPWG, or Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group, |ed by NlOEF
and based |n Geneva under the ausp|ces of the G|oba| Protect|on O|uster, |s
mandated to support coord|nated |nter-agency ch||d protect|on responses at
country |eve|. Support |s ava||ab|e |n the form of personne| (e.g. coord|nators
who can be dep|oyed on short not|ce}, too|s (e.g. assessment too|s and tra|n|ng
mater|a|s}, and techn|ca| ass|stance. More |nformat|on |s ava||ab|e at http://
www.cpwg.net.
8. Performance monitoring.
Once set up, the coord|nat|on group shou|d deve|op agreed processes for (1}
assess|ng and |mprov|ng the coord|nat|on of the response; and (2} mon|tor|ng
the coverage and qua||ty of the response |n ||ne w|th these standards and the
targets agreed |n the strateg|c p|an. On||ne resources for do|ng th|s are ava||ab|e
at http://www.cpwg.net and from the g|oba| |eve| OPWG coord|nator.
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References
OPWG (2009}. C|||d ||o|ec||o| || Eme|e|c|es Coo|d||a|o|'s
|a|dooo|
GBv Area of Respons|b|||ty Work|ng Group (2010}. |a|dooo| /o|
Coo|d||a||| Ge|de|-Sased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s || |0ma|||a||a|
5e||||s
http://oneresponse.|nfo/G|oba|O|usters/Protect|on/GBv/
lASO WG (2012}. O|uster coord|nat|on Reference Modu|e (4}.
Transformat|ve Agenda Reference Document PR/1204/4066/7
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se, Co|e
s|a|da|d 2. coo|d||a||o| a|d co||aoo|a||o|
www.cpwg.net
www.human|tar|an|nfo.org
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STANDARD 2
Human resources
Human|tar|an agenc|es have been tak|ng progress|ve steps to ensure ch||d
protect|on staff deve|op the sk|||s and expert|se needed to work on ch||d
protect|on |n emergenc|es, and to ensure that a|| staff are safeguard|ng ch||dren
through appropr|ate po||c|es and procedures. Th|s standard does not a|m to
rep|ace standards deve|oped e|sewhere, but rather prov|des a focus for human
resources when mob|||s|ng ch||d protect|on staff and |mp|ement|ng safeguard|ng
requ|rements.
Standard
Child protection services are delivered by staff with proven competence
in their areas of work and recruitment processes and human resource
(HRj policies include measures to protect girls and boys from
exploitation and abuse by humanitarian workers.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Deve|op, |mp|ement and mon|tor a ch||d safeguard|ng po||cy or ch||d
protect|on po||cy that app||es to a|| staff and partners. lnc|ude references to
the Secretary-Genera|'s Bu||et|n on the Spec|a| Measures for Protect|on from
Sexua| Exp|o|tat|on and Sexua| Abuse, the Keep|ng Oh||dren Safe Standards
and the lASO S|x Oore Pr|nc|p|es Re|at|ng to Sexua| Exp|o|tat|on and Abuse;
ensure that a|| staff have s|gned and rece|ved or|entat|on on the code of
conduct, part|cu|ar|y the ru|es govern|ng behav|ours re|ated to the protect|on
of ch||dren aga|nst sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse, and |nc|ud|ng the
consequences |f they v|o|ate the code;
tra|n foca| po|nts and |mp|ement a mon|tor|ng and comp|a|nts mechan|sm
w|th|n the organ|zat|on; and
at g|oba| |eve|, set up a poo| of standby personne| and mechan|sms for rap|d
dep|oyment, preferab|y |nc|ud|ng fex|b|||ty to dep|oy them from as near the
emergency as poss|b|e.
8SP0hS
Take stock of ex|st|ng human resources |n the context - such as soc|a|
workers or tra|nee soc|a| workers, teachers, staff of |oca| organ|sat|ons and
commun|ty vo|unteers (such as those |n fa|th commun|t|es}, and |dent|fy
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $"
the best way to support, use and deve|op these human resources |n the
response;
|dent|fy the actua| expert|se that |s needed by deve|op|ng job prof|es that
spec|fy respons|b|||t|es |n ||ne w|th the OPWG competency framework;
recru|t new staff as necessary by us|ng re|evant techn|ca| expert|se on the
se|ect|on pane|s;
make sure that ch||d protect|on vacanc|es for human|tar|an responses are
f||ed as a matter of pr|or|ty;
when h|r|ng, make sure to prov|de equa| opportun|t|es and treatment for
women and men and for peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es and d|fferent ethn|c or
re||g|ous groups (as re|evant}, and ensure a non-d|scr|m|natory env|ronment
w|th|n the workp|ace;
ensure that ||ne managers |nform staff of the|r ro|es and respons|b|||t|es;
organ|se |nduct|ons for staff on organ|sat|ona| po||c|es and processes,
|nc|ud|ng s|gnature of the code of conduct and awareness of appropr|ate
mechan|sms for report|ng breaches;
ensure that ||ne managers have probat|onary rev|ews 30 days after dep|oyment,
and regu|ar appra|sa| meet|ngs at su|tab|e |nterva|s thereafter;
ensure that sen|or-|eve| personne| rema|n |n the country a|| through the trans|t|on
per|od, when ch||d protect|on systems bu||d|ng resu|ts are conso||dated;
ana|yse sa|ar|es for ch||d protect|on workers and ||m|t the pu|| factor of
government staff to jo|n |nternat|ona| NGOs (lNGOs};
deve|op a capac|ty bu||d|ng strategy that addresses the |dent|fed capac|ty
bu||d|ng needs of vo|unteers, staff and partners;
promote staff we||be|ng by creat|ng a hea|thy work|ng env|ronment and
prov|d|ng rest and recuperat|on per|ods; and
at the end of staff contracts, carry out ex|t |nterv|ews to |nform organ|sat|ona|
|earn|ng. Make references ava||ab|e to staff as appropr|ate.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $%
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of child protection terms of reference (ToRsj
that were developed considering the CPWG child
protection competencies framework
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of surveyed staff currently active within the
humanitarian response who have signed and understood
their organisation's code of conduct
90%
3. The female-to-male ratio for child protection workers
with different levels of responsibility
0,5
4. Percentage of surveyed CP staff who took part in
developing their performance monitoring framework
within one month of the starting date
70%
5. Percentage of staff who have fnished their contracts
that had an exit interview
70%
6. Percentage of surveyed CP staff that have left a
government job to join an international organization
Less than 5%
h0TS
(2j lnformation
could be collected
either through
specifc questions
about their
organization's
code of conduct
or through general
questions such as:
Did you sign a
code of conduct?"
and lf so, can you
describe it?"
(4j The time limit
could be adjusted
if appropriate
Guidance notes
1. Organisationa| commitment.
Agenc|es and organ|sat|ons shou|d ensure that staffng |s we|| p|anned and
that ro|es and respons|b|||t|es are we|| defned, staff are supported through
adequate ||ne management, and there |s a focus on bu||d|ng staff capac|ty.
R|sk assessments, wh|ch shou|d |nc|ude the |eve| of contact w|th, or effect on,
ch||dren, must be carr|ed out, w|th appo|ntment depend|ng on the appropr|ate
pre-emp|oyment references and secur|ty checks.
2. Competencies.
Staff who have spec|a| respons|b|||ty for ch||d protect|on need part|cu|ar sk|||s
and attr|butes. Depend|ng on the s|tuat|on, spec|fc competenc|es m|ght be
needed, such as res|||ence to stress and mu|t|-task|ng. Recru|tment needs
to assess behav|our and att|tude, as we|| as sk|||s and exper|ence, us|ng
appropr|ate competency frameworks and usefu| recru|tment processes.
E7 ./1NN 01410,/()
Hav|ng an adequate number of qua||fed ch||d protect|on staff |s an essent|a|
part of any ch||d protect|on system, and capac|ty bu||d|ng m|ght be needed
before, dur|ng or after any emergency. The know|edge and |oca| understand|ng
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $&
of cu|tura| norms and pract|ces that has been ga|ned before or dur|ng an
emergency |s an |mportant asset, not |east for strengthen|ng ch||d protect|on
systems |n emergenc|es.
F7 Q%#$%O)
Recru|tment |nterv|ews shou|d |nc|ude a quest|on to test cand|dates`
comm|tment to gender equ|ty, and staff tra|n|ng shou|d a|m to prov|de bas|c
sk|||s to promote gender equ|ty |n da||y work. Attent|on shou|d be pa|d to hav|ng
an equa| m|x of men and women at a|| |eve|s of respons|b|||ty. G|r|s and boys
often fee| more comfortab|e |nteract|ng w|th an adu|t of the|r own sex and
may be more ab|e to access serv|ces where staff of the|r own sex are present.
Hav|ng a ba|anced team a|so he|ps reduce the r|sks of sexua| v|o|ence and
abuse. The fo||ow|ng are some strateg|es to ach|eve a ba|anced team of women
and men:
Oheck that exper|ence and educat|on requ|rements are not too narrow|y defned
Do not assume that some jobs are too d|ffcu|t or dangerous for women (on|y}
lnc|ude the fo||ow|ng text |n the job announcement:
'qua||fed women and men are encouraged to app|y"
lnc|ude both women and men on |nterv|ew pane|s
Oons|der a|ternat|ve arrangements for women where appropr|ate
(for examp|e, safe s|eep|ng quarters and separate to||ets}
Keep a|| |nformat|on on staffng separated by gender so |t |s easy to mon|tor.
M7 *,+1',@,/()
Dur|ng recru|tment, cand|dates` understand|ng and percept|on of d|sab|||ty
need to be cons|dered. A|| cand|dates shou|d be eva|uated aga|nst the same
cr|ter|a. A|so, |f the cand|date has a d|sab|||ty, reasonab|e accommodat|on,
depend|ng on the nature of the d|sab|||ty and requ|rements of the cand|date,
shou|d be made |n the |nterv|ew process. When h|r|ng, a standard c|ause
that says 'qua||fed peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es are encouraged to app|y" shou|d
be |nc|uded |n a|| job advert|sements. When work|ng w|th ch||d protect|on
|n emergenc|es |t |s recommended to |nc|ude peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es on the
teams that w||| carry out assessments and p|an programmes. Exper|ence has
shown that when the foca| po|nts are peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es, |t |s more ||ke|y
that the affected popu|at|on, |f they have become d|sab|ed, w||| be ab|e to
re|ate to staff.
6. Non-discrimination and inc|usion.
ln add|t|on to ensur|ng gender ba|ance and |nc|ud|ng peop|e w|th d|sab|||ty,
managers and workers need to ensure the work|ng env|ronment |s non-
d|scr|m|natory and |nc|us|ve to everyone, regard|ess of the|r ethn|c or re||g|ous
background or sexua| or|entat|on. Staff sens|t|v|ty towards d|fferent groups
needs to be addressed as ear|y as the recru|tment process, and promoted
throughout a|| human|tar|an work. ln add|t|on to prevent|ng d|scr|m|nat|on,
the spec|fc needs of groups and |nd|v|dua|s need to be taken |nto account,
|nc|ud|ng dea||ng w|th the fears of those around them (e.g. |n re|at|on to
homosexua|s or transgender |nd|v|dua|s and dorm|tory accommodat|on}.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $'
H7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
ln the fe|d of ch||d protect|on, appropr|ate |earn|ng and deve|opment needs
to be made ava||ab|e to a|| staff. An assessment of staff capac|t|es and needs
shou|d he|p to deve|op a capac|ty-bu||d|ng strategy that |nc|udes on||ne
tra|n|ng, face-to-face tra|n|ng and regu|ar refresher workshops. Superv|s|on
and peer-support opportun|t|es shou|d be offered to staff so that they are ab|e
to d|scuss cha||enges and ways of address|ng them. Pr|or|t|s|ng |nter-agency
tra|n|ngs a||ows staff to |earn from each other`s exper|ences, rece|v|ng updates
on the |atest pract|ce and deve|op|ng a shared |anguage.
8.Feedback mechanisms.
Appra|sa| and deve|opment shou|d be |nformed by the v|ews of the benefc|ar|es
on how human|tar|an staff behave and act. As the pr|mary users of the serv|ces
of human|tar|an organ|sat|ons, benefc|ar|es can prov|de |mportant |nformat|on,
and shou|d have the opportun|ty to |nfuence how serv|ces are p|anned and
de||vered by staff and vo|unteers. Organ|sat|ons need to put |n p|ace s|mp|e
and access|b|e mechan|sms for prov|d|ng anonymous feedback that w||| be
used |n staff appra|sa|s.
J7 =3,@$ 4O2/%0/,2# 42@,0()
Every organ|zat|on shou|d have a Oh||d Protect|on Po||cy, Safeguard|ng Po||cy
or Oode of Oonduct. Th|s po||cy shou|d make c|ear, strong and pos|t|ve
statements of comm|tments to safeguard ch||dren and shou|d stand as a pub||c
dec|arat|on of the organ|zat|on`s |ntent|on to keep ch||dren safe. lt shou|d be
accompan|ed by a thorough |mp|ementat|on p|an that a|so |nc|udes reference
to consu|tants, vo|unteers and partners. To create a ch||d protect|on po||cy and
procedures, |t |s |mportant to |nvo|ve the r|ght peop|e - and the r|ght number of
peop|e (not on|y one} - when p|ann|ng and deve|op|ng |t. For approva|, a|| staff
need to be |nvo|ved - |nc|ud|ng those respons|b|e for partnersh|p agreements,
fnance, resources, staff and management - to ensure the po||cy |s workab|e
and effect|ve. Keep|ng Oh||dren Safe or the |oca| or nat|ona| ch||d protect|on
coord|nat|on mechan|sm can prov|de support.
DL7 ./1NN 6%@@'%,#-)
Oh||d protect|on workers tend to work many hours |n s|tuat|ons of extreme
stress, under pressure and |n d|ffcu|t secur|ty s|tuat|ons. At the very |east,
superv|sors shou|d promote we||be|ng |n emergenc|es, he|p create hea|thy
work|ng env|ronments, prov|de rest and recuperat|on, address poss|b|e work-
re|ated stressors and make sure access to support |s ava||ab|e |f necessary.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on $(
References
lRO, OHOHR, Save the Oh||dren, Terre des Hommes, NHOR,
n|cef (2009}. /c||o| /o| ||e ||||s o/ C|||d|e|
Keep|ng Oh||dren Safe Ooa||t|on (2009}. 7|e |eeo|| C|||d|e|
5a/e. / 7oo|||| /o| C|||d ||o|ec||o|
Keep|ng Oh||dren Safe Ooa||t|on (2011}. 5a/e0a|d|| c|||d|e| ||
eme|e|c|es
The N Secretary-Genera|`s Bu||et|n (2003}. 5oec|a| /eas0|es
/o| ||o|ec||o| /|om 5ex0a| Exo|o||a||o| a|d 5ex0a| /o0se. ST/
SGB/2003/13
www.arc-on||ne.org
www.cp|earn|ng.org
www.un.org/en/pseataskforce/|ndex.shtm|
www.hap|nternat|ona|.org
www.keep|ngch||drensafe.org.uk
www.peop|e|na|d.org
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "*
STANDARD 3
Communication, advocacy and media
Human|tar|an organ|sat|ons commun|cate w|th |arge aud|ences a|| the t|me us|ng
the|r webs|tes, the reports and pub||c documents they |ssue, the|r work w|th the
med|a, and the|r programme and advocacy projects. When used |n a carefu|
and strateg|c manner, texts, |mages, rad|o, Tv and v|deo that |nc|ude ch||dren
can be very effect|ve too|s to protect ch||dren. When they understand fu||y the
|mp||cat|ons of not act|ng, dec|s|on-makers take qu|cker steps to tack|e ch||d
protect|on |ssues. However, |f used wrong|y, commun|cat|on and advocacy can
negat|ve|y affect the way ch||dren are perce|ved, and bad commun|cat|on or
advocacy can actua||y put ch||dren and the|r fam|||es |n danger.
Advocacy |s a set of p|anned act|ons a|med at |nfuenc|ng a target group to make
a pos|t|ve change. Advocacy can be conducted through |obby|ng of persons
of |nfuence, or by creat|ng externa| pressure on persons of |nfuence through
commun|cat|on or through the med|a. Advocacy necessar||y requ|res work|ng
w|th others. Th|s often |nvo|ves sett|ng up p|atforms (networks and a|||ances}
and support|ng c|v|| soc|ety - espec|a||y groups |nc|ud|ng ch||dren - so that
these groups can themse|ves advocate for change, and ho|d author|t|es and
others to account.
Standard
Child protection issues are communicated and advocated for with
respect for girls' and boys' dignity, best interests and safety.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
ldent|fy ch||d protect|on |eaders and actors who can commun|cate on ch||d
protect|on |ssues, |nc|ud|ng |oca| journa||sts and commun|ty members, and
strengthen the|r capac|ty to do th|s;
ensure that agenc|es have a po||cy and process for commun|cat|ng on |ssues
|nvo|v|ng ch||dren that |s |n ||ne w|th best pract|ce for ch||d part|c|pat|on.
D|scuss these po||c|es w|th partners, author|t|es and other ch||d protect|on
actors to promote a shared approach;
pre-|dent|fy the ch||d protect|on |ssues that you are ||ke|y to advocate on and
target spec|fc messages that w||| be used at nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| |eve|;
|dent|fy advocacy partners, |nc|ud|ng the N, lNGOs, |oca| NGOs and other
c|v|| soc|ety, commun|t|es and ch||dren where appropr|ate; and
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "#
ensure advocacy and fundra|s|ng are kept d|st|nct and that the a|ms of both
are transparent.
8SP0hS (A0V00A0Y}
Deve|op an advocacy strategy that |nc|udes goa|s, too|s for each aud|ence
be|ng targeted, and t|me||nes;
pub||sh the resu|ts of research, ana|yses and po||cy recommendat|ons |n order
to st|mu|ate debate w|th governments, other organ|sat|ons, experts and the
genera| pub||c;
ensure that key ch||d protect|on |ssues are d|scussed |n the re|evant forums
(coord|nat|on mechan|sms, human|tar|an country teams, government bod|es
etc.} and |nc|uded |n advocacy responses;
ensure that the nat|ona| or |oca| duty bearers and journa||sts are we||-br|efed
on the ma|n ch||d protect|on |ssues; and
a|ways try to promote gender equ|ty, g|v|ng fu|| cons|derat|on to |oca| soc|a|
norms and cu|tura| restr|ct|ons.
8SP0hS (00NN0h|0AT|0hS}
ldent|fy pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on r|sks |n each part|cu|ar emergency and adapt
and share ch||d protect|on messages w|th commun|t|es, fam|||es, ch||dren,
and author|t|es;
share pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on |ssues w|th human|tar|an actors |n other sectors;
tra|n human|tar|an workers |n other sectors on ch||d protect|on pr|nc|p|es and
best pract|ces;
regu|ar|y update and |nvo|ve nat|ona| author|t|es and affected commun|t|es
on fnd|ngs and ev|dence on ch||d protect|on |ssues; and
use |anguage that |s as s|mp|e as poss|b|e, and trans|ate |nto re|evant
|oca| |anguage(s}, to ensure the messages are c|ear|y and successfu||y
commun|cated.
8SP0hS (N0|A}
A|ways cons|der whether a pub||cat|on |s |n the best |nterests of the |nd|v|dua|
ch||d shown |n the mater|a|, the|r fam||y, and the|r commun|ty;
ensure ch||dren, parents and guard|ans have been proper|y |nformed and
have s|gned an |nformed consent form before us|ng any |mage, record|ng or
quote of them;
a|ways make sure the stor|es and |mages used are accurate and sens|t|ve;
avo|d |abe|||ng ch||dren, exaggerat|ng s|tuat|ons or dep|ct|ng ch||dren as
power|ess;
avo|d us|ng |mages of boys and g|r|s that cou|d be v|ewed as sexua| by others;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ")
avo|d expos|ng ch||dren to further harm, for examp|e by ma|nta|n|ng
stereotypes;
do not use the rea| name of the ch||d un|ess they have asked for th|s and
the parent or guard|an has agreed;
never revea| the |dent|ty of current or former ch||d combatants, surv|vors of
phys|ca| or sexua| abuse, perpetrators of abuse or ch||dren ||v|ng w|th Hlv or
AlDS;
where poss|b|e, g|ve ch||dren access to med|a to express the|r own op|n|ons;
br|ng together |nformat|on prov|ded by d|fferent sources;
do not pay ch||dren, parents or careg|vers for |nformat|on or mater|a|s wh|ch
w||| be used; and
ensure that ch||dren who test|fy or who g|ve ev|dence to med|a are |n no way
at r|sk.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Surveys indicate that the visibility and understanding of
child protection issues has increased in a positive way
Yes
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Number of humanitarian workers in other sectors trained
on CP principles and best practices
To be determined
in country
3. Number of media reports, from a selection of news
sources, that include opinions or quotes from children
To be determined
in country
4. Percentage of surveyed children, parents or caregivers
who have given informed consent before an interview
100%
5. Percentage of surveyed children, parents or caregivers
who declare they have been paid or received any other
benefts (e.g. material or food aidj in exchange for
information
0%
6. Percentage of reports through which children can be
traced through publications by using specifc locations
or identifying markers
0%
7. Percentage of communication material related to child-
ren that meet agreed do no harm" criterion 100%
h0TS
(1j 'ln a positive
way" includes
respect of
children's dignity,
best interests
and safety, and
possible other
criteria tbc in
country
(2j Relevant
forums should be
identifed by the
working group in
the country
(7j The 'do no
harm" criteria
can be further
developed in the
country to make
this indicator more
specifc
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "!
Guidance notes
D7 CO-1#,T1/,2#1@ -",$1#0%)
Where poss|b|e, commun|cat|on and advocacy about ch||dren`s |ssues shou|d
bu||d on the ex|st|ng gu|de||nes and processes of |oca| and |nternat|ona|
agenc|es and organ|sat|ons. lt shou|d a|ways take |nto account |oca| cu|tura|
norms and pract|ces |n terms of ch||d protect|on r|sks and responses, as we||
as |oca| commun|cat|on pract|ces. ln contexts where such gu|de||nes do not
ex|st, ch||d protect|on staff shou|d refer to th|s standard.
K7 U",@$,#- #1/,2#1@ 01410,/( N2O 1$B2010()
lf those work|ng on ch||d protect|on - |n any context, whether forma| or |nforma|,
at nat|ona| or |oca| |eve| - have the capac|ty and know|edge to advocate on
ch||d protect|on |ssues before an emergency, they w||| a|so be better equ|pped
|n an emergency. lf the capac|ty of these actors can be strengthened dur|ng
the emergency, the systems that protect ch||dren w||| a|so be strengthened |n
the |onger term.
3. Chi|d protection messaging.
Messages on ch||d protect|on r|sks and safety are used to m|n|m|se r|sks to
ch||dren by ra|s|ng awareness among ch||dren themse|ves, the|r careg|vers,
other |nd|v|dua|s, and commun|t|es, and by promot|ng protect|ve and safe
behav|our. A ch||d protect|on messag|ng strategy can |nc|ude:
Awareness ra|s|ng on r|sks and the d|fferent effects they have on ch||dren of
d|fferent ages, genders, d|sab|||t|es, etc.
The ro|e that ch||dren, careg|vers, commun|ty and re|evant stakeho|ders can
p|ay |n reduc|ng and respond|ng to the r|sks
The nature of the target groups and how to adapt messages
Wh|ch channe|s to use for commun|cat|on and how to de||ver the messages.
Messages and ways to de||ver them shou|d be based on the appropr|ate
context, and fe|d-tested before they are fna||sed to ensure that they are
understandab|e, soc|a||y acceptab|e, non-d|scr|m|natory, re|evant, rea||st|c
and persuas|ve. Messages can be shared through - for examp|e - mass
med|a (e.g. Tv and rad|o}, targeted profess|ona|s (e.g. teachers or med|ca|
personne|}, |oca| ce|ebr|t|es, sma|| med|a (e.g. posters and |eafets}, or a m|x
of a|| of these.
F7 P1O/,0,41/,2#)
The part|c|pat|on of ch||dren and young peop|e |n advocacy, commun|cat|on
and med|a |s fundamenta|. Oh||dren`s part|c|pat|on w||| |mprove the qua||ty,
accuracy and persuas|veness of the commun|cat|on. lt w||| a|so empower
the ch||dren |nvo|ved and he|p them to rega|n a sense of contro| and agency
am|dst d|ffcu|t c|rcumstances and contr|butes to the|r pos|t|ve |dent|ty, cop|ng,
and ||fe sk|||s. Methods of |nvo|v|ng ch||dren shou|d be cons|dered to ensure
that they are safe and |nformed, and do not put any ch||d or adu|t at r|sk.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "$
5. Disc|aimer.
When commun|cat|on or advocacy mater|a| |nc|udes |mages or v|deos of
ch||dren who may or may not be assoc|ated w|th |t, the mater|a| shou|d |nc|ude
a d|sc|a|mer. Th|s reduces the r|sk of ch||dren becom|ng more vu|nerab|e to
sex tour|sm, drug traffck|ng, recru|tment, corrupt|on, reject|on by the commun|ty
and so on. lf |n doubt, refer to the fo||ow|ng examp|e.
||o|os 0sed || |||s doc0me|| /ea|0|e c|||d|e| /|om comm0||||es a|d |o0os
w||| w||c| ^//E OF O|G/^|5/7|O^j wo||s, o0| || s|o0|d |o| oe ass0med
||a| ||e, a|e |ecessa|||, s0|.|.o|s o/ .|o|e|ce, o| ||a| ||e, |eo|ese|| ||e
c|||d|e| w|ose .o|ces a|e |ea|d || |||s camoa||.
6. Informed consent.
lnformed consent prevents poss|b|e conf|cts between the person co||ect|ng
|nformat|on and the person g|v|ng the |nformat|on. An |nformed consent form
shou|d genera||y show the purpose, nature, method and process of co||ect|ng
the |nformat|on, the ro|e and r|ghts of the person g|v|ng the |nformat|on, and
the potent|a| r|sks and benefts of prov|d|ng the |nformat|on. lt shou|d a|so
make sure that the |nformat|on |s accurate and w||| be kept confdent|a|, or
that |t w||| be used for pub||c commun|cat|on or |n advocacy |f the person
consents to |t. The form shou|d |nc|ude the fu|| name and s|gnature of the
parent or guard|an and the date. Be aware of, and prepared for, the need
for a|ternat|ve so|ut|ons for ch||dren or parents/guard|ans who cannot read or
wr|te, or who speak a |anguage d|fferent from that used on the form. Oh||dren
or parents/guard|ans w|th |nte||ectua| |mpa|rments m|ght be more ||ke|y to g|ve
perm|ss|on w|thout hav|ng fu||y understood the |nformat|on they have been
g|ven. G|ve ch||dren and the|r parents a|| the |nformat|on |n age-appropr|ate,
p|a|n |anguage, or use p|ctor|a| commun|cat|on |f necessary so they have the
know|edge necessary to make an |nformed dec|s|on. State c|ear|y that they
are a||owed to refuse perm|ss|on.
7. Testimonies.
Young peop|e often become effect|ve act|v|sts and can be powerfu| speakers.
Governments, journa||sts and nat|ona| or |nternat|ona| organ|sat|ons and
others rea||se th|s, and are somet|mes ready to offer young peop|e to prov|de
test|mony to the press. These young peop|e may not rea||se the r|sk they may
be runn|ng |n do|ng so, and the pressure that can ar|se fo||ow|ng press |nterest.
Th|s |s a de||cate |ssue and the young person must be a||owed to express
the|r fee||ngs |n th|s matter, and |n the|r preferred form of commun|cat|on. se
d|scret|on and take care of the young person |nvo|ved, |nc|ud|ng by refus|ng
to prof|e them |f |t |s not |n the|r best |nterests to do so. Do not ever fee| that
the|r safety |s someone e|se`s respons|b|||ty. Where poss|b|e, ensure there |s
more than one person represent|ng the |ssues - th|s prevents others fee||ng
exc|uded and protects those g|v|ng test|mon|a|s from constant|y re||v|ng the|r
exper|ences.
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lORO (2009, rev|s|on forthcom|ng}. ||o/ess|o|a| 5|a|da|ds /o|
||o|ec||o| Ho|| (Ohapter 5; Manag|ng Sens|t|ve Protect|on
lnformat|on}
Hand|cap lnternat|ona| (2011}. Us|| |es||mo|,. s0ooo|||| o0|
de|0|c|a||o| a|d ad.ocac, ac||o|s
NlOEF (2011}. Comm0||ca||| w||| C|||d|e|. ||||c|o|es a|d
o|ac||ces |o |0||0|e, ||so||e, exc||e, ed0ca|e a|d |ea|
NlOEF (2010}. Advocacy Too|k|t: / 0|de |o ||/0e|c|| dec|s|o|s
||a| |mo|o.e c|||d|e|'s ||.es
N Oomm|ttee on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (2009}. Ge|e|a|
Comme|| ^o 12. RO/O/GO/12
Save the Oh||dren (2005}. ||ac||ce 5|a|da|ds || C|||d|e|'s
|a|||c|oa||o|
References
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "%
STANDARD 4
Programme cycle management
For th|s standard, the term 'programme cyc|e management" |s used rather
than 'project cyc|e management". The ma|n d|fference between a programme
and project |s the fn|te nature of a project - a project has a spec|fc end date.
Oh||d protect|on programmes must bu||d on pre-ex|st|ng |nformat|on together
w|th assessments (|f needed}. Th|s shou|d then be mon|tored and eva|uated
to |nform any further adjustments and p|ans. Each programme shou|d have
spec|fc object|ves, and ch||dren and the|r commun|t|es shou|d be fu||y engaged
|n s|tuat|on ana|ys|s, programme des|gn and mon|tor|ng and eva|uat|on. Ana|ys|s
and cons|derat|ons of ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on systems and how these can be
strengthened shou|d a|ways be |ntegrated |nto the programme. As programme
cyc|e management |s a w|de area, the focus of th|s standard |s on e|ements
spec|fca||y re|evant to the ch||d protect|on response.
UNDERSTAND
ch||dhood
and ch||d protect|on |ssues
know
the |aw
and ch||d r|ghts
learn
from your
exper|ence
analyse
the s|tuat|on
plan and implement
your programme
Standard
All child protection programmes build on existing capacities, resources
and structures and address the evolving child protection risks and
needs identifed by girls, boys and adults affected by the emergency.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Oarry out a rev|ew of ex|st|ng |nformat|on as soon as poss|b|e, to be fo||owed
by a s|tuat|on or context ana|ys|s, to |dent|fy |mmed|ate and root causes of
threats to ch||dren and to |nform further act|ons;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "&
|nvo|ve ch||dren |n ana|ys|s and p|ann|ng, and make sure the|r v|ews are be|ng
heard, respected and g|ven due we|ght; and
rev|ew mapp|ngs of nat|ona| ch||d protect|on systems, |nc|ud|ng commun|ty-
based systems, to understand ex|st|ng po||c|es, regu|at|ons, serv|ces,
pract|ces and capac|t|es.
8SP0hS
From the assessment phase, and |n each phase of the programme, make
efforts to understand the ex|st|ng forma| and |nforma| mechan|sms that a|ready
protect ch||dren, and then bu||d on these;
set up or support a jo|nt or coord|nated |nter-agency assessment coord|nat|on
structure (see Standard 1};
share |nformat|on |n a t|me|y and access|b|e way;
pr|or|t|se |nter-agency assessments over s|ng|e-agency assessments, us|ng
ex|st|ng structures for co||ect|ng |nformat|on as much as poss|b|e;
ensure that ch||d protect|on cons|derat|ons are |nc|uded |n mu|t|-sectora|
assessments;
carry out ch||d protect|on rap|d assessments w|th|n the frst fve weeks of the
response;
fo||ow up w|th |n-depth assessment and ongo|ng s|tuat|on mon|tor|ng,
|nc|ud|ng consu|tat|on w|th ch||dren and adu|ts, as t|me and the s|tuat|on
a||ow;
make sure that assessment teams are m|xed |n terms of gender, ab|||ty, ethn|c
background etc., so that they m|rror the target popu|at|on;
d|saggregate popu|at|on by sex, age and geograph|ca| |ocat|on (and d|sab|||ty
and ethn|c background where re|evant};
des|gn the programme to meet needs that cannot or w||| not be met by
the state or popu|at|on, wh||e bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng, funct|on|ng and pos|t|ve
structures where they do ex|st;
des|gn the response to cons|der marg|na||sed and ch||dren and ch||dren most
at r|sk;
pr|or|t|se ||fe-sav|ng act|on;
set up mechan|sms to gather feedback and comp|a|nts from benefc|ar|es;
mon|tor the qua||ty, outputs, outcomes and, where poss|b|e, |mpact of the
programme;
share fnd|ngs and outcomes w|th stakeho|ders, |nc|ud|ng affected ch||dren
and fam|||es;
ensure that fnd|ngs feed back |nto adjustments to the programme;
|n|t|ate or take part |n jo|nt |earn|ng |n|t|at|ves or eva|uat|ons of ch||d protect|on
programmes and other aspects of the human|tar|an response wh|ch may
affect ch||d protect|on; and
share |earn|ng and use |t to |nform the des|gn of further |ntervent|ons.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "'
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of child protection programmes with objectives
that correspond to the documented child protection
priorities identifed by children and adults
80%
2. Percentage of child protection programmes which
are designed with explicit intent to use identifed, pre-
existing capacities, resources and structure
90%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. A desk review was done or updated during the frst two
weeks after the start of the emergency
Yes
4. A rapid assessment that covers CP concerns was
carried out within the frst fve weeks of the response or
onset of the emergency
Yes
5. Percentage of females in the child protection assessment
teams
Between 40% and
60%
6. Percentage of child protection programmes that have
been evaluated
90%
H7 Percentage of CP projects where adjustments have
been made and recorded in response to information
collected from children and adults
90%
I7 System to monitor programme quality and outputs was
set up within 3 weeks of the start of the project
Yes
h0TS
(4j Where an
assessment has
been carried out
during the past 6
months
Guidance notes
1. Information from before the emergency.
lnformat|on |s a|most a|ways ava||ab|e about the ch||d protect|on s|tuat|on,
a|though th|s may be part|a| and may not be presented as ch||d protect|on
|nformat|on. Ouant|tat|ve data on res|dent|a| care fac|||t|es, ch||d |abour, d|sp|aced
popu|at|ons and schoo| attendance may be ava||ab|e, as we|| as factua|
|nformat|on on |aws and po||c|es and nat|ona| preparedness and response
p|ans. Oua||tat|ve |nformat|on may be ava||ab|e about behav|ours and soc|a|
norms. Oheck to see |f a comprehens|ve ch||d protect|on system mapp|ng
has been done, and/or whether |nformat|on |s ava||ab|e on ch||d protect|on |n
prev|ous human|tar|an s|tuat|ons.
K7 =22O$,#1/,2# +/O"0/"O%)
An |nter-agency assessment coord|nat|on structure (w|th|n a ch||d protect|on
coord|nat|on mechan|sm |f there |s one} shou|d serve as a way of gather|ng and
shar|ng |nformat|on, promot|ng the adaptat|on of common too|s and methods,
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on "(
do|ng jo|nt p|ann|ng, and ana|ys|ng |nformat|on together. Good coord|nat|on
promotes transparency, supports ownersh|p of the assessment fnd|ngs, and
he|ps pr|or|t|se programmes and fund|ng. Ooord|nat|on a|so promotes a more
overa|| approach to ch||d protect|on |ssues, mak|ng sure that ch||dren are |ess
||ke|y to fa|| between the cracks, and that there are fewer capac|ty gaps. Oh||dren
may be at r|sk of severa| ch||d protect|on threats, and coord|nat|on around
assessment, p|ann|ng, |mp|ementat|on and eva|uat|on he|ps to create a more
ho||st|c response (see Standard 1}.
3. Mu|ti-sectora| assessments.
Ooord|nat|on shou|d be carr|ed out w|th other sectors where re|evant, espec|a||y
those dea||ng w|th protect|on, gender-based v|o|ence, and menta| hea|th and
psychosoc|a| support. ln|t|a| mu|t|-sectora| assessments often |nform |n|t|a|
emergency programm|ng and fund|ng pr|or|t|es, and can prov|de a snapshot of
pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on concerns. lnter-agency |nd|cators for th|s purpose can
be found |n the lASO Operat|ona| Gu|dance for Ooord|nated Needs Assessment.
As these assessments are often carr|ed out by genera||sts, on|y non-sens|t|ve
cons|derat|ons shou|d be |nc|uded at th|s stage.
4. Phased assessments.
Assessments cou|d be seen as a process rather than a s|ng|e event. ln|t|a|
assessments shou|d prov|de the bas|s for ongo|ng mon|tor|ng of the s|tuat|on
and of ch||d protect|on |ssues, wh||e mak|ng sure there |s a ba|ance between
|nformat|on gather|ng and a correspond|ng response. lt |s |mportant to be
aware of, and not to cause or contr|bute to, 'assessment fat|gue" (where the
popu|at|on |s constant|y assessed by numerous peop|e and organ|sat|ons}.
When poss|b|e, adapt and use the Oh||d Protect|on Rap|d Assessment too|k|t for
the rap|d phase, or use the more comprehens|ve lnter-Agency Oh||d Protect|on
Assessment too|k|t |f t|me and resources a||ow (see Sphere Protect|on Pr|nc|p|e
1 and Oore Standard 3 on assessment}.
M7 *1/1 $,+1--O%-1/,2#)
Deta||ed d|saggregat|on |s rare|y poss|b|e at the start of an emergency. As soon
as poss|b|e, |nformat|on shou|d be d|saggregated by sex, age and d|sab|||ty
for ch||dren aged 0 to 5, ma|e and fema|e; ch||dren aged 6 to 12 ma|e and
fema|e; and ch||dren aged 13 to 17 ma|e and fema|e. Above th|s |nformat|on
shou|d be d|saggregated |n 10-year age brackets, for examp|e, 50 to 59, ma|e
and fema|e; 60 to 69, ma|e and fema|e; 70 to 79, ma|e and fema|e; and 80
and over, ma|e and fema|e.
G7 V#0@"+,2#)
Assessments shou|d refect the v|ews of the who|e commun|ty, |nc|ud|ng
marg|na||sed ch||dren such as, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, ethn|c m|nor|ty groups,
ch||dren ||v|ng w|th Hlv/AlDS, and |GBTl (|esb|an, Gay, B|sexua|, Transgender
or lntersexua|} ch||dren. Speak|ng open|y may be d|ffcu|t or dangerous for
some peop|e. Ta|k w|th ch||dren separate|y as they are un||ke|y to speak |n front
of adu|ts, and because do|ng so may put the ch||dren at r|sk. ln most cases,
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %*
women and g|r|s shou|d be spoken to separate|y from men and boys. When
d|scuss|ng w|th ch||dren or parents w|th d|sab|||t|es, adapt commun|cat|on to
the|r type of d|sab|||ty.
7. Information management.
Oonsu|t |nformat|on management spec|a||sts throughout the p|ann|ng, des|gn,
ana|ys|s and |nterpretat|on of an assessment. Methods of co||ect|ng |nformat|on
must be techn|ca||y sound. Where |oca| expert|se on |nformat|on management |s
not ava||ab|e, techn|ca| support can be found through the OPWG (see Standard
5}.
I7 8,N% 6,/3 $,-#,/()
The way |n wh|ch human|tar|an response |s des|gned strong|y affects the d|gn|ty
and we||be|ng of the popu|at|on affected by d|saster. Programme approaches
that respect the va|ue of each |nd|v|dua|, strengthen cop|ng mechan|sms,
support re||g|ous and cu|tura| |dent|t|es, promote commun|ty-based se|f-he|p
and encourage pos|t|ve soc|a| support networks a|| contr|bute to psychosoc|a|
we||be|ng and are an essent|a| part of peop|e`s r|ght to ||fe w|th d|gn|ty.
9. Programme eva|uations.
Eva|uat|ons can |nform strateg|es |n rea| t|me, at a m|d-po|nt through a project
or programme, or at the end po|nt to assess resu|ts, |dent|fy good pract|ce,
and make recommendat|ons for future programm|ng. They shou|d be carr|ed
out |n ||ne w|th techn|ca| standards spec|fc to th|s fe|d, |nc|ud|ng the use of
|ndependent eva|uators. lt |s poss|b|e to share eva|uat|on outcomes w|th affected
peop|e so that they can share the|r |deas on a|ternat|ve opt|ons to |mprove the
qua||ty of programmes. There shou|d be a c|ear p|an to |ncorporate the fnd|ngs
of the eva|uat|on |nto programm|ng.
DL7 W#+"O,#- /3% B,%6+ 2N 1NN%0/%$ 4%24@%X ,#0@"$,#- 03,@$O%#)
The assessment of |mpact (|n other words, the w|der effects of |ntervent|ons,
pos|t|ve or negat|ve, |ntended or un|ntended} |s v|ewed as both rea||st|c and
essent|a| for human|tar|an response. The peop|e affected, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren,
are the best judges of changes |n the|r ||ves. Therefore, |mpact assessment,
programme mon|tor|ng, and programme eva|uat|on must |nc|ude ch||dren`s
and adu|t peop|e`s feedback, open-ended ||sten|ng and other part|c|patory
approaches focus|ng on qua||ty, as we|| as those focus|ng on quant|ty.
For ch||dren, |n add|t|on to th|s be|ng the|r r|ght, |t he|ps them to rega|n a sense
of contro| and agency |n d|ffcu|t c|rcumstances and contr|butes to the|r pos|t|ve
|dent|ty, cop|ng, and ||fe sk|||s.
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References
OPWG (2012}. C|||d ||o|ec||o| |ao|d /ssessme|| |oo||||
Save the Oh||dren (2005} ||ac||ce 5|a|da|ds || C|||d|e|'s
|a|||c|oa||o|
The Sphere Project (2011}. 5o|e|e Co|e 5|a|da|ds
N Oomm|ttee on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (2009}. Ge|e|a| Comme||
^o 12. ORO/O/GO/12
www.cpwg.net
www.cpmerg.org
www.oneresponse.net/assessments
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %)
STANDARD 5
Information management
ln the context of human|tar|an response there are three categor|es of act|v|ty
to wh|ch the standard on |nformat|on management app||es:
YDZ lnformat|on about a spec|fc ch||d |s co||ected, stored and shared |f and when
necessary (see Standard 15 on Oase Management}
YKZ lnformat|on |s co||ected or co||ated on the overa|| s|tuat|on of ch||dren
|n a g|ven context, |ook|ng |nto overa|| r|sk factors and v|o|at|on patterns
(see Standard 6 on Mon|tor|ng}
YEZ lnformat|on |s co||ected, processed and used to |||ustrate an overa|| p|cture
of the response (see Standard 4 on Programme cyc|e management}.
The two |ast categor|es of |nformat|on w||| be conso||dated, ana|ysed, summar|sed
and used to |nform programmat|c dec|s|ons for the protect|on of ch||dren. When
appropr|ate, |nformat|on shou|d be shared w|th re|evant actors for a coord|nated
response. Th|s standard does not a|m to rep|ace ex|st|ng too|s and tra|n|ngs
on |nformat|on management, but rather prov|des a ch||d protect|on perspect|ve
on |nformat|on management.
Standard
Up-to-date information necessary for effective child protection
programming is collected, used, stored and shared, with full respect
for confdentiality, and in accordance with the 'do no harm" principle
and the best interests of children.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
ln co||aborat|on w|th other human|tar|an workers, deve|op, adapt and trans|ate
standard|zed |nter-agency |nformat|on too|s and procedures based on nat|ona|
or other ex|st|ng |nformat|on management systems and re|evant nat|ona|
pr|vacy |aws and requ|rements (e.g. reg|strat|on and case management forms;
assessment and s|tuat|on mon|tor|ng too|s; performance mon|tor|ng too|s to
track the scope and qua||ty of ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons; tra|n|ngs re|ated
to |nformat|on management; and |nformat|on shar|ng protoco|s}; and
|n co||aborat|on w|th others work|ng on ch||d protect|on, |dent|fy the |atest
ava||ab|e stat|st|cs on ch||d protect|on |n the context and estab||sh an |nter-
agency base||ne va|ue for an agreed set of pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on concerns
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %!
(e.g. concerns re|ated to fam||y-based care, ch||d we||be|ng, the worst forms
of ch||d |abour and v|o|ence, etc.} us|ng the data ava||ab|e (see Standard 4}.
8SP0hS
Engage |n jo|nt or coord|nated assessments us|ng agreed too|s; avo|d agency-
spec|fc assessments wherever poss|b|e;
pr|or to any data co||ect|on, tra|n data co||ectors on |nterv|ew|ng sk|||s,
techn|ques for |nteract|ng w|th ch||dren and confdent|a||ty measures;
seek |nformed consent from the source of |nformat|on (|.e. ch||dren, the|r
careg|vers and commun|ty members};
|n coord|nat|on w|th other human|tar|an workers, set up the most appropr|ate
|nformat|on management systems to support key e|ements of the ch||d
protect|on response, such as case management, s|tuat|on mon|tor|ng,
performance mon|tor|ng, or mon|tor|ng of |nd|v|dua| ch||dren, bu||d|ng on
whatever a|ready ex|sts |n-country;
deve|op reference codes that connect persona| |nformat|on to other
|nformat|on w|thout us|ng names;
on|y share case |nformat|on once |t has been agreed to by the ch||d or
careg|ver;
store wr|tten |nformat|on (case f|es} |n |ocked (freproof and meta|} cab|nets
or transfer |t out of the country or e|sewhere;
protect e|ectron|c data w|th passwords and on|y send |t through the web as
encrypted f|es;
ensure that persons that are ana|ys|ng/comp|||ng/encrypt|ng the |nformat|on
are trusted and made aware of the nature of the |nformat|on they are hand||ng,
and ensure that the |nformat|on |s hand|ed |n a safe p|ace;
des|gn an emergency/ex|t strategy that ensures confdent|a||ty |n case of
evacuat|on or other force majeure |nc|dents;
ensure that popu|at|on-|eve| |nformat|on |s conso||dated, ana|ysed and shared
w|th a|| re|evant actors, |nc|ud|ng the commun|ty and ch||dren as appropr|ate;
and
tra|n a|| OP staff on bas|c and secure |nformat|on management.
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MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Number of the following processes for which agreed
inter-agency tools are currently in use: assessment or
situation monitoring, WWWW, and case management
3/3
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of surveyed member agency staff that
can express knowledge of the procedure for sharing
information when managing cases
90%
3. Percentage of data collectors who have been trained
for at least one day before starting to collect information
100%
4. Percentage of data collectors who can list at least 5 ethical
principles that need to be followed in data collection
90%
5. Percentage of studied CP project proposals within the
emergency response that demonstrate critical linkages with
the information collected during inter-agency assessment(sj
90%
6. Percentage of surveyed children, parents or caregivers
who remembers giving an informed consent before an
interview
90%
h0TS
(1j May need
adjustment as
some agencies will
not engage in case
management
(2j An ethical
approach to
information at the
population level
should be defned
at the country
level, but can
include respect
for principles such
as: 'do no harm,'
best interests
of the child,
confdentiality of
information, etc.
Guidance notes
D7 =22O$,#1/,2#)
ln most emergency responses OOHA forms an lnformat|on Management
Task Force (lMTF}, |n wh|ch ch||d protect|on need be |nc|uded through the
act|ve part|c|pat|on of ch||d protect|on |nformat|on management foca| po|nts.
Some emergenc|es requ|re a spec|fc ch||d protect|on |nformat|on coord|nat|on
mechan|sm, wh||e others |ncorporate |nformat|on management coord|nat|on
w|th|n the overarch|ng ch||d protect|on mechan|sm. Th|s coord|nat|on body
can |ead the act|v|t|es re|ated to |nformat|on management, and ensure ||nkages
w|th other |nformat|on management processes (for examp|e |n other sectors}.
lt can a|so take respons|b|e for deve|op|ng, or cooperat|ng w|th others to
deve|op or adapt standard|zed too|s and procedures such as: standard
reg|strat|on forms; standard tra|n|ng modu|es; gu|dance on urgent act|on
dur|ng assessments; gu|dance on shar|ng assessment resu|ts; and gu|dance
on how |nformat|on needs of affected popu|at|ons shou|d be addressed. Such
too|s shou|d be shared w|th the G|oba| OPWG. Ooord|nat|on efforts must
take |nto cons|derat|on a|| organ|sat|ons present |n a g|ven |ocat|on and the|r
respect|ve mandates.
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2. Common mistakes.
Be wary of the fo||ow|ng common m|stakes |n |nformat|on management:
Not us|ng ex|st|ng case management systems
Gather|ng 'good to know" data
Not know|ng how the |nformat|on w||| eventua||y be used
Gather|ng data |n an uncoord|nated manner
Gather|ng but not ana|ys|ng data
se of comp|ex |nd|cators
Genera||s|ng data that shou|d not be genera||sed
Not cons|der|ng |oca| context when |nterpret|ng data
se of |nappropr|ate data co||ect|on methods
Not tr|angu|at|ng |nformat|on
Not exp|a|n|ng to those g|v|ng |nformat|on why |t |s needed and how |t w|||
be used
Ra|s|ng expectat|ons dur|ng the co||ect|ng of |nformat|on
(mak|ng fa|se prom|ses}
De|ayed use or non-use of |nformat|on.
E7 .%0"O,/( 4O%01"/,2#+)
ln certa|n c|rcumstances, h|gh|y sens|t|ve |nformat|on may requ|re secur|ty
precaut|ons such as restr|ct|ve access. lnformat|on shou|d be he|d |n a secure
|ocat|on, |ns|de or outs|de of the country, w|th a ||m|ted number of named
peop|e g|ven access to non-transferab|e passwords. A|| paper records requ|re
a |ockab|e f||ng cab|net or cupboard ava||ab|e exc|us|ve|y for th|s purpose.
A|| e|ectron|c |nformat|on must be protected. Defn|ng whether to use paper
f|es or an e|ectron|c database to store and manage the |nformat|on co||ected
shou|d be done depend|ng on the s|ze of the case |oad, the geograph|c
|ocat|on of the ch||dren and the resources ava||ab|e to set up an e|ectron|c
database system, such as the lnter-agency Oh||d Protect|on lnformat|on
Management System (lA OP lMS}.
4. Who owns the information.
When appropr|ate, governments (through the M|n|stry of Soc|a| Affa|rs or
equ|va|ent} shou|d be |nvo|ved |n |nformat|on management, |nc|ud|ng data
co||ect|on and stor|ng of |nformat|on. Wh||e th|s may not be poss|b|e at
the onset of an emergency, spec|a| attent|on needs to be pa|d to work|ng
w|th|n ex|st|ng structures and bu||d|ng government capac|ty on |nformat|on
management |n order to ensure |ong term susta|nab|||ty, avo|d underm|n|ng
ex|st|ng pract|ces, and strengthen the ch||d protect|on system. When work|ng
w|th governments, spec|a| attent|on needs to be pa|d to data secur|ty and
confdent|a||ty. Spec|fca||y, when |nformat|on |s co||ected about ch||dren
assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups (OAAFAG} or surv|vors of
v|o|at|ons comm|tted by government forces or the|r prox|es, spec|a| attent|on
needs to be pa|d to ensure that government |nvo|vement does not pose
un|ntended harm to the ch||dren.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %%
5. Information sharing.
lt |s |mportant to deve|op lnformat|on Shar|ng Protoco|s (or SOPs on
|nformat|on shar|ng} between the d|fferent partners (|nc|ud|ng the government}
work|ng together on any project where data and |nformat|on on |nd|v|dua|
g|r|s and boys |s co||ected and stored. These protoco|s shou|d gu|de how
|nformat|on |s co||ected and stored and what the bas|s for shar|ng a|| or part of
the |nformat|on on an |nd|v|dua| ch||d shou|d be. lnformat|on shar|ng shou|d be
gu|ded by the best |nterests of the ch||d and shou|d fo||ow the pr|nc|p|es of 'do
no harm` and 'need to know".
G7 [1#$1/2O( >%42O/,#-)
Some countr|es have mandatory report|ng requ|rements that requ|re ch||d
protect|on staff to report cases of abuse or neg|ect to the re|evant government
author|t|es. lt |s |mportant to be fam|||ar w|th the |oca| |aws and standards
app||cab|e |n the context and to adhere to these where poss|b|e. Where there
are concerns that some actors may not be ab|e to ma|nta|n confdent|a||ty, or
|f report|ng may put them or the ch||d at r|sk, dec|s|ons shou|d be made on a
case-by-case bas|s and shou|d be gu|ded above a|| by the best |nterests of
the ch||d.
7. Data condentia|ity.
lnformat|on co||ected on any |nd|v|dua| ch||d, careg|ver or commun|ty member
must be treated confdent|a||y. lt |s therefore |mportant to keep the number of
profess|ona|s who have access to the |nformat|on to a m|n|mum: the fewer
peop|e |nvo|ved, the eas|er |t |s to ensure confdent|a||ty. W|th|n the|r work,
case workers must ensure that cases are g|ven appropr|ate reference codes
w|th wh|ch they can be |dent|fed w|thout d|sc|os|ng persona| |nformat|on
unnecessar||y. The on|y funct|on of reference codes |s to connect persona|
|nformat|on and other |nformat|on. S|m||ar|y, any persona| |nformat|on that |s
passed on/shared e|ectron|ca||y shou|d be sent as a separate attachment and
be password protected. Shar|ng of |nformat|on shou|d be str|ct|y on a need-
to-know bas|s and done on|y |f |t |s |n the best |nterests of the ch||d. Another
way to protect persona||y |dent|fab|e |nformat|on |s to share on|y aggregated
data, depend|ng on |ts |ntended use.
8. Informed consent.
lnformed consent |s the vo|untary agreement of an |nd|v|dua| who has the
capac|ty to g|ve consent, and who exerc|ses free power of cho|ce. To prov|de
'|nformed consent" the |nd|v|dua| must be ab|e to understand, and take a
dec|s|on regard|ng, the|r own s|tuat|on. lnformed consent may be sought from
a ch||d or from the ch||d`s careg|ver, accord|ng to the age of the ch||d and
the|r |eve| of matur|ty. As a gu|de, |nformed consent shou|d be sought from
the ch||d when the ch||d |s deemed mature enough to understand. sua||y
15-18 year o|ds shou|d be ab|e to g|ve ora| or wr|tten |nformed consent.
For younger ch||dren, dec|s|ons shou|d be made on a case-by-case bas|s.
lf the |nterv|ewer dec|des that the ch||d cannot fu||y understand the content
of the |nformed consent, wr|tten |nformed consent shou|d be sought from a
parent or careg|ver. ln a|| cases, even for very young ch||dren (|.e. those aged
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %&
under 5}, efforts shou|d be made to exp|a|n |n s|mp|e |anguage appropr|ate to
the age why |nformat|on |s be|ng sought and what |t w||| be used for, |nc|ud|ng
how |t w||| be shared. Th|s prevents potent|a| conf|cts between the |nformat|on
co||ector and the |nformant. An |nformed consent form shou|d genera||y deta||:
the purpose, nature, method and process of |nformat|on co||ect|on; the ro|e
and r|ghts of the |nformant; and the potent|a| r|sks and benefts. lt shou|d a|so
ensure the accuracy and confdent|a||ty of the |nformat|on. Oonsent can be
obta|ned verba||y or |n wr|tten form. ln e|ther case, the form shou|d |nc|ude the
fu|| name and s|gnature of the |nformant and the date (un|ess th|s |nformat|on
|s kept separate|y for confdent|a||ty reasons}.
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References
lORO (2009, rev|s|on forthcom|ng}. ||o/ess|o|a| 5|a|da|ds /o|
||o|ec||o| Ho|| (Ohapter 5: Manag|ng Sens|t|ve Protect|on
lnformat|on}
NHOR and lRO (2011}. F|e|d |a|dooo| /o| ||e |mo|eme||a||o|
o/ U^|C| S|D G0|de|||es
www.ch||dprotect|on|ms.org
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on %(
STANDARD 6
Child protection monitoring
Systemat|c mon|tor|ng of ch||d protect|on concerns shou|d be carr|ed out from
the frst stages of an emergency. Mon|tor|ng refers to the ongo|ng co||ect|on
of |nformat|on |nd|cat|ng |eve|s and patterns of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse
and neg|ect. ln some cases th|s w||| |nc|ude co||ect|on of |nformat|on about
spec|fc |nc|dents or v|o|at|ons. The concerns or |ssues to be mon|tored w||| vary
great|y accord|ng to context, and can |nc|ude, for examp|e: abduct|on; abuse;
arb|trary detent|on; hazardous ch||d |abour; menta| and phys|ca| we||be|ng;
k||||ngs; ma|m|ng; recru|tment; separat|on; sexua| exp|o|tat|on; sexua| v|o|ence;
and traffck|ng.
Mon|tor|ng shou|d a|ways be comb|ned w|th response and referra|s |n order to
take |mmed|ate act|on to respond to r|sk to a ch||d`s ||fe or we||be|ng. ln conf|ct-
affected contexts, and where part|es to the conf|ct have been ||sted |n the N
Secretary-Genera|`s annua| report on ch||dren and armed conf|ct, the Secretary
Genera| w||| request the estab||shment of a mon|tor|ng and report|ng mechan|sm
(MRM} on grave v|o|at|ons aga|nst ch||dren. ln re|evant countr|es, the mon|tor|ng,
ana|ys|s and report|ng arrangements (MARA} on conf|ct-re|ated sexua| v|o|ence
w||| a|so be act|vated. These reports prov|de ver|fed |nformat|on on v|o|at|ons
to the N Secur|ty Oounc|| for them and others to act upon.
Standard
Objective and timely information on child protection concerns is
collected in an ethical manner and systematically triggers or informs
prevention and response activities.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Map the ch||d protect|on system, from nat|ona| |eve| to commun|ty |eve|,
|nc|ud|ng ex|st|ng referra| systems and gaps |n ex|st|ng referra| systems;
use ex|st|ng sources of data to estab||sh an agreed base||ne on key ch||d
protect|on |nformat|on;
together w|th other human|tar|an workers, agree common |nd|cators and
processes for mon|tor|ng and determ|ne the ro|es of d|fferent actors;
deve|op a referra| system between and w|th|n government or commun|ty
|nst|tut|ons/bod|es and make sure that a|| staff are aware of the|r respons|b|||ty
to refer |nd|v|dua| cases;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &*
make sure that ch||d protect|on staff |nvo|ved |n mon|tor|ng, and |nvo|ved
commun|ty members, rece|ve tra|n|ng spec|fc to the|r ro|es |n mon|tor|ng,
|nc|ud|ng eth|ca| cons|derat|ons, and are kept up to date;
cons|der fnanc|a| and |og|st|ca| requ|rements and methods for commun|cat|on
to make sure reports and referra| take p|ace |n a t|me|y manner; and
|n s|tuat|ons of armed conf|ct, |dent|fy partners that can undertake mon|tor|ng
of grave v|o|at|ons aga|nst ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng conf|ct-re|ated sexua| v|o|ence.
8SP0hS
Ana|yse ex|st|ng research, assessment, surve|||ance or other re|evant ava||ab|e
|nformat|on;
agree on the concerns to be mon|tored, |nc|ud|ng defn|t|ons and |nd|cators,
data co||ect|on methods and the |nformat|on management system(s} (paper
and e|ectron|c} to be used;
tra|n data co||ectors;
harmon|se procedures for shar|ng |nformat|on w|th other ch||d protect|on
mon|tor|ng systems;
be aware of, and est|mate |f poss|b|e, under-report|ng (the percentage of
cases not reported} or over-report|ng (cases reported mu|t|p|e t|mes}, and
ana|yse the causes of both;
agree on the cr|ter|a for d|saggregated data, |n add|t|on to age and sex;
|n armed conf|ct s|tuat|ons, and where the N has set up an MRM country
task force, mon|tor and report on grave v|o|at|ons aga|nst ch||dren, and ver|fy
that a|erts regard|ng conf|ct-re|ated ch||d protect|on concerns are channe||ed
to the re|evant task forces;
ensure that ex|st|ng organ|sat|ons or peop|e respons|b|e for coord|nat|on
d|scuss how |nformat|on |s co||ected through mon|tor|ng act|v|t|es, and use
|t safe|y;
at coord|nated |nter-agency |eve|, |dent|fy appropr|ate responses to cases
and v|o|at|ons (see Standards 3, 4 and 15};
ma|nta|n the best |nterests of the ch||d as the pr|mary cons|derat|on when
co||ect|ng |nformat|on as we|| as |nformed consent; and
ensure good pract|ce |s fo||owed |n manag|ng |nformat|on (see Standard 5}.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &#
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of regular reports (for example, situation
reportsj that include information on child protection
concerns
100%
2. The information included in the CP monitoring system is,
at least, disaggregated by sex and age
Yes
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of data collectors trained on data collection
on child protection, including ethical considerations
100%
4. The average percentage of female membership in monitoring
teams
50%
5. A common monitoring framework is agreed upon, including
indicators, data collection methods and frequency of data
collection
Yes
6. ln armed confict situations, and where the MRM is
activated, grave violations against children are monitored
in compliance with the MRM Field Manual, and confict-
related sexual violence is monitored in accordance with
relevant guidance
Yes
7. Number of cases that went through a best interest
determination process"
h0TS
(1j 'Regular report"
can be defned in
country
Guidance notes
D7 [144,#-)
Ex|st|ng mon|tor|ng and surve|||ance systems need to be mapped |n order
to understand the s|tuat|on and the ma|n gaps. lf there are no mon|tor|ng
systems, they need to be set up and, where poss|b|e and appropr|ate, be
||nked to ex|st|ng systems w|th a v|ew to |mprov|ng and strengthen|ng them
further as appropr|ate. Ex|st|ng mon|tor|ng and report|ng mechan|sms cou|d
|nc|ude:
Oommun|ty-based mon|tor|ng or report|ng
Refugee and lDP camp-protect|on comm|ttees, or management comm|ttees
Nat|ona| methods for mon|tor|ng ch||d r|ghts or ch||d protect|on
Nat|ona| or |oca| |nc|dent or |njury surve|||ance systems
Rout|ne adm|n|strat|ve data (e.g. from the hea|th system, po||ce, educat|on
system}
Mon|tor|ng and Report|ng Mechan|sm (MRM} on grave v|o|at|ons aga|nst
ch||dren |n s|tuat|ons of armed conf|ct, set up through the Secur|ty Oounc||
Mon|tor|ng, Ana|ys|s and Report|ng Arrangements (MARA} on sexua| v|o|ence,
set up through the Secur|ty Oounc||
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The jo|nt NHOR and NFPA system for mon|tor|ng gender-based v|o|ence
(GBvlMS}, and the Oh||d Protect|on lnformat|on Management System (OPlMS}.
Other mon|tor|ng mechan|sms, |nc|ud|ng a systemat|c rev|ew of med|a |nformat|on,
po||ce reports, and so on, must be estab||shed |n add|t|on to any MRM or MARA
requ|rements, and shou|d exchange |nformat|on w|th these two mechan|sms.
2. Assessments.
Ana|yse ex|st|ng |nformat|on |n order to |dent|fy trends and the ma|n ch||d protect|on
concerns and r|sks, |nc|ud|ng the context under wh|ch these are ar|s|ng and
whether and how they are be|ng responded to. The ana|ys|s shou|d cons|der the
secur|ty context and potent|a| r|sks to mon|tor|ng, resource |mp||cat|ons, ava||ab|e
sources of |nformat|on and, where poss|b|e, an assessment of v|o|at|ons. se
ev|dence-based ana|ys|s to say who |n the cr|s|s-affected commun|ty |s most at
r|sk of the forms of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on or abuse - whether g|r|s or boys, fema|e
or ma|e ado|escents or more spec|fca||y those w|th d|sab|||t|es. The ana|ys|s
shou|d a||ow deve|opment of prof|es of the d|fferent needs and rea||t|es of ma|es
and fema|es |n at-r|sk popu|at|ons, and |dent|fy how and whether the|r needs are
be|ng met by ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on systems coup|ed w|th the response of the
ch||d protect|on sector. When poss|b|e, ana|yse trends and patterns.
E7 =22O$,#1/,2#)
Make sure ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng act|v|t|es are coord|nated, |nc|ud|ng w|th
other human|tar|an sectors |f and when appropr|ate, to avo|d dup||cat|on and he|p
make sure the who|e geograph|ca| area |s covered and spec|fc v|o|at|ons and r|sks
are mon|tored. lt |s |mportant to have an agreed system for manag|ng |nformat|on
and co||ect|ng |nformat|on on paper as we|| as e|ectron|ca||y, |nc|ud|ng shared
forms, |nd|cators, m|n|mum data sets, secur|ty gu|de||nes, and so on. Where th|s
|s re|evant, these efforts shou|d be part of the w|der coord|nat|on work|ng groups
or c|uster system (see Standards 1 and 5}.
F7 \O1,#,#-)
As a preparedness measure, a|| ch||d protect|on staff shou|d be tra|ned on
|nternat|ona| human r|ghts and human|tar|an |aw and on nat|ona| |eg|s|at|on on
ch||d protect|on |ssues. Dur|ng a response, a|| human|tar|ans shou|d be aware
of how to refer cases safe|y to mon|tor|ng systems. A|| staff, |nc|ud|ng partner
agenc|es and c|v|| soc|ety members, and a|so nat|ona|/|oca| author|t|es |nvo|ved |n
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng (except for MRM and MARA where nat|ona| author|t|es
do not part|c|pate} shou|d rece|ve spec|a||sed tra|n|ng on ch||d- and d|sab|||ty-
fr|end|y |nterv|ew|ng, r|sk assessment, safety, conf|ct-sens|t|ve report|ng, report|ng
processes and methodo|og|es and co||ect|ng |nformat|on. Tra|n|ng shou|d |nc|ude:
g|r|s` and boys` r|ght to pr|vacy, protect|on of |dent|ty and confdent|a||ty; ch||dren`s
r|ghts to have the|r op|n|ons heard and to take part |n dec|s|ons affect|ng them;
and ch||dren`s r|ght to protect|on from harm and retr|but|on. For Secur|ty Oounc||
mandated |n|t|at|ves such as the MRM and the MARA, mon|tor|ng staff shou|d be
tra|ned |n ||ne w|th the re|evant spec|fc gu|de||nes.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &!
5. Programmatic response.
lt |s |mportant to have a c|ear a|m for mon|tor|ng act|v|t|es. Mon|tor|ng shou|d
be carr|ed out to report on ch||d protect|on concerns, tr|gger accountab|||ty and
|nform programmat|c prevent|on and response act|v|t|es from re|evant actors.
Where there |s a ch||d protect|on coord|nat|on mechan|sm, the membersh|p of
th|s mechan|sm shou|d prov|de a|| re|evant actors w|th |nformat|on on:
Report|ng referra| - where spec|a||sed and non-spec|a||sed actors can refer
cases and v|o|at|ons to an appropr|ate mon|tor|ng mechan|sm
Oase referra| - where mon|tors can refer spec|fc cases of ch||dren who
surv|ved v|o|ence to appropr|ate ass|stance and response serv|ces.
6. Community participation.
Oommun|ty and c|v|| soc|ety groups shou|d be consu|ted, w|th a v|ew to
strengthen|ng the|r ex|st|ng ro|es |n protect|ng ch||dren. G|r|s, boys, careg|vers
and commun|ty |eaders shou|d be |nformed about mon|tor|ng act|v|t|es and
poss|b|e outcomes of mon|tor|ng, so that the|r expectat|ons for a response
and accountab|||ty are rea||st|c. When appropr|ate, commun|cat|on on ch||d
protect|on concerns |dent|fed through mon|tor|ng shou|d be standard|sed
among partners, mak|ng them genera|, thereby mak|ng |nd|v|dua| sources
d|ffcu|t to |dent|fy.
7. Monitoring grave vio|ations against chi|dren in armed conict.
A spec|fc mon|tor|ng and report|ng mechan|sm (MRM} focuss|ng on s|x
categor|es of 'grave v|o|at|ons" |n s|tuat|ons of armed conf|ct or s|tuat|ons
of concern was created by the Secur|ty Oounc|| Reso|ut|on 1612 (2005} and
re|nforced by reso|ut|ons 1882 (2009} and 1998 (2011}. The s|x categor|es are:
Recru|tment and use of ch||dren
K||||ng and ma|m|ng
Abduct|on
Sexua| v|o|ence
Attacks on schoo|s and hosp|ta|s
Den|a| of human|tar|an access.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &$
Ored|b|e and ver|fed |nformat|on on the tr|gger v|o|at|ons (recru|tment or use of
ch||dren, sexua| v|o|ence, k||||ng and ma|m|ng, attacks on schoo|s and hosp|ta|s}
may |ead to the Secretary-Genera| ||st|ng respons|b|e part|es |n the annexes
to h|s annua| report to the Secur|ty Oounc|| on Oh||dren and Armed conf|ct
(OAAO}. S|tuat|ons where there are '||sted part|es" are genera||y then |nc|uded |n
the Secur|ty Oounc|| Work|ng Group on OAAO`s work p|an, wh|ch then requ|res
the N to set up the MRM |n that s|tuat|on. The Secur|ty Oounc|| Work|ng Group
cons|ders the reports that come out as a resu|t of the MRM, wh|ch |n turn may
tr|gger a response from the Secur|ty Oounc||. Th|s cou|d |nc|ude targeted act|ons
aga|nst spec|fc |nd|v|dua|s who cont|nue to comm|t these grave v|o|at|ons aga|nst
ch||dren. ln add|t|on to mon|tor|ng and report|ng on the s|x grave v|o|at|ons to
the Secur|ty Oounc||, the MRM makes |t poss|b|e to |nvo|ve part|es to the armed
conf|ct |n deve|op|ng and |mp|ement|ng an act|on p|an to address the v|o|at|ons
for wh|ch the part|es are ||sted, and to make sure the |nformat|on generated
from the MRM tr|ggers a coord|nated response by appropr|ate stakeho|ders.
For mon|tor|ng and report|ng on conf|ct-re|ated sexua| v|o|ence re|ated to
Secur|ty Oounc|| reso|ut|on 1960, see Standard 9 on sexua| v|o|ence.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &"
References
Ager, Akesson & Schunk (2010}. /aoo|| o/ C|||d ||o|ec||o| /8E
7oo|s
B|oom, She|ah (2008}. v|o|e|ce /a||s| Home| a|d G|||s. /
Comoe|d|0m o/ /o|||o||| a|d E.a|0a||o| ||d|ca|o|s
lASO (2005}. G0|de|||es o| Ge|de|-Sased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s
|| |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s
lORO (2009, rev|s|on forthcom|ng}. ||o/ess|o|a| 5|a|da|ds /o|
||o|ec||o| Ho|| (Ohapter 5: Manag|ng Sens|t|ve Protect|on
lnformat|on}
O/SRSG-OAAO, NlOEF, DPKO (2012}, MRM, G|ooa| Good
||ac||ce 5|0d,
O/SRSG-OAAO, NlOEF, DPKO (2010}, MRM Gu|de||nes, F|e|d
/a|0a| a|d 7|a|||| 7oo||||
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se, Oore
Standards
N Act|on aga|nst Sexua| v|o|ence |n Oonf|ct (2008}. Do's a|d
Do|'|'s. |eoo|||| a|d |||e|o|e||| da|a o| sex0a| .|o|e|ce /|om
co|/|c|-a//ec|ed co0||||es
WHO (2007}. E|||ca| a|d 5a/e|, |ecomme|da||o|s /o| |esea|c|||,
Doc0me|||| a|d /o|||o||| 5ex0a| v|o|e|ce || Eme|e|c|es
www.ch||drenandarmedconf|ct.un.org
www.un|cef.org/esaro/5440_gu|de||nes_|nterv|ew.htm|
(NlOEF Gu|de||nes for |nterv|ew|ng ch||dren}
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STANDARDS TO
address child
protection needs
A
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d
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e
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s

n
e
e
d
s
standards to address child
protection needs
Grcuncec in Ihe cvercrching inIerncIicnc| |egc|
frcmewcrk, :Icnccrc: in Ihi: :ecIicn ccver Ihe ccre
,+#,( &0 @&+. ,'* %+)-)%,2 )((1#( )' %")2* 3+&-#%-)&'>
- Dcnger: cnc injurie:
- Fhy:icc| vic|ence cnc cIher hcrmfu| prccIice:
- Sexuc| vic|ence
- F:ychc:ccic| ci:Ire:: cnc menIc| ci:crcer:
- Chi|cren c::ccicIec wiIh crmec fcrce: cr crmec 7+&13(
- Chi|c |cLcur
- Unccccmpcniec cnc :epcrcIec chi|cren
-Ju:Iice fcr chi|cren
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on &(
STANDARD 7
Dangers and injuries
After the age of one, un|ntent|ona| |njur|es are a |ead|ng cause of death among
ch||dren and ado|escents, account|ng for over 30% of deaths among 10- to
14-year-o|ds, and a|most 50% |n 15- to 19-year-o|ds. Road-traffc |njur|es (the
|ead|ng cause of death among those aged 15 to 19}, drown|ng, and fre-re|ated
burns are respons|b|e for a|most 50% of ch||d deaths across the wor|d. ln an
emergency, |n add|t|on to these 'ord|nary r|sks", ch||dren are at greater r|sk of
|njury and d|sab|||ty. Oh||dren w|th ex|st|ng d|sab|||t|es can be at part|cu|ar r|sk of
phys|ca| |njury |n s|tuat|ons of natura| hazard. ln conf|cts, ch||dren are part|cu|ar|y
at r|sk from exp|os|ve remnants of war (ERW} and |andm|nes. D|sp|acement
as a resu|t of emergenc|es can a|so put ch||dren c|oser to prev|ous|y unfam|||ar
r|sks, such as road traffc, r|vers and foodwaters, unstab|e debr|s and ERW.
lf |njur|es to ch||dren are not treated qu|ck|y and appropr|ate|y, there |s a greater
chance of |ong-term or permanent |njury. Oh||dren who have been |njured |n
emergenc|es, espec|a||y those |eft w|th d|sab|||t|es, have d|fferent phys|ca|
rehab|||tat|on needs to adu|ts, and |n s|tuat|ons where resources are ||m|ted,
they are |ess ||ke|y to rece|ve age-appropr|ate ass|stance.
Standard
Girls and boys are protected against harm, injury and disability
caused by physical dangers in their environment, and the physical
and psychosocial needs of injured children are responded to in a
timely and effcient way.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Assess, |dent|fy and ana|yse ex|st|ng and poss|b|e phys|ca| dangers to ch||dren;
|mp|ement commun|ty-based messag|ng, awareness, and pub||c educat|on
campa|gns on r|sks to ch||dren to prevent |njury (see Standard 3};
|nc|ude r|sk reduct|on |n forma| and non-forma| educat|on curr|cu|um and
act|v|t|es (schoo|s, ch||dcare centres, ch||d-fr|end|y spaces (OFSs}, youth
c|ubs, and so on} as a mandatory subject for educators, careg|vers, and
ch||dren;
act|ve|y |nvo|ve ch||dren, espec|a||y those w|th d|sab|||t|es, |n act|v|t|es to
prevent r|sks;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on '*
ensure that ch||dren are |nc|uded |n d|saster r|sk reduct|on processes at
commun|ty |eve|;
|nc|ude phys|ca| dangers for ch||dren when creat|ng cont|ngency p|ans;
tra|n br|gades and rescue groups on dangerous s|tuat|ons for ch||dren; and
tra|n commun|ty members |n ||fe-sav|ng |n the water, and |n frst a|d.
8SP0hS
Oo||ect |nformat|on, w|th a|| re|evant actors, on phys|ca| dangers to ch||dren;
create safe commun|ty spaces, p|aygrounds, and recreat|on areas for ch||dren
and youth (see Standard 17};
|nc|ude r|sk-reduct|on and r|sk-educat|on messages |n forma| and non-forma|
educat|on, recreat|on act|v|t|es for ch||dren, and commun|ty messag|ng act|v|t|es
(see Standard 3};
|nvo|ve ch||dren and youth |n mapp|ng and assess|ng r|sks and spread
messages on the phys|ca| safety of ch||dren;
make sure there are procedures for case management and referra|s |n p|ace,
and that qua||ty programmes for ch||dren who are |njured or |eft w|th an
|mpa|rment are ava||ab|e, access|b|e and used (see Standard 15};
advocate for |ncreased safety of ch||dren w|th the most |mportant stakeho|ders;
make sure that ch||d-re|ated r|sks are taken |nto account |n camp des|gn/
construct|on/management; and
advocate for mak|ng c|ear|ng of |andm|nes and ERW a pr|or|ty |n p|aces where
ch||dren go often (for examp|e, schoo|s, hosp|ta|s, etc.} and carry out m|ne
r|sk educat|on |n contam|nated areas.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on '#
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. The top fve physical dangers to girls and boys of
different ages have been identifed through consultation
with local actors
Yes
2. lnterventions to mitigate the top fve physical dangers to
girls and boys of different age are in place in all affected
communities
Yes
3. Percentage of reported child survivors of severe injury
who receive medical care within 12 hours
80%
4. Number of children in community or camps affected by
unintentional injuries
Decrease, per year,
from the baseline
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
5. Percentage of community-level risk mappings that
involved children and young people
100%
6. Percentage of children, youth and community members
surveyed who have knowledge of dangers and safe
behaviour to prevent unintentional injury to children
80%
7. Percentage of affected communities or camps that have
safe spaces for children and youth
100%
h0TS
Guidance notes
D7 P3(+,01@ $1#-%O+ 1#$ O,+A+)
n|ntent|ona| |njury may |nc|ude drown|ng (r|vers, |akes, ocean, we||s, p|t |atr|nes},
fa|||ng (c||ffs, trees, p|ts, trenches}, burn|ng (fre, cook|ng o||, bo|||ng water,
e|ectrocut|on}, road traffc, w||d an|ma|s (snake b|tes}, sharp objects (kn|ves,
barbed w|re}, exposure to garbage conta|n|ng |nfect|ous waste, etc. ln d|saster
zones, r|sks can |nc|ude damaged |nfrastructure (roofs and wa||s co||aps|ng,
exposed e|ectr|ca| and barbed w|re, rubb|e} and drown|ng (foods, |ands||des}. ln
conf|ct areas, r|sks can |nc|ude us|ng exp|os|ve weapons and contam|nat|on by
exp|os|ve remnants of war (for examp|e, |andm|nes, c|uster mun|t|ons, mortars,
she||s, grenades, cartr|dges, ammun|t|on and so on }, co||apsed |nfrastructure,
and the w|despread ava||ab|||ty of guns and other weapons.
K7 *1/1 02@@%0/,2#)
se the |nformat|on from assessments and ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng to
deve|op targeted age-, gender- and r|sk-spec|fc r|sk educat|on messages.
Assessments must |nvo|ve ch||dren of d|fferent sexes, ages and d|sab|||t|es,
as ch||dren`s` v|ews of r|sks often vary great|y from those of adu|ts. One good
examp|e of how th|s can be done |s by draw|ng a map of the commun|ty and
gett|ng ch||dren and ado|escents to mark areas on the map where there are
r|sks, and then d|scuss these w|th them. D|scuss|on shou|d |nc|ude:
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ')
The ma|n phys|ca| r|sks of un|ntent|ona| |njury to ch||dren
The r|sk rank|ng of un|ntent|ona| |njur|es for ch||dren (for examp|e, most
frequent to |east frequent}
R|sks spec|fc to part|cu|ar groups of ch||dren (younger ch||dren, ado|escent
boys, ado|escent g|r|s, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, etc.}
Where the dangerous areas are where these r|sks are found
What know|edge ch||dren |n the commun|ty have about these dangers
What sk|||s and capac|t|es ch||dren have to dea| w|th such r|sks
What the prevent|ve and respons|ve mechan|sms are that are a|ready |n
p|ace
What hosp|ta|s, pr|mary hea|th-care centres and programmes ex|st for
ch||dren who are |njured.
3. Specic groups.
Younger ch||dren, who have |ess exper|ence of danger, may eas||y put themse|ves
|n harm`s way |f they are not suffc|ent|y we|| superv|sed. Ado|escents often see
themse|ves as unaffected by danger and harm, and are espec|a||y at r|sk of
tak|ng part |n hazardous behav|our. Ado|escent boys may be the most ||ke|y
group to p|ay w|th or use guns and weapons, to approach exp|os|ve remnants
of war, or to take part |n dangerous veh|c|e-re|ated act|v|t|es. Oh||dren w|th
|nte||ectua| or sensory |mpa|rments (for examp|e, |mpa|rments to eyes|ght and
hear|ng} m|ght be |ess aware of the r|sks around them, whereas ch||dren w|th
phys|ca| |mpa|rments may have |ess mob|||ty w|th wh|ch to protect themse|ves
from danger.
4. Community activities.
Strengthen ex|st|ng commun|ty-based protect|on mechan|sms to |dent|fy and
address phys|ca| r|sks to ch||dren. Act|v|t|es that can be carr|ed out at the
commun|ty |eve| to prevent phys|ca| |njury can |nc|ude (but are not ||m|ted to}:
Spread|ng commun|ty and pub||c awareness messages on r|sks and prevent|on
measures
Runn|ng commun|ty safety dr|||s for ch||dren
Oommun|ty c|ean-up programmes
Bu||d|ng fences and br|dges
Mak|ng sure that we||s and p|ts have safety mechan|sms
Mak|ng sure there |s enough ||ght|ng at n|ght
Ra|s|ng awareness of and mark|ng out areas known to be contam|nated
w|th ERW.
lnvo|v|ng boys, g|r|s and youth as |eaders |n des|gn|ng and |mp|ement|ng these
act|v|t|es bu||ds the|r se|f-esteem and g|ves them a sense of contro| |n these
s|tuat|ons of |nsecur|ty (see Standards 3 and 16}.
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M7 .0322@+)
Schoo|s and after-schoo| act|v|t|es prov|de opportun|t|es to d|scuss and share
se|f-protect|on |nformat|on w|th a |arge number of ch||dren. R|sk educat|on
and |nformat|on act|v|t|es can be most effect|ve |f des|gned and de||vered by
ch||dren and youth themse|ves. Deve|op|ng spec|a| methods to reach out-of-
schoo| ch||dren and those who attend |nforma| schoo|s, re||g|ous schoo|s, or
schoo|s spec|fca||y for ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es may be needed. The need to
reach these ch||dren poses a ser|ous cha||enge, as they are often more at r|sk
than those who go to forma| schoo|s (see Standards 3 and 20}.
6. Case management and referra|.
lnc|ude ser|ous phys|ca| |njury and d|sab|||ty among the cr|ter|a for case-
management serv|ces (see Standard 15}. Pay spec|a| attent|on to the spec|fc
protect|on r|sks faced by g|r|s and boys w|th d|sab|||t|es. Deve|op referra|
mechan|sms to:
ldent|fy and refer |njury surv|vors, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, to
access|b|e ma|nstream |ntegrated ch||d protect|on and other re|evant
programmes for both prevent|on and response
Prov|de spec|a||sed serv|ces (for examp|e, ortho-prosthet|c rehab|||tat|on}
through |njury surv|vor ass|stance programmes.
H7 ."OB,B2O 1++,+/1#0%)
Key e|ements of surv|vor ass|stance, wh|ch must be age and gender-
appropr|ate, |nc|ude:
Emergency and cont|nued med|ca| care
Phys|ca| rehab|||tat|on (|nc|ud|ng ortho-prosthet|c serv|ces}
Psychosoc|a| support
|ega| support
Econom|c |nc|us|on (|nc|ud|ng the r|ght to work and emp|oyment, and the
r|ght to an adequate standard of ||v|ng}
Soc|a| |nc|us|on (|nc|ud|ng r|ghts to |nvo|vement, access|b|||ty, educat|on and
cu|tura| ||fe and sports}.
|aws and po||c|es and pub||c educat|on campa|gns, access|b|e to everyone
and wh|ch promote the r|ghts of peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es, shou|d a|so form
part of ass|stance to surv|vors. When prov|d|ng ass|stance, make sure to
strengthen and not to underm|ne ex|st|ng nat|ona| ch||d protect|on systems,
|nc|ud|ng commun|ty-based systems.
The Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Persons w|th D|sab|||t|es, the M|ne Ban Treaty,
the Oonvent|on on Oerta|n Oonvent|ona| Weapons, the Oonvent|on on O|uster
Mun|t|ons, and re|evant nat|ona| |aws and po||c|es prov|de a |ega| framework to
address the use and effect of exp|os|ve weapons, |nc|ud|ng prov|d|ng surv|vor
ass|stance to those |njured, |nc|ud|ng those w|th d|sab|||t|es.
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References
OOF, lRO, lORO, Terre des Hommes, 5a.e ||e C|||d|e|, U^|C|,
U||ce/ (EC|O (2009. ||||od0c||o| |o C|||d ||o|ec||o| ||
Eme|e|c|es 7|a|||| |ac|ae, /od0|e o| C|||d|e| w||| D|sao|||||es
Oentre for D|sease Oontro| and Prevent|on (ODO} & Wor|d Hea|th
Organ|zat|on (WHO} (2001}. |||0|, 50|.e|||a|ce G0|de|||es
lOB| (2011}. Co||ec||| ||e Do|s De|a||ed G0|da|ce. v|c||m
ass|s|a|ce || ||e /||e Sa| 7|ea|,, a|d ||e Co|.e|||o| o| C|0s|e|
/0||||o|s 8 ||e Co|.e|||o| o| ||e ||||s o/ |e|so|s w|||
D|sao|||||es
NlOEF and Geneva lnternat|ona| Oentre for Human|tar|an
Dem|n|ng (GlOHD} (2005}. |//5 /||e/E|H ||s| Ed0ca||o| Ses|
||ac||ces G0|deooo| 9. Eme|e|c, m||e/E|H ||s| ed0ca||o|
NlOEF (1st Ed, 2008}. Eme|e|c, /||e ||s| Ed0ca||o| 7oo||||
NlOEF & WHO (2008}, Ho||d |eoo|| o| C|||d |||0|, ||e.e|||o|
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Persons w|th D|sab|||t|es (2006}
The O|uster Mun|t|ons Ooa||t|on and the lnternat|ona| Oampa|gn
to Ban |andm|nes (2011}
Oonvent|on on O|uster Mun|t|ons (OOM} (2010 (entry |nto Force}}
Oonvent|on on the Proh|b|t|on of the se, Stockp|||ng, Product|on
and Transfer of Ant|-Personne| M|nes and on the|r Destruct|on
(1999}
Oonvent|on on Proh|b|t|ons or Restr|ct|ons on the se of Oerta|n
Oonvent|ona| Weapons Wh|ch May Be Deemed to Be Excess|ve|y
lnjur|ous or to Have lnd|scr|m|nate Effects (1983}
Amended Protoco| ll to the 1980 Oonvent|on: Protoco| on
Proh|b|t|ons or Restr|ct|ons on the se of M|nes, Booby-Traps
and Other Dev|ces (1996}; and Protoco| v on Exp|os|ve Remnants
of War (2006}
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on '"
STANDARD 8
Physical violence
and other harmful practices
Patterns of v|o|ence are he|ghtened |n human|tar|an sett|ngs. Fam|||es and other
sources of protect|on are often put under |mmense stra|n and the weakened
protect|ve env|ronment around the ch||d may resu|t |n fam||y or commun|ty
members abus|ng ch||dren, mak|ng those ch||dren more at r|sk of domest|c
v|o|ence, phys|ca| and sexua| abuse and corpora| pun|shment. Fam|||es may
a|so resort to harmfu| pract|ces as a cop|ng mechan|sms |n the aftermath of
an emergency. For examp|e, they may arrange ear|y marr|age or fema|e gen|ta|
mut||at|on (FGM} for daughters w|th the |ntent|on of prov|d|ng for them or of
enhanc|ng the fam||y`s econom|c s|tuat|on. These k|nds of harmfu| pract|ces are
a form of v|o|ence and abuse. Dur|ng conf|cts |n part|cu|ar, ch||dren may suffer
extreme v|o|ence, such as k||||ng, ma|m|ng, torture and abduct|on.
Standard
G|r|s and boys are protected from phys|ca| v|o|ence and other harmfu|
pract|ces, and surv|vors have access to age-spec|fc and cu|tura||y
appropr|ate responses.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
ln consu|tat|on w|th ch||dren and adu|ts, |nvest|gate how d|fferent forms of
v|o|ence, |nc|ud|ng domest|c v|o|ence and corpora| pun|shment, are v|ewed
by fam|||es, commun|ty |eaders and government counterparts, and how they
are norma||y dea|t w|th;
map out harmfu| pract|ces that may |ncrease dur|ng emergenc|es, |nc|ud|ng
negat|ve cop|ng mechan|sms;
create or strengthen ex|st|ng mu|t|d|sc|p||nary teams of soc|a| workers, |aw-
enforcement staff and hea|th-serv|ce prov|ders and tra|n them on prevent|on
strateg|es, as we|| as sex and age-appropr|ate responses when dea||ng w|th
v|o|ence and harmfu| pract|ces;
map effect|ve, ch||d-fr|end|y prov|ders of response serv|ces, |dent|fy gaps and
deve|op strateg|es to address them;
tra|n teachers, parents and key members of the commun|ty |n |oca||y-|dent|fed
strateg|es to prevent common forms of v|o|ence - such as pos|t|ve d|sc|p||ne,
commun|ty med|at|on, or |ntervent|ons from fa|th |eaders; ensure they are a|so
tra|ned |n how to respond to, and to refer, spec|fc cases;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on '%
bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng processes, deve|op an effc|ent, ch||d-fr|end|y referra|
system between serv|ce prov|ders; and
d|ssem|nate |nformat|on on referra| systems |n a user-fr|end|y way to those
work|ng w|th ch||dren.
8SP0hS
Ra|se awareness of the symptoms of psychosoc|a| d|stress |n both ch||dren
and adu|ts, and of strateg|es to dea| w|th these |n a non-v|o|ent way (see
Standard 10};
|nvo|ve ch||dren and commun|ty members w|th |nfuence |n creat|ng and
de||ver|ng awareness ra|s|ng messages about phys|ca| v|o|ence and harmfu|
pract|ces. lnc|ude |nformat|on about r|sks, consequences and support
serv|ces (see Standard 3};
use examp|es of the consequences of harmfu| pract|ces to ra|se awareness,
fac|||tate d|scuss|on, and fnd ways to st|mu|ate co||ect|ve comm|tments to
end|ng these pract|ces;
prov|de age-, sex- and gender-sens|t|ve mu|t|sectora| care for ch||dren who
have been subjected to phys|ca| v|o|ence and harmfu| pract|ces, and for
the|r fam|||es (|nc|ud|ng psychosoc|a| support, med|ca| support, re|ntegrat|on,
educat|ona| and vocat|ona| tra|n|ng opportun|t|es, cash transfers, |ega|
ass|stance, etc.};
bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng resources, estab||sh effc|ent referra| systems between
d|fferent serv|ce prov|ders prov|d|ng responses;
|dent|fy and refer ch||dren who may be affected by phys|ca| v|o|ence and
harmfu| pract|ces;
estab||sh systems to mon|tor the s|tuat|on of g|r|s and boys who may be at
r|sk of v|o|ence - |nc|ud|ng neg|ect. Th|s may |nc|ude, for examp|e, ch||dren |n
res|dent|a| care; ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es; separated ch||dren; ch||dren on the
streets; or ch||dren former|y assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups;
support the sett|ng up of ch||d-fr|end|y spaces and safe commun|ty spaces
w|th spec|fc efforts to ensure that these spaces are safe and prevent v|o|ence
aga|nst g|r|s and boys; and
ensure that those com|ng |nto contact w|th ch||dren have s|gned codes of
conduct proh|b|t|ng v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren, and are tra|ned on pos|t|ve
d|sc|p||ne (see Standard 2}.
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MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Strategies to prevent and respond to physical violence
and harmful practices are incorporated into emergency-
response programming
Yes
2. Percentage of communities where child-friendly responses
have been put in place for survivors of physical violence
and harmful practices
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Number of campaigns with key messages on physical
violence and harmful practices
Minimum 1
4. Percentage of project proposals on child protection that
include information on local attitudes to physical violence
and harmful practices in the affected communities
100%
5. Percentage of children who have received support from
multi-disciplinary teams
20%
6. Percentage of parents and caregivers given information
on symptoms of psychosocial stress and how to deal
with these in a non-violent way
70%
h0TS
(1j Strategies"
and incorporated"
needs to be
defned in context
Guidance notes
1. Socia| norms.
These are soc|a| ru|es of behav|our |n a g|ven context. Harmfu| pract|ces |n many
contexts are soc|a| norms. Many forms of v|o|ence may be uphe|d by soc|a|
norms, such as the 'r|ght" of parents to h|t the|r ch||dren. Some of these are part
of cu|tura| her|tage. However, emergency s|tuat|ons may prov|de opportun|t|es
to d|scuss soc|a| norms that resu|t |n v|o|ence, espec|a||y |f the cr|s|s |s one
where v|o|ence has been suffered and there |s strong des|re to promote peacefu|
sett|ement of conf|cts and d|sputes. A s|mp|e way to assess |f a pract|ce |s a
soc|a| norm |s to ask: do |nd|v|dua|s take part |n the same pract|ces as others
who matter to them? lf yes, do |nd|v|dua|s be||eve that others who matter to
them th|nk they shou|d take part |n the harmfu| pract|ce or phys|ca| v|o|ence?
lf yes, then the behav|our |s cond|t|oned by mutua| expectat|ons and so |t |s a
soc|a| norm.
2. Assessments.
Assessments shou|d exp|ore mot|vat|ons beh|nd phys|ca| v|o|ence and harmfu|
pract|ces. They shou|d a|so exam|ne changes to the ro|es and tasks taken on
by ch||dren fo||ow|ng the cr|s|s; ch||dren`s access to serv|ces; and how these
m|ght |ncrease exposure to v|o|ence. Assessments must |nc|ude ch||dren
of d|fferent sexes, ages and d|sab|||t|es, as we|| as mapp|ng of serv|ces and
referra| systems (see a|so Standard 4}.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ''
3. Co||ecting information.
Oo||ect|ng and report|ng of |nformat|on on phys|ca| v|o|ence and harmfu|
pract|ces shou|d be |n ||ne w|th the nat|ona| |aw, and, when poss|b|e, the lnter-
Agency Oh||d Protect|on Management System (lA OP lMS}. When sett|ng up
the ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng system or undertak|ng an |n|t|a| assessment,
cons|der gather|ng ongo|ng |nformat|on on the fo||ow|ng:
The v|o|ence-re|ated r|sks for g|r|s and boys
R|sks spec|fc to g|r|s and boys w|th d|sab|||t|es
R|sks spec|fc to boys and spec|fc to g|r|s
R|sks spec|fc to ado|escent g|r|s and boys
Where g|r|s and boys are at most r|sk, who m|ght be cons|dered the
|nd|v|dua|s who put g|r|s and boys at most r|sk
The capac|t|es of g|r|s and boys and careg|vers to dea| w|th these r|sks
The prevent|ve and respons|ve mechan|sms a|ready |n p|ace
What hea|th, psychosoc|a|, secur|ty/|aw enforcement, and other |ega| a|d
support serv|ces and programmes ex|st for v|ct|ms, and where e|se g|r|s or
boys m|ght turn for he|p.
F7 961O%#%++)
Parents and careg|vers are centra| |n protect|ng ch||dren aga|nst phys|ca|
v|o|ence and harmfu| pract|ces and promot|ng the|r psychosoc|a| we||be|ng.
The awareness and understand|ng about v|o|ence of commun|t|es, fam|||es
and ch||dren |s an |mportant start|ng po|nt for engag|ng them |n prevent|on and
response act|v|t|es. Awareness-ra|s|ng on symptoms of psychosoc|a| stress |n
both ch||dren and adu|ts, and strateg|es to dea| w|th these |n non-v|o|ent ways,
are part|cu|ar|y |mportant (see Standards 3 and 10}.
5. Community activities.
Strengthen ex|st|ng commun|ty protect|on mechan|sms and make efforts not
to underm|ne them. Oommon act|v|t|es |nc|ude support|ng commun|ty-based
ch||d protect|on comm|ttees or watch comm|ttees. A|so encourage d|scuss|on
and d|a|ogue that |ead to c|ear shared comm|tments to protect both boys
and g|r|s from v|o|ence. These comm|tments shou|d be made co||ect|ve|y and
pub||c|y, and be known so that poss|b|e perpetrators can see there w||| be
greater res|stance to, and consequences of, the|r act|ons. lnvo|v|ng boys,
g|r|s and youth as |eaders |n des|gn and |mp|ementat|on bu||ds the|r se|f-
esteem and g|ves them a sense of contro| |n these s|tuat|ons of |nsecur|ty (see
Standard 16}.
G7 V#/%OB,%6+)
A ch||d who |s repeated|y |nterv|ewed or exam|ned may suffer further harm.
Th|s may a|so put the ch||d at further r|sk |f confdent|a||ty |s broken. Response
to cases of v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren |nvo|ves agreements between serv|ce
prov|ders that out||ne a set of gu|d|ng pr|nc|p|es and |nformat|on-shar|ng
agreements wh|ch promote confdent|a||ty, |nformed consent and respect for
the w|shes, r|ghts, and d|gn|ty of the surv|vor (see Standard 5}.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on '(
H7 Q%#$%O)
Gender w||| affect ch||dren`s r|sk of phys|ca| v|o|ence and harmfu| pract|ces.
Boys may be more at r|sk of communa| v|o|ence |f they become |nvo|ved |n
r|sky behav|ours. ln s|tuat|ons character|sed by the w|despread ava||ab|||ty of
sma|| guns, ado|escent boys |n part|cu|ar are espec|a||y vu|nerab|e to becom|ng
the ma|n v|ct|ms and perpetrators of armed v|o|ence. G|r|s may be at h|gher
r|sk of certa|n harmfu| pract|ces |nc|ud|ng sexua| v|o|ence and exp|o|tat|on,
ear|y or forced marr|age, or other 'honour`-re|ated pract|ces.
8. Programming opportunities.
Programmes started dur|ng emergenc|es are an opportun|ty to strengthen
ch||d protect|on systems |n the |onger run, as we|| as to ra|se awareness
and set the stage for defn|ng new soc|a| ru|es on sens|t|ve subjects such
as v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren. They shou|d a|ways be bu||t on ex|st|ng ch||d
protect|on systems, and shou|d take |nto account current cu|tura| and soc|a|
norms and att|tudes.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on (*
References
lRO, OHOHR, Save the Oh||dren, Terre des Hommes, NHOR,
n|cef (2009}. /c||o| /o| ||e ||||s o/ C|||d|e|
NGO Adv|sory Oounc|| for Fo||ow-p to the N Study on v|o|ence
Aga|nst Oh||dren (2011}. F|ve Years On: / G|ooa| Uoda|e o|
v|o|e|ce /a||s| C|||d|e|
P|nhe|ro P.S./ U|||ed ^a||o|s 5ec|e|a|,-Ge|e|a|'s 5|0d, on
v|o|ence aga|nst Oh||dren (2006}. Ho||d |eoo|| o| v|o|e|ce /a||s|
C|||d|e|
NlOEF (2010}. C|||d D|sc|o|||a|, ||ac||ces a| |ome. E.|de|ce
/|om a |a|e o/ |ow- a|d /|dd|e-||come Co0||||es
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
lnternat|ona| Oovenant of the O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts (1966}
Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of D|scr|m|nat|on aga|nst
Women (1979}
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on (#
STANDARD 9
Sexual violence
A w|de range of types of sexua| v|o|ence can take p|ace |n d|fferent c|rcumstances
and sett|ngs. These |nc|ude, for examp|e: rape by known fam||y or commun|ty
members; rape by strangers; rape dur|ng armed conf|ct; demand|ng sex |n
return for favours; sexua| abuse of ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es; exp|o|tat|on of
ch||dren |n prost|tut|on; and traffck|ng for the purpose of sexua| exp|o|tat|on. ln
the chaos that can fo||ow an emergency, ch||dren are espec|a||y at r|sk of sexua|
v|o|ence because of the |ack of ru|e of |aw, the |ack of |nformat|on prov|ded to
them, the|r restr|cted power |n dec|s|on-mak|ng and the|r |eve| of dependence.
Oh||dren are more eas||y exp|o|ted and coerced than adu|ts.
The consequences of sexua| v|o|ence on g|r|s and boys are soc|a|, phys|ca|,
emot|ona|, sp|r|tua| and psychosoc|a|, and requ|re a mu|t|-sectora| response.
Sexua| v|o|ence |s present |n a|| emergenc|es, but |t |s often h|dden. Prevent|on
and response to sexua| v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren |s re|evant |n a|| emergenc|es.
A|| human|tar|an actors shou|d assume that sexua| v|o|ence |s tak|ng p|ace,
and that |t |s a ser|ous and ||fe-threaten|ng protect|on |ssue, regard|ess of the
presence of concrete and re||ab|e ev|dence. They shou|d at the same t|me
a|ways address the |ssues and approach potent|a| and actua| surv|vors, |n a
respectfu| and profess|ona| way.
Standard
Girls and boys are protected from sexual violence, and survivors of
sexual violence have access to age-appropriate information as well
as a safe, responsive and holistic response.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
nderstand how d|fferent forms of sexua| v|o|ence are v|ewed by fam|||es
(|nc|ud|ng youth/ch||dren}, commun|ty |eaders and government counterparts,
and how th|s |s norma||y dea|t w|th;
support and, |f necessary, react|vate pos|t|ve commun|ty networks for prevent|ng
sexua| v|o|ence;
d|ssem|nate key sexua| v|o|ence prevent|on messages, work|ng w|th ch||dren,
fam|||es and commun|t|es;
|ncrease the awareness of sexua| v|o|ence of men, women, boys and g|r|s,
|nc|ud|ng regard|ng r|sks, consequences, support serv|ces, and why sexua|
v|o|ence |s not acceptab|e;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ()
encourage supported d|scuss|ons w|th re||g|ous and commun|ty |eaders;
at m|n|mum, ensure that ch||d-fr|end|y hea|th and psychosoc|a| support
serv|ces are |n p|ace to care for ch||d surv|vors, and where poss|b|e, create a
mu|t|d|sc|p||nary team of soc|a| workers, |aw-enforcement staff, and hea|th-
serv|ce prov|ders and tra|n them on ch||d-appropr|ate responses when dea||ng
w|th sexua| v|o|ence;
deve|op a mapp|ng for ch||d-fr|end|y and effect|ve referra|s and spread |t |n
a user-fr|end|y way to staff who work w|th ch||dren (|nc|ud|ng by mak|ng |t
access|b|e for peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es};
tra|n teachers, soc|a| workers, key commun|ty members and other caretakers
to |dent|fy and refer ch||dren who may be at r|sk of and affected by sexua|
v|o|ence; and
tra|n armed forces and po||ce on how ch||dren are affected by sexua| v|o|ence,
codes of conduct (|f appropr|ate}, and nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| |aws and
regu|at|ons.
8SP0hS
D|ssem|nate key sexua| v|o|ence prevent|on messages, work|ng w|th ch||dren,
fam|||es and commun|t|es;
support, and |f necessary react|vate, pos|t|ve commun|ty networks for
prevent|ng sexua| v|o|ence and for support|ng surv|vors of sexua| v|o|ence;
work w|th the commun|ty to |ncrease the awareness of sexua| v|o|ence of men,
women, boys and g|r|s, |nc|ud|ng regard|ng r|sks, consequences, support
serv|ces, and why sexua| v|o|ence |s not acceptab|e. A|ways use messages
and |nformat|on mater|a|s that are appropr|ate to age, sex cu|ture and context
(see Standard 16};
ensure that age-, sex-, and cu|tura||y-appropr|ate referra| pathways and
serv|ces are adhered to through serv|ce, as we|| as through procedures and
protoco|s to ensure the gu|d|ng pr|nc|p|es of confdent|a||ty, safety/secur|ty,
respect and non-d|scr|m|nat|on;
prov|de ch||d-fr|end|y mu|t|-sectora| ho||st|c care for ch||d surv|vors and the|r
fam|||es (med|ca| support, psychosoc|a| support and case management,
protect|on, |ega| ass|stance, re|ntegrat|on etc.};
ass|st ado|escent g|r|s |n address|ng the|r spec|fc safety concerns, |n gett|ng
better access to commun|ty serv|ces and |n reduc|ng poss|b|e r|sks assoc|ated
w|th us|ng serv|ces;
prov|de non-st|gmat|z|ng support to g|r|s and boys who may need extra
attent|on, such as ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es,
separated ch||dren, ch||dren on the streets, ch||dren (former|y or now}
assoc|ated w|th armed forces or groups, pregnant g|r|s, ch||dren born as a
resu|t of rape, and ch||dren who have been sexua||y exp|o|ted |n prost|tut|on
and traffck|ng;
ensure that programmes do not put ch||dren at greater r|sk, for examp|e by
s|ng||ng out surv|vors and thereby expos|ng them to st|gmat|sat|on or by
break|ng confdent|a||ty, safety and secur|ty etc.;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on (!
advocate w|th stakeho|ders on prevent|ve measures w|th regard to safety and
s|te p|ann|ng, such as: sett|ng up ch||d-fr|end|y spaces; ensur|ng safe access
to domest|c energy (e.g. frewood}; prov|d|ng adequate ||ght|ng; avo|d|ng
overcrowd|ng and hous|ng ch||dren and unre|ated adu|ts together; tak|ng
safety measures aga|nst sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse |n d|str|but|ons of food
and non-food |tems; and construct|on of an adequate number of |atr|nes and
bath|ng fac|||t|es for each sex;
advocate w|th the respons|b|e author|t|es at state and commun|ty |eve| so
that the perpetrators of sexua| v|o|ence are |dent|fed and the fght aga|nst
|mpun|ty |s susta|ned; and
for cases of sexua| v|o|ence comm|tted by armed forces or groups, refer
to the country task force on Mon|tor|ng and Report|ng (MRM} and the N
mon|tor|ng, ana|ys|s and report|ng arrangements (MARA}. Sexua| v|o|ence
|s one of the s|x grave v|o|at|ons for wh|ch armed forces or groups can be
named and shamed before the N Secur|ty Oounc||, wh|ch m|ght tr|gger
targeted measures (see Standard 6}.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Number of child protection programmes that address
sexual violence
To be determined in
country or context
2. Percentage of reported cases of children who experience
sexual violence who receive an age- and gender-
appropriate response (disaggregated by age and sexj
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. There is a thorough understanding of how sexual
violence (towards boys and girlsj is viewed by families
and communities before programming
Yes
4. Percentage of CP programmes that have developed or
adapted an information-sharing protocol, in line with
international standards (e.g. the gender-based violence
information management system, or GBvlMSj
100%
5. Percentage of projects and initiatives dealing with sexual
violence that are clearly involving other sectors
100%
6. Number of social workers, law-enforcement staff and
health-service providers trained on child-appropriate
responses to sexual violence
To be determined
in country
h0TS
(2j Defnitions of
age- and gender-
appropriate
response to be
defned in context
(5j 'Clearly
involving" would
have to be defned
in country or
context
(6j Can be
done through
desk reviews,
key informant
interviews or focus
group discussions
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ($
Guidance notes
D7 961O%#%++)
The awareness and understand|ng of sexua| v|o|ence of government offc|a|s,
commun|t|es, fam|||es and ch||dren can be an |mportant start|ng po|nt for gett|ng
them |nvo|ved |n prevent|on and response act|v|t|es. The|r |nvo|vement shou|d
he|p to reduce soc|a| st|gma of surv|vors and the r|sks assoc|ated w|th report|ng.
However, commun|t|es` |nvo|vement shou|d not affect the confdent|a||ty and
protect|on of surv|vors. lt |s |mportant to exp|a|n that |n some cases serv|ces need
to be prov|ded w|th|n 72 hours.
K7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Soc|a| workers, |aw-enforcement staff and hea|th-serv|ce prov|ders may need to
be tra|ned on ch||d-appropr|ate responses when dea||ng w|th sexua| v|o|ence.
Hea|th care prov|ders on the c||n|ca| management of sexua| v|o|ence may need
to be prov|ded w|th spec|fc tra|n|ng on how to adapt med|ca| care and treatment
for ch||dren (see a|so Standard 21}.
3. Structura| discrimination.
G|r|s w|th perce|ved '|ow soc|a| status" may be more at r|sk of sexua| v|o|ence.
Boys are a|so subjected to sexua| v|o|ence. ln add|t|on, soc|a| |so|at|on and
m|sconcept|ons about d|sab|||ty can make ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es more
vu|nerab|e to sexua| v|o|ence. The |ack of recogn|t|on of these |ssues, a|ong
w|th poor serv|ces and cu|tura| taboos, often restr|cts the poss|b|||ty for spec|fc
groups to get ass|stance.
F7 =2$% 2N 02#$"0/)
Ev|dence suggests that |nd|v|dua|s who abuse ch||dren sexua||y, phys|ca||y
or emot|ona||y try to be part of organ|sat|ons work|ng w|th ch||dren (|nc|ud|ng
schoo|s}, espec|a||y |n emergenc|es when reference checks may not be carr|ed out
as r|gorous|y as otherw|se. Make sure that codes of conduct forb|dd|ng a|| forms
of sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse are w|de|y c|rcu|ated to human|tar|an workers
and serv|ce prov|ders, and that they are |mp|emented. Human|tar|an agenc|es
must have a 'zero to|erance` approach, and must ensure ways for v|o|at|ons to
be reported and acted upon |mmed|ate|y (see Standard 2}.
5. Assessments.
Assessments shou|d |nc|ude d|scuss|ons about appropr|ate ways to prevent and
respond to sexua| v|o|ence. They shou|d support mapp|ng on how and where
sexua| v|o|ence |s occurr|ng, and how |t |s norma||y dea|t w|th (wh|ch may or may
not be protect|ve to ch||dren}. Be spec|fc about the factors that |ncrease g|r|s`
and boys` r|sk of exposure to sexua| v|o|ence. The |mpact of the cr|s|s and what
th|s br|ngs w|th |t |n terms of changes |n task d|v|s|on, work|oad and access
to serv|ces and how th|s m|ght |ncrease exposure to sexua| v|o|ence shou|d
be ana|ysed. Examp|es m|ght |nc|ude c|oseness to armed forces or groups,
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unsafe routes for frewood or water co||ect|on, d|str|but|on of food and non-
food |tems, overcrowded camps or co||ect|ve centres, fam||y separat|on and/or
ch||dren be|ng unaccompan|ed. Oh||d protect|on staff shou|d be tra|ned not to
ask quest|ons perta|n|ng to sexua| v|o|ence |f they are not prepared to hand|e
d|sc|osure and make appropr|ate referra|s.
6. Programming opportunities.
The ch||d protect|on prevent|on and response programmes that are begun dur|ng
emergenc|es are an opportun|ty to strengthen ch||d protect|on programm|ng and
systems |n the |onger run, as we|| as to ra|se awareness on sens|t|ve subjects
such as v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng sexua| v|o|ence. They shou|d a|ways
be bu||t on ex|st|ng systems and shou|d take |nto account current cu|tura| norms
and att|tudes.
7. Co||ecting information.
Oo||ect|ng and report|ng of |nformat|on shou|d be carr|ed out |n ||ne w|th nat|ona|
|aws, |nternat|ona| norms and, when poss|b|e, the lnter-Agency Oh||d Protect|on
Management System (lA OP lMS} and Gender-Based v|o|ence lnformat|on
Management System (GBvlMS}, as adopted w|th|n emergency sett|ngs (see
Standards 5 and 6}.
I7 V#/%OB,%6+)
A ch||d that |s repeated|y |nterv|ewed or exam|ned may suffer further harm. Any
response to cases of sexua| v|o|ence aga|nst ch||dren needs an agreement
between serv|ce prov|ders that out||nes a set of gu|d|ng pr|nc|p|es and |nformat|on-
shar|ng agreements that promotes confdent|a||ty and |nformed consent, and
wh|ch respects the w|shes, r|ghts, and d|gn|ty of the surv|vor.
J7 9$2@%+0%#/+)
Ado|escent g|r|s aged between 10 and 19 const|tute one of the most at-r|sk
groups, due to the|r phys|ca| deve|opment and age. These factors can |ead to
h|gher |eve|s of sexua| v|o|ence such as rape, sexua| exp|o|tat|on, ear|y or forced
marr|age and un|ntended pregnancy. Efforts are needed to put |n p|ace serv|ces
that he|p them to deve|op hea|th||y, such as serv|ces |n schoo|s, programmes to
|ncrease the|r soc|a| sk|||s, and programmes that generate econom|c opportun|t|es
- tak|ng |nto account the|r spec|fc needs (e.g. ch||d care respons|b|||t|es, ob||gat|ons
|n the househo|d and |eve|s of ||teracy}.
DL7 =3,@$O%# 1#$ 1$2@%+0%#/+ 6,/3 $,+1',@,/,%+)
Accord|ng to NAlDS (2006}, a |arge percentage of peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es w|||
exper|ence sexua| assau|t or abuse dur|ng the|r ||fet|me, w|th women and g|r|s
w|th d|sab|||t|es, peop|e w|th |nte||ectua| |mpa|rments, and those |n spec|a||sed
|nst|tut|ons, schoo|s, or hosp|ta|s at part|cu|ar|y h|gh r|sk. Efforts are needed to
ensure ch||d protect|on serv|ces are d|sab|||ty-fr|end|y and can be accessed by
ch||dren and ado|escents w|th d|sab|||t|es, no matter where they ||ve.
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References
GBv Area of Respons|b|||ty Work|ng Group (2010}. |a|dooo| /o|
Coo|d||a||| GSv |||e|.e|||o|s || |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s
Hand|cap lnternat|ona| and Save the Oh||dren (2011}. O0| /|om
||e 5|adow. 5ex0a| .|o|e|ce aa||s| C|||d|e| w||| d|sao|||||es
lnter-Agency Stand|ng Oomm|ttee (lASO} (2005}. G0|de|||es
/o| GSv |||e|.e|||o|s || |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s. Foc0s|| o|
o|e.e|||o| o/ a|d |esoo|se |o sex0a| .|o|e|ce || eme|e|c|es
lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee (2011}. GSv |0ma|||a||a|
|esoo|se a|d ||eoa|ed|ess. |a|||c|oa|| |a|dooo|
lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee, NFPA and NHOR (2010}.
Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce ||/o|ma||o| /a|aeme|| 5,s|em Use|
G0|de
lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee and NlOEF (2012}. Ca|||
/o| C|||d 50|.|.o|s || |0ma|||a||a| /|d 5e||||s. G0|de|||es /o|
o|o.|d|| case ma|aeme||, os,c|osoc|a| |||e|.e|||o|s a|d
|ea||| ca|e |o c|||d s0|.|.o|s o/ sex0a| ao0se
lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee and n|vers|ty of Oa||forn|a, |os
Ange|es, Oentre for lnternat|ona| Med|c|ne (2008}. C||||ca| ca|e /o|
sex0a| assa0|| s0|.|.o|s. / m0|||med|a ||a|||| |oo|, Fac||||a|o|s
0|de
WHO (2007}. E|||ca| a|d 5a/e|, |ecomme|da||o|s /o| |esea|c|||,
Doc0me|||| a|d /o|||o||| 5ex0a| v|o|e|ce || Eme|e|c|es
WHO & NHOR (2002}. C||||ca| ma|aeme|| o/ s0|.|.o|s o/ |aoe.
/ 0|de |o ||e de.e|oome|| o/ o|o|oco|s /o| 0se || |e/0ee a|d
|||e||a||, d|so|aced oe|so| s||0a||o|s
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on
of a|| Forms of D|scr|m|nat|on aga|nst Women (1979}
Secur|ty Oounc|| Reso|ut|on 1325 (2000}
Secur|ty Oounc|| Reso|ut|on 1820 (2008}
Dec|arat|on on the E||m|nat|on
of v|o|ence aga|nst Women (1993}
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STANDARD 10
Psychosocial distress and mental disorders
Wh||e hea|th-sector agenc|es tend to speak of menta| hea|th, a|d agenc|es
outs|de the hea|th sector tend to speak of 'support|ng psychosoc|a| we||be|ng."
The term 'menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support" (MHPSS} serves to br|ng
together as broad a group of actors as poss|b|e and h|gh||ghts the need for
d|verse, comp|ementary approaches |n prov|d|ng appropr|ate support.
Most ch||dren who have exper|enced stressfu| s|tuat|ons w||| |n|t|a||y show
changes |n soc|a| re|at|ons, behav|our, phys|ca| react|ons, emot|ons and
sp|r|tua||ty. React|ons such as s|eep|ng prob|ems, n|ghtmares, w|thdrawa|,
prob|ems concentrat|ng and gu||t are norma|, and can be overcome w|th
t|me. The added prob|ems caused by rumours and a |ack of cred|b|e and
accurate |nformat|on tend to be major sources of anx|ety for those affected by
an emergency, and can create confus|on and |nsecur|ty.
Standard
Girls' and boys' coping mechanisms and resilience are strengthened
and severely affected children are receiving appropriate support.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Oarry out a jo|nt rev|ew of a|ready ex|st|ng |nformat|on as soon as poss|b|e,
to be fo||owed by a jo|nt s|tuat|on/context ana|ys|s, to |nform further act|on;
make sure there |s coord|nat|on and a referra| system between a|| sectors
|nc|ud|ng educat|on, protect|on, hea|th and psychosoc|a| support prov|ders;
map out ex|st|ng serv|ces |n terms of commun|ty-based support, focused
support and spec|a||zed serv|ces; and
prov|de tra|n|ng on psycho|og|ca| frst a|d (PFA} to those |nvo|ved |n ch||d
protect|on, and work w|th other sectors (for examp|e, water, san|tat|on and
hyg|ene - or WASH - camp management, and educat|on} to make sure that
the|r staff are tra|ned on PFA.
8SP0hS
Ensure there |s psychosoc|a| support for nat|ona| workers who have been
affected by the emergency;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ('
strengthen pre-ex|st|ng commun|ty networks to prov|de psychosoc|a| support
to ch||dren and the|r fam|||es (for examp|e, prov|d|ng |nformat|on on how to
cope w|th stress, and carry|ng out act|v|t|es for ch||dren};
support act|v|t|es for ch||dren |n the commun|ty such as recreat|ona| act|v|t|es,
sports, cu|tura| act|v|t|es and ||fe sk|||s, to he|p recreate a rout|ne and he|p
them to bu||d the|r res|||ence;
organ|ze act|v|t|es spec|fca||y for young peop|e and ado|escents;
set up a detect|on and referra| system for ch||dren or careg|vers who need
menta| hea|th serv|ces, and advocate for strengthen|ng of these serv|ces by
hea|th actors;
prov|de support to careg|vers to |mprove care for the|r ch||dren, to dea| w|th
the|r own d|stress and to ||nk them to bas|c serv|ces; and
ensure that ch||d protect|on staff are tra|ned on the lASO Gu|de||nes on menta|
hea|th and psychosoc|a| support, and that staff adhere to these and refer to
them across agenc|es and w|th |oca| partners.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of targeted children involved in CP
programmes reported to be showing a decrease in
symptoms associated with mental disorders and
psychosocial distress compared to the baseline
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of sectors in the humanitarian response in
which workers have received training on PFA
90%
3. Percentage of national humanitarian workers surveyed
who indicate they know where and how to access
psychosocial support if they need it
90%
4. Percentage of targeted communities where community-
initiated activities for children are supported and take
place at least once every [TBD| days
To be determined
in country
5. Percentage of targeted communities in which at least
50% of caregivers surveyed have received training or
counselling on how to deal with psychosocial issues
80%
6. Percentage of child protection workers trained on lASC
guidelines on mental health and psychosocial support
50%
h0TS
(1j The
denominator can
be the number of
children in relevant
communities
within a time
period since the
response started
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ((
Guidance notes
D7 ["@/,R@1(%O%$ +"442O/+)
A key to organ|s|ng menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support |s to deve|op a
|ayered system of comp|ementary support that meets the needs of d|fferent
groups, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es. A|| |ayers of the pyram|d are |mportant
and shou|d |dea||y be |mp|emented at the same t|me. Once bas|c surv|va| needs
(food, she|ter, water, bas|c hea|th care, contro|||ng commun|cab|e d|seases} are
met, and safety and secur|ty have returned, most ch||dren and ado|escents w|||
go back to funct|on|ng norma||y, w|thout profess|ona| support (|eve| 1}. Oh||dren
who have |ost support from fam||y and the commun|ty w||| need spec|fc support
to restore the protect|ve factors that these support systems prov|de (|eve| 2}. The
th|rd |ayer represents the support needed for the st||| sma||er number of ch||dren
(for examp|e, surv|vors of gender-based v|o|ence or recru|tment} who a|so need
more focused |nd|v|dua|, fam||y or group act|on from workers who have rece|ved
some tra|n|ng |n spec|a||sed care (parasoc|a| workers}. Th|s |ayer a|so |nc|udes
psycho|og|ca| frst a|d (PFA}, bas|c menta| hea|th care by parasoc|a| workers and
structured psychosoc|a| groups w|th ch||dren or parents (|eve| 3}. The top |ayer
of the pyram|d represents the extra support needed for the sma|| percentage of
the popu|at|on who, desp|te the support a|ready ment|oned, cannot bear the|r
suffer|ng and who may have s|gn|fcant d|ffcu|t|es |n bas|c da||y funct|on|ng (|eve|
4}. These ch||dren may have pre-ex|st|ng menta| hea|th d|sorders not re|ated to
the d|saster but worsened by |t.
intervention pyramid
Examples
Social considerations
in basic services
and security
Strengthening
community
and family supports
Focused
non-specialised
supports
Specialised
services
Mental healthcare by mental
health specialists ( psychiatric,
nurses, psychologists,
psychiatrists, etc.j
Basic mental healthcare by
primacy healthcare doctors
Basic emotional and
practical
support by community
workers
Activating social networks
Communal traditionnal
supports
Supportive age-friendly
spaces
Advocacy for basic services
that are safe, socially
appropriate and protect
dignity
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2. Chi|d, fami|y and community participation and empowerment.
An effect|ve and susta|nab|e approach for promot|ng psychosoc|a| we||be|ng and
recovery |s to strengthen the ab|||ty of fam|||es and commun|t|es to support one
another. G|r|s, boys, women and men shou|d be act|ve partners |n dec|s|ons that
affect the|r ||ves - for examp|e, by be|ng |nvo|ved |n re||ef efforts, |n|t|at|ves that
encourage o|der ch||dren to work w|th younger ch||dren, and parent comm|ttees.
3. Psycho|ogica| rst aid (PFA}.
PFA descr|bes a humane, support|ve response to a fe||ow human be|ng who
|s suffer|ng and who may need support. PFA, wh|ch |s a techn|que that can
be |earned by commun|ty members and human|tar|ans, |s an a|ternat|ve to
'psycho|og|ca| debr|efng,` wh|ch has been found not to be effect|ve. ln contrast,
PFA |nc|udes factors that seem to be he|pfu| to peop|e`s |ong-term recovery.
These |nc|ude:
Fee||ng safe, connected to others, ca|m and hopefu|
Hav|ng access to soc|a|, phys|ca| and emot|ona| support
Fee||ng ab|e to he|p themse|ves, as |nd|v|dua|s and commun|t|es.
PFA |s for d|stressed ch||dren and adu|ts who have been recent|y exposed to a
ser|ous cr|s|s event. However, not everyone who exper|ences a cr|s|s event w|||
need or want PFA. Do not force he|p on peop|e who do not want |t, but make
he|p eas||y ava||ab|e to those who may want support.
F7 W1O@( 03,@$322$)
Ear|y ch||dhood covers the per|od from before b|rth (support to pregnant
women} through to pr|mary schoo|. For poor|y nour|shed, frequent|y ||| and
other groups of at-r|sk ch||dren, parent|ng |ntervent|ons promot|ng mother-
|nfant |nteract|on, |nc|ud|ng psychosoc|a| st|mu|at|on, shou|d be offered to
|mprove ch||d deve|opment. These programmes can be de||vered w|th|n ongo|ng
commun|ty programmes, |n mother-and-ch||d hea|th programmes, or |n ear|y
ch||dhood deve|opment centres. Make efforts to ensure that a|| ear|y ch||dhood
programmes are d|sab|||ty-fr|end|y, and that they address parents` spec|fc
needs.
5. Menta| hea|th treatment gap.
Few deve|op|ng countr|es have tra|n|ng schemes for psycho|og|sts and
psych|atr|sts. When these serv|ces are not ava||ab|e, agenc|es shou|d cons|der
|nc|ud|ng gu|dance |n pr|mary hea|th-care centres. The WHO menta| hea|th Gap
Act|on Programme (mhGAP} a|ms to |ncrease the care for menta|, neuro|og|ca|
and substance-use d|sorders |n non-spec|a||sed hea|th-care sett|ngs. Oh||dren
who have been |nst|tut|ona||sed due to a menta| d|sorder need to be we||-
protected, and must rece|ve adequate care.
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6. Communities.
To recreate a rout|ne |n ch||dren`s ||ves, |oca||y appropr|ate act|v|t|es m|ght |nc|ude
cu|tura| and art|st|c networks or centres, youth and women's networks and
c|ubs, re||g|ous networks and |eaders, nursery spaces, d|sab|||ty-fr|end|y and
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces, youth and ch||dren`s c|ubs, forma| or non-forma| educat|on
and parenta| support groups.
H7 ."442O/ /2 01O%-,B%O+)
He|p|ng parents, grandparents or other careg|vers to dea| w|th the|r own d|stress
and re-estab||sh the|r ab|||ty for good parent|ng |s v|ta| for the|r own psycho|og|ca|
hea||ng and that of the|r ch||dren. Mak|ng ava||ab|e cu|tura||y appropr|ate and
access|b|e |nformat|on on construct|ve cop|ng methods, awareness of harmfu|
pract|ces, and he|p|ng peop|e to ho|d trad|t|ona| gr|ev|ng ceremon|es are a||
usefu| steps |n hea||ng.
I7 [2#,/2O,#- 6%@@'%,#-)
lt |s very |mportant that the object|ves of psychosoc|a| programm|ng - whether
these are outputs, outcomes or |mpacts - are not dec|ded by project staff a|one,
but w|th act|ve |nvo|vement of the benefc|ar|es and other re|evant stakeho|ders.
The best way to measure |nd|cators of psychosoc|a| we||be|ng |s by comb|n|ng
methods wh|ch measure quant|tat|ve data (us|ng ex|st|ng quest|onna|res} and
methods wh|ch measure qua||tat|ve data (us|ng focus-group d|scuss|ons, key
|nformant |nterv|ews and observat|ons |n the commun|ty}.
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References
lASO Reference Group on menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support
(2010}. |/5C G0|de|||es o| me||a| |ea||| a|d os,c|osoc|a| s0ooo||
/o| o|o|ec||o| wo||e|s
lRO, OHOHR, Save the Oh||dren, Terre des Hommes, NHOR,
n|cef (2009}. /c||o| /o| ||e ||||s o/ C|||d|e|. Fo0|da||o| mod0|e
o| os,c|osoc|a| s0ooo||
WHO (Sn|der, van Ommeren & Schafer} (2011}. |s,c|o|o|ca| F||s|
/|d. G0|de /o| F|e|d Ho||e|s
NlOEF (2011}. |||e|-/e|c, G0|de |o ||e E.a|0a||o| o/ |s,c|osoc|a|
||o|amm|| || Eme|e|c|es
WHO (2008}. /e||a| |ea||| ao ac||o| o|o|amme. 5ca||| 0o ca|e
/o| me||a|, |e0|o|o|ca| a|d s0os|a|ce 0se d|so|de|s
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
lnternat|ona| Oovenant on Econom|c,
Soc|a| and Ou|tura| R|ghts (1966}
lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v||,
Po||t|ca| and Ou|tura| R|ghts (1966}
www.arc-on||ne
(Act|on for the R|ghts of Oh||dren}
www.mhpss.net
(Menta| Hea|th and Psychosoc|a| Support Network}
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STANDARD 11
Children associated with armed forces
or armed groups
Desp|te grow|ng |nternat|ona| attent|on to the recru|tment and use of ch||dren
|n conf|ct and w|de condemnat|on of th|s pract|ce, ch||dren cont|nue to be
assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups across the wor|d. Boys and g|r|s
are used |n a number of ways, |nc|ud|ng as combatants; |n act|ve support ro|es
such as sp|es, porters or |nformants; or for sexua| purposes. Oh||dren assoc|ated
w|th armed forces or armed groups are exposed to tremendous v|o|ence - often
forced both to w|tness and comm|t v|o|ence, wh||e themse|ves be|ng abused,
forced to use drugs, exp|o|ted, |njured or even k|||ed as a resu|t. The|r cond|t|on
depr|ves them of the|r r|ghts, often w|th severe phys|ca| and emot|ona| |ong-term
consequences, |nc|ud|ng d|sab|||t|es, as a resu|t of the|r exper|ences.
Standard
G|r|s and boys are protected from recru|tment and use |n host|||t|es by
armed forces or armed groups, and are re|eased and prov|ded w|th
effect|ve re|ntegrat|on serv|ces.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
As soon as poss|b|e carry out a jo|nt rev|ew of ex|st|ng |nformat|on on the
presence of ch||dren |n armed forces or armed groups, and |nc|dents of ch||d
recru|tment, to be fo||owed by a jo|nt s|tuat|on or context ana|ys|s. lnc|ude
|nformat|on on poss|b|e commun|ty-based d|sarmament, demob|||zat|on and
re|ntegrat|on;
work w|th |eaders, commun|t|es, fam|||es, and youth organ|zat|ons to prevent
recru|tment and change norms that favour ch||dren`s part|c|pat|on |n armed
forces or groups;
ensure that broader d|sarmament, demob|||zat|on and re|ntegrat|on (DDR}
processes and strateg|es are set up at the nat|ona| |eve|, and take |nto
cons|derat|on ch||dren`s spec|fc needs and r|ghts. The DDR process shou|d,
where poss|b|e, be |ed by government author|t|es, and shou|d draw on
the expert|se and sk|||s of N agenc|es, NGOs and |oca| c|v|| soc|ety and
commun|t|es. lt shou|d be |ntegrated |nto schemes a|med at re|ntegrat|ng
other ch||dren at r|sk (w|th a v|ew to avo|d|ng st|gmat|zat|on and potent|a|
tens|ons between ch||dren former|y assoc|ated who may be v|ewed by the|r
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commun|t|es as perpetrators of cr|mes and other vu|nerab|e and affected
ch||dren at the commun|ty |eve|};
ensure that ch||d protect|on staff are tra|ned on |dent|fcat|on of ch||dren
assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups, and the process of DDR;
map, advocate for and support |aws, po||c|es, and nat|ona| p|ans of act|on by
both state and non-state actors to end and prevent the recru|tment and use
of ch||dren, when th|s can be done w|thout r|sk for the ch||dren themse|ves
or for human|tar|an staff;
strengthen commun|ty-based ear|y warn|ng systems to mon|tor and report
|nc|dents of ch||d recru|tment and use/d|sappearances, and act|v|ty of armed
forces or groups. Ensure that these systems are ||nked to |oca| and nat|ona|
ch||d protect|on or protect|on mon|tor|ng systems; and
ensure ongo|ng and effect|ve coord|nat|on between the Oountry Task Force
on Mon|tor|ng and Report|ng, when |t does ex|st (as per Secur|ty Oounc||
Reso|ut|on 1612}; other mechan|sms for mon|tor|ng and report|ng human
r|ghts v|o|at|ons; and responses and serv|ces to v|ct|ms (see Standard 1}.
8SP0hS
Promote coord|nat|on and cooperat|on among a|| actors work|ng on prevent|on
of ch||d recru|tment and use, on re|ease of ch||dren from armed forces or
groups, and on prov|d|ng ass|stance to the|r re|ntegrat|on, |n order to ensure
a|| programmes comp|ement each other. A key e|ement |s the deve|opment
of standard|zed too|s for manag|ng cases;
work w|th |oca| |eaders, commun|ty groups, schoo|s, and youth organ|zat|ons
to take act|on to prevent recru|tment or vo|untary part|c|pat|on |n armed forces
or groups;
carry out access|b|e pub||c |nformat|on campa|gns, where appropr|ate, on
the r|sks for ch||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups, and the
r|sks of fam||y separat|on;
|dent|fy and support ch||dren who are vu|nerab|e to recru|tment (for |nstance,
by prov|d|ng rea||st|c a|ternat|ves to jo|n|ng armed forces or groups};
ensure access to safe schoo| educat|on for a|| ch||dren, as we|| as |ong-term
v|ab|e ||ve||hood opportun|t|es;
deve|op a process for tra|ned ch||d protect|on staff to |dent|fy and ver|fy
ch||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups;
|n|t|ate d|scuss|ons w|th the appropr|ate m|||tary and/or po||t|ca| author|t|es and
armed group commanders or m|||t|a |eaders at |oca|, nat|ona|, and reg|ona|
|eve| where necessary, to advocate for the re|ease of ch||dren |n the|r ranks;
take a|| boys or g|r|s ver|fed to be assoc|ated w|th an armed force or armed
group (as we|| as any of the|r ch||dren} as qu|ck|y as poss|b|e to a safe, c|v|||an
|ocat|on;
|n|t|ate the fam||y trac|ng process as ear|y as poss|b|e and, bu||d|ng wherever
poss|b|e on ex|st|ng serv|ces, prov|de ch||dren w|th |nter|m care, med|ca|
serv|ces, psychosoc|a| care and counse|||ng, etc.;
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ensure that a commun|ty-or|ented approach |s adopted dur|ng the re|ntegrat|on
phase; and
ensure that ch||dren who have been |njured or d|sab|ed rece|ve appropr|ate
med|ca| ass|stance, care and fo||ow up.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Change against baseline value of estimated number of
girls and boys currently associated with armed forces or
armed groups
Decrease
2. Percentage of girls and boys separated from armed
forces or groups who are effectively reintegrated in their
families and the community or alternatively integrated
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of targeted communities where 80% of those
surveyed can describe commonly agreed strategies to
prevent and report child recruitment
To be determined in
country or context
4. Existence of a set of interim care procedures that are
agreed upon and implemented by all relevant actors
Yes
5. Percentage of humanitarian workers surveyed who
demonstrate a clear understanding of how to identify
and report cases of child recruitment and use
90%
h0TS
(2j 'Effective
reintegration"
needs to be
defned in country
(3j 'Commonly
agreed" refers to
strategies that are
widely seen as
effective, and can
be defned in each
context
Guidance notes
D7 9$B2010()
ln countr|es where ch||d recru|tment and use |s not yet proh|b|ted or
cr|m|na||sed, ch||d protect|on agenc|es, as we|| as h|gh-|eve| n|ted Nat|ons
offc|a|s (for examp|e, a human|tar|an country co-ord|nator, human|tar|an
co-ord|nator or spec|a| representat|ve to the secretary genera|}, shou|d strong|y
encourage the government to amend the|r |eg|s|at|on to th|s effect. Nat|ona|
and |oca| author|t|es (and armed forces or groups where appropr|ate} shou|d
be supported to make sure resu|t|ng |ega| ob||gat|ons are |mp|emented and
enforced at nat|ona| and |oca| |eve|s. Act|on p|ans deve|oped by MRM Oountry
Taskforces w||| support these |ega| ob||gat|ons and sha|| |nc|ude tra|n|ng and
awareness ra|s|ng of government author|t|es, m|||tary personne|, armed forces
or armed group members, and a|| stakeho|ders. Re|ated act|on may a|so |nc|ude
support |n strengthen|ng government |ega|, jud|c|a| and we|fare structures at
nat|ona| and |oca| |eve|.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #*%
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2. Making the community and fami|ies aware.
Make sure ch||dren are aware of the serv|ces and support ava||ab|e to them.
To make sure the commun|ty and fam|||es are aware of the re|evant |ssues and
prob|ems, |ntens|ve awareness ra|s|ng efforts shou|d be made and |nformat|on
shou|d be regu|ar|y made ava||ab|e |n a form that |s eas||y understandab|e and
access|b|e for ch||dren, fam|||es and commun|t|es. The messages shou|d:
H|gh||ght factors that he|ghten the r|sks of recru|t|ng ch||dren, both through
forced and so-ca||ed 'vo|untary" recru|tment
H|gh||ght the r|sks faced by ch||dren, boys and g|r|s wh||e |n the ranks of armed
forces or groups
lnform commun|t|es of nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| |aws govern|ng age of
recru|tment
Be |nc|uded |n educat|on and vocat|ona| tra|n|ng
Reach ado|escent boys who are part|cu|ar|y at r|sk of recru|tment
H|gh||ght the add|t|ona| r|sk of sexua| abuse faced by g|r|s be|ng recru|ted
and used (vo|untar||y or forc|b|y}, and the st|gma and trauma resu|t|ng from
such abuses
H|gh||ght that boys and g|r|s are ||ke|y to be rejected |f the|r act|v|t|es have put
the commun|ty |n danger
A commun|ty-based approach to re|ntegrat|on reduces st|gmat|zat|on and
tens|ons, wh||e promot|ng greater equ|ty |n the de||very of ass|stance. A cr|t|ca|
e|ement |s to mob|||ze the commun|ty and strengthen ex|st|ng serv|ces and
support structures.
3. Preventing fami|ies from separation and recruitment.
Prevent|on strateg|es may |nc|ude strengthen|ng ex|st|ng commun|ty-based ch||d
protect|on mechan|sms, parent-support groups, and ch||dren`s or sports c|ubs
that are age appropr|ate; |nvest|ng |n educat|on and ||ve||hood programmes;
mapp|ng r|sk areas; and estab||sh|ng or strengthen|ng ex|st|ng commun|ty
ear|y warn|ng systems. Key commun|ty members and groups shou|d be aware
of ch||dren who are part|cu|ar|y at r|sk of be|ng separated from the|r fam|||es
and of recru|tment or re-recru|tment (whether forced or vo|untary}, and shou|d
make sure that these ch||dren can beneft from act|v|t|es that w||| promote the|r
protect|on and deve|opment. When poss|b|e, soc|a| support and ass|stance
programmes shou|d be des|gned to ma|nta|n fam||y un|ty (see Standards 16
and 17}.
F7 >%@%1+%)
A|| ch||dren who have been un|awfu||y recru|ted or used by armed forces or
groups shou|d be re|eased as soon as poss|b|e, even dur|ng armed conf|ct.
Re|eas|ng ch||dren does not depend on the temporary or permanent end of
host|||t|es, forma| peace be|ng announced, or on ch||dren hav|ng weapons to
g|ve up. Oons|der the |mportance of factors that may reduce the ||ke||hood that
g|r|s and boys want to |eave armed forces or groups (for examp|e, persona|
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #*&
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re|at|onsh|ps, a sense of be|ong|ng, |deo|ogy and |ncome, as we|| as pr|de
from he|p|ng the|r own commun|t|es by defend|ng them}. D|scuss|ons w|th
commanders of armed forces and groups shou|d be started by the co-cha|rs
of the MRM country-|eve| task force (|f one has been set up}, by the n|ted
Nat|ons, or by the most appropr|ate organ|sat|on under the c|rcumstances.
These groups shou|d cons|der the perspect|ve of the armed forces or groups
and use appropr|ate |anguage they can understand, rather than on|y us|ng
trad|t|ona| ch||d protect|on and human r|ghts |anguage, wh|ch cou|d stop
d|scuss|ons for re|ease rather than he|p|ng them move forward. Efforts shou|d
be fo||owed by or re|ated to a comprehens|ve ana|ys|s of the re|evant armed
force or armed group, the reasons why ch||dren have or may become assoc|ated
w|th |t, and the way |n wh|ch those ch||dren are recru|ted.
5. Identication and verication.
Ongo|ng screen|ng, |dent|fcat|on and age ver|fcat|on can ensure that boys and
g|r|s be|ow 18 years of age who have been recru|ted are |dent|fed. Th|s a|so
|nc|udes ch||dren used as so|d|ers, cooks, porters, messengers and sp|es, and
those recru|ted for sexua| purposes. lf the screen|ng |s part of a broader, forma|
DDR process for adu|ts, spec|a| prov|s|ons must be made to |dent|fy ch||dren,
espec|a||y g|r|s, whose presence may be h|dden, as they are often cons|dered
dependants of the so|d|ers. Oh||dren must then be |nterv|ewed us|ng ch||d-
fr|end|y techn|ques, and documented |mmed|ate|y after be|ng removed from
armed forces or groups. Th|s documentat|on w||| a||ow a better understand|ng
the ch||d`s s|tuat|on; w||| ass|st h|s or her handover to a ch||d protect|on actor
or agency; and w||| ensure appropr|ate re|ntegrat|on ass|stance.
6. Interim care.
Some ch||dren may be ab|e to return |mmed|ate|y to the|r fam|||es and
commun|t|es. lnter|m care shou|d be prov|ded |mmed|ate|y for those whose
fam|||es are be|ng traced, or to he|p them move |nto c|v|||an ||fe. A|| ch||dren,
|n |nter|m care and those who have returned to the|r commun|ty, shou|d have
access to appropr|ate hea|th serv|ces and cu|tura||y appropr|ate psychosoc|a|
support. As appropr|ate, they may be g|ven a re|ntegrat|on k|t that meets agreed
|nter-agency standards. Prov|s|on of cash ass|stance |s not recommended.
Some ch||dren may be unab|e or unw||||ng to return to the|r commun|t|es of or|g|n.
Med|at|on and advocacy may be appropr|ate to fac|||tate the|r return. Wh||e |n
|nter|m care, such serv|ces as tra|n|ng |n ||fe-sk|||s, recreat|ona| act|v|t|es, catch-
up c|asses, and |nformat|on about re|ntegrat|on support w|th|n commun|t|es may
be appropr|ate, but the focus shou|d be on return to a commun|ty as soon as
poss|b|e and the prov|s|on of serv|ces there rather than on an extended per|od
|n |nter|m care, wh|ch shou|d be as br|ef as poss|b|e. lf fam||y reun|fcat|on |s
not poss|b|e for a ch||d w|th|n a defned per|od (e.g. 6 weeks}, then a foster
p|acement may be appropr|ate. G|r|s may have spec|fc needs, part|cu|ar|y |f
they have been sexua||y abused, are pregnant, or have young ch||dren. A m|xed
team shou|d be ava||ab|e to a||ow both g|r|s and boys to vo|ce the|r needs and
pr|or|t|es |n separate consu|tat|ons. Des|gn trans|t|ona| centres |n a way that
protects the pr|vacy and safety of g|r|s (for examp|e, w|th separate wash|ng
fac|||t|es and s|eep|ng rooms}. A|| staff |nvo|ved shou|d rece|ve thorough tra|n|ng
(see Standards 13 and 15}.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #*'
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7. Fami|y tracing and reunication.
Before fam|||es are reun|ted, soc|a| workers shou|d ||a|se w|th them to make
sure that the ch||d w||| not be rejected by the fam||y due to fear of judgment by
the commun|ty (part|cu|ar|y re|evant for g|r|s} or for secur|ty concerns (typ|ca||y
re|evant for boys}. Pay spec|fc attent|on when g|r|s and boys are be|ng reun|ted
w|th the|r fam|||es and commun|t|es, as they are ||ke|y to exper|ence d|st|nct
forms of st|gmat|zat|on due to the|r former assoc|at|on w|th armed forces
or groups. Ensure reun|fcat|on fo||ow-up v|s|ts. Documentat|on, trac|ng and
reun|fcat|on act|v|t|es shou|d be comb|ned w|th ongo|ng commun|ty and fam||y
based arrangements for the care and protect|on of ch||dren. lf |t |s not poss|b|e
to reun|te a ch||d w|th the|r own fam||y (|nc|ud|ng extended fam||y}, other fam||y-
based care arrangements must be found. On an except|ona| bas|s, |ndependent
||v|ng arrangements may be supported for sma|| groups of ch||dren under the
form of ch||d-headed househo|ds |f there |s frequent and regu|ar fo||ow-up by
soc|a| workers (see Standard 13}. When ch||dren are reun|ted w|th the|r fam|||es,
they shou|d have a cert|fcate s|gned by the m|||tary author|t|es of the country
to he|p prevent them from be|ng recru|ted aga|n, arrested for desert|on, or
subjected to other forms of harassment or v|o|at|ons, |nc|ud|ng by nat|ona|
secur|ty forces and |oca| author|t|es. ln cases of cross-border trac|ng and
reun|fcat|on, be carefu| to deve|op a shared strategy.
I7 >%,#/%-O1/,2#)
As we|| as prov|d|ng |nd|v|dua| support for |mproved educat|ona|, vocat|ona|
and ||ve||hood opportun|t|es and referra| to med|ca|, psychosoc|a| and |ega|
serv|ces, a re|ntegrat|on strategy shou|d be commun|ty-based. lt shou|d bu||d
on the strengths and res|||ence of ch||dren and take |nto cons|derat|on the
spec|a| needs of ch||dren. lt shou|d support ch||dren who have |eft armed forces
or groups - |nc|ud|ng by ensur|ng regu|ar fo||ow-up - as we|| as support other
ch||dren |n the same commun|ty affected by conf|ct. Th|s approach reduces
r|sks of st|gmat|zat|on and repr|sa|s aga|nst ch||dren former|y assoc|ated w|th
an armed force or armed group, wh||e beneft|ng from pre-ex|st|ng protect|on
systems, promot|ng greater equa||ty |n de||ver|ng he|p, and strengthen|ng ch||d
protect|on systems |n the |onger term. Avo|d cont|nu|ng to |dent|fy ch||dren
former|y assoc|ated w|th armed forces and groups as such, s|nce th|s can cause
st|gma. Spec|a| needs for psychosoc|a| support may need to be addressed
both among such ch||dren and among others who were a|so affected by
armed conf|ct. Re|ntegrat|on at the commun|ty |eve| may |nc|ude, for examp|e,
peace-bu||d|ng act|v|t|es, games and sport, and awareness-ra|s|ng sess|ons on
spec|fc |ssues. Where they are cu|tura||y appropr|ate and w|th the agreement of
ch||dren and fam|||es, re||g|ous ceremon|es or trad|t|ona| c|eans|ng and hea||ng
ceremon|es can fac|||tate acceptance and return to c|v|||an ||fe.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #*(
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9. Fami|y preparation.
When trac|ng |s successfu|, assessment shou|d ver|fy that fam||y reun|fcat|on |s
|n the best |nterests of the ch||d. lt |s cr|t|ca| to take part|cu|ar measures |n the
case of ch||dren former|y assoc|ated w|th armed forces or groups. Preparat|ons
for the reun|fcat|on of these ch||dren must take |nto account the need to sh|e|d
them aga|nst d|scr|m|nat|on, targeted attacks and further recru|tment. ln cases
where there are ser|ous concerns, |t may be necessary to |nvo|ve the appropr|ate
|oca| author|t|es, ex|st|ng we|fare systems, other agenc|es and |oca| commun|t|es
for any further act|on or future support requ|red. Reun|fcat|on shou|d be ass|sted
and fo||owed up. When fo||ow-up support |s prov|ded to the ch||d`s fam||y, the
needs of the surround|ng commun|ty shou|d a|so be cons|dered. A|ternat|ve
|ong-term arrangements shou|d be made when fam||y reun|on proves not to
be poss|b|e w|th|n a reasonab|e per|od, or when reun|on wou|d not be |n the
ch||d`s best |nterest.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##*
References
Par|s Oomm|tments to protect ch||dren from un|awfu| recru|tment or
use by armed forces or armed groups (2007}
Par|s Pr|nc|p|es and Gu|de||nes on Oh||dren Assoc|ated W|th Armed
Forces or Armed Groups (2007}
N (2006}. n|ted Nat|ons. |||e|a|ed D|sa|mame||, Demoo|||za||o|
a|d |e|||e|a||o| 5|a|da|ds (|DD|5, a|d Ooe|a||o|a| G0|de |o ||e
|DD|5, part|cu|ar|y rev|sed chapters 5.20 (Youth} and 5.30 (Oh||dren}
(forthcom|ng 2012}
lPEO-lTOl|O (2010. |ow-|o 0|de o| eco|om|c |e|||e|a||o| o/
c|||d|e| /o|me||, assoc|a|ed w||| a|med /o|ces a|d |o0os
Par|s Pr|nc|p|es Steer|ng Group (forthcom|ng 2012}.7ec|||ca| ^o|e o|
eco|om|c |e|||e|a||o| o/ c|||d|e| assoc|a|ed w||| a|med /o|ces o|
a|med |o0os
Par|s Pr|nc|p|es Steer|ng Group (forthcom|ng 2013} F|e|d |a|dooo| o|
C|||d |ec|0||me||, |e|ease a|d |e|||e|a||o|
Par|s Pr|nc|p|es Steer|ng Group, (forthcom|ng 2013}. 7|a||||
|ac|ae o| C|||d |ec|0||me||, |e|ease a|d |e|||e|a||o|
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
Opt|ona| Protoco| to the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d on
the |nvo|vement of ch||dren |n armed conf|ct (2000}
Rome Statute of the lnternat|ona| Or|m|na| Oourt (1998}
Geneva Oonvent|ons (1949}
Add|t|ona| Protoco| l and ll to the Geneva Oonvent|ons (1977}
www.ch||drenandarmedconf|ct.un.org
www.un|cef.org
(ch||d recru|tment by armed forces or armed groups webpage}
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ###
STANDARD 12
Child labour
Oh||d |abour |s work that |s unacceptab|e because the ch||dren |nvo|ved are too
young and shou|d be |n schoo|, or because even though they have reached
the m|n|mum work|ng age (usua||y 15}, the work that they do |s harmfu| to the
emot|ona|, deve|opmenta| and phys|ca| we||be|ng of a person be|ow the age of
18. Many ch||d |abourers are v|ct|ms of the worst forms of ch||d |abour (WFO|},
such as forced or bonded |abour, us|ng ch||dren |n armed conf|ct, traffck|ng
for exp|o|tat|on, sexua| exp|o|tat|on, ||||c|t work or other work wh|ch |s ||ke|y to
harm the|r hea|th, safety or mora|s (hazardous work}.
ln emergency contexts, w|th the poss|b|e |oss of ||ve||hoods, breadw|nners and
access to educat|on, and when fam|||es are separated and d|sp|aced, ch||dren
become part|cu|ar|y vu|nerab|e to ch||d |abour (and espec|a||y to the WFO|}.
An emergency may:
lncrease the overa|| |nc|dence of the WFO|
Tr|gger new WFO|
Resu|t |n work|ng ch||dren tak|ng on more dangerous work
Resu|t |n unsafe moves by ch||dren to search for work, wh|ch w||| put them
at r|sk of exp|o|tat|ve work s|tuat|ons
Wh||e the ch||d protect|on response |n an emergency shou|d be as thorough as
poss|b|e, g|ven the comp|ex|ty of respond|ng to a|| ch||d |abour |n a g|ven context the
response shou|d pr|or|t|se the worst forms, start|ng w|th those re|ated to or made
worse by the emergency. Efforts shou|d bu||d on and contr|bute to any ongo|ng
nat|ona| processes.
Children in
productive activities
Child labour
Worst forms of
child labour
(hazardous work
and othersj
To be
eliminated
activities
not to
necessarily
be
eliminated
To be
eliminated
as a mater
of urgency
The worst forms of ch||d |abour (WFO|} are a subset of ch||d |abour to be abo||shed, wh|ch
|s a subset of ch||dren |n the product|ve act|v|t|es. The very |arge major|ty of ch||dren |n the
WFO| are |n hazardous work. Others WFO| |nc|ude forced or bonded |abour, use |n armed
conf|ct, traffck|ng sexua| or econom|c exp|o|tat|on, sexua| exp|o|tat|on and ||||c|t work.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##)
Standard
Girls and boys are protected from the worst forms of child labour, in
particular those related to or made worse by the emergency.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Oarry out a desk rev|ew to co||ect |nformat|on on the current WFO| s|tuat|on
and |essons |earned from past emergenc|es, part|cu|ar|y |n terms of the
types, area, sca|e and root causes of the WFO|, and what types of WFO|
are generated or exacerbated by emergenc|es;
co||ect |nformat|on on the nat|ona| |eg|s|at|ve and po||cy framework, espec|a||y
the |abour |aw, the offc|a| ||st of hazardous ch||d |abour and nat|ona| act|on
p|ans to e||m|nate the WFO|;
|dent|fy key nat|ona| stakeho|ders |nvo|ved |n the fght aga|nst ch||d |abour,
|n part|cu|ar the M|n|str|es of |abour, Educat|on and Soc|a| Deve|opment,
as we|| as workers` and emp|oyers` organ|sat|ons and the c|v|| soc|ety, and
co||ect |nformat|on on the|r mandates, po||c|es and programmes and on the|r
capac|t|es; and
organ|se or engage |n tra|n|ng and |nformat|on-shar|ng opportun|t|es on the
WFO| for re|evant human|tar|an and deve|opment stakeho|ders.
8SP0hS
A|ert the author|t|es, commun|t|es, parents, youth groups and ch||dren about
the dangers assoc|ated w|th the WFO| and the |mportance of protect|ng
ch||dren from the WFO|;
work w|th commun|t|es to |dent|fy and m|t|gate r|sks of traffck|ng;
|nc|ude WFO| |n assessments and carry out, as appropr|ate, an extra |n-depth
study on the effect of the emergency on the extent and nature of the WFO|;
make sure key nat|ona| stakeho|ders and ch||dren are |nvo|ved |n deve|op|ng
and putt|ng |nto pract|ce coord|nated responses to the WFO| |n emergenc|es,
us|ng the Nat|ona| Steer|ng Oomm|ttee of Oh||d |abour (where |t ex|sts } as
an entry po|nt |f appropr|ate;
ensure that responses to the WFO| become part of human|tar|an |ntervent|ons,
|n part|cu|ar |n areas of ch||d protect|on, educat|on, soc|a| protect|on and
econom|c recovery, by prov|d|ng gu|dance and tra|n|ng to those work|ng |n
these sectors;
assess the poss|b|e negat|ve effect of the human|tar|an response on the
WFO|, and work w|th human|tar|an organ|sat|ons and others to prevent th|s
from happen|ng;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##!
|n countr|es w|th no up-to-date offc|a| ||st of hazardous ch||d |abour, propose
that the government (|oca| or nat|ona|} organ|ses a consu|tat|on to |dent|fy
hazardous work |n the emergency-affected area and pr|or|t|se |t for act|on;
make sure that a jo|nt WFO| mon|tor|ng and referra| system |s |n p|ace and
|nc|uded |n ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on referra| systems;
he|p ch||dren |nvo|ved |n, or at r|sk of becom|ng |nvo|ved |n, the WFO| to take
advantage of |earn|ng opportun|t|es; and
he|p ch||dren of work|ng age who are |nvo|ved |n, or at r|sk of becom|ng
|nvo|ved |n, the WFO| (and the|r careg|vers} to access adequate support to
strengthen the|r ||ve||hood or econom|c c|rcumstances.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of children, disaggregated by sex and age,
removed from the WFCL, who are provided with case
management in a timely fashion
To be determined in
country or context
2. Number of children involved in the WFCL who receive
adequate support
To be determined in
country or context
3. Number of children at risk of becoming involved in the
WFCL who receive adequate support
To be determined in
country or context
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
4. WFCL considerations included in CP case-management
systems
Yes
5. WFCL included in CP communication and advocacy
strategies and tools
Yes
6. Number of children involved in, or at risk of becoming
involved in, the WFCL referred to economic recovery
interventions
To be determined
in country
7. Percentage of children involved in, or at risk of becoming
involved in, the WFCL referred to education interventions
100%
8. Percentage of communities that have been reached by
information campaigns on the danger and consequences
of the WFCL
100%
h0TS
(1j 'Timely fashion"
to be determined
in country or
context
(3j Who is at risk
to be defned in
country or context

Guidance notes
1. Mainstreaming into humanitarian interventions.
lt |s |mportant to make sure that the serv|ces put |n p|ace and act|v|t|es carr|ed
out as part of the ch||d protect|on response contr|bute effect|ve|y to prevent|ng
and respond|ng to the WFO|. For examp|e, rap|d assessments shou|d |nc|ude
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##$
quest|ons on the WFO|; commun|cat|on and advocacy shou|d cover the WFO|;
case-management systems shou|d work w|th ch||dren |nvo|ved |n the WFO|;
and commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms shou|d a|so be he|ped to
take act|on aga|nst the WFO|. ||kew|se, econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons and
educat|on |ntervent|ons can contr|bute to tack||ng the root causes of the WFO|
|n the emergency. The ro|e of ch||d protect|on actors |s to make sure that these
programmes are des|gned and put |nto pract|ce |n a way that has the most
benefc|a| effect poss|b|e on the state of educat|on and the reduct|on of WFO|.
For examp|e, educat|on prov|ders shou|d take steps to |dent|fy, reach and
mon|tor work|ng ch||dren. Fam|||es w|th on|y one carer and househo|ds where
the e|dest member of the fam||y |s a ch||d shou|d rece|ve he|p |n terms of both
ch||d and soc|a| protect|on, a|ongs|de any 'for-work` schemes.
K7 <1T1O$2"+ 62OA)
lt |s up to countr|es to defne what work |s proh|b|ted for someone under the
age of 18, by creat|ng a `hazardous ch||d |abour ||st` and enact|ng |t |n |aw. Th|s
|s done through a consu|tat|on that br|ngs together emp|oyers` and workers`
organ|sat|ons and the government. ln countr|es where there |s no ||st, or where
the ||st |s not up to date, the emergency prov|des an opportun|ty for ch||d
protect|on organ|sat|ons to he|p the government to organ|se a consu|tat|on to
ask 'What work |s hazardous |n the emergency-affected area?", 'Where |s |t
found?" and 'What shou|d have pr|or|ty for act|on?". Th|s w||| gu|de awareness-
ra|s|ng and tra|n|ng act|v|t|es as we|| as d|rect act|v|t|es to support ch||dren.
E7 =3,@$O%# 632 #%%$ /1O-%/%$ 3%@4)
Support shou|d be prov|ded to boys and g|r|s |nvo|ved |n WFO| but a|so, as a
prevent|on measure, to those at r|sk of tak|ng part |n the WFO|. Three of the
WFO| are defned |n the l|O Oonvent|on N182 (forced or bonded |abour, sexua|
exp|o|tat|on and ||||c|t work}, wh||e the fourth category (work that |s harmfu| to
ch||dren} |s defned |n the nat|ona| hazardous ch||d |abour ||st. Factors that put
ch||dren at h|gh r|sk for tak|ng part |n the WFO| shou|d a|so be |dent|fed at
country |eve|.
4. WFCL monitoring and referra| system.
lt |s the ro|e of government enforcement un|ts, such as |abour |nspectorates
and the po||ce, as we|| as soc|a| we|fare serv|ces, to |dent|fy ch||dren who are
|nvo|ved |n, or at r|sk of, the WFO|. However, the|r capac|ty |s often weak,
part|cu|ar|y |n rura| areas and |nforma| enterpr|ses. Th|s |s the reason why severa|
countr|es have set up ch||d-|abour mon|tor|ng systems (O|MS} to support the
|nspectorate. A O|MS mob|||ses the commun|ty to mon|tor ch||d |abour and to
refer ch||dren to schoo|s and serv|ces accord|ng to set gu|de||nes. lf no O|MS |s
|n p|ace |n the emergency-affected area, ch||d protect|on organ|sat|ons shou|d
work w|th nat|ona| partners (m|n|str|es of |abour, educat|on, and soc|a| we|fare}
as we|| as the pr|vate sector and workers` un|ons, to deve|op a |oca| O|MS that
sets out who wou|d do the mon|tor|ng, how cases w||| be hand|ed (for examp|e,
a referra| p|an}, and where |nformat|on and reports wou|d be f|ed. Th|s |oca|
O|MS shou|d be |nc|uded a|ongs|de ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on referra| systems.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##"
M7 ."442O/ 4O2B,$%$ /2 03,@$O%#)
The course of act|on w||| depend on the ch||d`s s|tuat|on:
Any ch||d (under 18} found |n forced or bonded |abour, do|ng ||||c|t work or
be|ng sexua||y exp|o|ted shou|d be removed |mmed|ate|y from the s|tuat|on,
g|ven case management and access to |earn|ng opportun|t|es, and prov|ded
w|th support to he|p the|r fnanc|a| s|tuat|on
A ch||d under the m|n|mum work|ng age found do|ng hazardous work (|ong
hours, work w|th dangerous mach|nery, chem|ca|s or heavy we|ghts, etc.}
shou|d be removed and g|ven |earn|ng opportun|t|es and/or have the|r fnanc|a|
s|tuat|on addressed
A ch||d above the m|n|mum work|ng age found |n hazardous work shou|d be
separated from the hazard, or have the r|sk reduced to an acceptab|e |eve|,
and may cont|nue to be emp|oyed |n the workp|ace
Any ch||d who |s not |n the WFO| but |s at h|gh r|sk of becom|ng so shou|d
be treated |n a s|m||ar way, w|th access to |earn|ng opportun|t|es prov|ded
and/or the|r fnanc|a| s|tuat|on addressed.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##%
References
l|O (2009}. 5a/e Ho|| /o| Yo0|| 7oo||||
l|O/NlOEF (2005}. /a|0a| o| c|||d |aoo0| |ao|d assessme||
me||odo|o,
l|O (2012}. 7|e |||oa||||e o|ocess o/ de|e|m|||| |aza|do0s wo||
o/ c|||d|e|. G0|de /o| /ac||||a|o|s
l|O (2010}. 50ooo|||| C|||d|e|'s ||||s |||o0| Ed0ca||o|, ||e
/||s a|d ||e /ed|a (5C|E//. / 5oec|a| /od0|e o| C|||d |aoo0|
a|d /|med Co|/|c|
l|O (2005}. G0|de|||es /o| de.e|oo|| c|||d |aoo0| mo|||o||| (C|/
o|ocesses
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Oh||dren (1989}
Opt|ona| Protoco| to the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d on
the sa|e of ch||dren, ch||d prost|tut|on and ch||d pornography (2000}
Oonvent|on on M|n|mum Age for Adm|ss|on to Emp|oyment (1973}
Oonvent|on on the Worst Forms of Oh||d |abour (1999}
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##&
STANDARD 13
Unaccompanied and separated children
Th|s standard |s based on the lnter-Agency Gu|de||nes on naccompan|ed
and Separated Oh||dren (ASO} and the Gu|de||nes for the A|ternat|ve Oare
of Oh||dren. lt |s des|gned |n two parts: Part A focuses on |dent|fcat|on and
reg|strat|on, documentat|on, trac|ng fam|||es and reun|t|ng ch||dren w|th the|r
careg|vers |f they have become separated from them dur|ng an emergency.
Part B focuses on the |nter|m or a|ternat|ve care for ch||dren who need these
serv|ces fo||ow|ng an emergency. These have been des|gned to be read together.
Oh||dren separated from the|r parents and fam|||es because of conf|ct, d|saster
or popu|at|on d|sp|acement, or because of econom|c or soc|a| reasons, are at
|ncreased r|sk of v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on and neg|ect |n an emergency.
These ch||dren have |ost the care and protect|on of the|r fam|||es at the moment
when they need them the most.
lt |s |mportant to recogn|ze that separat|on can resu|t from a var|ety of causes.
Oh||dren can acc|denta||y become separated dur|ng f|ght to safety, dur|ng
an attack or dur|ng a popu|at|on movement. They may have been entrusted
by a parent to someone e|se, separated dur|ng prov|s|on of hea|th serv|ces
to themse|ves or the|r careg|ver, p|cked up by another fam||y or a|d worker
after hav|ng been |eft by a parent |ook|ng for surv|va| resources, abandoned,
abducted, or orphaned. They may a|so have run away. The bas|c assumpt|on,
unt|| trac|ng efforts demonstrate otherw|se, shou|d be that a ch||d has someone
w|th whom he or she can be reun|ted. Abso|ute|y avo|d referr|ng to these
ch||dren as 'orphans".
Separated ch||dren are those separated from both parents, or from the|r prev|ous
|ega| or usua| pr|mary careg|ver, but not necessar||y from other re|at|ves. As a
resu|t, th|s may |nc|ude ch||dren accompan|ed by other adu|t fam||y members.
naccompan|ed ch||dren (a|so ca||ed unaccompan|ed m|nors} are ch||dren who
have been separated from both parents and other re|at|ves, and who are not
be|ng cared for by an adu|t who, by |aw or custom, |s respons|b|e for do|ng so.
Standard
Family separation is prevented and responded to, and unaccompanied
and separated children are cared for and protected according to their
specifc needs and their best interests.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##'
A. Key actions - identification, documentation,
tracing and reunification (IDTR)
P8PA80hSS
Rev|ew/map nat|ona| |ega| frameworks and commun|ty systems re|ated to
ch||d protect|on mandates and procedures for work|ng w|th ch||dren w|thout
appropr|ate care, |nc|ud|ng prevent|on and response to fam||y separat|on,
and bu||d on th|s as much as poss|b|e and as much as |s appropr|ate;
deve|op Standard Operat|ng Procedures (SOPs} that c|ar|fy the ro|es and
respons|b|||t|es of those |nvo|ved |n lDTR and programmes re|ated to ASO.
Th|s shou|d |nc|ude methods for referra| and |nformat|on shar|ng, and the ro|e
of commun|ty structures;
set up a common Fam||y Trac|ng and Reun|fcat|on (FTR} database (poss|b|y
decentra||zed}, un|ess th|s a|ready ex|sts (cons|der the |nter-agency Oh||d
Protect|on lnformat|on Management System, lA OP lMS};
rev|ew the |nter-agency agreed common reg|strat|on forms and determ|ne |f
they need to be further adapted to the |oca| context. Prepare forms |n two
or more |anguages (|.e. mu|t|-|anguage forms} depend|ng on the context;
|dent|fy, tra|n and mentor |oca| |nterv|ewers, staff and soc|a| workers,
commun|ty vo|unteers and respons|b|e offc|a|s on the |nter-agency gu|de||nes
on unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren, age-appropr|ate methods for
|nterv|ew|ng ch||dren, and procedures to be fo||owed for comp|et|ng and
manag|ng the forms to be used |oca||y;
prov|de cop|es of re|evant forms to partner organ|zat|ons and agenc|es, once
the|r personne| have been tra|ned;
by work|ng w|th fam|||es and key commun|ty members, des|gn prevent|on
of separat|on mater|a|s and too|s (for examp|e, |eafets, st|ckers, hot||nes for
m|ss|ng and found ch||dren, rad|o campa|gns} and te|| ch||dren, fam|||es and
human|tar|an workers to whom they shou|d refer cases (see Standard 3 and
16};
stock FTR supp|y k|ts; and
|dent|fy potent|a| nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| partners for lDTR, and,
co||aborat|ve|y w|th the government, p|an geograph|c and funct|ona| d|v|s|ons
of respons|b|||ty, ensur|ng the |nc|us|on of the lnternat|ona| Oomm|ttee of the
Red Oross (where present} and the lnternat|ona| Red Oross and Red Orescent
Movement.
8SP0hS
Assess the scope, causes and r|sks of fam||y separat|on;
prevent fam||y separat|on, for examp|e, |n recept|on and arr|va| areas, or dur|ng
p|anned popu|at|on movements at hosp|ta|s (e.g. ensure that a|| ch||dren
adm|tted or w|th a parent wear a wr|st band w|th the|r name and other
|dent|fy|ng |nformat|on};
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ##(
agree w|th|n one week, w|th the re|evant government body and w|th|n
the ch||d-protect|on work|ng group (or s|m||ar coord|nat|on structure}, on
standard|zed reg|strat|on forms and draft operat|ng procedures for lDTR;
agree w|th|n one week on the bas|c e|ements of an |nformat|on and case-
management system, |nc|ud|ng a system and procedures for shar|ng
|nformat|on and geograph|c and funct|ona| areas of respons|b|||ty;
deve|op a proact|ve and systemat|c strategy to |dent|fy unaccompan|ed and
separated ch||dren, for examp|e, at reg|strat|on po|nts; by v|s|t|ng v|||age after
v|||age; dur|ng d|str|but|on; or by target|ng spec|fc |ocat|ons where ASO are
seen, such as hosp|ta|s and orphanages;
tra|n personne| and vo|unteers who w||| carry out lDTR act|v|t|es;
rap|d|y set up p|aces where separated ch||dren and parents of m|ss|ng ch||dren
can reg|ster, rece|ve |nformat|on and access serv|ces;
deve|op a referra| system for separated/m|ss|ng ch||dren and ra|se awareness
|n commun|t|es and fam|||es about lDTR serv|ces;
ensure that ASO have access to serv|ces and that they can be pr|or|t|zed
for ass|stance and protect|on procedures, and that they have equa| access
to schoo|s;
estab||sh mechan|sms regu|ar|y and systemat|ca||y to mon|tor the safety and
we||be|ng of ASO;
start trac|ng and reun|fcat|on |mmed|ate|y, and make sure there |s suffc|ent
staff and re|evant |og|st|c equ|pment (e.g. cameras, computers, pr|nters,
|ock|ng f||ng cab|nets, transportat|on};
keep ch||dren, fam|||es and careg|vers regu|ar|y updated on the progress of
trac|ng;
avo|d pub||c d|ssem|nat|on of |nformat|on that m|ght un|ntent|ona||y encourage
fam|||es to abandon ch||dren or fa|se|y present them as be|ng w|thout care
(e.g. based on the assumpt|on that ch||dren w|thout care w||| be g|ven spec|a|
ass|stance}, and rev|ew act|v|t|es |n other sectors (hea|th, nutr|t|on, WASH,
camp management, d|str|but|on, pub||c |nformat|on} and work jo|nt|y to ensure
that the|r programmes do not cause vo|untary or acc|denta| fam||y separat|on
(e.g. through fam|||es assum|ng unaccompan|ed ch||dren w||| be g|ven spec|a|
ass|stance};
for separated ch||dren, assess as soon as poss|b|e whether care arrangements
are appropr|ate and |n the|r best |nterest |nterests wh||e trac|ng cont|nues, and
ensure regu|ar mon|tor|ng of the|r |nter|m s|tuat|on, protect|on and we||be|ng;
after successfu| trac|ng resu|ts, ver|fy re|at|onsh|ps between a ch||d and
adu|ts, assess the w||||ngness and capac|ty of the rece|v|ng adu|ts to prov|de
appropr|ate care, determ|ne the ch||d`s w|shes and best |nterests, prov|de
the rece|v|ng fam||y such mater|a| ass|stance as may be necessary to perm|t
care at the same |eve| as other ch||dren |n the popu|at|on, and prepare both
the ch||d and the careg|ver before they are reun|ted;
make sure there |s t|me|y and per|od|c fo||ow-up for ch||dren who have been
reun|ted to make sure they are cared for and protected. Do not assume that
ch||dren reun|ted w|th re|at|ves w||| necessar||y be we|| cared for, and ensure
c|ose mon|tor|ng of such ch||dren unt|| |t |s c|ear that the nature of care |s
adequate; and
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #)*
when a ch||d |s reun|ted or p|aced w|th a re|at|ve, ensure that the adu|t
assum|ng respons|b|||ty for care pub||c|y s|gns a form accept|ng respons|b|||ty
for the ch||d, and arrange for one or more respected |oca| |eaders pub||c|y to
s|gn a form agree|ng to mon|tor the ch||d`s we||be|ng and report any prob|ems
to the body respons|b|e for ch||d protect|on and care.
B. Key actions - alternative care
P8PA80hSS
Strengthen the ex|st|ng foster care system, |nc|ud|ng through cont|ngency
p|ann|ng, so that |t can be expanded |n case of an emergency;
|dent|fy and d|ssem|nate re|evant nat|ona| |aw, po||ces, gu|de||nes, etc. re|ated
to a|ternat|ve care;
w|th|n the government and c|v|| soc|ety, |dent|fy the key nat|ona| actors
regard|ng a|ternat|ve care and the|r current ro|es and act|v|t|es;
|dent|fy re|evant trad|t|ona| mechan|sms for prov|d|ng care for ch||dren who
are outs|de of fam||y care;
prov|de tra|n|ng on the Gu|de||nes on A|ternat|ve Oare for Oh||dren and
|ntroduce the A|ternat|ve Oare Too|k|t;
support and strengthen |oca| capac|t|es (|nc|ud|ng government} and support
and bu||d the capac|ty of the ma|n organ|sat|ons and peop|e to |ead on the
p|ann|ng, management and de||very of |nter|m and a|ternat|ve care; and
map current |nter|m care structures and mechan|sms and |dent|fy wh|ch m|ght
be su|tab|e for meet|ng the needs of unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren.
8SP0hS
Make sure that needs assessments |nc|ude ch||dren`s ||v|ng s|tuat|ons,
support|ve commun|ty structures and systems, and the d|fferent a|ternat|ve
care opt|ons ava||ab|e (see Standards 4 and 5};
|n consu|tat|on w|th |oca| actors, act|ve|y seek to prevent unnecessary fam||y
separat|ons, through target|ng ass|stance at espec|a||y vu|nerab|e fam||y
groups;
deve|op a surve|||ance system (|nvo|v|ng personne| at potent|a| po|nts of
abandonment} to |dent|fy new|y unaccompan|ed ch||dren who may have
been re||nqu|shed |n the hope of the|r rece|v|ng ass|stance, and, |f prev|ous
careg|vers can be qu|ck|y |dent|fed, assess whether prov|d|ng spec|fc mater|a|
or food ass|stance can enab|e safe reun|fcat|on;
support and deve|op care serv|ces |n keep|ng w|th the Gu|de||nes for the
A|ternat|ve Oare of Oh||dren (spec|fca||y the emergency care sect|on} and
the A|ternat|ve Oare |n Emergenc|es Too|k|t;
cont|nua||y rev|ew care arrangements, such as foster care and res|dent|a| care
fac|||t|es, to make sure that they are not creat|ng |ncent|ves for abandon|ng
ch||dren;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #)#
regu|ar|y check to make sure that on|y those ch||dren who genu|ne|y need
a|ternat|ve care are p|aced |n |nter|m care;
deve|op a care p|an for each ch||d |n |nter|m or a|ternat|ve care as qu|ck|y
as poss|b|e and |n consu|tat|on w|th the ch||d, h|s or her fam||y and other
|mportant peop|e |n the ch||d`s ||fe;
systemat|ca||y fo||ow up a|| ch||dren |n |nter|m or a|ternat|ve care at |east once
every 12 weeks; and
make no permanent dec|s|on about a ch||d`s a|ternat|ve care arrangement as
|ong as there |s a chance of trac|ng fam||y members, before ava||ab|e trac|ng
avenues have been exhausted, and never, |n any event, w|th|n the frst year
of the beg|nn|ng of act|ve trac|ng, un|ess there are except|ona| c|rcumstances
(BlD gu|de||nes promote 2 years}.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Surveillance systems and services are in place to
prevent unnecessary separations
Yes
2. Percentage of children registered for tracing that has
been reunifed and stayed with their family for more than
six months
90%
3. Percentage of registered UASC in appropriate and
protective care arrangements
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
4. Adapted registration forms, SOPs, information, referral
and case-management systems in place within one
week of the emergency
Yes
5. Percentage of registered UASC who are reunited with
their caregivers
90%
6. Mechanisms in place for registration and receiving
information and for active tracing of immediate family
members and relatives
Yes
7. Percentage of children who have received at least one
follow-up visit within one month of being reunited with
caregivers
100%
8. Percentage of registered UASC in appropriate interim or
long-term alternative care
100%
9. Percentage of registered unaccompanied children in
log-terme alternative care who are receiving monitoring
visits at least once a month
90%
h0TS
(3j 'Appropriate"
and 'protective"
to be defned in
country or context
(9j 'Appropriate
interim care" can
be defned in
country according
to the Alternative
Care Toolkit (ACEj
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #))
Guidance notes
D7 !,O+/ $1(+)
lt |s v|ta| to assess the s|tuat|on for ASO and to |n|t|ate co-ord|nated responses
|n the frst 48 hours fo||ow|ng an emergency. Steps shou|d be taken to he|p
reun|te fam|||es as qu|ck|y as poss|b|e, and to organ|se |mmed|ate, |nter|m care
|f th|s |s rea||st|c. Human|tar|ans shou|d co||aborate w|th re|evant governmenta|
bod|es and support them to carry out appropr|ate ro|es. Foca| po|nts can be
|dent|fed w|th|n commun|t|es and serv|ces, and g|ven contacts for emergency
referra|s. Where poss|b|e and appropr|ate, key messages can be w|de|y
d|ssem|nated through mass med|a, urg|ng careg|vers to stay w|th the|r ch||dren
and to cont|nue to care for ch||dren who have |ost the|r fam|||es - as we|| as
reg|ster|ng these ch||dren w|th ch||d protect|on foca| po|nts.
2. Preventing separation in organizations and communities.
From the start of an emergency, and bu||d|ng on commun|ty assessments on
causes of separat|ons as we|| as ex|st|ng commun|ty structures to prevent and
respond to separat|ons, commun|t|es shou|d be |nformed of pract|ca| measures
to avo|d '|os|ng the|r ch||dren,` such as attach|ng |dent|fcat|on tags to bab|es and
young ch||dren, and teach|ng ch||dren v|ta| |nformat|on about the|r fam||y |dent|ty
and the |ocat|on of emergency meet|ng po|nts. Human|tar|an workers shou|d be
tra|ned |n how to ensure that ch||dren are protected and fam||y un|ty preserved
|n de||ver|ng human|tar|an a|d and dur|ng exerc|ses to re|ocate popu|at|ons.
Prov|s|on of support to |nter|m careg|vers by ch||d protect|on agenc|es shou|d
be carr|ed out |n a way that |t does not create |ncent|ves for other ch||dren
to reg|ster as separated, and wh|ch does not underm|ne the susta|nab|||ty of
the care arrangement. Work w|th agenc|es |nvo|ved |n med|ca| and secur|ty
evacuat|ons, and ensure that fam||y un|ty |s promoted and ma|nta|ned w|th|n
evacuat|on procedures.
E7 =22O$,#1/,2#)
Strong coord|nat|on |s essent|a| to promote effect|ve and protect|ve programme
responses for ASO. Ooord|nat|on shou|d bu||d on ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on
coord|nat|on mechan|sms, |nvo|v|ng a|| re|evant government organ|sat|ons
and nat|ona| and |nternat|ona| agenc|es. Th|s group shou|d coord|nate work
on assessment, reg|strat|on cr|ter|a, adapt|ng forms, def|n|ng ro|es and
respons|b|||t|es, and deve|op|ng standard operat|ng procedures for work|ng
w|th ASO. Fam||y trac|ng and reun|fcat|on, as we|| as the prov|s|on of |nter|m
care, need be undertaken |n accordance w|th ex|st|ng |ega| frameworks and
shou|d |nvo|ve statutory duty bearers. lORO and Nat|ona| Red Oross and
Red Orescent Soc|et|es (NROS} have the mandate to carry out trac|ng |n the
context of armed conf|cts or across |nternat|ona| borders. Fam||y reun|fcat|on
across |nternat|ona| borders of refugee ch||dren must be undertaken |n c|ose
coord|nat|on w|th NHOR, and |n accordance w|th the best |nterests procedure.
For refugee ch||dren return|ng to the|r country of or|g|n, spec|fc procedures and
cons|derat|ons app|y.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #)!
4. Identication.
lf separat|on |s |dent|fed as an |ssue dur|ng assessments, set cr|ter|a to dec|de
wh|ch ch||dren shou|d be reg|stered. Depend|ng on the sca|e of the emergency
and capac|t|es of the agenc|es |nvo|ved, |t may be necessary |n|t|a||y to focus
on unaccompan|ed ch||dren, deferr|ng the |dent|fcat|on and documentat|on of
ch||dren who are separated but |n the care of an adu|t known to them. An |nter-
agency |dent|fcat|on and referra| mechan|sm shou|d be deve|oped as the frst
step |n sett|ng up standard operat|ng procedures. ldent|fy and tra|n key actors
who can |dent|fy ASO at key |ocat|ons, such as entry or reg|strat|on po|nts
for camps, med|ca| fac|||t|es, feed|ng centres, market areas |n urban contexts,
res|dent|a| care centres, and detent|on fac|||t|es. Work w|th camp management
and d|str|but|on reg|strat|on personne| to |dent|fy ASO by mak|ng sure that
the ages of a|| househo|d members are recorded, and that unre|ated ch||dren,
househo|ds where the o|dest member |s a ch||d, and ch||dren on the|r own are
a|| |dent|fed. Ensure that the commun|ty |s |nformed of the |mportance and
purpose of |dent|fy|ng separated ch||dren, to avo|d creat|ng pu|| factors or fear
|n the commun|t|es that these ch||dren are go|ng to be taken away.
5. Registration and documentation.
Reg|strat|on |nvo|ves record|ng a ch||d`s bas|c data. Documentat|on |nvo|ves
record|ng a|| the |nformat|on needed to carry out trac|ng, defn|ng a ch||d`s care
and protect|on needs, and deve|op|ng a case-management p|an. These may
take p|ace at the same t|me, or documentat|on may |nvo|ve further |nterv|ews
w|th the ch||d. The lnter-agency Work|ng Group on naccompan|ed and
Separated Oh||dren (lAWG-ASO} has agreed common forms for reg|ster|ng
ASO and document|ng fam||y trac|ng needs. These forms can, |f needed,
be adapted by the ASO co-ord|nat|on mechan|sm spec|fc to the context.
Reg|strat|on and documentat|on shou|d be carr|ed out by tra|ned staff, |n a
way that avo|ds caus|ng ch||dren unnecessary d|stress and wh|ch does not
|ead to further separat|ons. Make c|ear |n reg|strat|on and documentat|on forms
whether ch||dren are |n the care of an adu|t whom they know and trust, and
whether s|b||ngs are a|so present. Staff carry|ng out the reg|strat|on shou|d
confrm that ch||dren are genu|ne|y separated by seek|ng |nformat|on from the
ch||dren and commun|ty members. Pr|or|t|se |nfants and young ch||dren for fu||
documentat|on, ensur|ng that anyone who br|ngs a very young ch||d for care,
or accompany|ng o|der ch||dren, are |mmed|ate|y |nterv|ewed to avo|d |os|ng
|mportant |nformat|on. M|ss|ng ch||dren shou|d be documented on beha|f of
fam||y members who are |ook|ng for them.
6. Inter-Agency Chi|d Protection Information Management System.
The lA OP lMS |s the standard system for manag|ng |nformat|on that |s used to
support case management |n emergenc|es. lt |nc|udes the lAWG-ASO forms,
procedures on shar|ng |nformat|on and data protect|on, and a web-based
database, and comes w|th gu|de||nes and a tra|n|ng manua|. The lA OP lMS
he|ps w|th act|v|t|es to trace fam|||es by:
Record|ng |nformat|on on |nd|v|dua| ASO
Sort|ng act|on ||sts by caseworker or |ocat|on
Track|ng act|ons taken on cases
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #)$
F|agg|ng overdue act|ons
A||ow|ng ASO and reg|stered m|ss|ng ch||dren to be matched
He|p|ng to share case |nformat|on between areas and agenc|es.
lt a|so prov|des mon|tor|ng and eva|uat|on on how effect|ve programmes are, and
ana|ys|s of ch||d protect|on trends. s|ng the lA OP lMS w||| need ded|cated data
offcers w|th|n each agency, and necess|tate the cont|nued capac|ty bu||d|ng of
caseworkers and data offcers.
H7 \O10,#-)
Trac|ng |s the process of search|ng for a ch||d`s pr|mary |ega| or usua| careg|vers
and other fam||y members. The a|m of trac|ng |s to fnd a |ong-term so|ut|on
that |s |n the ch||d`s best |nterests, wh|ch usua||y means reun|t|ng the ch||d w|th
the|r parents or other c|ose re|at|ves. lt a|so refers to the search for ch||dren
whose parents are |ook|ng for them. Trac|ng |s carr|ed out |n a number of ways
us|ng a number of d|fferent methods. The approach taken shou|d be deve|oped
based on ana|ys|ng r|sks to ASO. Mass trac|ng can be carr|ed out us|ng
rad|o broadcasts, on the |nternet, dur|ng commun|ty meet|ngs, us|ng posters,
and through photo boards. Oase-by-case trac|ng |nvo|ves act|ve search|ng by
caseworkers for fam||y members |n p|aces of or|g|n or separat|on. lnformat|on
on |nd|v|dua| fam||y members can a|so be found us|ng popu|at|on reg|strat|on
databases. Trac|ng can be part|cu|ar|y effect|ve when |t ||nks w|th commun|ty
networks such as extended fam||y systems and re||g|ous groups.
8. Verication.
ver|fcat|on |s the process of check|ng whether a c|a|med re|at|onsh|p |s rea|, and
confrm|ng the w||||ngness of the ch||d and the fam||y member to be reun|ted. lt
|s essent|a| to assess the cond|t|ons for reun|t|ng ch||dren, and to ensure that
the ch||d |s not handed over to the wrong person. ver|fy|ng a re|at|onsh|p |s
usua||y done by match|ng |nformat|on from both part|es. More |n-depth checks
may be needed for |nfants, young ch||dren, and ch||dren who have d|ffcu|ty
commun|cat|ng. lt |s a|so essent|a| to carry out a best |nterest assessment to
make sure that both the ch||d and the parents are w||||ng and ab|e to reun|te,
and that an act|on p|an has been deve|oped to support the ch||d`s move back
|nto the fam||y. Depend|ng on the ch||d`s h|story |n the fam||y or the cause of
the separat|on, |t may be necessary and appropr|ate to med|ate between the
ch||d and fam||y member. Some t|me may be requ|red for th|s, or to determ|ne
whether reun|fcat|on w|th parents or adu|t s|b||ngs or p|acement w|th a re|at|ve
|s |n the ch||d`s best |nterests.
9. Fami|y reunication.
Reun|t|ng fam|||es |s the process of br|ng|ng together the ch||d and fam||y or
prev|ous careg|ver to estab||sh or re-estab||sh |ong-term care. The ch||d, fam||y
and commun|ty shou|d be prepared for the return of the ch||d (see Standard
15}. Reun|t|ng ch||dren w|th fam|||es shou|d be carr|ed out |n ||ne w|th the |ega|
framework of the country. Support shou|d take a commun|ty-based approach,
and any mater|a| he|p g|ven shou|d be agreed between organ|sat|ons. Reun|t|ng
fam|||es across borders shou|d be carr|ed out us|ng lORO and Nat|ona| Red
Oross and Red Orescent Soc|et|es, and NHOR |n the case of refugees.
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DL7 !2@@26R"4)
|ong-term separat|on or changes |n a fam||y`s c|rcumstances caused by conf|ct
or chron|c poverty can |ead to d|ffcu|t|es |n the re|ntegrat|on process. Ongo|ng
fo||ow-up shou|d be carr|ed out, supp|emented by commun|ty-based mon|tor|ng.
The amount and type of fo||ow-up needed w||| depend on an eva|uat|on of the
needs of each ch||d. Due to the var|ety of reasons for wh|ch ch||dren may |n|t|a||y
have become separated and the h|gher r|sks assoc|ated w|th reun|fcat|on w|th
persons other than parents, carefu| mon|tor|ng |s necessary (see Standard 15}.
11. Preserving fami|y unity.
Not hav|ng enough food, she|ter, educat|on or ||ve||hood opportun|t|es can
prompt ch||dren to |eave the|r fam|||es or cause careg|vers to abandon ch||dren,
hand the|r care over to organ|zat|ons or care fac|||t|es, or send them to ||ve
w|th extended fam||y members |n the hope that they w||| rece|ve better care.
Oh||dren may fnd themse|ves at r|sk of recru|tment |nto armed forces or groups,
abandonment, be|ng traffcked or exp|o|tat|ve |abour. Oh||d-protect|on agenc|es
shou|d work w|th other human|tar|an sectors to make sure that fam|||es at
r|sk of be|ng separated rece|ve access to bas|c serv|ces, soc|a| protect|on or
support to protect the|r ||ve||hoods so that they can stay together. Res|dent|a|
care fac|||t|es can serve as a pu|| factor |ead|ng to fam||y separat|on, and shou|d
on|y be cons|dered as an a|ternat|ve care opt|on for the shortest poss|b|e t|me.
12. Interim care.
lnter|m care refers to care prov|ded to separated ch||dren wh||e fam|||es are
traced and before dec|s|ons are reached about permanent care. Oh||d-
protect|on agenc|es shou|d pr|or|t|se support to fam||y-based a|ternat|ve care
opt|ons |n emergenc|es. Programm|ng can |nc|ude spontaneous |nforma| care
arrangements |nc|ud|ng k|nsh|p care, or |dent|fy|ng, screen|ng and support|ng
careg|vers w|th|n the commun|ty w|th whom ch||dren can be p|aced for agreed
per|ods. lf there |s a forma| foster-care system, programm|ng may support
expans|on and strengthen|ng of the system. Where rea||st|c and appropr|ate,
ch||dren shou|d be kept w|th|n the|r commun|ty of or|g|n, and s|b||ng groups
shou|d be kept together. Avo|d support through res|dent|a| care, as th|s can
|ncrease the ||ke||hood of a fam||y separat|ng and can underm|ne ch||dren`s
we||be|ng. Fam|||es under stress are |ess ||ke|y to send the|r ch||dren |nto care by
foster fam|||es than to a res|dent|a| |nst|tut|on. lf res|dent|a| care |s the on|y rea||st|c
care opt|on, fac|||t|es shou|d be supported to ach|eve m|n|mum standards of
care and strong protect|on procedures. The p|acement |n res|dent|a| care shou|d
be temporary wh||e fam||y-based care opt|ons are deve|oped. A|| ch||dren |n
|nter|m care shou|d rece|ve fo||ow-up v|s|ts, and have the|r care p|acements
rev|ewed regu|ar|y, to mon|tor the|r protect|on s|tuat|on and we||be|ng. For o|der
teenagers, and even some ch||d-headed househo|ds, supported |ndependent
||v|ng may be exp|ored.
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13. A|ternative |ong-term care and adoption.
lf |t |s not poss|b|e to reun|te a ch||d w|th her or h|s fam||y, or not |n a ch||d`s best
|nterest to do so, cons|der a|ternat|ve |ong-term care opt|ons. Oh||dren shou|d
not be |eft |n the|r |nter|m-care p|acements |ndefn|te|y w|thout a rev|ew process
to dec|de what |ong-term care opt|ons w||| be best. Dec|s|ons on |ong-term care
shou|d be taken through a jud|c|a|, adm|n|strat|ve or other recogn|sed procedure,
and shou|d be based on a thorough assessment of the ch||d`s best |nterests,
needs and ava||ab|e care opt|ons. A permanent fam||y p|acement |s ||ke|y to
be |n a ch||d`s best |nterests. A|ternat|ve |ong-term care opt|ons can |nc|ude
adopt|on, supported |ndependent ||v|ng for o|der ch||dren, and stay|ng |n forma|
foster care. Adopt|on may be nat|ona| or |nternat|ona| and |nvo|ves a permanent
change |n |ega| status us|ng |ega| mechan|sms. The Hague Oonvent|on on the
Protect|on of Oh||dren and Oooperat|on |n Respect of lnter-Oountry Adopt|on
(HO-93} prov|des the |ega| framework for mak|ng sure that |nternat|ona| adopt|on
|s carr|ed out |n the best |nterests of ch||dren. Fam||y trac|ng shou|d be the
frst pr|or|ty and |nter-country adopt|on shou|d on|y be env|saged for a ch||d
once these trac|ng efforts have proved fru|t|ess, and where stab|e |n-country
so|ut|ons are not ava||ab|e. Oh||d-protect|on agenc|es shou|d support author|t|es
to ach|eve the standards set out |n HO-93.
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References
lORO, lRO, Save the Oh||dren, NlOEF, NHOR, Wor|d v|s|on
(2004}. |||e|-/e|c, G0|d|| ||||c|o|es o| U|accomoa||ed a|d
5eoa|a|ed C|||d|e|
lnter-agency work|ng group on unaccompan|ed and separated
ch||dren (Draft for F|e|d test|ng 2011}. /||e||a||.e Ca|e 7oo|||| (/CE
N (2010}. G0|de|||es /o| ||e /||e||a||.e Ca|e o/ C|||d|e|
NHOR (2008}. G0|de|||es o| De|e|m|||| ||e Ses| |||e|es|s o/
||e C|||d
NHOR and lRO (2011}. F|e|d |a|dooo| /o| ||e |mo|eme||a||o|
o/ ||e U^|C| S|D G0|de|||es
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
The Hague Oonvent|on on the Protect|on of Oh||dren and
Oooperat|on |n Respect of lnter-Oountry Adopt|on (1993}
www.ch||dprotect|on|ms.org
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STANDARD 14
Justice for children
The term 'just|ce for ch||dren" recogn|ses that ch||dren can come |nto contact
w|th the just|ce system |n a var|ety of contexts, |nc|ud|ng |n c|v|| and adm|n|strat|ve
procedures, and that consequent|y the just|ce system must be competent to
dea| w|th a|| ch||dren who come |nto contact w|th |t, whether those ch||dren
are |n conf|ct w|th the |aw, v|ct|ms, w|tnesses, or |n contact w|th the |aw as
benefc|ar|es.
Emergency s|tuat|ons often |ncrease the poss|b|||ty of ch||dren com|ng |nto
contact w|th the just|ce system as a||eged offenders, v|ct|ms or w|tnesses, or |n
a comb|nat|on these ro|es. The just|ce system |s genera||y understood to |nc|ude
the courts, po||ce and correct|ona| fac|||t|es, as we|| as |nforma| systems such
as those work|ng under trad|t|ona| and customary |aw.
R|sks and needs ar|s|ng from emergenc|es through wh|ch ch||dren may come
|nto contact w|th the just|ce system |nc|ude:
Arb|trary arrest and depr|vat|on of ||berty
Torture and other forms of |||-treatment
Traffck|ng or recru|tment by armed forces or groups, |nc|ud|ng organ|zed
cr|m|na| groups
v|o|at|ons of human r|ghts and human|tar|an |aw
v|o|ence w|th|n the home and commun|ty, |nc|ud|ng lDP or refugee camps,
or |n |nst|tut|ons of refuge such as schoo|s, churches, mosques and soc|a|
care homes
Exp|o|tat|on for adopt|on
Oh||d |abour for surv|va|
lnher|tance and guard|ansh|p.
The term 'juven||e just|ce" refers to ch||dren com|ng |nto contact w|th the just|ce
systems as a||eged offenders. When |aw and order break down |n emergency
s|tuat|ons, cases of arb|trary arrest and detent|on of ch||dren suspected of
|nvo|vement |n cr|me or of hav|ng comm|tted adm|n|strat|ve offences often
|ncrease. ln a|| s|tuat|ons, the pr|nc|p|e |s to resort to detent|on and forma|
tr|a| on|y as a |ast resort and, where poss|b|e, to use d|vers|on and a|ternat|ve
measures. 'D|vers|on` means the cond|t|ona| channe|||ng of ch||dren |n conf|ct
w|th the |aw away from jud|c|a| proceed|ngs through procedures, structures and
programmes that enab|e them to be dea|t w|th by non-jud|c|a| bod|es, thereby
avo|d|ng the negat|ve effects of forma| jud|c|a| proceed|ngs and acqu|s|t|on of a
cr|m|na| record. The most effect|ve d|vers|on programmes are those that |nvo|ve
fam|||es and commun|t|es.
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Standard
All girls and boys who come into contact with the justice systems
as victims, witnesses or alleged offenders are treated in line with
international standards.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Prov|de support |n sett|ng up (or strengthen|ng} ch||d-fr|end|y courts and
spaces |n po||ce stat|ons, |nc|ud|ng spec|a||y tra|ned un|ts w|th|n the po||ce/
prosecutor`s offce/court and eventua||y |ega| defence, as we|| as d|vers|on
systems and qu|ck proceed|ngs for ch||dren;
support capac|ty bu||d|ng of the po||ce, ch||d un|ts, probat|on offcers, hea|th
workers, soc|a| workers, |awyers, judges and peop|e w|th|n |nforma| just|ce
systems who act |n ch||d-protect|on |ssues or who regu|ar|y come |nto contact
w|th ch||dren;
support the |nc|us|on of fema|e po||ce and other jud|c|a| personne|; and
map and ana|yse the ex|st|ng just|ce systems (at nat|ona| and commun|ty
|eve|s}, |nc|ud|ng trad|t|ona| just|ce systems, to |dent|fy opportun|t|es that can
be re||ed on and strengthened, and to |dent|fy s|gn|fcant protect|on gaps.
8SP0hS
ldent|fy a|| ch||dren |n detent|on, |nc|ud|ng the|r whereabouts, status and
treatment;
document and ana|yse patterns of v|o|at|ons aga|nst ch||dren`s r|ghts that
occur w|th|n the just|ce system, and take act|on |n urgent cases;
map the d|fferent organ|sat|ons and peop|e |nvo|ved |n programmes that can
de||ver just|ce for ch||dren |n a ch||d-fr|end|y way (|nc|ud|ng |nforma| structures};
set up an |nter-d|sc|p||nary team of human r|ghts, psychosoc|a|, med|ca| and
|ega| front-||ne workers to mon|tor and respond to |dent|fed cases;
advocate for re|ease of ch||dren when the detent|on |s |||ega| or fac|||t|es are
|nappropr|ate; and
when appropr|ate, encourage commun|ty-based so|ut|ons when the forma|
system has co||apsed.
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MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Number of cases of detention of children in the last
three months
To be determined
in country
2. Average time spent in detention
To be determined
in country
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of children who are in contact with the police
who are dealt with using child-friendly procedures
80%
4. Percentage of children who are in contact with the courts
who are dealt with using child-friendly procedures
80%
5. Percentage of children in contact with the law who have
been diverted from the formal justice system
80%
6. Percentage of cases of children who received support
from a multi-disciplinary team
80%
h0TS
(3j 'Child-friendly
Procedure" can
be determined in
country
Guidance notes
D7 *%4O,B1/,2# 2N @,'%O/()
Depr|vat|on of ||berty means any form of detent|on or |mpr|sonment or the
p|acement of a person |n a pub||c or pr|vate custod|a| sett|ng. P|aces of detent|on
may |nc|ude a w|de range of forma||y des|gnated p|aces, |nc|ud|ng po||ce ce||s,
pr|sons, m|||tary detent|on fac|||t|es, |mm|grat|on detent|on centres, we|fare
centres or educat|ona| fac|||t|es, as we|| as p|aces be|ng used temporar||y for
the purpose of |so|at|on from the genera| popu|at|on. Accord|ng to |nternat|ona|
standards, depr|v|ng a juven||e of ||berty shou|d be a measure of |ast resort,
for the m|n|mum necessary per|od and shou|d be ||m|ted to except|ona| cases.
The pr|nc|p|e app||es whether depr|vat|on of ||berty |s mandated by a court
or an adm|n|strat|ve body. lnstead of resort|ng to depr|vat|on of ||berty, |t |s
preferab|e to cons|der the use of d|vers|on and a|ternat|ve sentenc|ng, such
as probat|on or commun|ty serv|ce. Genera| safeguards do app|y, but for
ch||dren who are deta|ned the best |nterests of the ch||d shou|d be the ma|n
cons|derat|on |n terms of ch||d protect|on. Adherence to th|s pr|nc|p|e |nc|udes:
Te|||ng the ch||d's guard|ans |mmed|ate|y that the ch||d |s arrested
Adapt|ng any detent|on reg|me to take account of age, sex, d|sab|||ty and
spec|fc needs, w|th separat|on of boys and g|r|s, adu|ts and m|nors
Ensur|ng contacts w|th the outs|de wor|d, |n part|cu|ar w|th |ndependent
|ega| counse|, med|ca| personne| and fam||y v|s|ts, take p|ace as often as
needed and are a||owed by the deta|n|ng author|t|es, as |ong as th|s contact
|s |n the ch||d's best |nterest
Ensur|ng |e|sure act|v|t|es, out|ngs and educat|ona| act|v|t|es are |nc|uded |n
the da||y rout|ne.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!#
ln s|tuat|ons of armed v|o|ence, 'adm|n|strat|ve detent|on" |s often used to
ho|d ch||dren who are seen as a secur|ty threat, such as captured ch||dren
who were accompany|ng armed forces or armed groups. Th|s detent|on |s
somet|mes a|so used under the pretext of protect|ng ch||dren who are at r|sk
of abuse and exp|o|tat|on, who m|ght otherw|se be ||v|ng and work|ng on the
streets, and for ch||dren seen as ant|soc|a|. ln contrast w|th cr|m|na| detent|on,
the dec|s|on to deta|n |s taken not by a judge or a court, but by a body or a
profess|ona| who |s not |ndependent of the execut|ve branch of government.
Often, procedures for cha||eng|ng th|s k|nd of detent|on are not c|ear and
t|me||nes for rev|ew do not ex|st.
Emergenc|es may a|so |ncrease the number of ch||dren accused of so ca||ed
'status offences". These |nc|ude acts that wou|d not be cr|m|na| |f they were
comm|tted by adu|ts, but can |nvo|ve arrest and detent|on. Examp|es |nc|ude
curfew v|o|at|ons, schoo| truancy, runn|ng away, begg|ng, bad or ant|-soc|a|
behav|our, gang assoc|at|on, and even s|mp|e d|sobed|ence. Detent|on of
ch||dren accused or charged w|th adm|n|strat|ve offences, or the detent|on of
ch||dren under 'preventat|ve" measures, |s a v|o|at|on of the ob||gat|on to act
|n the ch||d`s best |nterests, and detent|on shou|d on|y be used as a measure
of |ast resort.
2. Documenting vio|ations.
lt |s |mportant to document patterns of v|o|at|ons aga|nst ch||dren that occur
w|th|n the just|ce system from the ear||est poss|b|e stage |n the emergency,
as a bas|s for ev|dence-based campa|gn|ng to prompt an effect|ve nat|ona|
and |nternat|ona| response (see Standard 5}. lf a case reaches tr|a|, there are
a number of other safeguards that app|y to the ch||d v|ct|m or w|tness. See
EOOSOO Gu|de||nes on Just|ce Matters |nvo|v|ng Oh||d v|ct|ms and W|tnesses
of Or|me.
E7 9$B2010()
Th|s shou|d focus on stopp|ng current v|o|at|ons (beg|nn|ng w|th those
that are most severe |n the|r effect on the ch||dren} and prevent|ng future
v|o|at|ons. lt shou|d be supported by ev|dence gathered dur|ng mon|tor|ng
and documentat|on act|v|t|es.
4. Mu|ti-discip|inary teams.
To take act|on |n urgent cases, |t |s |mportant to form a mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary team
of profess|ona|s as soon as poss|b|e, bu||d|ng on whatever resources and
structures a|ready ex|st. Once the team |s formed, |t may a|so be poss|b|e to
carry out further spec|a||sed tra|n|ng |n part|cu|ar areas of need.
5. Internationa| frameworks.
The |nternat|ona| |ega| framework sets certa|n benchmarks for ch||dren affected
dur|ng an emergency. The standards set out |n the lOOPR and DHR concern|ng
the r|ght to a fa|r tr|a|, the r|ght to presumpt|on of |nnocence, protect|on from
the death pena|ty, and protect|on from arb|trary arrest and detent|on app|y to
everyone, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren (e.g. art 14 lOOPR}. Strengthen|ng or |mprov|ng
just|ce for ch||dren dur|ng an emergency can have a |ast|ng effect and can
contr|bute to strengthen|ng the just|ce system for ch||dren |n the |onger term.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!)
References
EOOSOO (1997}. G0|de|||es /o| /c||o| o| C|||d|e| || ||e C||m||a|
!0s||ce 5,s|em
OHOHR (2008}. |0ma| ||||s || ||e adm|||s||a||o| o/ |0s||ce, a
ma|0a| o| |0ma| ||||s /o| |0des, o|osec0|o|s a|d |aw,e|s
n|cef lnnocent| Research Oentre & Harvard |aw Schoo| (2010}.
C|||d|e| a|d 7|a|s|||o|a| !0s||ce
U|||ed ^a||o|s |0|es /o| ||e ||o|ec||o| o/ !0.e|||es Deo||.ed o/
||e|| ||oe||, (1990}
U|||ed ^a||o|s 5|a|da|d /|||m0m |0|es /o| ||e /dm|||s||a||o| o/
!0.e|||e !0s||ce ('7|e Se|||| |0|es' (1985}
U|||ed ^a||o|s G0|de|||es /o| ||e ||e.e|||o| o/ !0.e|||e
De|||q0e|c, ('7|e ||,ad| G0|de|||es' (1990}
U|||ed ^a||o|s (2008}. U|||ed ^a||o|s Commo| /oo|oac| |o
!0s||ce /o| C|||d|e|
U|odc, U||ce/ (2009}. !0s||ce || ma||e|s ||.o|.|| c|||d|e| as
.|c||ms a|d w|||esses o/ c||me (c|||d-/||e|d|, .e|s|o|
U|odc, U||ce/ (2006}. /a|0a| /o| ||e meas0|eme|| o/ |0.e|||e
|0s||ce ||d|ca|o|s
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.unodc.org/unodc/en/just|ce-and-pr|son-reform/too|s.htm|
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D
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STANDARDS TO
develop adequatE
child protection
strategies
standards to develop
adequate child
protection strategies
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Ihe cvercrching inIerncIicnc| |egc| frcmewcrk. Ihey
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- Cc:e mcncgemenI
- CcmmuniIy-Lc:ec chi|c prcIecIicn mechcni:m:
- Chi|c-frienc|y :pcce:
- FrcIecIicn cf exc|ucec chi|cren
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!"
STANDARD 15
Case management
Oase management systems are used |n a var|ety of human-serv|ce fe|ds,
|nc|ud|ng hea|th, soc|a| work and just|ce. Oase management |s the process
of he|p|ng |nd|v|dua| ch||dren and fam|||es through d|rect soc|a|-work-type
support and manag|ng |nformat|on we|| (see Standard 5}. Manag|ng cases |n
th|s way |s a necessary and centra| funct|on w|th|n any ch||d protect|on or soc|a|-
we|fare system, whether |n emergency or non-emergency sett|ngs (|nc|ud|ng
government and non-government structures}. Human|tar|an support for a ch||d
protect|on case-management system may be needed |n the fo||ow|ng contexts:
ln emergenc|es wh|ch happen very qu|ck|y where a government needs
temporary support
ln |onger-|ast|ng emergenc|es and deve|op|ng countr|es where a government
|s mot|vated to bu||d strong soc|a| we|fare structures (wh|ch |nc|ude case
management}
Where government has not shown an |nterest |n support|ng a ch||d protect|on
and soc|a|-we|fare system.
Oase management systems can be espec|a||y |mportant |n fac|||tat|ng case
mon|tor|ng and referra| to serv|ces, and therefore compr|se a core component
of |ntegrated support |n response to key ch||d protect|on r|sks |n emergenc|es,
|nc|ud|ng for ch||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces and groups, unaccompan|ed
and separated ch||dren, and ch||d surv|vors of v|o|ence, abuse and exp|o|tat|on.
W|th|n case management, there shou|d be appropr|ate |nvo|vement of ch||dren
throughout the process, as we|| as fu|| cons|derat|on of the best |nterests of the
ch||d. Th|s requ|res safe report|ng systems, guaranteed confdent|a||ty, c|ear and
respected |nformat|on shar|ng protoco|s, safe storage of records, etc. These
cons|derat|ons must be made before dec|d|ng on a case-management system,
or when start|ng to support and strengthen any ex|st|ng system.
Standard
Girls and boys with urgent child protection needs are identifed and
receive age- and culturally-appropriate information as well as an
effective, multi-sectoral and child-friendly response from relevant
providers working in a coordinated and accountable manner.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!%
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Assess and ana|yse ex|st|ng context and mechan|sms that protect ch||dren,
and bu||d on them;
map ex|st|ng serv|ces and ana|yse the capac|ty of ex|st|ng organ|sat|ons and
other re|evant actors to prevent and address ch||d protect|on;
wherever poss|b|e, support ex|st|ng governmenta| or commun|ty-based
structures (|nforma| and forma|} to co||ect and manage |nformat|on;
prepare deta||ed job descr|pt|ons for case workers and others |nvo|ved,
mak|ng sure everyone |s c|ear on sk|||s needed and that there |s enough
superv|s|on;
bu||d capac|ty of government, OBOs and NGOs for co||ect|ng |nformat|on
and case management; and
bu||d the capac|ty of other sectors |n terms of manag|ng cases and prov|d|ng
ch||d-appropr|ate responses and commun|cat|on.
8SP0hS
Bu||d|ng on what defn|t|ons a|ready ex|st (|nc|ud|ng commun|ty-based
defn|t|ons}, agree shared cr|ter|a w|th ch||dren and those work|ng w|th ch||dren
to defne who |s a vu|nerab|e ch||d;
strengthen system|c ||nks between the soc|a|-we|fare, educat|on, hea|th,
||ve||hoods, |aw-enforcement and jud|c|a| systems to make sure that ch||dren
rece|ve coord|nated and mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary support;
bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng processes and ||nks, deve|op procedures w|th other
sectors by defn|ng cr|ter|a and processes for reg|strat|on, referra| and fo||ow-
up, |nc|ud|ng dea||ng w|th sens|t|ve |ssues such as ch||d sexua| abuse (see
Standard 9};
deve|op a system to pr|or|t|se the most urgent cases for |mmed|ate fo||ow-up;
when deve|op|ng care p|ans cons|der four t|mesca|es: |mmed|ate (|.e. one month};
short term (up to three months}; med|um term (3 months - 9 months / 1 year};
and |ong term (one year or more};
ensure that mu|t|-sectora| serv|ce capac|ty |s |n p|ace for manag|ng cases;
tra|n and equ|p case workers to ensure responses are ch||d-appropr|ate, and
prov|ded |n a transparent way, w|th age-appropr|ate |nformat|on, su|tab|e for
the cu|tura| context, prov|ded to each ch||d about the|r case;
work c|ose|y w|th other sectors (for examp|e, educat|on, hea|th, |aw
enforcement and jud|c|a| systems} to |dent|fy and refer g|r|s and boys and
fam|||es that may be part|cu|ar|y at r|sk;
work c|ose|y w|th commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms to |dent|fy
and refer g|r|s and boys and fam|||es that may be part|cu|ar|y at r|sk;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!&
make sure that a process, as shown be|ow, |s known and understood by
a|| re|evant organ|sat|ons and others. Note that pr|or to |dent|fcat|on, |f the
c|rcumstances a||ow, an on-the-spot assessment of the need for reg|strat|on
shou|d take p|ace, |n order to avo|d unnecessar||y reg|ster|ng ch||dren.
L7 ldentify and register
vulnerable children, including
raising awareness among
affected communities
D7 Assess the vulnerabilities and
abilities of individual children and
families and develop an individual
case plan for each child
K7 Start the case plan, including
direct support and referral for
services
E7 Regularly monitor and review
case
F7 Close case
for each opened case (the numbers be|ow refer to the numbered boxes |n
the d|agram}:
D7 An assessment |s carr|ed out w|th the ch||d and careg|ver w|th|n one week
of |dent|fcat|on
K7 A care p|an |s des|gned, w|th the ch||d and careg|ver, w|th|n two weeks
of the assessment
E7 A fo||ow-up and rev|ew of the act|on p|an |s carr|ed out at |east once every
month after th|s
F7 A fo||ow-up |s carr|ed out at |east three months after the case |s c|osed. lf
necessary a case can be reopened
set up an ex|t strategy. Agenc|es prov|d|ng d|rect support to case management
shou|d transfer the respons|b|||ty for th|s to the statutory duty bearer as soon
as rea||st|c.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!'
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Existence of the case management system Yes
2. Number of cases that were opened and closed within a
three-month periodA
To be determined
in country
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Cases given to each caseworker are not more than 25 Yes
4. Case conferences are carried out at least every two weeks Yes
5. Job descriptions and SOPs for case workers are in
place, and 100% of case workers surveyed demonstrate
full knowledge of these
Yes
6. Case workers receive regular training (once every two
monthsj as well as supervision
Yes
H7 A community-driven defnition for child vulnerability is
developed and agreed upon by different child protection
actors
Yes
I7 Percentage of care plans developed within two weeks
of the assessment
90%
J7 Percentage of cases that are being reviewed as least
once a month after designing the care plan
90%
h0TS
Spot checks
within agencies
involved in case
management can
reveal much of this
information
Guidance notes
1. Strengthening systems.
lt |s essent|a| to try to understand the ex|st|ng context and forma| and |nforma|
mechan|sms that a|ready protect ch||dren, and to bu||d on these. Oreat|ng
or re|nforc|ng a para||e| (NGO- or/and N-dr|ven} system for soc|a| we|fare
serv|ces w||| weaken the ex|st|ng (or emerg|ng} nat|ona| and |oca| protect|on
systems. On the other hand, strengthen|ng ex|st|ng case management
systems dur|ng emergenc|es can have a |ast|ng effect.
K7 9#1@(+,#- 631/ ,+ 42++,'@%)
Th|s k|nd of ana|ys|s and support shou|d be carr|ed out as part of preparedness,
as we|| as dur|ng an |n|t|a| ch||d protect|on assessment. The ana|ys|s shou|d
take account of the |ega| framework, case-management process, procedures
and too|s, fnanc|a| resources and staffng ab|||t|es, and shou|d |nc|ude mapp|ng
of serv|ces through hea|th, educat|on, secur|ty, just|ce, econom|c s|tuat|on and
soc|a| protect|on. Based on th|s ana|ys|s, the government case-management
system may be d|rect|y supported by prov|d|ng extra capac|ty |n manag|ng
cases, or |nd|rect|y supported by strengthen|ng and expand|ng that capac|ty.
Nat|ona| statutory, mandatory report|ng requ|rements shou|d cont|nue to be
|nc|uded |n the expanded system.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #!(
3. Dening vu|nerabi|ity.
vu|nerab|||ty shou|d be jo|nt|y defned by ana|ys|ng wh|ch ch||dren are
exper|enc|ng, or at r|sk of exper|enc|ng, the most common forms of v|o|ence,
abuse, exp|o|tat|on and neg|ect w|th|n the spec|fc context. Account shou|d be
taken of pre-ex|st|ng defn|t|ons, v|ews and understand|ngs, |nc|ud|ng those
he|d by the commun|ty. Th|s type of ana|ys|s shou|d take |nto account:
The age, sex and d|sab|||ty of the ch||d
Oh||dren w|thout appropr|ate care, |nc|ud|ng those ||v|ng |n res|dent|a| care
Oh||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, who have been |njured or who have hea|th |ssues
Oh||dren from marg|na||sed soc|a| and ethn|c groups
Oh||dren |n conf|ct w|th the |aw
Oh||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces or groups
D|sp|aced and refugee ch||dren.
Based on th|s ana|ys|s, cr|ter|a need to be deve|oped and agreed upon w|th
other agenc|es that are |nformed by commun|t|es` v|ews on |dent|fy|ng and
reg|ster|ng ch||dren most at r|sk. These reg|strat|on cr|ter|a need to be rev|ewed
and changed as know|edge |s ga|ned about the context and protect|on r|sks
for ch||dren.
F7 ./1#$1O$ 24%O1/,2# 4O20%$"O%+ Y.CP+Z)
SOPs shou|d defne ro|es, respons|b|||t|es and re|at|onsh|ps between the d|fferent
peop|e |nvo|ved |n the case-management system, and how to hand|e d|fferent
types of ch||d protect|on concerns. They shou|d g|ve deta||s of the process
|nvo|ved |n each step of manag|ng a case, the serv|ce mapp|ng and referra|
system, the method and process for work|ng w|th ch||dren, and the system
for manag|ng |nformat|on. ln some countr|es, staff do not report certa|n cases
to the po||ce, due to st|gma and the extra r|sks to the ch||d (see Standard 5}.
5. Information management.
Bu||d|ng on what a|ready ex|sts, a system for manag|ng |nformat|on, such as
the lnter-Agency Oh||d Protect|on lnformat|on Management System (lA OP
lMS, paper and e|ectron|c} shou|d be used to he|p w|th the case-management
process, to support the superv|s|on of case management, and to generate
ana|ys|s of trends |n the case|oad that |n turn he|p w|th manag|ng cases and
broader ch||d protect|on programm|ng (see Standard 5}.
G7 ./1NN 01410,/()
Work|ng out the ch||d-to-staff rat|o shou|d take account of the ab|||t|es of the
staff and the needs of the ch||dren as we|| as other t|me ob||gat|ons such as
meet|ngs, transport, adm|n|strat|on, secur|ty ||m|ts and t|me off. Put |n p|ace
a p|an to tack|e gaps where core sk|||s are m|ss|ng. Send caseworkers out |n
pa|rs (|f poss|b|e, of one ma|e and one fema|e}. Some s|tuat|ons w||| necess|tate
fema|e-to-fema|e consu|tat|ons.
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H7 PO,2O,/,+,#- 01+%+)
ln |arge-sca|e emergenc|es, |t may be necessary to pr|or|t|se some cases for
|mmed|ate or short-term act|on, to make sure that the most urgent needs are
met w|th ||m|ted resources. Ana|ys|ng the capac|ty |n terms of manag|ng cases
aga|nst the nature and sca|e of vu|nerab|||ty w||| show what to pr|or|t|se. There
are two ma|n factors |n dec|d|ng wh|ch cases to pr|or|t|se: urgency, and how
easy |t |s to take act|on. Oases are urgent when the protect|on r|sks pose a
ser|ous threat to ||fe and hea|th. Oases are a|so urgent when they are t|me
cr|t|ca| - for examp|e, when the opportun|ty to document the c|rcumstances
of separat|on for an |nfant or very young ch||d (and thereby to |ncrease
the chances of reun|t|ng them w|th the|r fam||y} may be very ||m|ted. At the
beg|nn|ng of an emergency, cases may be pr|or|t|sed through category of r|sk.
As cases are fo||owed up, pr|or|t|sat|on shou|d be done on a case-by-case
bas|s. Other protect|on cases shou|d be pr|or|t|sed because of how easy |t |s
to take act|on. Many protect|on r|sks can be tack|ed d|rect|y on the ground or
short|y after, for examp|e by referr|ng the matter to serv|ces, or by contact|ng
re|at|ves to |et them know where a ch||d |s.
8. Chi|d assessment.
W|th|n one week of |dent|fcat|on, an assessment of the ch||d shou|d be carr|ed
out, tak|ng |nto account the protect|ve factors of the ch||d, the fam||y and the
soc|a| env|ronment. Such factors may |nc|ude, for examp|e, pos|t|ve parent|ng
exper|ence; |nc|ud|ng the ch||d |n schoo|; and the presence of support|ve
fam||y members or fr|ends. R|sks to the ch||d shou|d a|so be assessed to
dec|de the urgency of the case, |nc|ud|ng the effect of cu|tura| pract|ces and
gender ro|es. Dur|ng th|s and future contact, the caseworker shou|d a|m to
bu||d a re|at|onsh|p w|th the ch||d and fam||y where they fee| respected and
heard, where dec|s|ons taken |n the best |nterests of the ch||d are exp|a|ned,
and where everyone has a c|ear understand|ng of what |s expected of them.
The ch||d`s preference regard|ng the sex of staff carry|ng out the assessment
shou|d be taken |nto account. ln refugee contexts the best |nterests
assessment (BlA} |s used to undertake a bas|c ch||d protect|on assessment.
J7 =1+% 4@1#+)
Oase p|ans shou|d be deve|oped w|th the ch||d and - |f app||cab|e - the
fam||y. They shou|d g|ve deta||s of the strengths and vu|nerab|||t|es of the ch||d,
and present the a|ms that the ch||d wants to ach|eve and the act|v|t|es that
w||| be carr|ed out w|th|n a set t|me. Serv|ce prov|ders shou|d be |nvo|ved |n
deve|op|ng the case p|an, and shou|d s|gn the|r comm|tment to putt|ng |t |nto
pract|ce. The staff member |n charge of case management shou|d be shown
on the case p|an and g|ven deta||s of a mon|tor|ng and rev|ew schedu|e.
The careg|ver and caseworker shou|d s|gn the case p|an. ln some cases - for
examp|e, for ch||dren over the age of 10, or accord|ng to the ab|||ty of the ch||d
- the ch||d may s|gn the case p|an. Oh||dren shou|d be g|ven deta||s of the case
p|an as we|| as contact |nformat|on of the caseworker, |n the |anguage known
to the ch||d.
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DL7 =1+% 02#N%O%#0%+)
Oase conferences a||ow caseworkers to share ach|evements and obstac|es
re|at|ng to cases, and shou|d |nc|ude superv|sory staff. They shou|d be he|d
regu|ar|y between caseworkers and superv|s|ng staff, or by spec|fc case-
management representat|ves between co-ord|nat|ng bod|es. They shou|d be
carr|ed out |n a c|osed and confdent|a| |ocat|on.
11. Best interest determination.
ln ||ne w|th |nternat|ona| |ega| frameworks and |n part|cu|ar the NORO, the
best |nterests of the ch||d shou|d be a centra| cons|derat|on |n a|| matters
concern|ng them. Th|s pr|nc|p|e shou|d gu|de dec|s|on-mak|ng |n the case-
management process, espec|a||y where dec|s|ons w||| have |ong-|ast|ng effects
for the |nd|v|dua| ch||d and cannot be taken ||ght|y. When tak|ng dec|s|ons
that w||| affect a ch||d`s |onger term care arrangement or a ch||d`s fam||y or
|ega| status, there shou|d be a forma| process of gather|ng |nformat|on and
consu|tat|on. Dec|s|ons shou|d be taken by a pane| of profess|ona|s fam|||ar
w|th the ch||d`s case and shou|d whenever poss|b|e |nc|ude nat|ona| ch||d
protect|on author|t|es. For examp|e, a centra| best-|nterest cons|derat|on for
ch||dren |s secur|ng the|r phys|ca| and emot|ona| safety - |n other words, the
ch||d`s we||be|ng - throughout the|r care and treatment. Serv|ce prov|ders
must eva|uate the pos|t|ve and negat|ve consequences of act|ons w|th
|nvo|vement from the ch||d and the|r careg|vers as appropr|ate. Somet|mes
the opt|on deemed to be |n the best |nterest of the ch||d |s not feas|b|e for
var|ous reasons - |n such s|tuat|ons the |east harmfu| course of act|on |s to
be preferred. A|| act|on shou|d ensure that the ch||dren`s r|ghts to safety and
ongo|ng deve|opment are never negat|ve|y affected. Best lnterests assessment
and determ|nat|on are requ|red case management too|s |n refugee contexts.
DK7 =@2+,#- 1 01+%)
Deve|op gu|de||nes for c|os|ng cases that are spec|fc to the case|oad and
context and |n ||ne w|th |ega| requ|rements |f these app|y. O|os|ng a case |s
d|fferent from transferr|ng case-management respons|b|||t|es to a d|fferent
agency. lt may happen for a number of reasons - for examp|e, comp|et|ng
the care p|an, because the ch||d turns 18 and rece|ves adequate support, or
because of the death of a ch||d. At a m|n|mum, c|os|ng a case |nvo|ves the
author|zat|on of the caseworker`s superv|sor. Oases shou|d on|y be c|osed
after a process of consu|tat|on |nvo|v|ng a|| the serv|ce prov|ders.
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References
lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee (lRO} (Re|ease date ant|c|pated
|n June 2012}. Ca||| /o| C|||d 50|.|.o|s || |0ma|||a||a| /|d
5e||||s. G0|de|||es /o| o|o.|d|| case ma|aeme||, os,c|osoc|a|
|||e|.e|||o|s a|d |ea||| ca|e |o c|||d s0|.|.o|s o/ sex0a| ao0se
lRO and NHOR (2011}. F|e|d |a|dooo| /o| ||e |mo|eme||a||o|
o/ U^|C| S|D G0|de|||es
Save the Oh||dren (2011}. Case ma|aeme|| o|ac||ce w||||| 5a.e
||e C|||d|e| C|||d ||o|ec||o| o|o|ammes
Terre des Hommes (2009}. Case /a|aeme||. 5,s|ems 8
/cco0||ao||||,
NHOR (2008}. U^|C| G0|de|||es o| De|e|m|||| ||e Ses|
|||e|es|s o/ ||e C|||d (2008}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.ch||dprotect|on|ms.org
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STANDARD 16
Community-based mechanisms
For these standards, 'commun|ty" |s defned geograph|ca||y as a group of
peop|e ||v|ng |n or near a part|cu|ar |ocat|on, such as a v|||age or an urban
ne|ghbourhood. A|though a commun|ty may not a|ways be a homogenous
group (there may be d|fferent ethn|c groups, re||g|ous groups, peop|e w|th vary|ng
|eve|s of soc|o-econom|c status, etc.}, commun|t|es can prov|de s|gn|fcant
ways of prevent|ng and respond|ng to ch||d protect|on r|sks. Even |n s|tuat|ons
of mass d|sp|acement where no 'commun|ty` |s easy to see, groups of peop|e
can organ|se themse|ves to support ch||dren at r|sk.
A commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sm (OBOPM} |s a network
or group of |nd|v|dua|s at commun|ty |eve| who work |n a coord|nated way
toward ch||d protect|on goa|s. These mechan|sms can be |nterna| (a m|xture of
trad|t|ona| and outs|de |nfuences} or externa||y |n|t|ated and supported. There
|s |ncreas|ng |nternat|ona| agreement that externa||y supported commun|ty-
based mechan|sms such as ch||d-we|fare comm|ttees are often set up |n
ways that are |neffect|ve and |nappropr|ate, and wh|ch underm|ne ex|st|ng
ownersh|p and resources. Effect|ve OBOPMs |nc|ude |oca| structures and
trad|t|ona| or |nforma| processes for promot|ng or support|ng the we||be|ng of
ch||dren.
Standard
Girls and boys are protected from abuse, violence, exploitation and
neglect through community-based mechanisms and processes.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
Oarry out assessments w|th fema|e and ma|e commun|ty members to |dent|fy
ex|st|ng |nterna| and externa| methods of support|ng ch||dren at r|sk;
ana|yse whether there are any state mandated commun|ty mechan|sms for
ch||d protect|on;
assess what wou|d be the poss|b|e effect of an externa| agency becom|ng
|nvo|ved w|th the commun|ty;
map |oca| (forma| and |nforma|} serv|ce prov|ders and support mechan|sms
(for examp|e, women`s groups, hea|th workers, po||ce, teachers, re||g|ous
|eaders, etc.}, and the|r strengths and weaknesses, to start bu||d|ng on ex|st|ng
capac|t|es and mechan|sms;
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choose, recru|t and tra|n vo|unteers from the commun|ty to protect ch||dren
from, and support ch||d surv|vors of, abuse, v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on and
neg|ect. Make sure that a|| ro|e descr|pt|ons |nc|ude c|ear|y defned tasks,
respons|b|||t|es and sk|||s;
work w|th adu|ts as we|| as ch||dren |n the commun|ty to |dent|fy the r|sk
scenar|os for boys and g|r|s |n emergency s|tuat|ons. Deve|op a commun|ty
response p|an (|nc|ud|ng ear|y warn|ng}, and strengthen capac|ty to put these
p|ans |nto pract|ce; and
encourage foster|ng us|ng k|nsh|p pract|ces (foster parents} for ch||dren ||v|ng
outs|de the care of the|r b|o|og|ca| parents - but on|y |f connected w|th support
to foster parents and c|ose mon|tor|ng of the ch||dren.
8SP0hS
Bu||d on ex|st|ng processes, resources and capac|t|es |n OBOPMs to prov|de
ch||d-fr|end|y support and serv|ces;
work w|th the commun|ty to |nc|ude |n OBPMS d|fferent subgroups, |nc|ud|ng
women, g|r|s, boys and h|gh|y vu|nerab|e peop|e such as peop|e w|th
d|sab|||t|es;
strengthen networks and ||nks between the OBOPMs;
|dent|fy projects that can be carr|ed out by commun|ty members, |nc|ud|ng
ch||dren and young peop|e, to dea| w|th ch||d protect|on concerns |n the
commun|ty. Prov|de support for these |n|t|at|ves where necessary and
appropr|ate (recogn|z|ng that prov|d|ng mater|a|s to OBOPMs can support
the|r act|v|t|es but cou|d reduce the sense of commun|ty ownersh|p and
susta|nab|||ty};
when appropr|ate, encourage ex|st|ng or new|y organ|sed ado|escent and
youth groups to be |nvo|ved |n OBOPMs and ch||d protect|on |ssues;
mob|||se and strengthen peer-to-peer response and mon|tor|ng;
fnd areas where the capac|ty of OBOPMs can be bu||t, and prov|de tra|n|ng
as appropr|ate;
support OBOPMs |n conduct|ng effect|ve commun|ty |eve| messag|ng on
prevent|ng v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on and abuse of ch||dren, as we|| as dangers
re|ated to acc|dents (see Standard 7};
bu||d commun|ty capac|t|es for |dent|fy|ng and referr|ng ch||dren and fam|||es
for the serv|ces needed (th|s shou|d |nc|ude referr|ng ch||dren who have been
severe|y affected for spec|a||sed he|p}; and
support OBOPMs to deve|op ||nks w|th forma| (governmenta|} aspects of the
nat|ona| ch||d protect|on system at |oca|, reg|ona| and nat|ona| |eve|s.
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MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of communities where 60% or more of those
surveyed confrm that CBCPMs exist in their community
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. lnclusion of questions on informal mechanisms for
support to children in rapid child protection or multi-
sectoral assessments
Yes
3. Percentage of targeted communities where adolescents
and young people are able to be actively involved in
protecting children if they wish to be
80%
4. Percentage of communities where girls and boys with
disabilities access CBCPMs
90%
5. Percentage of targeted communities with a functioning
referral system
To be determined
in country
h0TS
(1j This can be
measured using
random spot
checks.
The threshold
(60%j can be
adapted according
to context
Guidance notes
D7 W]/%O#1@ 1,$)
Agenc|es shou|d not assume that |t |s necessary to set up new OBOPMs.
ln some contexts, |t may be poss|b|e to |nc|ude ch||d protect|on prevent|on
and response |n ex|st|ng structures such as v|||age deve|opment comm|ttees.
Natura| he|pers and |oca| |eaders shou|d be |nvo|ved, |nc|ud|ng v|||age ch|efs,
camp |eaders, women |eaders, respected e|ders and re||g|ous |eaders, and
ch||dren or ex|st|ng youth groups or networks. Ent|re|y new comm|ttees or
groups may be d|ffcu|t to ma|nta|n, and groups that are set up a|ongs|de
ex|st|ng mechan|sms underm|ne ex|st|ng support.
K7 C6#%O+3,4)
OBOPMs are effect|ve when |oca| peop|e take ownersh|p and see them as
a way of fu|f|||ng the|r respons|b|||ty to ch||dren. Agenc|es shou|d take a s|ow
approach to |nvo|v|ng commun|ty peop|e who w||| take |mportant dec|s|ons and
act|vate |oca| networks for ch||dren. lnternat|ona| concepts of ch||d protect|on
and ch||d r|ghts shou|d be |ntroduced us|ng respectfu| methods that avo|d a
top-down approach. The ro|e of ch||dren |n commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on
mechan|sms |s centra|, and the|r effect|ve part|c|pat|on |s essent|a|, as we|| as
the|r r|ght to make |nformed cho|ces as to whether to part|c|pate or not.
3. Comp|aints mechanisms.
Wh||e promot|ng OBOPMs, ch||d protect|on workers shou|d make sure that
ch||dren and adu|ts can report abuse that |s carr|ed out by representat|ves
of the OBOPMs themse|ves. nfortunate|y, there may be |nd|v|dua|s who w|||
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use OBOPM membersh|p to |mprove and subsequent|y abuse the|r status |n
the commun|ty. Human|tar|an agenc|es need to be aware of th|s and shou|d
deve|op report|ng mechan|sms through wh|ch ch||dren and commun|ty
members can report abuse outs|de the OBOPM as we||.
4. Payment.
s|ng payment and externa| |ncent|ves |s not a good |dea, as |t underm|nes
the sp|r|t of vo|unteer|ng and cannot be ma|nta|ned. However, us|ng ex|st|ng
resources from w|th|n the commun|ty can he|p |mprove susta|nab|||ty and
ownersh|p.
M7 =1410,/( U",@$,#-)
OBOPM members need recogn|t|on and capac|ty bu||d|ng |n order to
understand the|r ro|es and take part |n effect|ve work. Tra|n|ng of OBOPM
members shou|d use methods of d|a|ogue and mutua| |earn|ng, and bu||d on
|oca| understand|ng of ch||dren and the|r needs.
G7 ."'-O2"4+)
Human|tar|an organ|sat|ons shou|d recogn|se that the|r own |nvo|vement w|th
OBOPMs w||| affect |oca| power structures, and shou|d deve|op feedback
methods to ensure that the|r work |s not do|ng harm to spec|fc groups or
|nd|v|dua|s. ln each commun|ty or group of affected peop|e, some subgroups
have more power than others (for examp|e, women and peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es
often have no vo|ce}. Take steps to ensure the |nc|us|on of d|fferent sub-
groups, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren, |n OBOPMs and to enab|e the|r vo|ces to be heard.
H7 [%++1-%+)
lnformat|on can be ||fe-sav|ng, and a|so he|ps to prevent ch||d protect|on
|ssues. Work w|th OBOPMs to spread |mportant |nformat|on |n terms of:
Phys|ca| r|sks (for examp|e, separat|on of ch||dren from the|r fam|||es; wh|ch
p|aces are dangerous to p|ay |n; wh|ch |andm|nes and exp|os|ve remnants
of war are present and how to |dent|fy them; etc.}
R|sk reduct|on, preparat|on and cop|ng (for examp|e, how to avo|d fam||y
separat|on; how to prepare for aftershocks fo||ow|ng an earthquake; and
how the commun|ty can reduce r|sks to ch||dren}.
lnformat|on can be addressed to ch||dren, careg|vers, and commun|t|es.
Messages shou|d be cu|tura||y, ||ngu|st|ca||y, sexua||y and soc|a||y appropr|ate,
deve|oped and tested by |oca| peop|e, and focused on pos|t|ve act|on that
|oca| peop|e can take. Messages shou|d be de||vered through effect|ve
commun|cat|on channe|s s|nce the sender of the message can be as |mportant
as the message |tse|f. Senders of messages shou|d be trusted |oca| peop|e
who de||ver c|ear, understandab|e messages. Mass med|a such as rad|o and
text messag|ng and cu|tura| med|a such as ceremon|es, songs, and dances
can be very usefu| |n |nfuenc|ng ch||dren and other affected peop|e. Oons|der
that the way the messages are de||vered w||| d|ctate who |s |nc|uded and who
|s |eft out (see Standard 3}.
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8. Nationa| system.
OBOPMs are most effect|ve |f they are connected w|th the resources and
ch||d protect|on networks present at commun|ty, reg|ona| and nat|ona|
|eve|s. ln sett|ngs where |t |s appropr|ate (e.g. where the government |s not
exp|o|tat|ve} steps shou|d be taken to he|p OBOPMs to create |oca| ch||d
protect|on networks, and to connect w|th the government-|ed aspects of the
nat|ona| ch||d protect|on system, |nc|ud|ng po||ce serv|ces, soc|a| workers,
Hlv/AlDS and hea|th workers, ch||d-we|fare serv|ces, educat|on serv|ces,
the juven||e just|ce system and other serv|ce prov|ders. Wh||e programm|ng
shou|d be cu|tura||y sens|t|ve, the need shou|d a|ways be promoted to keep to
|nternat|ona| |ega| and human r|ghts standards such as the N Oonvent|on on
the R|ghts of the Oh||d.
J7 :O'1# +%//,#-+)
Towns and c|t|es may offer more opportun|t|es for ||nk|ng commun|ty
mechan|sms w|th other parts of the ch||d protect|on system. However,
add|t|ona| |earn|ng on OBOPMs |s needed s|nce the ev|dence base on
commun|ty-based mechan|sms |n urban areas |s more ||m|ted than |n rura|
areas.
DL7 !"#$,#-)
Often |n emergenc|es, pract|t|oners are requ|red to deve|op and subm|t
proposa|s for fund|ng |n a short t|meframe of 5 to 10 days, wh|ch |s |nsuffc|ent
for conduct|ng carefu| assessments or for des|gn|ng |ong-term commun|ty-
based |ntervent|ons that wou|d strengthen ch||d protect|on systems. lt |s
recommended that pract|t|oners conduct ongo|ng assessments and fact-
fnd|ng as a means of deve|op|ng an adequate foundat|on for programm|ng.
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References
Act|on A|d (2010}. 5a/e|, w||| d||||, - a /e|d oased ma|0a| /o|
|||e|a||| comm0|||,-oased o|o|ec||o| ac|oss |0ma|||a||a|
o|o|ams
Behnam, N. (2008}. /e|c|es, comm0||||es a|d c|||d|e|. / |eoo||
o/ ||e |||e|ae|c, |ea|||| |||||a||.e. E|a|| Comm0||||es /o|
C|||d|e|'s He||-Se||
Donahue, J. and Mwewa, |. (2006}. Comm0|||, /c||o| a|d
||e 7es| o/ 7|me. |ea|||| /|om Comm0|||, Exoe||e|ces a|d
|e|ceo||o|s
lASO (2007}. G0|de|||es o| me||a| |ea||| a|d os,c|osoc|a|
s0ooo|| || eme|e|c, se||||s
Save the Oh||dren (2008}. / commo| |esoo|s|o||||,. 7|e |o|e o/
comm0|||,-oased c|||d o|o|ec||o| |o0os || o|o|ec||| c|||d|e|
/|om sex0a| ao0se a|d exo|o||a||o|
Save the Oh||dren (2010}. 5||e|||e||| |a||o|a| c|||d o|o|ec||o|
s,s|ems || eme|e|c|es |||o0| comm0|||,-oased mec|a||sms
The Oo|umb|a Group for Oh||dren |n Advers|ty (2011}. E|||o|ao||c
s|0d, o/ comm0|||,-oased c|||d o|o|ec||o| mec|a||sms a|d ||e||
||||ae w||| ||e |a||o|a| c|||d o|o|ec||o| s,s|em o/ 5|e||a |eo|e
NHOR (2008}. Comm0|||,-oased /oo|oac|
Wesse||s, M. (2009}. H|a| a|e we |ea|||| aoo0| o|o|ec|||
c|||d|e| || ||e comm0|||,? /| |||e|-/e|c, |e.|ew o/ e.|de|ce
o| comm0|||,-oased c|||d o|o|ec||o| mec|a||sms
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.arc-on||ne.org
www.ch||dprotect|onforum.org
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STANDARD 17
Child-friendly spaces
Th|s standard uses the term 'ch||d-fr|end|y spaces` to mean safe spaces where
commun|t|es create nurtur|ng env|ronments |n wh|ch ch||dren can access free
and structured p|ay, recreat|on, |e|sure and |earn|ng act|v|t|es. Oh||d-fr|end|y
spaces (OFSs} may prov|de educat|ona| and psychosoc|a| support and other
act|v|t|es that restore a sense of norma||ty and cont|nu|ty. They are des|gned
and operated |n a part|c|patory manner, often us|ng ex|st|ng spaces |n the
commun|ty, and may serve a spec|fc age group of ch||dren, or a var|ety of
age ranges.
Gu|de||nes on ch||d-fr|end|y spaces have been deve|oped and have he|ped bu||d
agreement across d|fferent areas w|th|n the human|tar|an workforce. These
areas |nc|ude:
The lASO Reference Group on Menta| Hea|th and Psychosoc|a| Support |n
Emergency Sett|ngs
The g|oba| Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group
The g|oba| Educat|on O|uster
The M|n|mum standards for educat|on: preparedness, response, recovery
(lNEE}.
The key act|ons and gu|dance notes be|ow refect the approach shown |n the
gu|de||nes.
Standard
All children and young people can go to community-supported child-
friendly spaces that provide structured activities that are carried out
in a safe, child-friendly, inclusive and stimulating environment.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
ldent|fy |ocat|ons, resources (for mater|a|s and act|v|t|es} and peop|e who
cou|d take part |n runn|ng a OFS;
tra|n ch||d protect|on and other re|evant sector staff as we|| as re|evant
government counterparts and commun|ty vo|unteers on the gu|de||nes on
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces; and
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cons|der var|ous ways of creat|ng safe spaces for ch||dren |n commun|t|es,
and how to ||nk them w|th the |arger protect|on systems.
8SP0hS
Oarry out an assessment together w|th the commun|ty to dec|de whether
OFSs are needed, safe and access|b|e to a|| ch||dren nearby, and contextua||y
appropr|ate;
map the ex|st|ng fac|||t|es and |nfrastructure, |nc|ud|ng schoo|s and commun|ty
centres. Before dec|d|ng to set up OFS structures, dec|de whether a structure
|s needed at a||;
at the p|ann|ng phase, fu||y |nvo|ve boys, g|r|s, women and men and vu|nerab|e
groups (such as peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es} from the commun|ty |n deve|op|ng
and support|ng OFS act|v|t|es;
recru|t vo|unteers from the commun|ty and ||nk w|th other commun|ty-based
|n|t|at|ves (see Standard 16};
set up a programme of act|v|t|es that |ooks at the needs of ch||dren and
commun|t|es overa||, and coord|nate w|th other agenc|es and sectors to
prov|de support such as hea|th and hyg|ene educat|on, breastfeed|ng groups
and spaces, supp|ementa| feed|ng, |nformat|on on human|tar|an he|p, etc.;
cons|der mak|ng use of structures that a|ready ex|st (for examp|e, tents, huts,
schoo|s};
assess safety e|ements (fences, frst a|d, to||ets etc.} and respond to these
as re|evant;
ensure proper|y ma|nta|ned WASH fac|||t|es, and water for dr|nk|ng as we||
as for hyg|ene purposes;
set up c|ear gu|de||nes, programmes and schedu|es for act|v|t|es w|th ch||dren;
prov|de ongo|ng mon|tor|ng w|th feedback mechan|sms that |nvo|ve the
ch||dren and fam|||es;
g|ve vo|unteers ongo|ng tra|n|ng and fo||ow-up support |nc|ud|ng coach|ng;
and
ear|y on, |n c|ose consu|tat|on w|th the commun|ty and others w|th an |nterest,
deve|op a phase-out or trans|t|on p|an that ||nks w|th broader recovery
p|ann|ng. Make sure that the commun|ty |s aware from the beg|nn|ng that a
phase-out per|od or handover w||| take p|ace. Prov|de |nformat|on as soon
as poss|b|e about when the phase-out or trans|t|on w||| take p|ace.
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MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Number of children going to community-supported CFSs
2. Percentage of community-supported CFSs that meet
targets set against action indicators (belowj
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of CFSs that meet safety and accessibility
criteria (to be defned in countryj
100%
4. Percentage of CFSs made accessible for different types
of disability
100%
5. Percentage of animators working in CFSs who received
initial and follow-up coaching on inclusion
90%
6. Percentage of CFSs where age appropriate CFS activi-
ties are implemented based on needs identifed by girls,
boys and families
80%
7. Number of discussion sessions held each month for
each CFS to discuss performance with girls, boys and
families
1
8. Presence of an average ratio of children taking part in
CFS activities per trained animator
Yes
h0TS
(8j An example
of existing ratios
could be:
- Children under 2
should not attend
without an adult
- 15 2-to-4- year-
olds with at least
two adults
- 20 5-to-9-year-
olds with two
adults
- 25 10-to-12-
year-olds with two
adults
- 30 13-to-18-
year-olds with two
adults
Guidance notes
D7 944O24O,1/%#%++)
OFSs may not be needed |f ch||dren have access to other means of meet|ng
the|r needs for forma| and non-forma| educat|on, protect|on, and psychosoc|a|
support. ln some sett|ngs, OFSs may not be appropr|ate because they cou|d
be p|aces where ch||dren are attacked or recru|ted by armed forces or groups,
or because g|r|s cou|d be sexua||y harassed on the way to and from the OFS.
ln some |nstances, |t |s enough to have a safe area for ch||dren to gather,
p|ay and have group act|v|t|es, w|thout hav|ng a bu||d|ng structure. lf OFSs are
needed, the assessment shou|d a|so |dent|fy how they can be set up |n an
effect|ve way. Ooncerns about safety and secur|ty that had been prom|nent |n
the assessment process shou|d a|so be h|gh pr|or|t|es |n deve|op|ng the OFS
and putt|ng |t |nto pract|ce. lt |s |mportant to be aware of safety concerns that
can a|so be caused by ch||dren themse|ves - for examp|e, ch||dren bu||y|ng or
threaten|ng each other.
2. Specic groups.
OFSs prov|de an opportun|ty to support a|| ch||dren and to promote equa||ty
and |nc|us|on. lt |s essent|a| to take steps to |dent|fy ch||dren most at r|sk and
reach out to them w|thout s|ng||ng them out and st|gmat|s|ng them.
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The d|st|nct|ve needs of g|r|s and boys of d|fferent age groups, ethn|c
backgrounds, ||v|ng s|tuat|ons, d|sab|||ty, etc. shou|d a|so be met. Responses
from serv|ces need to be des|gned w|th the needs of these groups |n m|nd.
E7 9-% 1#$ -%#$%O +%#+,/,B,/()
D|verse boys and g|r|s of d|fferent age groups shou|d be g|ven fa|r ways of
tak|ng part |n des|gn|ng, manag|ng and rev|ew|ng programmes such as OFSs.
For some ado|escent g|r|s, p|ay|ng m|ght seem |nappropr|ate, and they w|||
beneft more from ta|k|ng w|th the|r peers. D|scuss|on groups w|th peers of
the same sex, that match a woman or man an|mator w|th a group of g|r|s and
boys, can be appea||ng to young peop|e, as they a||ow them to share the|r
concerns and |deas on matters such as sexua| hea|th, |ove, re|at|onsh|ps and
peer-protect|on strateg|es. Depend|ng on the nature of the emergency, some
groups m|ght need greater attent|on (for examp|e, |nfants and young ch||dren
|n need of psychosoc|a| st|mu|at|on}.
F7 *,+1',@,/( 161O%#%++)
Oh||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es often do not have easy access to OFSs because of
phys|ca|, env|ronmenta| and soc|a| barr|ers. Parents m|ght not fee| at ease
send|ng the|r ch||dren to a OFS because of the soc|a| st|gmat|sat|on, or they
m|ght be unaware that the OFSs are a|so |ntended for ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es.
lt |s |mportant to make th|s po|nt c|ear when creat|ng or runn|ng a OFS.
Tra|n|ng shou|d be organ|sed for an|mators on how to adapt act|v|t|es for a||
ch||dren, w|th spec|a| attent|on pa|d to the needs of ch||dren w|th var|ous types
of |mpa|rments. The rat|o of an|mators to ch||dren may need to be adapted
accord|ng|y.
M7 P@1()
OFSs shou|d be fun and shou|d promote the r|ght to p|ay. To avo|d over|oad, |t
|s often usefu| for OFSs to focus |n|t|a||y on bas|c p|ay and recreat|on act|v|t|es.
|ater, the OFSs can put more advanced act|v|t|es |nto pract|ce, such as sett|ng
up referra| mechan|sms or organ|s|ng act|v|t|es for |nd|v|dua| or sma|| groups
of ch||dren who need extra support. Oh||dren shou|d have a say on wh|ch p|ay
act|v|t|es they want to have at the OFS. Th|s shou|d |nc|ude trad|t|ona| games.
Oommun|ty |nvo|vement shou|d a|so be encouraged through act|v|t|es such
as toy mak|ng and |nv|t|ng o|der mothers, grandmothers and e|ders to the
centre to teach songs and te|| stor|es to young ch||dren. Try to th|nk of games,
songs and draw|ng act|v|t|es that are appropr|ate for a|| ages and for ch||dren
w|th d|sab|||t|es, wh|ch |mprove ch||dren`s persona| and soc|a| sk|||s, and wh|ch
focus on |nvo|vement rather than on|y on outcomes (see a|so Standard 10}.
G7 .0322@+)
Ooord|nate w|th forma| schoo|s to make sure that OFSs do not compete w|th
them, but rather comp|ement them. As schoo|s reopen, ensure that there
are t|me s|ots for d|fferent age groups of ch||dren. Th|s cou|d |nc|ude hav|ng
act|v|t|es for younger ch||dren dur|ng the day, ho|d|ng after-schoo| programmes,
etc. There shou|d be a c|ear and re||ab|e schedu|e of act|v|t|es.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #"!
H7 P1O%#/+)
The psychosoc|a| we||be|ng of parents |s |mportant for ch||dren`s care and
protect|on. Parent support group sess|ons can a|so be schedu|ed |n OFSs.
These m|ght |nc|ude |nformat|on sess|ons on ch||dcare w|th |oca| serv|ce
prov|ders, he|d for mothers and fathers. Parents w|th d|sab|||t|es shou|d be
|nc|uded and the sess|ons shou|d be access|b|e for everyone.
I7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Effect|ve OFS workers have both h|gh |eve|s of mot|vat|on and appropr|ate
sk|||s. Women and men shou|d be emp|oyed fa|r|y to match the |ntended
compos|t|on of the target groups. Everyone who works |n a OFS shou|d
rece|ve |n|t|a| tra|n|ng, as part of an ongo|ng process to bu||d capac|ty that
|nc|udes tra|n|ng as we|| as coach|ng. Tra|n|ng shou|d |nc|ude spec|fc attent|on
to protect|ng ch||dren as we|| as to fac|||tat|ng p|ay for a||. Over t|me, as OFS
workers deve|op new sk|||s, they w||| be |n an |ncreas|ng|y strong pos|t|on to
enr|ch the work done |n and through OFSs.
J7 [2#,/2O,#-)
OFSs shou|d be mon|tored on an ongo|ng bas|s to track the deve|opment of
the OFS and to |dent|fy gaps |n the |eve|s of commun|ty awareness, qua||ty of
act|v|t|es, safety, |og|st|ca| support, and so on. OFSs can a|so be cons|dered as
an entry po|nt to mon|tor|ng the we||be|ng of ch||dren on a regu|ar bas|s. Peop|e
who have exper|ence |n mon|tor|ng and eva|uat|on shou|d eva|uate OFSs to
see whether the act|v|t|es that take p|ace there|n are produc|ng mean|ngfu|
|mprovements |n the ||ves of boys and the g|r|s, that they are |nc|us|ve, and that
they are ach|ev|ng goa|s. +
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #"$
References
Oh||d Protect|on SubSector for Sudan (2011}. /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds
/o| CF5 a|d C|||d|e|'s Ce|||es - 50da|
Ohr|st|an Oh||dren`s Fund (2008}. 5|a|||| Uo C|||d Ce||e|ed
5oaces || Eme|e|c|es. / F|e|d /a|0a|
lASO, lNEE, G|oba| Protect|on O|uster, G|oba| Educat|on O|uster
(2011}. G0|de|||es /o| C|||d-/||e|d|, 5oaces || Eme|e|c|es
lFRO and Save the Oh||dren Denmark (2012}. 7|e C|||d|e|'s
|es|||e|ce ||o|amme - |s,c|osoc|a| s0ooo|| || a|d o0| o/
sc|oo|. Soo||e| 1 U|de|s|a|d|| C|||d|e|'s He||oe||. (2012}
Save the Oh||dren (2008}. C|||d-/||e|d|, 5oaces || Eme|e|c|es - a
|a|dooo| /o| 5a.e ||e C|||d|e| s|a//
Terre des Hommes (2009}. 20 ames w||| a os,c|osoc|a| a|m
NlOEF (2009}. / o|ac||ca| 0|de /o| de.e|oo|| C|||d-/||e|d|,
5oaces (2009}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.mhpss.net
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #""
STANDARD 18
Protecting excluded children
Exc|us|on has been defned as the processes through wh|ch |nd|v|dua|s or
groups of ch||dren are tota||y or part|y marg|na||sed from be|ng ab|e to p|ay a fu||
ro|e |n soc|ety. Wh||e exc|us|on focuses ma|n|y on soc|a| re|at|onsh|ps, |t feeds
|nto cyc|es of mater|a| depr|vat|on and vu|nerab|||ty. lt |s common|y assoc|ated
w|th st|gmat|sed soc|a| status such as d|sab|||ty, be|ng a member of a group
(such as a re||g|ous or ethn|c m|nor|ty} that |s d|scr|m|nated aga|nst, cu|tura|
b|ases re|at|ng to |ssues such as gender, and econom|c exc|us|on.
Exc|us|on fundamenta||y affects the deve|opment of a ch||d`s fu|| potent|a|, by
b|ock|ng h|s or her access to r|ghts, opportun|t|es and resources. Exc|uded
ch||dren are more vu|nerab|e to v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on and neg|ect.
Human|tar|an cr|ses and responses can make cyc|es of exc|us|on worse and
create new |ayers of exc|us|on, or can offer opportun|t|es for change.
Standard
All girls and boys in humanitarian settings have access to basic
services and protection, and the causes and means of exclusion of
children are identifed and addressed.
Key actions
P8PA80hSS
se and ana|yse the emergency preparedness desk rev|ew, and other
re|evant data and |nformat|on, to |dent|fy exc|uded groups, and the causes
and consequences of the|r exc|us|on;
map the nat|ona| ch||d protect|on system - assess |ts capac|ty to reach out
to and protect exc|uded ch||dren, and |dent|fy gaps that may underm|ne the|r
protect|on dur|ng an emergency;
map commun|ty support and serv|ces, and deve|op referra| mechan|sms
among organ|sat|ons and peop|e prov|d|ng serv|ces for the spec|fc needs
of exc|uded ch||dren; and
bu||d the ch||d protect|on capac|ty of spec|a||sed serv|ce prov|ders such as
organ|sat|ons that work w|th ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, ch||dren |n res|dent|a|
care, ch||dren ||v|ng and work|ng on the streets, and other exc|uded groups.
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8SP0hS
A|ways cons|der the best |nterests of ch||dren and the 'do no harm" pr|nc|p|e
|n a|| act|v|t|es concern|ng exc|uded groups of ch||dren and those suffer|ng
poss|b|e d|scr|m|nat|on, and try to avo|d |abe|||ng ch||dren wh||e work|ng for
the|r |nc|us|on;
use the ch||d protect|on rap|d assessment process to |dent|fy part|cu|ar|y
vu|nerab|e and exc|uded groups of ch||dren and make sure that the|r spec|fc
needs are dea|t w|th when deve|op|ng ch||d protect|on response strateg|es
and fund|ng requests. Oons|der potent|a| groups of ch||dren not v|s|b|e |n
assessments;
|nc|ude a|| part|es |n part|c|patory assessment processes at commun|ty
|eve|, |n order to |dent|fy soc|a|, att|tud|na| and phys|ca| barr|ers as we|| as
|nformat|on barr|ers that exc|ude ch||dren, the consequences of exc|us|on,
and opportun|t|es for tack||ng |t;
ensure that |nformat|on gathered about the popu|at|on |nc|udes exc|uded
groups and |s separated out to |dent|fy spec|fc character|st|cs of exc|us|on
such as age, sex, re||g|on, ethn|c|ty, hea|th, |mpa|rment and soc|a| status, as
we|| as env|ronmenta| and soc|eta| barr|ers. lnformat|on on some groups at
r|sk of exc|us|on, such as |GBTl ch||dren or ch||dren born as a resu|t of rape,
may need to be treated w|th extra confdent|a||ty;
ensure that exc|uded groups of ch||dren are cons|dered w|th|n case-
management systems, and prov|de tra|n|ng for case managers on d|fferent
strateg|es to |mprove access and |nc|us|on for such ch||dren (see Standard
15};
ensure that commun|ty support |n|t|at|ves are ||nked to commun|ty-based
ch||d protect|on mechan|sms and are ab|e to |dent|fy and refer ch||d protect|on
|ssues to them;
work w|th ch||dren and youth groups to promote outreach and peer support
to exc|uded ch||dren, and promote the|r |nvo|vement |n soc|a| act|v|t|es and
the|r access to soc|a| resources;
work w|th ch||dren, adu|ts and commun|ty members w|th |nfuence to promote
the |nc|us|on of exc|uded groups and to ensure that exc|uded ch||dren and
the|r fam|||es know about ava||ab|e serv|ces and support;
ensure that ch||dren have access to |nformat|on wh|ch |s appropr|ate, tak|ng
account of age, sex, |anguage, fa|th, type of d|sab|||ty (e.g. through |nc|ud|ng
rad|o broadcast|ng and |arge-pr|nt med|a for the v|sua||y |mpa|red} etc., and
target |nformat|on at exc|uded groups (e.g. ch||dren w|th|n res|dent|a| care
and detent|on, or those ||v|ng on the streets};
work across sectors to ensure that bas|c serv|ces such as hea|th, educat|on
and ||ve||hoods are access|b|e to exc|uded ch||dren, and take appropr|ate
act|on to dea| w|th ex|st|ng and potent|a| barr|ers;
advocate across human|tar|an sectors to take steps to a||ow exc|uded
ch||dren to be |nc|uded |n programme p|ann|ng (for examp|e, campa|gn for
'un|versa| des|gn" and 'reasonab|e accommodat|on" standards as set out
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #"&
|n the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Peop|e w|th D|sab|||t|es (ORPD} |n a||
|ntervent|ons};
promote and support the |nvo|vement of exc|uded ch||dren and groups |n
dec|s|on-mak|ng forums;
campa|gn for po||c|es on recru|t|ng peop|e for work from exc|uded groups;
and
|nc|ude representat|ves from the exc|uded popu|at|on w|th|n the programme
eva|uat|on process.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of identifed excluded children who have
access to protection services
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Number of communities where exclusion has been
mapped, and causes, consequences, barriers and
opportunities have been identifed
To be determined
in country
3. Percentage of communities with comprehensive services
and support accessible to excluded groups
100%
4. Percentage of communities with participatory initiatives
to reach out to excluded children
100%
h0TS
(1j Access to" needs
to be defned in
context; including
whether the
denominator is limited
to children believing
to need the services.
Type of services can
also be determined in
context
(3j Which excluded
groups and type
of services can be
determined in context
Guidance notes
1. Common|y exc|uded chi|dren.
Some of the categor|es of ch||dren most often |dent|fed as exc|uded are ch||dren
w|th d|sab|||t|es, ch||d-headed househo|ds, |GBTl ch||dren, ch||dren ||v|ng and
work|ng on the streets, ch||dren born as a resu|t of rape, ch||dren from ethn|c
and re||g|ous m|nor|t|es, ch||dren affected by Hlv, ado|escent g|r|s, ch||dren |n
the worst forms of ch||d |abour, ch||dren w|thout appropr|ate care, ch||dren born
out of wed|ock, and ch||dren ||v|ng |n res|dent|a| care or detent|on. Oh||dren can
exper|ence exc|us|on |n d|fferent areas of the|r ||ves. For examp|e, ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es may be exc|uded from resources and from tak|ng part w|th|n the|r
own househo|d, as we|| as from schoo|s, commun|ty resources and access to
||ve||hoods. G|r|s may be exc|uded from tak|ng part |n commun|ty ||fe or from
access|ng educat|on. Oh||dren |n res|dent|a| care or detent|on may be exc|uded
from commun|ty ||fe and |so|ated from bas|c serv|ces and resources. Oh||dren
||v|ng and work|ng on the streets may have the|r own soc|a| spheres but may be
exc|uded from ma|nstream soc|ety and access to bas|c serv|ces and resources.
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K7 V$%#/,N(,#- %]0@"$%$ 03,@$O%#)
The desk rev|ew carr|ed out dur|ng emergency preparedness or |n the |n|t|a|
days of an emergency response shou|d g|ve an |dea of wh|ch ch||dren are
common|y exc|uded w|th|n the nat|ona| or |oca| context. se th|s know|edge to
p|an s|tes where the ch||d protect|on assessments are carr|ed out (for examp|e,
|n res|dent|a| care or detent|on fac|||t|es} and the types of quest|ons asked, then
|dent|fy the nature and scope of exc|us|on |n the emergency context. Once th|s
|s defned, use commun|ty-based assessments and outreach act|v|t|es to |dent|fy
|nd|v|dua| exc|uded ch||dren |n the programme area for fo||ow-up and support.
Work c|ose|y w|th camp management structures and agenc|es such as NHOR
and lOM that are reg|ster|ng popu|at|ons, to ensure that popu|at|on reg|strat|on
exerc|ses screen for common|y exc|uded groups (for examp|e, ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es or ch||dren w|thout appropr|ate care}. Further work can then be done
at the commun|ty |eve| to map the causes, consequences, opportun|t|es and
threats re|ated to exc|us|on.
3. Access of exc|uded chi|dren to humanitarian protection and assistance.
A|| ch||dren shou|d be supported |n access|ng the same |eve| of human|tar|an
protect|on and he|p, as th|s |s frequent|y den|ed to exc|uded ch||dren. Spec|fc
measures may be needed to overcome barr|ers and to a||ow access. Th|s may
|nc|ude prov|d|ng outreach serv|ces, carry|ng out advocacy to ensure ch||dren
are |nc|uded who |ack |dent|ty documents or who are not represented by an adu|t
careg|ver, and carry|ng out act|v|t|es to tack|e d|scr|m|nat|on. Avo|d prov|d|ng
common human|tar|an serv|ces separate|y wherever poss|b|e. Oh||dren shou|d
be supported to access spec|a||sed serv|ces accord|ng to the|r spec|fc needs
(for examp|e, spec|a||sed med|ca| serv|ces, mob|||ty and sensory a|ds, or |nter|m
care serv|ces}. Be carefu| to ensure that prov|d|ng spec|a||sed serv|ces and
outreach |s done |n a way that does not further st|gmat|se ch||dren.
F7 =3,@$O%# 6,/3 $,+1',@,/,%+ Y=6*Z)
Oh||dren w|th d|ffcu|t|es wa|k|ng, see|ng, hear|ng, commun|cat|ng and/or
remember|ng are part|cu|ar vu|nerab|e to be|ng abandoned, neg|ected and
exp|o|ted dur|ng emergenc|es, and are rare|y cons|dered |n human|tar|an
assessments and responses. lnc|ud|ng them |n human|tar|an programm|ng
|nvo|ves ana|ys|ng the|r many needs, character|st|cs and ||v|ng s|tuat|ons, and
ensur|ng the|r act|ve |nvo|vement |n a|| stages of the programme cyc|e. Genera|
human|tar|an serv|ce prov|ders shou|d |ncrease the|r capac|ty w|th regard to
|nc|ud|ng and work|ng w|th OwD. Programm|ng act|v|t|es shou|d take a fam||y-
centred approach and he|p the fam||y to become se|f-re||ant. Foca| peop|e |n
commun|ty-based mechan|sms or camp management structures shou|d be
|dent|fed and tra|ned to work w|th OwD. Oommun|cat|on and med|a strateg|es
shou|d a||ow ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es access to |nformat|on, for examp|e through
the use of rad|o broadcasts, |oud-speaker announcements and Bra|||e and
|arge-pr|nt med|a, and by pass|ng messages through d|sab|||ty networks.
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5. Reasonab|e accommodation and universa| design.
These are pr|nc|p|es that make sure that the needs of peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es
are cons|dered throughout the process of p|ann|ng and putt|ng the programme
|nto pract|ce. The Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Peop|e w|th D|sab|||t|es (ORPD}
defnes reasonab|e accommodat|on as 'necessary and appropr|ate mod|fcat|on
and adjustment.to ensure to peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es the enjoyment or exerc|se
on an equa| bas|s w|th others of a|| human r|ghts". The ORPD defnes un|versa|
des|gn as 'the des|gn of products, env|ronments, programmes and serv|ces
to be usab|e by a|| peop|e, to the greatest extent poss|b|e, w|thout the need
for adaptat|on or spec|a||sed des|gn". To make sure that the needs of OwD
are cons|dered and dea|t w|th, they shou|d be |nc|uded |n a|| human|tar|an
programm|ng. Fa||ure to do so underm|nes the pract|ce of |nc|ud|ng OwD w|th|n
human|tar|an programm|ng, and |s d|scr|m|nat|on.
G7 =3,@$O%# @,B,#- 1#$ 62OA,#- 2# /3% +/O%%/+ Y=8S.Z)
Many ch||dren |n danger move to urban areas to escape v|o|ence, abuse,
exp|o|tat|on and neg|ect, or |n search of opportun|t|es, serv|ces and resources.
Some of these ch||dren end up ||v|ng and work|ng on the streets, where they
are vu|nerab|e to further v|o|ence and exp|o|tat|on, and may be exc|uded from
serv|ces. Dur|ng an emergency, these ch||dren may cont|nue to be exc|uded from
human|tar|an protect|on and ass|stance because they are outs|de commun|ty
structures, and because they |ack access to |nformat|on. Emergenc|es a|so
|ncrease numbers of ch||dren who move onto the streets. O|WS often have
comp||cated needs and w||| stay h|gh|y mob||e, comp||cat|ng efforts towards
|nc|ud|ng them |n human|tar|an programm|ng. Approaches that have proved
effect|ve |n some contexts |nc|ude peer-to-peer outreach, prov|d|ng 'out of hours`
serv|ces for |earn|ng and psychosoc|a| support, prov|d|ng mu|t|-sectora| case-
management, campa|gn|ng w|th serv|ce prov|ders, emp|oyers and author|t|es,
and prov|d|ng fam||y med|at|on.
H7 =3,@$O%# 1NN%0/%$ '( <V^)
Oh||dren ||v|ng w|th Hlv, or who ||ve |n househo|ds w|th members who have
Hlv, may be part|cu|ar|y vu|nerab|e to exc|us|on. The st|gma and d|scr|m|nat|on
that |s assoc|ated w|th Hlv may |ead to them be|ng unab|e to access serv|ces
and support, and to the|r exc|us|on from the commun|ty. The effect of Hlv on
|nd|v|dua| and househo|d ||ve||hoods can |ead to poverty, wh|ch further feeds
the cyc|e of exc|us|on. Spec|fc cons|derat|on shou|d be g|ven to |nc|ud|ng these
ch||dren and househo|ds |n protect|on and he|p programmes |n a way that
ma|nta|ns confdent|a||ty and reduces, as far as poss|b|e, the r|sk of st|gmat|sat|on.
lnformat|on campa|gns shou|d cha||enge d|scr|m|natory att|tudes and promote
commun|ty acceptance and support. Spec|a||sed serv|ces shou|d be |nc|uded
w|th the broader serv|ces prov|ded. Oh||dren affected by Hlv shou|d be |nc|uded
|n tra|n|ng |n ||fe sk|||s that promotes the|r ab|||ty to protect themse|ves.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%*
8. Promoting chi|dren's participation.
Promot|ng the |nvo|vement of exc|uded ch||dren |n the dec|s|ons that affect
the|r ||ves |s centra| to |nc|ud|ng them |n soc|ety and |ncreas|ng the|r protect|on.
Part|c|pat|on can, however, a|so expose them to the r|sk of d|scr|m|nat|on and
v|o|ence, or |eave them fee||ng bereft of any form of power. The background
and power dynam|cs that create these r|sks need carefu| ana|ys|s, and capac|ty
to support ch||dren`s |nvo|vement must be ensured before the part|c|pat|on of
exc|uded ch||dren |s promoted. Programm|ng a|med at promot|ng ch||dren`s
part|c|pat|on shou|d support ch||dren |n bu||d|ng se|f-esteem, res|||ence and
soc|a| sk|||s. Oh||dren`s groups and peer-to-peer mechan|sms can be used
to promote the |nvo|vement of exc|uded ch||dren w|th|n commun|ty act|v|t|es.
9. Promoting inc|usion in organisationa| po|icy and practice.
Hav|ng staff from exc|uded groups work|ng for human|tar|an agenc|es, act|ve|y
promot|ng non-d|scr|m|nat|on, deve|ops understand|ng of exc|us|on-re|ated
|ssues, |ncreases commun|cat|on, and enab|es bu||d|ng of pos|t|ve re|at|onsh|ps.
To ach|eve th|s, po||c|es and procedures shou|d be deve|oped to promote
recru|tment of a|| groups |n soc|ety and to make sure a work env|ronment |s
prov|ded w|thout barr|ers. Po||c|es and procedures may |nc|ude:
Affrmat|ve act|on strateg|es
Ohanges to the workp|ace for staff w|th d|sab|||t|es
Putt|ng gr|evance procedures |nto pract|ce
Ra|s|ng awareness and tra|n|ng for staff on d|scr|m|nat|on
Sett|ng up career-deve|opment opportun|t|es for a|| staff.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%#
References
NHOR (2011}. Ho|||| w||| |e|so|s w||| D|sao|||||es || Fo|ced
D|so|aceme||
WHO (2001}. |||e||a||o|a| C|ass|/ca||o| o/ F0|c||o|||, D|sao||||,
a|d |ea|||
Wordsworth, D., McPeak, M. and Feeny, T. (2005}. U|de|s|a|d||
C|||d|e|'s Exoe||e|ce o/ |o.e||,. /| ||||od0c||o| ||e DEv
F|amewo||
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Peop|e w|th D|sab|||t|es (2006}
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Standards
to mainstream
child protection
in other
humanitarian
sectors
Standards to mainstream
child protection in other
humanitarian sectors
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B,'/ -"+#,-( -& -"# (,0#-/ ,'* @#226#)'7 &0 %")2*+#' %,' 6#
miIigcIec cr even ercciccIec Ihrcugh Iime|y, :en:iIive prcvi:icn
&0 "14,')-,+),' ,)* )' ,22 &-"#+ (#%-&+(8 C1+-"#+4&+#5 ,22 (#%-&+(
cf humcniIcricn re:pcn:e cre criIicc| Ic prcvicing cn cceucIe
cnc hc|i:Iic re:pcn:e fcr chi|cren whc hcve :urvivec cifferenI
Iype: cf vic|ence, exp|ciIcIicn, cLu:e cnc neg|ecI. Fc||cwing
-"# )44#*),-# "14,')-,+),' +#(3&'(#5 ,22 "14,')-,+),' (#%-&+(
hcve cn impcrIcnI ccnIriLuIicn Ic mcke Ic Ihe effecIive
rehcLi|iIcIicn cnc reinIegrcIicn cf chi|c :urvivcr:.
DB,)'(-+#,4)'7E %")2* 3+&-#%-)&'5 &+ #'(1+)'7 -",- %")2*
3+&-#%-)&' %&'()*#+,-)&'( )'0&+4 ,22 ,(3#%-( &0 "14,')-,+),'
,%-)&'5 "#23( -& 4,?)4)(# -"# %")2* 3+&-#%-)&' )43,%-( &0
Ihe wcrk IhcI c|| humcniIcricn: cc. lI c|:c he|p: Ic minimi:e
Ihe in:Icnce: in which Ihe ri:k: Ic chi|cren cre inccverIenI|y
#?,%#+6,-#* 6/ 3+&7+,44#( *#()7'#* @)-"&1- 3+&3#+
ccn:icercIicn cf chi|cren: :cfeIy cr we||Leing. ln cIher wcrc:,
4,)'(-+#,4)'7 %")2* 3+&-#%-)&' )( 3,+- &0 %&432),'%# @)-" -"#
D*& '& ",+4E 3+)'%)32#8
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Ihe:e :Icnccrc: cc ncI prcvice generc| guiccnce fcr wcrker:
in Ihe humcniIcricn :ecIcr: Ihey ccver - Ihi: guiccnce ccn Le
fcunc in Ihe re|evcnI :Icnccrc: fcr ecch :ecIcr, :uch c: Ihe
re|evcnI Sphere :Icnccrc: cr lNEE :Icnccrc:. Ihe:e :Icnccrc:
cc, hcwever:
- lnciccIe :cme cf Ihe 'hiccen |ink: LeIween humcniIcricn
,(()(-,'%# ,'* %")2* 3+&-#%-)&' F0&+ #?,432#5 @"#+# (133&+-
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- Li:I :ugge:Iec key ccIicn: fcr chi|c prcIecIicn wcrker: c: we||
,( ,%-)&'( 0&+ &-"#+ "14,')-,+),'(5 -& #'(1+# %")2* 3+&-#%-)&'
i: prcper|y cccre::ec in ecch :ecIcr ccverec
- Frcvice c menu cf pc::iL|e inciccIcr:, wiIh IcrgeI:, Ic c::e::
3+&7+#(( -&@,+*( +#,%")'7 -"# (-,'*,+*(
- Give :cme guiccnce cn hcw wcrker: in cIher :ecIcr: ccn
en:ure Iheir prcgrcmme: cre ccce::iL|e cnc Lenefcic| Ic
%")2*+#'8
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=-,-#( ,+# +#(3&'()62# 0&+ 3+&-#%-)'7 %")2*+#' ,- ,22 -)4#(5
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+#(3&'()62# 0&+ #'(1+)'7 -",- -"#)+ ,%-)&'( *& '&- 6+)'7 %")2*+#'
)'-& +)(. )' ,'/ @,/5 ,'* -",- -"# 3+&7+,44#( -"#/ )432#4#'-
imprcve Ihe :cfeIy cnc we||Leing cf chi|cren c: fcr c: pc::iL|e.
H'# )43&+-,'- ,(3#%- &0 -")( )( ()432/ #'(1+)'7 -",- ,22 %")2*+#'
- whcIever Iheir cge, gencer cr circum:Icnce: - hcve ccce::
Ic Lc:ic :ervice:. Since chi|cren mcke up c |crge pcrIicn cf Ihe
cffecIec pcpu|cIicn {:cmeIime: Ihe mcjcriIy), iI mcke: :en:e
IhcI Ihe:e :ervice: Le c: ccce::iL|e Ic Lcy: cnc gir|: cf c|| cge:
,( -"#/ ,+# -& ,*12-(8
/ furIher e::enIic| pcinI i: IhcI pcrI cf Ihe cLjecIive cf ecch
humcniIcricn re:pcn:e mu:I Le Ic mcinIcin cr imprcve Ihe
(,0#-/ ,'* @#226#)'7 &0 -"&(# ,00#%-#*5 )'%21*)'7 %")2*+#'8 C&+
excmp|e, effcrI: Ic re:Icre Ihe |ive|ihccc: cf fcmi|ie: ccn hcve
, 3&@#+012 #00#%- )' .##3)'7 %")2*+#' ,'* 3,+#'-( -&7#-"#+8
Simi|cr|y, Ihe prcvi:icn cf c|ecn wcIer, cI Ihe righI Iime cnc in Ihe
righI p|cce, ccn :cfegucrc chi|cren frcm ccnger - if chi|cren:
+&2# )' @,-#+ %&22#%-)&'5 ,( @#22 ,( -"#)+ &-"#+ *1-)#( ,'* '##*(5
)( -"&17"- -"+&17" %,+#0122/ 0+&4 -"# (-,+-8
!"#(# =-,'*,+*( 0&%1( 4,)'(-+#,4)'7 %")2* 3+&-#%-)&' )' -"#
0&22&@)'7 (#%-&+(>
- Eccncmic reccvery cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- EcuccIicn cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- Hec|Ih cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- NuIriIicn cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- WcIer, :cniIcIicn cnc hygiene {W/SH) cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- She|Ier cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- Ccmp mcncgemenI cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
- Di:IriLuIicn cnc chi|c prcIecIicn
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%&
STANDARD 19
Economic recovery and child protection
Econom|c act|on - such as vocat|ona| sk|||s tra|n|ng, prov|s|on of cash transfers
and vouchers, enterpr|se deve|opment and m|crofnance |n|t|at|ves - can stab|||se
and |ncrease the |ncome of popu|at|ons affected by emergenc|es. Effect|ve
programmes are based on the SeeP Network`s M|n|mum Econom|c Recovery
Standards, and often have protect|ve effects on ch||dren, part|cu|ar|y when
mothers beneft d|rect|y, when they are used to prov|de ||ve||hood opportun|t|es
for o|der ado|escents, and when act|on bu||ds on ex|st|ng strateg|es to protect
peop|e`s ||ve||hoods.
However, even when programmes are effect|ve at the househo|d |eve|, they can
|ncrease the r|sk of harm to ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng the r|sk of hav|ng to |eave schoo|
or of be|ng exp|o|ted due to an econom|c |ntervent|on. Where a careg|ver |s
ob||ged to work |n order to access econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons, th|s may
|ead to a reduced |eve| of care for ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren be|ng moved out
of the home a|together. Some ch||dren themse|ves are careg|vers, e|ther for
s|b||ngs (for examp|e, |n ch||d-headed househo|ds} or for e|der|y or s|ck adu|ts.
These ch||dren are ||ke|y to requ|re d|rect ||ve||hood support.
Ta||ored act|on |s requ|red to ensure that econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons
reach those househo|ds where ch||d protect|on concerns are most press|ng,
and that they max|m|se ch||dren`s chances of rema|n|ng w|th the|r fam|||es,
access|ng educat|on, and keep|ng out of hazardous |abour or other s|tuat|ons
of exp|o|tat|on.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of economic recovery programmes.
Working-age boys and girls and their caregivers will have access to
adequate support to strengthen their livelihoods.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
econom|c recovery, and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of
th|s |nformat|on for econom|c recovery;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%'
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about econom|c recovery |nto d|scuss|ons w|th
careg|vers, commun|ty members and ch||dren, and |nv|te econom|c recovery
workers to attend these d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n
d|fferent care arrangements (for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d
heads of househo|ds, ch||dren on the street, and ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
coord|nate w|th |oca| commun|t|es and organ|sat|ons to get up-to-date
|nformat|on on ch||dren or househo|ds that may be |n need of econom|c
recovery |ntervent|ons;
meet w|th ear|y recovery staff to agree on |nformat|on for those w|sh|ng to
access ear|y recovery |ntervent|ons, and to estab||sh a referra| system for
those who need ass|stance;
ensure that ch||dren or househo|ds that may be |n need of econom|c recovery
|ntervent|ons rece|ve a response;
where appropr|ate, |nc|ude |nformat|on on econom|c recovery |n ch||d
protect|on messag|ng;
|nc|ude ch||d protect|on personne| |n tra|n|ng on ear|y recovery;
|nc|ude econom|c-recovery personne| |n tra|n|ng on ch||d protect|on;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and on econom|c
recovery;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of h|gh qua||ty econom|c recovery
|ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between econom|c recovery and ch||d protect|on to be
exp|ored |n eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post
D|saster Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 00h0N|0 800V8Y A0T08S
Ensure that benefc|ar|es of |ntervent|ons |nc|ude ch||dren who are part|cu|ar|y
at r|sk of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse and neg|ect. Th|s may |nc|ude those
|n res|dent|a| care, ch||dren who have |ost one or more careg|ver, ch||d
careg|vers and ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren on the street and ch||dren
w|th d|sab|||t|es;
work w|th other human|tar|ans and members of commun|ty to reach exc|uded
ch||dren;
cons|der the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each
|ntervent|on;
ensure econom|c recovery workers are fu||y br|efed on the |aws govern|ng
work for ch||dren;
rev|ew a|| p|anned act|v|t|es to check for any |ncent|ves for ch||dren to move
out of appropr|ate care (such as fam||y based care}. Th|s may |nc|ude
|ntervent|ons that beneft ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care homes d|sproport|onate|y,
the creat|on of emp|oyment opportun|t|es for ch||dren away from the home,
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #%(
or |ncent|v|s|ng parents to work |nstead of car|ng for ch||dren |n order to
access to econom|c recovery;
beware of |mp|ement|ng any 'for work" programmes w|thout a coex|st|ng
system to de||ver benefts to careg|vers and ch||dren who are unab|e to access
the 'for work" programme;
prov|de, or he|p fam|||es access, cash grants and other emergency soc|a|-
protect|on measures for those who cannot work;
when poss|b|e, des|gn strateg|es that are fex|b|e and wh|ch can accommodate
new ch||dren and fam|||es as we|| as adjustments |n methodo|ogy and targets;
work w|th ch||d protect|on workers to set up and use a referra| system so that
ch||dren and fam|||es who may be |n need of econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons
can qu|ck|y access support;
together w|th ch||d protect|on workers, co||ect |nformat|on, |nc|ud|ng case
stud|es, to demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of your |ntervent|on on ch||dren`s
safety and we||be|ng;
ensure that those |n econom|c recovery have s|gned up to and been tra|ned
|n a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of economic recovery projects where child
safety and wellbeing, including family unity, are refected
in design, monitoring and evaluation
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of economic recovery projects that included
child protection specialists in their design phase
90%
3. Existence and proven use of a referral system to enable
excluded children or households, or children at risk, to
access economic recovery support
Yes
4. Percentage of economic recovery personnel trained on
child protection issues
90%
5. Percentage of economic-recovery projects the child
protection aspects of which are regularly reviewed with
child protection workers
90%
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&*
Guidance notes
D7 ./O"0/"O1@ '1OO,%O+)
The barr|ers created |n econom|c recovery programmes need to be understood.
The capac|ty of econom|c recovery programmes to |mprove the future of
ch||dren |s affected by such cond|t|ons as gender |nequa||ty, geograph|c |so|at|on
of the benefc|ar|es, age d|scr|m|nat|on, poor qua||ty of hea|th and educat|on
serv|ces, |ack of |nformat|on about parent|ng, st|gmat|sat|on of certa|n groups
(for examp|e, those w|th d|sab|||t|es}, and soc|a| norms. Ouest|ons of agency
and structura| barr|ers are often not |nc|uded |n programmes to strengthen the
economy.
2. Gir|s and women.
ln many contexts, women are more ||ke|y than men to pr|or|t|se the needs of
ch||dren |n the|r care. Women and g|r|s are a|so more vu|nerab|e to many r|sks,
|nc|ud|ng Hlv and gender-based v|o|ence (GBv}; but |n sp|te of the protect|ve
benefts of econom|c programm|ng, |n many cases they are |eft out. The
ava||ab|||ty of ch||dcare fac|||t|es w||| often affect whether fema|e careg|vers can
take part |n programmes. Ho|d d|scuss|ons at the househo|d or commun|ty
|eve| and w|th programme des|gners to he|p deve|op the best so|ut|ons for
women w|th ch||dcare dut|es.
3. Assessment and monitoring.
||ve||hood assessments shou|d |nvo|ve those w|th an |nterest - |nc|ud|ng
women, o|der boys and g|r|s, parents w|th d|sab|||t|es and careg|vers of ch||dren
most at r|sk - so that they can he|p |dent|fy any negat|ve cop|ng mechan|sms
that may be appear|ng due to |oss of househo|d assets and |ncome. These may
|nc|ude hazardous |abour, transact|ona| sex, or |eav|ng schoo|. Assessments
shou|d a|so |dent|fy any protect|on r|sks for g|r|s and boys that may be made
worse (not de||berate|y} by econom|c-recovery strateg|es. The root causes of
the vu|nerab|||ty, econom|c assets, |oca| demand for |abour and goods, and
va|ue cha|n (ongo|ng} opportun|t|es shou|d frst be ana|ysed.
F7 =1+3 /O1#+N%O+)
ln the aftermath of an emergency, cash transfers and cond|t|ona| cash transfer
programm|ng can |ay the groundwork for he|p|ng vu|nerab|e househo|ds
to recover. lt |s a|so of cruc|a| |mportance, however, to make sure they
do not further marg|na||se some groups. D|rect cash transfers may, for
examp|e, be necessary for househo|ds where a|| members of the househo|d
have d|sab|||t|es, where there are no careg|vers for ch||dren (ch||d-headed
househo|ds}, where one or more careg|ver has been |ost, or where ch||dren
are work|ng. O|ear |nformat|on shou|d be prov|ded by those tak|ng part about
the expected durat|on of the cash transfer. Any act|on shou|d be des|gned to
beneft women, ch||dren and exc|uded groups.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&#
M7 [2#,/2O,#- 1#$ %B1@"1/,2#)
||ve||hood and econom|c-recovery strateg|es m|ght not resu|t |n eas||y
measurab|e outcomes for ch||dren |n the short term. As a resu|t, where
ava||ab|e, separate |nd|cators shou|d be used for ma|es and fema|es (such
as mea|s consumed, schoo| attendance, and ch||d-hea|th data}. Throughout
|mp|ementat|on, ensure that mon|tor|ng systems capture |nformat|on on the
expected and the unexpected |mpacts of the |ntervent|on on ch||dren`s safety
and we||be|ng. Ana|yse |n part|cu|ar the fo||ow|ng two |ssues: (1} |s there any
corre|at|on between fam||y un|ty and econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons? And
(2} |s there any corre|at|on between access to educat|on, rates of ch||d |abour,
and econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons? Share |nformat|on and coord|nate work
to avo|d dup||cat|ng efforts.
6. Comp|ementary expertise.
S|nce many ch||d protect|on agenc|es |ack the expert|se to de||ver effect|ve,
market-based econom|c programm|ng and agenc|es spec|a||sed |n th|s k|nd of
programm|ng may |ack expert|se |n ch||d protect|on, agenc|es shou|d focus on
de||ver|ng what they do best and bu||d partnersh|ps to de||ver the rest.
7. Programme design.
As part of a market-based approach, those putt|ng econom|c-recovery
strateg|es |nto act|on w||| often re|y on se|f-se|ect|on of benefc|ar|es, resu|t|ng
|n programmes that favour those who are more ab|e. Oh||d protect|on
organ|sat|ons shou|d, as far as poss|b|e, a|m to |nfuence the des|gn of these
strateg|es to |nc|ude more vu|nerab|e househo|ds. They shou|d a|so |dent|fy
the fam|||es who cannot be reached and connect them w|th he|p. Wh||e most
programmes target adu|ts, o|der ado|escents may a|so beneft d|rect|y from
sk|||s tra|n|ng, sav|ngs schemes, apprent|cesh|ps and other act|v|t|es. The
des|gn of econom|c-recovery programmes for ch||dren must respect nat|ona|
|aws on m|n|mum age for work and vocat|ona| tra|n|ng, and comp|et|on of
compu|sory schoo||ng. They present an opportun|ty to strengthen the |ega|
framework (|nc|ud|ng for mon|tor|ng when |aws are broken} |f appropr|ate.
I7 ./%O%2/(4,#-)
Ma|es and fema|es shou|d have the cho|ce of what k|nds of work they prefer
to do or wh|ch sk|||s to |earn, and shou|d be a||owed to pursue a ||ve||hood |n
fe|ds trad|t|ona||y pursued on|y by the oppos|te sex. There |s a tendency of
|nvo|v|ng g|r|s |n |ow-pay|ng, home-based act|v|t|es such as sew|ng or kn|tt|ng,
and tra|n|ng boys |n sk|||s w|th greater econom|c potent|a| such as mechan|cs
or carpentry. Espec|a||y |f there |s no fam||y prov|der, g|r|s and boys have an
equa| need to get |nvo|ved |n econom|ca||y prom|s|ng act|v|t|es. Hav|ng an
understand|ng of the pre-ex|st|ng |oca| context, |nc|ud|ng customary att|tudes
and norms, w||| a||ow more sens|t|ve and effect|ve programm|ng to avo|d
stereotyp|ng, and cou|d have a |ast|ng effect.
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References
Betcherman, G., Godfrey, M., Puerto, S., Fr|edr|ke, R. and
Straverska, A. (2007} / |e.|ew o/ |||e|.e|||o|s |o 50ooo|| Yo0|
Ho||e|s. F||d||s o/ ||e Yo0|| Emo|o,me|| ||.e||o|,
OPO ||ve||hoods and Econom|cs Strengthen|ng Task Force (2011}.
7|e |moac|s o/ Eco|om|cs 5||e|||e||| ||o|ams o| C|||d|e|
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
The Oash |earn|ng Partnersh|p, Save the Oh||dren, Women`s
Refugee Oomm|ss|on (2012} C|||d 5a/e0a|d|| || Cas| 7|a|s/e|
||o|amm||. / ||ac||ca| 7oo|
The Oash |earn|ng Partnersh|p, Save the Oh||dren, Women`s
Refugee Oomm|ss|on (2012}. H|a| Cas| 7|a|s/e| ||o|amm||
ca| do |o o|o|ec| c|||d|e| /|om .|o|e|ce, ao0se a|d exo|o||a||o|
The SeeP Network (2010}. /|||m0m Eco|om|c |eco.e|,
5|a|da|ds (5eco|d Ed|||o|
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.ovcsupport.net
www.seepnetwork.org
www.human|tar|an|nfo.org/|asc
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&!
STANDARD 20
Education and child protection
Good qua||ty educat|on contr|butes to the safety and we||be|ng of ch||dren
before, dur|ng and after emergenc|es. For surv|vors of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on,
abuse or neg|ect, educat|on |s cr|t|ca| both as a r|ght and because of the
|mportant ro|e |t p|ays |n support|ng these ch||dren |n re-jo|n|ng the|r peer groups.
ln terms of prevent|on, educat|on serves as an |mportant way of pass|ng on
messages, ra|s|ng awareness and prov|d|ng ||fe sk|||s to bo|ster ch||dren`s ab|||ty
to recogn|se r|sks and respond accord|ng|y. Educat|on supports ch||dren`s
res|||ence by nurtur|ng the|r psychosoc|a| and cogn|t|ve deve|opment, and dur|ng
t|mes of cr|s|s and emergency, |t may he|p restore a sense of norma||ty, d|gn|ty
and hope by offer|ng the chance to part|c|pate |n structured act|v|t|es |n a safe
env|ronment.
The fo||ow|ng gu|dance on educat|on and ch||d protect|on |ntends on|y to prov|de
bas|c |nformat|on on the ||nkages of educat|on and ch||d protect|on. For |n-depth
gu|dance on the prov|s|on of educat|on |n emergenc|es and |ts ||nkages and
co||aborat|on w|th the ch||d protect|on sector, p|ease refer to the lNEE M|n|mum
Standards: Preparedness, Response, Recovery.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of education programmes. Boys and girls of
all ages can access safe, high-quality, child-friendly, fexible, relevant
and protective learning opportunities in a protective environment.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
educat|on and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s
|nformat|on for educat|on;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about educat|on |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren and |nv|te educat|on workers to attend these
d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|ons of ch||dren |n d|fferent care arrangements
(for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren
on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&$
together w|th educat|on and EOD workers, tra|n commun|t|es and ch||d
and youth c|ubs on how to |dent|fy and report ch||d protect|on r|sks |n and
around educat|ona| fac|||t|es;
set up referra| systems so that those work|ng |n educat|on fac|||t|es can
qu|ck|y and effc|ent|y refer ch||dren w|th protect|on needs to ch||d protect|on
workers;
prov|de tra|n|ng to ch||d protect|on workers on educat|on and EOD |n
emergenc|es;
work w|th educat|on staff to deve|op and use ch||d protect|on messages on
|ssues such as separat|on, exp|os|ve remnants of war etc., and to run r|sk-
reduct|on act|v|t|es;
work w|th educat|on workers to mon|tor prov|s|on of adequate san|tat|on
fac|||t|es |n schoo|s;
support educat|on workers |n adopt|ng a code of conduct for teachers and
other educat|on personne| and |n ensur|ng th|s code |s s|gned by a|| act|ve
teachers and other educat|on personne|;
regu|ar|y mon|tor the ch||d protect|on s|tuat|on |n schoo|s, |nc|ud|ng the
|nteract|on of teachers and other personne| w|th ch||dren, to h|gh||ght
corpora| pun|shment and a|| other crue| or degrad|ng pun|shments as we||
as sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse;
coord|nate w|th the educat|on sector |n mapp|ng schoo|s that are at r|sk
of be|ng attacked or occup|ed by m|||tary forces, that are c|ose to m|||tary
groups, or that may be contam|nated w|th ERWs;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and educat|on;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of qua||ty educat|on |ntervent|ons on
ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nks between educat|on and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored
|n eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 000AT|0h A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each
educat|on |ntervent|on;
fo||ow the lNEE M|n|mum Standards |n p|ann|ng and putt|ng educat|on
strateg|es |nto pract|ce, w|th spec|a| attent|on to lNEE M|n|mum Standard on
Protect|on and We||be|ng, |nc|ud|ng mak|ng the |earn|ng env|ronment safe
and support|ve;
coord|nate w|th ch||d protect|on workers to make sure educat|on |nformat|on
|s d|saggregated by sex, age, and d|sab|||ty, to fac|||tate ch||d protect|on
responses;
work w|th ch||d protect|on workers |n rap|d|y organ|s|ng ch||d-fr|end|y spaces
or temporary |earn|ng spaces, mak|ng sure they comp|ement, and do not
compete w|th, ex|st|ng or p|anned educat|ona| programmes (see Standard 17};
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&"
together w|th ch||d protect|on workers, set up and use a referra| system so
that ch||dren who are out of schoo| can qu|ck|y rece|ve the support requ|red
to access schoo|;
cons|der fex|b|e a|ternat|ves to schoo|s where |t |s unsafe for ch||dren to
trave| to schoo| or to co||ect |n groups;
campa|gn for un|versa| access to educat|on opportun|t|es, |nc|ud|ng through
remov|ng barr|ers to enro|ment and retent|on such as |ack of documents or
other requ|rements;
work w|th ch||d protect|on workers to fnd or move educat|ona| fac|||t|es
away from protect|on threats such as m|||tary or m|||tant zones, areas
contam|nated w|th ERW and natura| hazard areas, and estab||sh them |n
safe areas and c|ose to popu|at|on centres;
work w|th other educat|on organ|sat|ons, |nc|ud|ng the M|n|stry of Educat|on
and commun|ty educat|on comm|ttees, to make sure that the content of the
curr|cu|um does not d|scr|m|nate |n any way;
when p|ann|ng the educat|on response make sure that ch||d protect|on
matters are cons|dered (access, non-v|o|ence |n schoo|, qua||ty of teach|ng
and |earn|ng, code of conduct, separate to||ets, equa| access to serv|ces for
both genders};
ensure there |s ba|anced recru|tment of ma|e and fema|e teachers, and tra|n
teachers on gender sens|t|ve approaches to teach|ng;
|ncrease teachers` know|edge and pract|ce of pos|t|ve d|sc|p||ne and
end |mmed|ate|y a|| corpora| pun|shment and a|| other crue| or degrad|ng
pun|shments;
rev|ew per|od|ca||y whether your educat|on and ch||d protect|on act|ons may
|nadvertent|y be contr|but|ng to conf|ct, and take appropr|ate act|ons;
|ntroduce the teach|ng of sk|||s that support pos|t|ve ||v|ng, acceptance and
peace and |nc|ude |mportant protect|ve messages |n educat|on, to support
ch||dren`s ab|||ty to dea| w|th threats;
make sure that the per|od|c, re|evant and structured tra|n|ng for teachers
that |s ca||ed for by the lNEE M|n|mum Standards a|so tack|es w|der ch||d
protect|on concerns, ||ke prevent|ng ch||dren |n schoo|s from be|ng recru|ted
to armed forces or groups;
make sure a|| sectors work together to |mprove schoo| fac|||t|es for hea|th,
nutr|t|on, water supp|y, san|tat|on and hyg|ene pract|ces;
prov|de tra|n|ng to ch||d protect|on workers on educat|on and ear|y ch||dhood
deve|opment (EOD} |n emergenc|es;
ensure that those work|ng |n educat|on have s|gned up to and been tra|ned
|n a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&%
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of assessed formal and informal learning
environments that are considered safe for boys and girls
of different ages
100%
2. Percentage of boys and girls of different ages (including
children with disabilitiesj able to access schools and
other learning opportunities
To be determined
in country
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of active-duty educators trained on child
protection threats and strategies to tackle threats
90%
4. Percentage of surveyed active-duty education staff who
have signed the adopted code of conduct
100%
5. Percentage of formal and informal education environments
that are regularly monitored with the aim of deciding
whether both girls and boys are protected from abuse,
neglect, exploitation and violence in that environment
100%
6. Percentage of educational facilities identifed as unsafe
that were moved to a safe area
90%
7. Number of children who are identifed as at risk and
referred to CP case management by education staff
each month
To be determined
in country
8. Number of formal and informal education facilities,
students, teachers and other education personnel that
have been attacked during the past month
9. Barriers to enrolment and retention, such as lack of
documents or other requirements, removed for boys
and girls of all ages
Yes
h0TS
Guidance notes
D7 !@%],',@,/(X O%@%B1#0% 1#$ _"1@,/()
F|ex|b|||ty |n sett|ng up educat|on |s essent|a| |n order to meet |earners`
and teachers` protect|on needs. The means of de||ver|ng educat|on need
to be adapted to meet the needs of each ch||d (for examp|e, by prov|d|ng
reasonab|e accommodat|on to ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es}, and to the context.
Th|s process may |nc|ude changes to c|ass schedu|es and year|y t|metab|es
to meet the needs of part|cu|ar groups of |earners. Organ|s|ng c|assroom
space to promote |nteract|on, se|f-study, d|stance |earn|ng, catch-up c|asses
and acce|erated |earn|ng or d|fferent modes of |earn|ng may be re|evant,
depend|ng on the context. A cho|ce needs to be made between temporary
or permanent c|assrooms and educat|on fac|||t|es, based on cr|ter|a such as
so|ut|ons that dea| w|th refugees and |nterna||y d|sp|aced popu|at|ons, and
the potent|a| frag|||ty of temporary construct|ons. See a|so, lNEE M|n|mum
Standards Doma|n 3: Teach|ng and |earn|ng.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&&
2. Administration.
Wa|v|ng the requ|rement for documentat|on norma||y needed to enter schoo||ng
(such as age or b|rth cert|fcates} |s recommended |f done |n partnersh|p w|th
the necessary author|t|es, educat|on organ|sat|ons and commun|ty groups.
Ooord|nat|on shou|d make sure the process |s c|ear and make sure the
proposed changes are recogn|sed and put |nto pract|ce cons|stent|y |n the
host state and state of or|g|n. See a|so, lNEE M|n|mum Standards Doma|n 2:
Access and |earn|ng Env|ronment.
E7 W_",/()
Not hav|ng fa|rness |n educat|on can cause harm. Ooncrete examp|es of ways
to tack|e unfa|rness |n educat|ona| content |nc|ude rev|ew|ng the curr|cu|um,
prov|d|ng teacher support on methods to |nvo|ve ch||dren, and offer|ng student
|essons on to|erance to he|p them dea| w|th past |ssues. Rev|ew|ng content
|n textbooks and the presentat|on of th|s |nformat|on |mmed|ate|y, w|th|n the
curr|cu|um, |s a start|ng po|nt for mak|ng sure there |s a ba|anced presentat|on
of h|stor|ca| events. See a|so, lNEE M|n|mum Standards Doma|n 2: Access
and |earn|ng Env|ronment.
F7 \%103%O+ 1#$ 2/3%O %$"01/,2# 4%O+2##%@)
Support for teachers and the|r we||be|ng shou|d be |nc|uded as a protect|ve
measure. Teacher support |nc|udes tra|n|ng teachers on how to |dent|fy
ch||dren`s needs, ch||d-centred |earn|ng strateg|es, psychosoc|a| support,
|nc|us|ve educat|on pract|ces and ways to make sure there are c|ear ways
of report|ng protect|on concerns |n the c|assroom. ||m|t|ng c|ass s|ze and
reduc|ng unrea||st|c expectat|ons p|aced on teachers |s cruc|a| |n mak|ng sure
teachers are protected, and not just protectors. See a|so, lNEE M|n|mum
Standards Doma|n 4: Teachers and Other Educat|on Personne|.
5. Protective environments.
He|p to create protect|ve and support|ve env|ronments |n and around educat|on,
frst|y by adapt|ng educat|on fac|||t|es and second|y by strengthen|ng pre-
ex|st|ng ch||d protect|on and soc|a| support systems. Adapt|ng the structure,
des|gn, content and construct|on of educat|on fac|||t|es protects and prov|des
psychosoc|a| support. For examp|e, the |earn|ng structures need to take
|nto account |earners` phys|ca| d|sab|||t|es, and act|v|t|es need be organ|sed
accord|ng to a |oca||y rea||st|c c|ass s|ze. Waste p|ts for so||d waste shou|d be
ava||ab|e, as we|| as dra|nage fac|||t|es such as soak p|ts, and adequate water
for persona| hyg|ene, w|th c|ean ma|e and fema|e to||ets that can be |ocked
from the |ns|de. See a|so, lNEE M|n|mum Standards Doma|n 2: Access and
|earn|ng Env|ronment.
G7 9'"+%)
Teachers and other educat|on personne| can abuse and exp|o|t ch||dren. There
can a|so be bu||y|ng and ch||d abuse comm|tted by other ch||dren |n schoo|s.
Measures for prevent|on of and response to v|o|ence shou|d be |nc|uded,
|nc|ud|ng report|ng, referra| pathways and measures to tra|n commun|t|es
(through parent-teacher assoc|at|ons, ch||d protect|on networks etc.} on where
and how to prevent, report and respond to teacher- or student-|ed abuse.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&'
H7 9//10A+)
Schoo|s can a|so be targets for recru|tment of ch||dren as so|d|ers, and other
forms of v|o|ence and attack. lf these r|sks are present, the |n|t|a| assessment
and protect|ve strateg|es for schoo|s must |nc|ude mak|ng sure schoo|s and
|earn|ng spaces are |n areas where th|s v|o|ence |s |ess ||ke|y. ln some cases
th|s w||| mean try|ng to move the threats and not just the schoo|s - for examp|e,
through c|ear|ng |andm|nes |n or near schoo|s. R|sks of phys|ca| harm or
sexua| assau|t on the way to/back from schoo|, wh|ch m|ght d|scourage g|r|s
and boys from attend|ng, shou|d a|so be regu|ar|y mon|tored and m|t|gated
w|th the support of parents comm|ttees.
I7 [%++1-,#-)
Educat|on act|v|t|es are an |mportant method of pass|ng on not on|y academ|c
know|edge, but a|so pract|ca| know|edge, awareness and ||fe sk|||s that can
he|p ch||dren care for and protect themse|ves and the|r peers. lmportant
messages and act|v|t|es that shou|d be |nc|uded |n educat|on act|v|t|es can
|nc|ude:
R|sk reduct|on, such as prevent|on of separat|on, d|saster r|sk reduct|on
(what to do when a tsunam| or earthquake h|ts}, dangers and |njury
prevent|on (see Standard 7}
||fe sk|||s, such as how to dea| w|th r|sk tak|ng behav|our (such as substance
abuse}, non-v|o|ent conf|ct reso|ut|on sk|||s, commun|cat|on sk|||s, etc.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #&(
References
Educat|on O|uster (2012}. ||o|ec||| Ed0ca||o| || co|/|c|-a//ec|ed
co0||||es
lNEE (2010}. |^EE 7|ema||c |ss0e S||e/. C|||d ||o|ec||o|
lNEE (2010}. |^EE /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds /o| Ed0ca||o|.
||eoa|ed|ess, |esoo|se, |eco.e|,
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.|nees|te.org
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'*
STANDARD 21
Health and child protection
Wh||e ch||d protect|on strateg|es shou|d contr|bute to and ma|nta|n the good
hea|th of ch||dren, hea|th act|v|t|es must reduce protect|on r|sks as far as
poss|b|e, and genera||y be carr|ed out |n a protect|ve way. Hea|th |ntervent|on
|s a centra| part of an overa|| approach to support serv|ces |n response to major
ch||d protect|on r|sks |n emergenc|es. Hea|th re|ated r|sks can |nc|ude those
posed to ch||d surv|vors of v|o|ence, abuse and exp|o|tat|on, and surv|vors of
exp|os|ve remnants of war (ERW} and |andm|nes.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of health programmes. Girls and boys have
access to quality health services delivered in a protective way that
takes into account their age and developmental needs.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
hea|th and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s |nformat|on
for hea|th;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about hea|th |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren, and |nv|te hea|th workers to attend these
d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n d|fferent care arrangements
(e.g. ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren on the
street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
|dent|fy paed|atr|c|ans and hea|th workers spec|a||zed |n work|ng w|th ch||dren;
meet w|th hea|th workers to agree c|ear, common|y agreed |nformat|on about
a|| hea|th serv|ces ava||ab|e, |nc|ud|ng those dea||ng w|th sexua| v|o|ence (e.g.
post-exposure prophy|ax|s or PEP, prevent|on of mother-to-ch||d transm|ss|on
of Hlv, etc.} and ERW and |andm|ne |nc|dents;
ensure systems are |n p|ace w|th|n ch||d protect|on projects to |dent|fy and
refer cases of |||ness and |njury safe|y and confdent|a||y to appropr|ate hea|th
and Hlv serv|ces;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'#
strengthen, adapt as necessary or set up an appropr|ate screen|ng and
referra| system for ch||dren who need psycho|og|ca| or c||n|ca| menta| hea|th
support (see Standard 10}, and strengthen, adapt or set up referra| serv|ces
to psychosoc|a| support serv|ces for ch||dren;
strengthen or deve|op ||nks between systems of soc|a| we|fare, |njury
surve|||ance and hea|th to make sure referra|s happen qu|ck|y and de||ver
mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary serv|ces to ch||dren;
where re|evant, ||nk b|rth reg|strat|on w|th reproduct|ve hea|th (for examp|e
postnata| care};
|nc|ude re|evant hea|th messages |n commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on
act|v|t|es;
support hea|th-serv|ce prov|ders (|nc|ud|ng commun|ty hea|th workers}
to detect, respond to and refer cases of v|o|ence, neg|ect, abuse, and
exp|o|tat|on of ch||dren;
make sure there are procedures so that careg|vers can stay w|th ch||dren |n
case of med|ca| evacuat|on and hosp|ta| adm|ss|on;
|dent|fy and tack|e the d|fferent barr|ers prevent|ng g|r|s and boys from
access|ng hea|th serv|ces, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es or other exc|uded
groups of ch||dren;
des|gn outreach serv|ces for ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es,
m|nor|ty or marg|na||sed ch||dren and ado|escents, so they can access
ava||ab|e hea|th serv|ces (e.g. |mmun|zat|on, Hlv-re|ated serv|ces, fam||y
p|ann|ng, etc.};
where needed, advocate for spec|a||sed age-appropr|ate emergency med|ca|,
surg|ca|, and - where poss|b|e - |onger-term phys|ca| rehab|||tat|on and ortho-
prosthet|c serv|ces for ch||d surv|vors of ERW and |andm|nes and ch||dren
w|th d|sab|||t|es;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and hea|th;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of qua||ty hea|th |ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s
safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between hea|th and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored |n
eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 hALTh A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each hea|th
|ntervent|on;
|dent|fy paed|atr|c|ans and hea|th workers spec|a||zed |n work|ng w|th ch||dren;
ensure that benefc|ar|es of |ntervent|ons |nc|ude ch||dren who are part|cu|ar|y
at r|sk of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse and neg|ect. Th|s may |nc|ude those |n
res|dent|a| care, ch||dren who have |ost one or more careg|ver, ch||d careg|vers
and ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren on the street and ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #')
strengthen, adapt or deve|op ch||d-fr|end|y and d|sab|||ty-|nc|us|ve procedures
for adm|tt|ng, treat|ng and d|scharg|ng unaccompan|ed ch||dren;
promote the recru|tment of soc|a| workers and ch||d psycho|og|sts (where
appropr|ate}, at |east dur|ng the peak of emergenc|es and, where poss|b|e
and appropr|ate, use commun|ty hea|th workers to |dent|fy and refer cases;
reorgan|se ex|st|ng hea|th serv|ces so that they are access|b|e and safe for
ch||dren (|n other words, through the prov|s|on of commun|ty and home-based
care};
put |n p|ace ch||d-fr|end|y, safe, access|b|e and confdent|a| serv|ces to
respond to ch||d v|ct|ms and surv|vors of v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on and
neg|ect (|nc|ud|ng GBv}, |nc|ud|ng ||nks and referra|s to re|evant serv|ces (for
examp|e, Hlv test|ng and reproduct|ve hea|th serv|ces};
tra|n c||n|ca| hea|th staff on c||n|ca| care of ch||dren, and tra|n aux|||ary non-
c||n|ca| staff on the confdent|a||ty and protect|on e|ements of work re|ated to
sexua| v|o|ence;
|n areas contam|nated by ERW and |andm|nes, put |n p|ace spec|a||sed age-
appropr|ate emergency med|ca|, surg|ca| and - where poss|b|e - |onger-term
phys|ca| rehab|||tat|on and ortho-prosthet|c serv|ces for ch||d surv|vors and
ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es;
ensure hea|th workers are tra|ned |n bas|c ch||d protect|on as re|evant to the|r
work, |nc|ud|ng prevent|on of separat|on;
d|ssem|nate agreed ch||d protect|on messages through the work of hea|th
workers, |nc|ud|ng commun|ty hea|th workers (see Standards 3 and 16};
ensure spec|fc ch||d surv|va| hea|th strateg|es for ch||dren under fve years
of age are put |n p|ace, both at hea|th fac|||ty and at commun|ty |eve| (for
examp|e, vacc|nat|on campa|gns, treatment of d|arrhoea, promot|on of
exc|us|ve breastfeed|ng, etc.};
ensure access to sexua| and reproduct|ve hea|th serv|ces for o|der ch||dren;
ensure that those work|ng |n hea|th have s|gned up to and been tra|ned |n a
code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'!
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of health staff that has received training on
identifying and referring children affected by violence
(including sexual and physical violencej, neglect, abuse
and exploitation
80%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of surveyed health facilities that have a
direct link with birth registration facilities and staff
100%
3. Percentage of victims of sexual violence and children in
need of mental health services, disaggregated by sex
and age, and registered in a case-management system,
who received health services
100%
4. Percentage of health staff familiar with procedures to
prevent children being separated from their families
90%
5. MHPSS guidelines included in the health-sector strategy
and delivering health services
Yes
6. An analysis has been conducted on barriers to accessing
child-friendly health services for boys and girls of different
ages
Yes
7. Percentage of health and ortho-prothetic services for
survivors of landmines that include special considerations
for the needs of child survivors
50%
h0TS
Guidance notes
1. Hea|th programmes.
G|r|s and boys who have suffered v|o|ence (|nc|ud|ng sexua| v|o|ence and |njury
and ma|m|ng}, neg|ect, abuse or exp|o|tat|on requ|re spec|a| cons|derat|on |n
the prov|s|on of hea|th serv|ces, |nc|ud|ng Hlv/AlDS serv|ces. Stud|es have
shown that ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es are at a greater r|sk of v|o|ence, abuse,
hea|th |ssues and neg|ect.
Make spec|fc efforts to recru|t fema|e hea|th serv|ces staff as we|| as fema|e
commun|ty hea|th workers. ln many p|aces, g|r|s adm|tted to med|ca| serv|ces
wou|d be more comfortab|e be|ng cared for by fema|e staff and treated by
fema|e hea|th workers.
Prov|s|on of support to supp||es for hea|th centres shou|d |nc|ude, but |s not
||m|ted to, he|p|ng prov|de:
Emergency contracept|on and med|cat|on ||ke post-exposure prophy|ax|s
(d|sease prevent|on} for Hlv
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'$
Supp||es to a||ow ch||d-appropr|ate emergency frst a|d to be g|ven to v|ct|ms
of |andm|nes/Os/exp|os|ve weapons, etc.
Fam||y p|ann|ng serv|ces to prevent unwanted pregnanc|es.
Oh||dren are more prone than adu|ts to severe |njury and d|sab|||ty as a resu|t
of emergenc|es, |nc|ud|ng from us|ng exp|os|ve weapons and com|ng |nto
contact w|th exp|os|ve remnants of war. Because ch||dren`s bod|es are sma||er
and more de||cate than those of adu|ts, emergenc|es often resu|t |n more
comp|ex |njur|es and damage to the|r organs and t|ssue, and |n |njur|es that are
more d|ffcu|t to treat. Oh||dren whose |njur|es resu|t |n amputated ||mbs need
more comp||cated rehab|||tat|on, must have prostheses made more often as
they grow, and w||| requ|re correct|ve surgery for chang|ng stumps.
K7 [%$,01@ O%42O/+)
ln s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch |||ness, |njury, or death |s the resu|t of a cr|m|na| act
(for examp|e, rape, torture, or assau|t}, the doctor has to create an |nd|v|dua|
med|ca| report confrm|ng the resu|ts of the med|ca| exam|nat|on. lf the doctor
needs the ch||d`s |nformed consent to do the med|ca| exam|nat|on, consent
forms w||| be requ|red. ln certa|n cases, the doctor has a |ega| ob||gat|on to
send these documents to jud|c|a| author|t|es. However, |n s|tuat|ons of conf|ct
or cr|s|s, send|ng th|s |nformat|on automat|ca||y cou|d put the v|ct|m's ||fe |n
danger. As a resu|t, the doctor must, where |ega||y poss|b|e, frst defend the
pr|nc|p|es of med|ca| secrecy and doctor-pat|ent confdent|a||ty, and then wr|te
the report w|th the best |nterest of the ch||d or pat|ent |n m|nd. As a resu|t, the
report must be g|ven to the v|ct|m.
E7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Hea|th staff shou|d rece|ve tra|n|ng |n ch||d protect|on, prov|ded by profess|ona|
staff, on bas|c |ssues re|ated to v|o|ence, abuse, neg|ect and exp|o|tat|on
of ch||dren. They shou|d pay spec|a| attent|on to the s|tuat|on of ch||dren
w|th d|sab|||t|es. Th|s |nc|udes through detect|ng cases of d|fferent forms of
v|o|ence, carry|ng out ch||d-sens|t|ve forens|c exam|nat|ons, use of ch||d-
fr|end|y commun|cat|on, etc.
4. Sustainab|e deve|opment.
Efforts made to |mprove protect|ve responses for ch||dren dur|ng emergenc|es
may have |ast|ng effects on strengthen|ng the ch||d protect|on system |n the
|onger term.
M7 WB10"1/,2#)
Human|tar|an workers, m|||tary personne|, |oca| organ|sat|ons and commun|t|es
shou|d be adv|sed not to med|ca||y evacuate a ch||d, parent or careg|ver or
adm|t them to a med|ca| fac|||ty w|thout mak|ng sure that a record of the
ch||d`s fam||y |s kept, and that ch||dren are cared for to avo|d the fam||y be|ng
separated. Spec|fc procedures shou|d be put |n p|ace to prevent separat|on.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'"
References
lASO (2005}. G0|de|||es /o| Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s ||
|0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s. Foc0s|| o| ||e.e|||o| o/ a|d |esoo|se
|o 5ex0a| v|o|e|ce || Eme|e|c|es. C|ao. 1.c
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|
lRO (2008}. C||||ca| Ca|e /o| 5ex0a| /ssa0|| 50|.|.o|s. a /0|||med|a
7|a|||| 7oo|. Fac||||a|o|'s G0|de
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |ea||| ac||o|, p.287
NlOEF (2009}. 7|e 5|a|e o/ ||e Ho||d's C|||d|e| 2009
WHO (2004}. C||||ca| /a|aeme|| o/ |aoe 50|.|.o|s G0|de|||es
WHO (2004}. lmm0||sa||o| || ||ac||ce. / o|ac||ca| |eso0|ce 0|de
/o| |ea||| Ho||e|s
WHO (2005}. |a|dooo|. |||e|a|ed /a|aeme|| o/ C|||d|ood
||||ess
WHO (2005}. |oc|e| ooo| o/ |oso||a| ca|e /o| c|||d|e|. G0|de|||es
/o| ||e ma|aeme|| o/ commo| ||||esses w||| ||m||ed |eso0|ces
WHO (2008}. /a|0a| /o| ||e |ea||| ca|e o/ c|||d|e| || |0ma|||a||a|
eme|e|c|es
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.c||n|ca|care.rhrc.org
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'%
STANDARD 22
Nutrition and child protection
Oh||dren are part|cu|ar|y vu|nerab|e to a|| forms of under-nutr|t|on |n t|mes of
|nstab|||ty and cr|s|s, as they are dependent on others, and are often phys|ca||y
frag||e. The frst 1000 days of ||fe are cr|t|ca| for ch||d deve|opment (phys|ca|,
menta| and cogn|t|ve}, and |t |s |mportant to make sure that ch||dren`s growth
|s not comprom|sed dur|ng t|mes of stress. ln add|t|on, nutr|t|ona| hab|ts, food
taboos and d|scr|m|natory access to food w|th|n the home can d|fferent|y affect
women, men, g|r|s and boys, |mba|ances that can worsen |n t|mes of cr|s|s. As
a resu|t, measures must be taken to make sure that ch||dren`s bas|c nutr|t|ona|
and deve|opmenta| needs are be|ng adequate|y and effect|ve|y prov|ded for,
wh||e a|so mak|ng sure that r|sk prevent|on |s |nc|uded |n any act|v|t|es re|ated
to prov|d|ng nutr|t|on.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of nutrition programmes. Girls and boys of
all ages and their caregivers, especially pregnant and breastfeeding
women and girls, have access to safe, adequate and appropriate
nutrition services and food.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
nutr|t|on and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s |nformat|on
for nutr|t|on;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about nutr|t|on |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren and |nv|te nutr|t|on workers to attend these
d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n d|fferent care arrangements
(for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren
on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
deve|op c|ear standard operat|ng procedures |nc|ud|ng |dent|fcat|on and
referra| mechan|sms between ch||d protect|on and nutr|t|ona| programmes;
work w|th nutr|t|on staff |n fnd|ng breastfeed|ng women and/or wet nurses (or,
as a |ast resort, appropr|ate rep|acement feed|ng} for bab|es w|th no mother;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'&
whenever poss|b|e, prov|de appropr|ate space for women and g|r|s to
breastfeed w|th|n or near centres where ch||d protect|on and careg|ver
outreach programmes are carr|ed out;
refer breastfeed|ng mothers who are fac|ng d|ffcu|t|es produc|ng m||k;
work w|th nutr|t|on staff to |dent|fy patterns |n househo|d food consumpt|on
and those who make dec|s|ons about the type of food eaten and by whom
|t |s eaten;
whenever poss|b|e, run jo|nt programmes w|th the nutr|t|on sector |n terms
of commun|ty mob|||sat|on, prevent|on messages and ch||d-mother centres
at the nutr|t|ona| post (fxed or mob||e}, |nc|ud|ng soc|a||y and cu|tura||y
appropr|ate, techn|ca||y accurate, messages on nutr|t|on and breastfeed|ng;
when appropr|ate and poss|b|e, |nc|ude |nfant and young ch||d feed|ng (lYOF}
or supp|ementary feed|ng for at r|sk ch||dren |n appropr|ate ch||d protect|on
act|v|t|es;
work w|th nutr|t|on staff to make sure that there |s a system for referr|ng peop|e
to therapeut|c feed|ng serv|ces;
protect, promote and support exc|us|ve breastfeed|ng for the frst s|x months
and then cont|nued breastfeed|ng, a|ong w|th age-appropr|ate nutr|t|ous
comp|ementary foods, through the second year of ||fe and beyond;
support fam|||es that are be|ng p|aced |n nutr|t|ona| centres by fo||ow|ng-up
on temporary care arrangements for the other ch||dren wh||e the mother |s
away;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and nutr|t|on;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of qua||ty nutr|t|on |ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s
safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between nutr|t|on and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored |n
eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 h0T8|T|0h A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each
nutr|t|on |ntervent|on;
choose at |east one tra|ned staff member to act as a ch||d protect|on foca|
po|nt or soc|a| worker |f there |s a nutr|t|on programme, and make sure the
foca| po|nt |s tra|ned on |dent|fy|ng surv|vors of sexua| v|o|ence, as we|| as
bas|c psychosoc|a| support re|ated to bu||d|ng parenta| confdence, cop|ng
w|th stress, etc.;
mon|tor unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren adm|tted |nto nutr|t|on
programmes and make sure there |s coord|nat|on w|th ch||d protect|on staff
|n terms of defau|ters;
|nc|ude ch||d protect|on messages, |nc|ud|ng on prevent|on and response,
as we|| as referra| mechan|sms, |n act|v|t|es re|ated to nutr|t|on, commun|ty
outreach and ra|s|ng awareness;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #''
|nc|ude d|scuss|ons re|ated to protect|on, |nc|ud|ng psychosoc|a| support and
gender-based v|o|ence (GBv}, |n mother-to-mother nutr|t|on act|v|t|es;
ensure that nutr|t|on act|v|ty centres have a tra|ned breastfeed|ng counse||or,
and an appropr|ate space for women to breastfeed;
ensure that nutr|t|on programmes and assoc|ated ||ve||hood act|v|t|es take
|nto account the effect that they can have on ch||dcare pract|ces;
mon|tor the nutr|t|ona| status of pregnant and breastfeed|ng women and
ch||dren to ensure that the|r nutr|t|ona| needs are be|ng met, as we|| as mak|ng
sure they have access to supp|ementary foods of h|gh nutr|t|ona| va|ue;
campa|gn for psychosoc|a| st|mu|at|on act|v|t|es for |nfants and young ch||dren
|n nutr|t|on, educat|on, ear|y ch||dhood deve|opment and ch||d protect|on
programmes;
ensure that those work|ng |n nutr|t|on have s|gned up to and been tra|ned |n
a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of nutrition projects where child safety and
wellbeing, including family unity, are refected in design,
monitoring and evaluation
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
2. Percentage of health facilities and nutritional feeding
centres for which referral pathways for child protection
cases exist and are used
70%
3. Percentage of separated or unaccompanied infants
placed in care arrangements with women who can safely
breastfeed them
80%
4. Number of suspected cases of separation, violence,
abuse, exploitation or neglect identifed through nutrition
programmes and referred to child protection organisations
To be determined
in country
5. Percentage of child protection activity locations where
appropriate space is provided for women to breastfeed
90%
6. Percentage of supplementary or therapeutic feeding
centres with a trained child protection focal point
80%
h0TS

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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #'(
Guidance notes
D7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Oh||d protect|on organ|sat|ons, espec|a||y those work|ng at commun|ty |eve|,
shou|d be tra|ned on:
Appropr|ate lYOF messages and bas|c |nformat|on about the a|ms and
act|v|t|es of the var|ous nutr|t|on programmes
How to measure and mon|tor the nutr|t|ona| status of ch||dren and women |n
s|tuat|ons where no nutr|t|on staff are ava||ab|e
How to |dent|fy mothers (women and g|r|s} w|th breastfeed|ng or comp|ementary
feed|ng d|ffcu|t|es, |n c|rcumstances where no nutr|t|on staff are ava||ab|e
How to |dent|fy ma|nour|shed and under-nour|shed ch||dren, as we|| as
pregnant and breastfeed|ng women, |n c|rcumstances where no nutr|t|on
staff are ava||ab|e
How to refer |dent|fed cases to appropr|ate and ava||ab|e serv|ces.
Re|evant ch||d protect|on-re|ated tra|n|ng for nutr|t|on staff shou|d |nc|ude:
How to |dent|fy and refer suspected cases of v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on
or neg|ect of ch||dren (for |nstance, some cases of d|ffcu|t|es between
breastfeed|ng women and ch||dren m|ght be due to the ch||d be|ng born as
a resu|t of rape}
How to ensure access to nutr|t|on serv|ces for spec|fc groups of exc|uded
ch||dren, such as ch||dren ||v|ng or work|ng on the streets, ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es, ch||dren ||v|ng |n orphanages, etc.
How to |nc|ude ch||d protect|on prevent|on and response messages |nto
commun|ty nutr|t|on outreach (for examp|e, broadcast|ng rad|o messages
on protect|on from sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse dur|ng nutr|t|on act|v|t|es,
mak|ng sure there are adequate numbers of fema|e nutr|t|ona| promoters,
etc.}
Appropr|ate ways to hand|e ch||dren - for examp|e, when we|gh|ng ch||dren,
the best person to p|ace the ch||d |nto the hang|ng we|gh|ng sca|es |s often
the mother
How to promote psychosoc|a| st|mu|at|on for |nfants and young ch||dren
How to |dent|fy parents and careg|vers who m|ght be under psychosoc|a|
d|stress and need support.
To he|p w|th t|me|y and appropr|ate referra|, spec|fc standard operat|ng
procedures and referra| mechan|sms shou|d be agreed w|th ch||d protect|on
and nutr|t|on organ|sat|ons. Preferab|y, th|s shou|d be done at an |nter-agency
|eve|, and at the cross-sector |eve| (see Standard 1}.
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2. Chi|d |abour, fami|y unity, and education.
Where ch||dren and other fam||y members are at r|sk of or suffer|ng ma|nutr|t|on,
there may be a h|gher ||ke||hood of ch||dren |eav|ng the fam||y, e|ther to access
pa|d work |nc|ud|ng hazardous |abour or to access food (for examp|e through
enter|ng res|dent|a| care where food |s prov|ded}. Equa||y, ch||dren`s access
to other ch||dren may be affected as they may drop out of schoo| for re|ated
reasons. A further threat to ch||dren`s care and to fam||y un|ty |s the sp||tt|ng
of fam|||es as careg|vers |eave to access pa|d |abour. Oare must be taken to
understand these dynam|cs and the patterns of cho|ces that fam|||es are mak|ng,
and to ensure that nutr|t|on |ntervent|ons do not |n any way |ncent|v|se separat|on
of ch||dren from careg|vers, for examp|e by de||very of d|sproport|onate benefts
to ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care.
E7 V#N1#/ N%%$,#-)
Mothers who are hav|ng d|ffcu|t|es |n breastfeed|ng shou|d rece|ve counse|||ng
and support to he|p them cont|nue breastfeed|ng or to he|p them produce m||k
aga|n |f th|s |s what |s wanted. For |nfants whose mothers have d|ed, cannot
be traced or cannot breastfeed, women from the commun|ty who have been
breastfeed|ng the|r own |nfants shou|d be found as careg|vers. lf Hlv rates are
h|gh, cons|der whether fnd|ng breastfeed|ng women |s appropr|ate, tak|ng |nto
account ex|st|ng Hlv gu|dance. |ook at trad|t|ona| and cu|tura| |nfant-feed|ng
pract|ces and support and encourage the deve|opment of mother or careg|ver
support groups to promote and support breastfeed|ng. lnfant formu|a may be
g|ven |n certa|n cases for spec|fc |nfants. Keep to the operat|ona| gu|dance on
us|ng |nfant formu|a |n emergency s|tuat|ons (see References}.
F7 [2/3%O -O2"4+)
Mother-to-mother groups, deve|oped |n a nutr|t|on programme, can be support
groups |n wh|ch sens|t|ve top|cs such as gender-based v|o|ence can be
d|scussed. By attend|ng a group the ma|n purpose of wh|ch |s rear|ng ch||dren, a
woman may fee| free to ta|k, but w||| not fee| |abe||ed and may be protected from
st|gma. These mother-to-mother groups and peer support networks can he|p
to break down the soc|a| |so|at|on that can be caused by forced d|sp|acement,
and create grow|ng networks of soc|a| support. Mother-to-mother groups a|so
prov|de an |dea| forum for o|der mothers to educate younger ones. They can
often he|p to tack|e |ssues and cha||enges re|ated to teenage mothers, ch||dren
born out of sexua| v|o|ence, etc. lt |s a|so |mportant to exp|ore appropr|ate ways
|n wh|ch to get fathers and other fam||y members, such as grandmothers,
|nvo|ved |n these k|nds of act|v|t|es, as these fam||y members often have a say
on what |s eaten at home, who eats frst and most, how |ong the breastfeed|ng
per|od shou|d be, and the access to nutr|t|ona| care of fam||y members.
5. Ma|nutrition treatment and prevention programmes.
Oh||d protect|on act|v|t|es can |nc|ude therapeut|c feed|ng and supp|ementary
feed|ng programmes to treat severe, moderate and acute ma|nutr|t|on, as
we|| as b|anket feed|ng programmes us|ng ||p|d-based nutr|ent supp|ements
or fort|fed b|ended foods. A|| therapeut|c, supp|ementary or b|anket feed|ng
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #(#
benefc|ar|es shou|d meet the adm|ss|on cr|ter|a as set out by nat|ona| and
|nternat|ona| procedures on nutr|t|on. Spec|fc efforts shou|d a|so be made to
ensure that:
Serv|ces do not |ead to st|gma or percept|ons of 'favour|t|sm"
Serv|ces do not become a pu||-factor away from fam||y or commun|ty feed|ng
hab|ts.
6. Vitamin A.
A|| supp|ementary or feed|ng and nutr|t|on programmes shou|d use foods r|ch
|n or fort|fed w|th v|tam|n A to strengthen ch||dren`s |mmune systems, reduce
the effects of meas|es and d|arrhoea, reduce ch||d deaths |n at-r|sk popu|at|ons,
and he|p prevent ch||dhood b||ndness. Spec|fc efforts shou|d a|so be made to
promote |mproved qua||ty of food g|ven to ch||dren, espec|a||y those aged s|x to
24 months, by promot|ng the use of fort|fed products such as fort|fed-b|ended
foods, m|cronutr|ent powders or ||p|d-based nutr|ent supp|ements, as we|| as
other nutr|ent-r|ch d|ets |n genera|.
H7 .20,1@ 62OA%O+)
Hav|ng spec|a||sed ch||d protect|on foca| po|nts or soc|a| workers at nutr|t|on
s|tes can he|p to bo|ster ch||d protect|on cons|derat|ons. These foca| po|nts
can, for examp|e:
He|p fam|||es |f a ch||d has d|ed
Strengthen efforts to prevent ch||dren be|ng separated from the|r fam|||es at
the s|tes
He|p to |dent|fy poss|b|e cases of separat|on, v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on
or neg|ect of ch||dren
He|p appropr|ate|y to refer cases, med|ate w|th|n fam|||es and fo||ow up on
cases as necessary
Support fam|||es w|th pract|ca| he|p to overcome barr|ers to access|ng nutr|t|on
serv|ces - for examp|e, |f a mother has to take her ch||d to the nutr|t|on centre
at the same t|me as she co||ects the genera| food d|str|but|on, by adv|s|ng on
what procedures to fo||ow to enab|e her to do both act|v|t|es
Support work |n ra|s|ng awareness of ch||d protect|on |ssues among nutr|t|on
staff as we|| as careg|vers and commun|ty members attend|ng s|tes.
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References
lASO (2005}, G0|de|||es /o| Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s
|| |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s. Ohap. 4.6
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
C|ao. Ge|de| a|d ^0|||||o| || eme|e|c|es
lFE Oore Group (2007}. l|/a|| a|d Yo0| C|||d Feed|| ||
Eme|e|c|es. Ooe|a||o|a| G0|da|ce /o| Eme|e|c, |e||e/ 5|a//
a|d ||o|amme /a|ae|s, vers|on 2.1
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || /ood sec0|||, a|d |0|||||o|, p.139
NHOR (2011}. Ooe|a||o|a| G0|da|ce o| ||e Use o/ 5oec|a|
^0|||||o|a| ||od0c|s |o |ed0ce /|c|o|0|||e|| De/c|e|c|es a|d
/a||0|||||o| || |e/0ee |oo0|a||o|s
U^|C| |o||c, |e|a|ed |o ||e /cceo|a|ce, D|s|||o0||o| a|d Use
o/ /||| ||od0c|s || |e/0ee 5e||||s
NHOR/WFP (2011}. G0|de|||es /o| 5e|ec||.e Feed||. 7|e
ma|aeme|| o/ /a||0|||||o| || Eme|e|c|es
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
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STANDARD 23
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
and child protection
Oh||d protect|on workers have an |mportant ro|e to p|ay |n mak|ng sure that ch||d
protect|on act|v|t|es contr|bute to and ma|nta|n safe and appropr|ate WASH
pract|ces for and by ch||dren. At the same t|me, WASH workers shou|d make
sure that the|r |ntervent|ons are carr|ed out |n a way that protects ch||dren and
the|r careg|vers, and does not put ch||dren and women at r|sk.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of WASH programmes. All girls and boys
have access to appropriate WASH services that minimise risks of
physical and sexual violence.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
WASH and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s |nformat|on
for WASH;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about WASH |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren and |nv|te WASH workers to attend these
d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n d|fferent care arrangements
(for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren
on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
meet w|th ear|y WASH workers to agree on pr|or|ty |nformat|on for ch||dren
and fam|||es about WASH |ntervent|ons and |ssues (such as the appropr|ate
use of san|tat|on fac|||t|es, hea|thy hyg|ene pract|ces among ch||dren, and
safe water treatment and storage};
|ncorporate these |nto messag|ng carr|ed out by ch||d protect|on workers;
ensure that tra|n|ng for ch||d protect|on workers |nc|udes promot|ng appropr|ate
hea|thy hyg|ene behav|ours (for examp|e, hyg|ene pract|ces such as hand
wash|ng w|th soap, safe water treatment and storage, appropr|ate use of
san|tat|on fac|||t|es and gett|ng r|d of faeces};
encourage careg|vers to get r|d of ch||dren`s faeces proper|y;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #($
prov|de adv|ce to WASH workers on areas where ch||d-targeted serv|ces take
p|ace, where ch||dren ||ve or where ch||dren are spec|fca||y vu|nerab|e;
make sure WASH serv|ces are prov|ded at ch||dcare centres;
|nc|ude WASH personne| |n tra|n|ng on ch||d protect|on;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and WASH;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of qua||ty WASH |ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s
safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between WASH and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored |n
eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 wASh A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each WASH
|ntervent|on;
draw on the expert|se of ch||d protect|on workers when assess|ng needs and
des|gn|ng water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene fac|||t|es and serv|ces (for examp|e,
water d|str|but|on po|nts, to||ets, bath|ng, and so on}. Ensure that r|sks for
women and g|r|s are addressed;
ensure that benefc|ar|es of |ntervent|ons |nc|ude ch||dren who are part|cu|ar|y
at r|sk of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse and neg|ect. Th|s may |nc|ude those |n
res|dent|a| care, ch||dren who have |ost one or more careg|ver, ch||d careg|vers
and ch||d heads of househo|ds, and ch||dren on the street and ch||dren w|th
d|sab|||t|es;
support parents and commun|t|es |n mak|ng sure that the use of ch||dren to
carry the conta|ners for co||ect|ng water does not |nterfere w|th educat|on,
does not force ch||dren to wa|k unreasonab|e d|stances or |n dangerous
p|aces, and that the s|ze of conta|ner |s age and s|ze appropr|ate;
|dent|fy p|aces where ch||d-targeted serv|ces take p|ace and prov|de
susta|nab|e access to safe water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene fac|||t|es that are
we||-||t, |ockab|e, separated by sex, des|gned for ch||dren`s needs, cu|tura||y
appropr|ate, and access|b|e for ch||dren and adu|ts w|th d|sab|||t|es;
ensure women are fa|r|y represented on WASH comm|ttees and he|p them
take part |n dec|s|on-mak|ng processes to fnd, des|gn and ma|nta|n WASH
fac|||t|es;
d|ssem|nate d|sab|||ty- and gender-spec|fc ||fe-sav|ng messages to he|p
ch||dren understand the |mportance of hyg|ene - these messages have an
|mportant |mpact |n we||be|ng as they g|ve ch||dren a sense of contro| and
ab|||ty to adapt to new ||v|ng c|rcumstances;
make sure that hyg|ene promoters know where and how to refer ch||d
surv|vors, separated ch||dren and ch||dren at r|sk of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on,
abuse and neg|ect to appropr|ate serv|ces;
ensure that those work|ng |n WASH have s|gned up to and been tra|ned |n
a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #("
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of WASH projects where child safety and
wellbeing, including family unity, are refected in design,
monitoring and evaluation
100%
2. Percentage of surveyed sites with communal facilities
that have toilet and bathing facilities that are considered
safe for women and girls by the population
100%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of schools, child-friendly spaces (CFSsj and
health facilities where child-appropriate WASH facilities
are in place
90%
4. Percentage of surveyed communities where children
used containers that were too large for children
10%
5. The female-to-male ratio of representatives in WASH
committees
1:1
6. Percentage of surveyed hygiene promoters who can
give the name of at least one place where they can refer
a child survivor of violence (including sexual violencej
90%
h0TS
(1j 'Safe" should
be defned
and agreed in
context and may
incorporate criteria
such as single sex
facilities, locks
on the insides of
doors, working
lights (including
for access routesj,
etc.
(4j 'Too large"
should be defned
by CP and WASH
coordination
mechanisms

Guidance notes
D7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Tra|n|ng for ch||d protect|on workers shou|d |nc|ude promot|ng appropr|ate
water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene-re|ated behav|ours (e.g. hyg|ene pract|ces such
as hand wash|ng w|th soap, safe water treatment and storage, appropr|ate
use of san|tat|on fac|||t|es and gett|ng r|d of faeces}. Tra|n|ng for WASH workers
shou|d |nc|ude |nformat|on on how, where and to whom to report ch||d protect|on
|ssues.
K7 [%++1-,#-)
Oons|der pr|or|t|s|ng the WASH-re|ated messages for ch||dren and careg|vers,
|n order to ensure that the most cr|t|ca| messages are proper|y understood, and
that - where appropr|ate - pr|or|ty WASH messag|ng and pr|or|ty ch||d protect|on
messages can be comb|ned w|thout becom|ng unw|e|dy. Oh||d protect|on
pr|or|ty messages are ||ke|y to focus on fam||y un|ty, safety and we||be|ng, wh||e
WASH pr|or|ty messages are ||ke|y to focus on:
Effect|ve hand wash|ng (w|th soap}
Safe d|sposa| of faeces
Reduc|ng contam|nat|on of househo|d dr|nk|ng water (through safe water
co||ect|on, transportat|on and storage, and, where appropr|ate, househo|d
water treatment}.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #(%
Other types of messages - such as gett|ng r|d of so||d waste, appropr|ate
dra|nage, vector contro| or mak|ng sure that a|| an|ma|s are kept outs|de
ch||dren`s areas - may be cons|dered an |mportant but secondary pr|or|ty.
San|tat|on and hyg|ene messages for ch||dren shou|d be appropr|ate |n terms
of age, d|sab|||ty and sex, as we|| as be|ng creat|ve (see Standard 3}.
E7 S1/%O 02#/1,#%O+)
Wh||st ch||dren often have an estab||shed ro|e |n co||ect|ng water, th|s expectat|on
shou|d be v|ewed w|th caut|on. Oonta|ners 'spec|a||y" made for ch||dren are
not recommended. S|m||ar|y, ch||dren`s phys|ca| ab|||t|es, and protect|on and
safety concerns, shou|d be cons|dered when des|gn|ng water-co||ect|on po|nts.
F7 9-% -O2"4+)
The prov|s|on of safe, age-appropr|ate WASH fac|||t|es |s |nstrumenta| |n ensur|ng
ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng. Oh||dren who do not fee| safe or comfortab|e
us|ng to||ets or wash|ng fac|||t|es may resort to r|sky or harmfu| behav|ours, such
as wa|k|ng outs|de of popu|ated areas to defecate, or attempt|ng to eat and
dr|nk |ess |n order not to need the to||et so often. The fo||ow|ng age-spec|fc
po|nts shou|d be cons|dered:
lnfants and sma|| ch||dren up to 4 years - ch||dren do not use san|tat|on
fac|||t|es d|rect|y and careg|vers shou|d know |aunder|ng pract|ces, how to
d|spose safe|y of |nfants` faeces, and how to use napp|es (d|apers}, pott|es
or other means for dea||ng w|th bowe| movements.
Sma|| ch||dren from 5 to 10 years - water and san|tat|on fac|||t|es shou|d be
adapted |n terms of s|ze, access|b|||ty and secur|ty.
Oh||dren above 11 years and ado|escents - g|r|s need to have su|tab|e
mater|a|s for dea||ng w|th per|ods as we|| as appropr|ate wash|ng fac|||t|es.
5. Gir|s and women.
When there |s a centra||sed po|nt for water d|str|but|on, d|str|but|on schedu|es
shou|d be set up after consu|t|ng g|r|s and women, mak|ng sure that t|mes
for access|ng water a||ow ch||dren and women co||ect|ng water to return
home before dark. Separate to||ets and bath|ng fac|||t|es, us|ng p|ctograms
for |dent|fcat|on and separat|on and w|th |ns|de |ocks, shou|d be prov|ded for
women and g|r|s, w|th a rat|o of s|x for women and g|r|s to every four for men
and boys. WASH fac|||t|es shou|d be |n a v|s|b|e area - the c|oser to users`
househo|ds the better - w|th appropr|ate ||ght|ng. se of these fac|||t|es shou|d
not |ncrease the r|sk for users of be|ng assau|t or harassed.
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References
lASO (2005}, G0|de|||es /o| Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s
|| |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s. Ohap. 4.5: Water and san|tat|on
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
Ohap: Gender and WASH |n emergenc|es
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || Ha|e| 50oo|,, 5a|||a||o| a|d |,|e|e
||omo||o|, p.79
NlOEF (2011}. Ha|e|, 5a|||a||o| a|d |,|e|e /o| 5c|oo|c|||d|e|
|| Eme|e|c|es. / G0|deooo| /o| 7eac|e|s
NlOEF/WHO (2009}. Ha|e|, 5a|||a||o| a|d |,|e|e 5|a|da|ds
/o| 5c|oo|s || |ow-Cos| 5e||||s
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.oneresponse.|nfo
www.un|cef.org/wash
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #('
STANDARD 24
Shelter and child protection
She|ter |s a comp|ex sector w|th many |mp||cat|ons for ch||d protect|on.
vu|nerab|||ty for ch||dren can |ncrease dur|ng and after d|sasters, when ch||dren
may be ||v|ng w|th new, reduced or a|tered fam||y un|ts, or a|one. Fam||y s|zes
|n d|sp|aced popu|at|ons and host commun|t|es can a|so vary great|y, resu|t|ng
|n the need for fex|b|||ty |n the she|ter prov|ded. Know|edge of |oca| |and and
property r|ghts |s a|so centra| to mak|ng good dec|s|ons on where and how
she|ter |s prov|ded, and th|s may be |mportant |n safeguard|ng fam|||es from
further v|o|ence, and |n some cases from be|ng forcefu||y ev|cted.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of shelter programmes. All girls and boys
and their caregivers have appropriate shelter provided that meets
basic needs, including protection and disability access, and which
facilitates longer-term solutions.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
she|ter and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s |nformat|on
for she|ter;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about she|ter |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren and |nv|te she|ter workers to attend these
d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n d|fferent care arrangements
(for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of househo|ds, ch||dren
on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
meet w|th ear|y recovery staff to estab||sh a referra| system, w|th a mon|tor|ng
e|ement, for vu|nerab|e househo|ds that need ass|stance;
ensure ch||d protect|on workers are |nformed about where ch||dren and
careg|vers can fnd out |nformat|on and report any concerns about she|ter
and sett|ements;
prov|de she|ter staff w|th numbers of ch||dren |n camps and sett|ements,
|nc|ud|ng numbers of schoo|-age ch||dren, ch||dren |n need of ch||d-fr|end|y
spaces and so on;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on #((
support she|ter and sett|ement organ|sat|ons |n putt|ng ch||d protect|on
act|ons |nto she|ter and sett|ement serv|ces, and |nc|ude a|| ch||dren (see
Standard 18};
|nc|ude appropr|ate she|ter- and sett|ement-re|ated messages |n commun|ty-
based ch||d protect|on act|v|t|es;
make sure she|ter sector workers are br|efed on and can use referra|
mechan|sms for unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren and other ch||d
surv|vors of v|o|ence, abuse, exp|o|tat|on and neg|ect;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and she|ter;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of qua||ty she|ter |ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s
safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between she|ter and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored |n
eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 ShLT8 Ah0 STTLNhT A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each she|ter
|ntervent|on;
prevent overcrowd|ng, and rev|ew project des|gn and |mp|ementat|on to
ensure that she|ter responses support and encourage fam|||es to stay together;
work w|th fema|e and ma|e members of affected commun|t|es to des|gn
she|ter and sett|ement that responds to the vary|ng s|zes, d|sab|||ty spec|fcs
and needs of fam|||es |n those commun|t|es, w|thout putt|ng them a|| |n the
same area and r|sk|ng st|gmat|sat|on (see Standard 18};
work w|th ch||d protect|on workers to ensure that personne| work|ng |n she|ter
and sett|ement projects have adequate |nformat|on and tra|n|ng on ch||d
protect|on |ssues, |nc|ud|ng unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren, sexua|
exp|o|tat|on and abuse, and exp|o|tat|ve ch||d |abour;
ensure that trans|t she|ters are safe;
work w|th ch||d protect|on staff to |dent|fy adequate co||ect|ve spaces for
ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng for educat|on, ch||d-fr|end|y spaces, etc., and prov|de
spaces ava||ab|e for ch||dren`s act|v|t|es, non-forma| educat|on, and cu|tura|
ceremon|es;
ensure that those work|ng |n she|ter have s|gned up to and been tra|ned |n
a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )**
MeasuremenT
00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of shelter projects where child safety and
wellbeing, including family unity, are refected in design,
monitoring and evaluation
100%
2. Percentage of surveyed benefciaries of the shelter
programme who assessed that all aspects of the pro-
gramme (timing, methodology, deliverablesj contributed
to children's safety and wellbeing
90%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of surveyed child protection workers who can
provide information on where children and their caregivers
can report their shelter and settlement concerns
100%
4. Percentage of surveyed shelter sector workers who can
demonstrate required knowledge of referral mechanisms
for unaccompanied and separated children as well as
survivors of violence (including sexual violencej
90%
5. Percentage of constructed shelters that are an accessible
distance from one or more spaces for children's activities
(for example, schools, CFSs, etc.j
90%
h0TS
(5j 'An accessible
distance" for
children should be
defned in country

Guidance notes
1. Assessments.
Assessments shou|d |nvo|ve women, men, g|r|s and boys, and shou|d |nc|ude
careg|vers of ch||dren at r|sk, |n order to |dent|fy protect|on concerns |n re|at|on
to she|ter. Women and g|r|s shou|d be consu|ted as a pr|or|ty, separate|y from
men and boys, and part|cu|ar|y on the t|mes and p|aces of d|str|but|on of
she|ter mater|a|s, and on sett|ng the s|te. Th|s w||| he|p ensure there |s equa|
access to ass|stance, and he|p reduce the r|sk of v|o|ence. Mon|tor|ng teams
and |nterpreters shou|d, as much as poss|b|e, |nc|ude women and peop|e w|th
d|sab|||t|es. lt |s |mportant there |s access|b|e she|ter for peop|e w|th d|sab|||t|es.
Some ch||dren m|ght have a d|sab|||ty before or due to the emergency and
they shou|d be ab|e to move free|y |ns|de and outs|de the|r she|ter to protect
themse|ves from further harm, and shou|d have easy access to to||ets and
san|tat|on. lt |s cr|t|ca| for s|te p|anners to be aware of the number of ch||dren
and re|ated requ|rements for the number of schoo|s, ch||d-fr|end|y spaces,
and so on. S|te p|anners a|so need to be aware of ch||dren |dent|fed dur|ng
reg|strat|on who may have spec|fc needs |n terms of access|b|||ty of she|ter,
he|p w|th construct|on, etc.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*#
2. Programming.
Work w|th she|ter spec|a||sts to ensure the short- and |ong-term she|ter
needs of the most vu|nerab|e groups are tack|ed. Th|s may |nc|ude mov|ng
the w|der commun|ty to prov|de women, ch||d-headed househo|ds, the
e|der|y and d|sab|ed w|th he|p |n bu||d|ng the|r she|ter un|ts. lt a|so |nvo|ves
ta||or|ng she|ter programmes to tack|e the needs of spec|fc groups (such
as by a||ow|ng fex|b|||ty |n the number of peop|e needed to rece|ve a tent},
and mak|ng sure there are |ong-term so|ut|ons for a|| fam|||es. lf po|ygamy |s
pract|sed, |t |s |mportant to make sure that the adu|t women |n a|| househo|ds
(except s|ng|e-ma|e-headed househo|ds} are reg|stered as the peop|e who
shou|d rece|ve he|p, so that second w|ves and the|r ch||dren are not exc|uded.
Enough bedd|ng and b|ankets shou|d be prov|ded to a||ow g|r|s and boys to
s|eep separate|y. Take steps to prevent separat|on of ch||dren and fam|||es by
prov|d|ng adequate she|ter, and ensure there |s enough pr|vacy and d|gn|ty
for women and ch||dren, for examp|e for cook|ng and bath|ng. Make sure that
sett|ements are safe by prov|d|ng we||-||t s|tes and WASH fac|||t|es.
lt |s cr|t|ca| to make sure that s|te she|ter strateg|es do not |ncrease dangers
for ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng mak|ng sure there are safe routes for ch||dren to access
schoo|s, suffc|ent ch||d-fr|end|y spaces, an absence of ho|es |n the ground, an
absence of open water, and so on.
E7 ["@/,R$,+0,4@,#1O()
She|ter cannot be p|anned as a stand-a|one project: p|ans and act|on must be
coord|nated across sectors, |nc|ud|ng ch||d protect|on.
F7 =1410,/( '",@$,#-)
Genera||y she|ter spec|a||sts have not covered ch||d protect|on |n the|r forma|
profess|ona| tra|n|ng. lt |s therefore cr|t|ca| that ch||d protect|on organ|sat|ons
work w|th she|ter spec|a||sts to fnd effect|ve ways to ensure that ch||d
protect|on |s |nc|uded |n any act|on re|ated to prov|s|on of she|ter.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*)
References
Oorse|||s, T. and v|ta|e, A (2005}. 7|a|s|||o|a| 5e|||eme||. D|so|aced
|oo0|a||o|s
lASO (2005}. G0|de|||es /o| Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s
|| |0ma|||a||a| 5e||||s. Ohap. 4.7: She|ter and s|te p|ann|ng and
non-food |tems
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
Ohap: Gender and She|ter |n emergenc|es
lFRO and N-Hab|tat (2009}. 5|e||e| ||o|ec|s 2009
Joseph, A., John, F., Kennedy, J., Esteban, |. (2008}, lASO 5|e||e|
||o|ec|s 2008
OOHA (2010}. 5|e||e| a/|e| d|sas|e|. s||a|e|es /o| ||a|s|||o|a|
se|||eme|| a|d |eco|s||0c||o|. Geneva
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || 5|e||e|, 5e|||eme|| a|d ^o|-Food ||ems,
p.239
NHOR and lOM (2010}. Co||ec||.e Ce|||e G0|de|||es
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*!
STANDARD 25
Camp management and child protection
The ma|n a|m of manag|ng camps |s to create the space needed to de||ver
protect|on and he|p effect|ve|y. Th|s affects ch||d protect|on |n severa| ways -
for examp|e, through the way the camp |s phys|ca||y p|anned, the way support
|s d|str|buted, or the way dec|s|ons are made that affect ch||dren`s ||ves. The
camp management team has a respons|b|||ty to make sure that ch||dren are not
exposed to threats |n the camp, and that |f spec|fc ch||dren at r|sk are |dent|fed,
the|r needs are assessed and act|on |s taken to adapt or target he|p to them.
As a resu|t, camp management staff w|th respons|b|||ty towards ch||dren shou|d
have sk|||s and comm|tment re|ated to protect|ng ch||dren.
Standard
Child protection concerns are refected in the assessment, design,
monitoring and evaluation of camp management programmes.
The safety and wellbeing of girls and boys of all ages living in camps
is safeguarded through camp management structures.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
camp management and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of
th|s |nformat|on for camp management;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about camp management |nto d|scuss|ons w|th
careg|vers, commun|ty members and ch||dren, and |nv|te camp management
workers to attend these d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of ch||dren |n
d|fferent care arrangements (for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d
heads of househo|ds, ch||dren on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
ensure that accommodat|on and other spaces for separated ch||dren, ch||d-
headed househo|ds and (other} ch||dren at r|sk and careg|vers are secure;
ensure there |s a ch||dren`s foca| person |n the camp management structure;
ensure that commun|ty-based and state ch||d protect|on actors are aware of
and ||nked to camp management structures;
|nc|ude camp management personne| |n tra|n|ng on ch||d protect|on;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*$
promote the |nvo|vement of g|r|s and boys |n dec|s|on-mak|ng processes
w|th|n the camp;
promote the |nvo|vement of ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es and the|r careg|vers w|th|n
the camp;
work w|th camp reg|strat|on and camp management to make sure that
ch||dren are prof|ed, and ch||dren at r|sk are |dent|fed and fo||owed up w|th
coord|nated support;
support camp management |n advocat|ng for fa|r d|str|but|on of serv|ces and
resources for ch||dren;
set up safe and effect|ve referra| mechan|sms to ensure appropr|ate responses
for a|| ch||dren surv|vors of v|o|ence, exp|o|tat|on, abuse and neg|ect;
support camp management |n sett|ng up methods for dea||ng w|th comp|a|nts,
espec|a||y |n terms of sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse;
make sure there are act|v|t|es to ra|se awareness among camp management,
as we|| as the commun|ty and parents, of ch||d protect|on |ssues;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and camp
management;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of good qua||ty camp management
|ntervent|ons on ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between camp management and ch||d protect|on to be
exp|ored |n eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post
D|saster Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 0ANP NAhA6NhT A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each camp
management |ntervent|on;
ensure there |s a ba|ance of ma|es and fema|es and soc|a| groups |n the
camp management structures and mechan|sms (for examp|e, those who
can represent ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es or ethn|c m|nor|t|es}, |n order to ensure
that vo|ces of these ch||dren and parents are heard;
appo|nt a ch||dren`s foca| person w|th|n the camp management structure;
br|ng ch||dren`s v|ews |nto dec|s|on-mak|ng;
|nvo|ve commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms and state ch||d
protect|on actors |n the camp or genera| area, and def|ne ro|es and
respons|b|||t|es |n referra| mechan|sms;
estab||sh or support safe ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng |n camps and en||st
ch||d protect|on workers to he|p create referra| mechan|sms as requ|red for
spec|fc ch||dren and fam|||es;
use popu|at|on-reg|strat|on exerc|ses, as we|| as ask|ng parents and the
commun|ty to prof|e ch||dren |n the camp and to |dent|fy ch||dren w|th spec|fc
vu|nerab|||t|es;
campa|gn to prov|de serv|ces for ch||dren w|th|n the camp;
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*"
coord|nate s|te p|ann|ng, d|str|but|ons and other camp act|v|t|es to make sure
there are protect|ve spaces for ch||dren;
ensure that camp management workers and others work|ng |n the camp have
s|gned up to and been tra|ned |n a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch
covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
MeasuremenT
h0TS 00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of camps where child safety and wellbeing,
including family unity, are refected in design, monitoring
and evaluation
100%
2. Percentage of girls, boys and caregivers surveyed who
rate the camp as safe
90%
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of camp management structures that involve
boys and girls in their decision-making processes
80%
4. Percentage of camp management structures that involve
children with disabilities or their parents in decision-making
60%
5. Percentage of camp managers and child protection staff
who can clearly explain their roles and responsibilities in
responding to child protection issues
80%
6. Percentage of basic service access point (such as water
points, distribution points, health centres, community
centres and toiletsj which meet agreed criteria to be
considered safe and safely accessible for girls and boys
(including at night as requiredj
100%
Guidance notes
1. Assessment.
Before promot|ng the |nvo|vement of camp management |n ch||d protect|on, an
ana|ys|s must be carr|ed out to understand the ||nks between camp management
structures and po||t|ca| or m|||tary part|es, and the r|sks they pose.
K7 !201@ 42,#/+)
Oh||dren`s foca| peop|e w|th|n camp management structures may ||a|se w|th
camp management structures to |dent|fy and respond to r|sks w|th|n the camp,
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*%
represent ch||dren`s |ssues, |deas and concerns |n dec|s|on-mak|ng, campa|gn
for ch||d-focused serv|ces, ensure there |s access|b|e and safe ch||d-fr|end|y s|te
p|ann|ng, and refer ch||d-protect|on concerns ar|s|ng |n the camp.
3. Community-based.
Oommun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms can be an effect|ve too| for
ra|s|ng awareness and putt|ng ch||d protect|on act|v|t|es |nto pract|ce. They are
a|so usefu| for |dent|fy|ng, referr|ng and mon|tor|ng ch||dren at r|sk |n the camp
(see Standard 16}. Hav|ng an understand|ng of pre-ex|st|ng mechan|sms and
structures to protect ch||dren w||| h|gh|y beneft the response to ch||d protect|on
concerns. The emergency presents an opportun|ty to strengthen ex|st|ng,
pos|t|ve structures.
F7 W_"1@ 100%++)
A|| ch||dren have the r|ght to educat|on fac|||t|es, hea|th and psychosoc|a| serv|ces,
and recreat|on and re||g|ous act|v|t|es appropr|ate to the|r needs. Oonfrm that
g|r|s and boys have equa| access to camp serv|ces by carry|ng out regu|ar spot-
checks and observat|on, and by us|ng |nformat|on, d|saggregated for gender
and age, from the var|ous serv|ces and ass|stance prov|ders. lnformat|on about
camp and secur|ty management shou|d be prov|ded equa||y to women, g|r|s,
boys and men.
M7 .,/% 4@1##,#-)
The |ocat|on, s|ze and number of spaces for ch||dren to |earn and p|ay shou|d
be cons|dered from the ear||est stages of s|te p|ann|ng. Sett|ng space as|de for
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces, schoo|s, p|ay|ng fe|ds, etc. |n the or|g|na| s|te p|an he|ps
avo|d ch||dren`s areas be|ng p|aced on camp borders or |ong d|stances from
ch||dren`s homes, or exc|uded a|together for |ack of ava||ab|e |and. Ensure that
there |s a concrete p|an for the we|fare of ch||dren and fam|||es that cons|ders,
for examp|e, how |ong ch||dren w||| stay |n the camp, the ||ve||hood opportun|t|es
ava||ab|e, and any transfer to permanent she|ter. se a standard measurement
of space between tents and she|ters.
G7 .1N%/()
Oamp management shou|d mon|tor secur|ty concerns such as gender-based
v|o|ence, abduct|ons, attacks, ch||d |abour and ERW and |andm|ne |nc|dents.
They can deve|op prof|es of the d|fferent needs and spec|fc protect|on r|sks
faced by g|r|s, women, boys and men, and ensure that these are |nc|uded
|n secur|ty prov|s|ons. For examp|e, th|s cou|d |nc|ude appropr|ate ||ght|ng |n
areas frequent|y used by women and g|r|s, patro|s of frewood co||ect|on routes,
mon|tor|ng of schoo| routes, and mark|ng out of ERW-contam|nated areas.
7. Comp|aints mechanisms.
Set up confdent|a| comp|a|nts methods to rece|ve and |nvest|gate a||egat|ons
of sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse exper|enced by women, g|r|s, boys and men
|n rece|v|ng goods or serv|ces |n the camp.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*&
References
NRO (2008}. Camo /a|aeme|| 7oo||||
Oorse|||s, T. and v|ta|e, A. (2005}. 7|a|s|||o|a| 5e|||eme||. D|so|aced
|oo0|a||o|s
lASO (2005}. G0|de|||es /o| Ge|de|-oased v|o|e|ce |||e|.e|||o|s
|| |0ma|||a||a| se||||s, Ohap. 4.7: She|ter and s|te p|ann|ng and
non-food |tems
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
Ohap: Gender and OOOM |n emergenc|es
The Sphere Project (2011}. 7|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || 5|e||e|, 5e|||eme|| a|d ^o|-Food ||ems,
p.239
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
www.nrc.no/camp
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*'
STANDARD 26
Distribution and child protection
D|str|but|on of |mmed|ate, ||fe-sav|ng ass|stance |s one of the most urgent
act|ons to be taken |n an emergency response, and one that can s|gn|fcant|y
|mprove the safety and we||be|ng of ch||dren. Furthermore, the way |n wh|ch that
food and other re||ef |tems are d|str|buted has a s|gn|fcant effect on the threats
exper|enced by women and ch||dren. As we|| as be|ng t|me|y and comp|ete, any
k|nd of d|str|but|on therefore needs to be extreme|y we|| p|anned and carr|ed
out to the h|ghest profess|ona| standards.
Standard
Children access humanitarian assistance through effcient and well-
planned distribution systems that safeguard girls and boys from
violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect.
Key actions
kY A0T|0hS F08 0h|L0 P80T0T|0h A0T08S
Present assessment |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on to those work|ng on
d|str|but|on and ensure t|me |s taken to d|scuss the |mp||cat|ons of th|s
|nformat|on for d|str|but|on;
agree wh|ch of the |nd|cators suggested |n th|s standard shou|d be used to
track progress;
|ncorporate quest|ons about d|str|but|on |nto d|scuss|ons w|th careg|vers,
commun|ty members and ch||dren and |nv|te d|str|but|on workers to
attend these d|scuss|ons. D|scuss the s|tuat|on of d|str|but|on |n d|fferent
care arrangements (for examp|e ch||dren |n res|dent|a| care, ch||d heads of
househo|ds, ch||dren on the street, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es};
support and supp|y d|str|but|on teams w|th the |nformat|on needed to |ssue
rat|on cards to unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren and househo|ds
where the o|dest member |s a ch||d, so they can rece|ve d|str|but|ons of food
and non-food |tems (NFls} as necessary |n a way that does not cause further
separat|ons. lf needed, accompany ch||dren to and dur|ng the d|str|but|on;
prov|de access to |nformat|on on d|str|but|ons for ch||dren and peop|e w|th
d|sab|||t|es, us|ng d|fferent med|a such as rad|o, pr|nt, etc.;
suggest cu|tura||y appropr|ate NFl hyg|ene |tems for women and g|r|s to
d|str|but|on teams, a|ong w|th spec|fc |tems for ch||dren - for examp|e, ch||d-
s|zed c|oth|ng and footwear, enough bedd|ng and b|ankets to a||ow for g|r|s
and boys to s|eep separate|y, and mosqu|to nets that can a|so be used as
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )*(
pr|vacy screens |f necessary (depend|ng on the cu|tura| context, c|oth d|apers
and toys may a|so be cons|dered};
work w|th d|str|but|on teams and agenc|es to ensure that the d|str|but|on
des|gn does not put ch||dren at r|sk - for examp|e, ensure that the |ocat|on
of the d|str|but|on |s safe and c|ear, that the d|str|but|on |tse|f |s safe and we||
organ|sed, and that shade and water are ava||ab|e. Make sure the d|str|but|on
team |s we|| |nformed on who |s to co||ect the |tems (for ch||dren ||v|ng w|th
at |east one parent |t |s usua||y preferab|e for the mother to co||ect};
together w|th d|str|but|on teams, support exc|uded ch||dren (e.g. street
ch||dren, |njured ch||dren, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es or ch||d-headed househo|ds}
|n access|ng d|str|but|on po|nts;
jo|nt|y des|gn an access|b|e and confdent|a| report|ng mechan|sm for
v|o|at|ons and abuses surround|ng d|str|but|ons, and make sure those who
are beneft|ng are aware of the|r r|ght to rece|ve human|tar|an a|d for free;
work w|th d|str|but|on teams to ensure that reg|strat|on staff are br|efed on
ch||d protect|on |ssues, any vu|nerab|||ty cr|ter|a be|ng cons|dered, and how
to dea| w|th any vu|nerab|e cases they may encounter;
ensure d|str|but|on teams are tra|ned on crowd contro| and how to |nteract
w|th ch||dren;
whenever poss|b|e, have ch||d protect|on staff present at d|str|but|ons to
ensure m|n|mum standards are met;
|dent|fy wh|ch pre-ex|st|ng forums (e.g. team or c|uster meet|ngs} are most
usefu| for regu|ar rev|ews of |nformat|on on ch||d protect|on and d|str|but|on;
co||ect examp|es of success stor|es, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren`s accounts, to
demonstrate the pos|t|ve effects of good qua||ty d|str|but|on |ntervent|ons on
ch||dren`s safety and we||be|ng; and
|obby for the ||nk between d|str|but|on and ch||d protect|on to be exp|ored
|n eva|uat|ons and resource a||ocat|on processes such as the Post D|saster
Needs Ana|ys|s or the Post Oonf|ct Needs Ana|ys|s.
kY A0T|0hS F08 0|ST8|80T|0h A0T08S
lnc|ude the safety of the affected popu|at|on as a sub-object|ve of each
d|str|but|on |ntervent|on;
en||st the expert|se of ch||d protect|on workers |n p|ann|ng for, and carry|ng
out, d|str|but|ons;
ensure women, g|r|s and boys are |nvo|ved |n des|gn|ng and deve|op|ng
d|str|but|on systems, and ensure women, ado|escent g|r|s and boys p|ay a
|ead ro|e |n these systems;
mon|tor the fu|| d|str|but|on p|pe||ne of food and NFls, as we|| as the nutr|t|ona|
status of women, g|r|s, boys and other at-r|sk groups, to ensure that food
and NFls reach those for whom they are |ntended;
|f po|ygamy |s pract|sed, reg|ster adu|t women |n a|| househo|ds (except s|ng|e-
ma|e-headed househo|ds} as ma|n rec|p|ents of he|p, so second w|ves and
the|r ch||dren are not exc|uded;
ensure that ch||d-headed househo|ds and unaccompan|ed and separated
ch||dren are g|ven rat|on cards |n the|r own names, and that they rece|ve
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#*
d|str|but|ons of food and NFls as necessary, |n a way that does not cause
further separat|on;
ensure women and g|r|s have supp||es of san|tary products and hyg|ene
products, and ch||d-s|zed c|oth|ng for ch||dren, and prov|de ch||dren w|th
shoes or protect|ve footwear to reduce the|r vu|nerab|||ty to |nfect|ous d|sease
and |njury;
he|p ch||dren at r|sk, |dent|fed by ch||d protect|on actors, to have access
to d|str|but|on po|nts (th|s may |nc|ude, for examp|e, street ch||dren, |njured
ch||dren, ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es or ch||d-headed househo|ds};
ensure there |s an access|b|e and confdent|a| report|ng mechan|sm for
v|o|at|ons and abuses |n d|str|but|ons, and that the peop|e who are to rece|ve
the a|d know that |t |s free;
set up separate wa|t|ng and entry ||nes at reg|strat|ons, d|str|but|ons, and fa|rs
so that vu|nerab|e |nd|v|dua|s such as pregnant women, peop|e w|th |nfants,
unaccompan|ed ch||dren and the e|der|y, s|ck, and those w|th d|sab|||t|es are
he|ped frst;
ensure that those work|ng |n d|str|but|on have s|gned up to and been tra|ned
|n a code of conduct or other po||cy wh|ch covers ch||d safeguard|ng; and
|nv|te ch||d protect|on workers to tra|n|ngs, retreats or workshops where you
th|nk the|r perspect|ve and |nformat|on may enhance the outcome.
MeasuremenT
h0TS 00T00N |h0|0AT08
00T00N
TA86T
1. Percentage of surveyed benefciaries of distributions
who confrm that their safety and wellbeing and that of
their children were not compromised by the distribution
100%
2. Specifc vulnerabilities faced by girls, boys and their
caregivers in emergencies are taken into account when
distributions are being planned
Yes
A0T|0h |h0|0AT08 A0T|0h TA86T
3. Percentage of surveyed unaccompanied children,
street children and child-headed households that have
effective access to food and NFls
100%
4. Existence of NFl items specifc to boys and girls of
different ages within the NFl distribution plans
Yes
5. Percentage of surveyed child-headed households and
unaccompanied and separated children registered for
distribution
100%
6. Percentage of surveyed distribution activities that took
specifc measures to deal with any possible risks to girls
and boys of all ages, particularly those with special needs
90%
7. Percentage of surveyed distribution staff who have signed
and been trained on a basic child safeguarding policy
90%
8. Number of cases referred to the CP case-management
system through staff involved in distribution
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )##
Guidance notes
1. Chi|dren most at risk.
Oh||dren most at r|sk can |nc|ude:
naccompan|ed and separated ch||dren
Oh||d-headed househo|ds
S|ng|e-headed househo|ds w|th |arge numbers of ch||dren
Househo|ds w|th young ch||dren and e|der|y carers
Oh||dren or carers co||ect|ng a|d d|str|but|ons who are d|sab|ed or |njured.
ldent|fcat|on of ch||dren most at r|sk shou|d be a coord|nated effort between
ch||d protect|on and d|str|but|on organ|sat|ons, and the househo|d un|t may not
be app||cab|e to a|| ch||dren - for examp|e, |t may not be app||cab|e |n cases
where ch||dren are ||v|ng a|one, or where they are d|spersed |n groups, as |s the
case for some ch||dren ||v|ng on the street.
K7 [2#,/2O,#-)
Forma| or |nforma| mon|tor|ng can be done through both d|str|but|on and ch||d
protect|on act|v|t|es. Oh||dren go|ng to act|v|t|es or |ocat|ons ||ke the OFS cou|d
be usefu| sources of |nformat|on on whether d|str|but|ons are reach|ng the most
vu|nerab|e groups.
E7 *,+/O,'"/,2#)
D|str|but|on po|nts shou|d be access|b|e and safe for a|| ch||dren, |nc|ud|ng those
w|th phys|ca| d|sab|||t|es. ltems or conta|ners shou|d be prov|ded that are of a
s|ze and shape that ch||dren can carry safe|y. The t|m|ng of d|str|but|ons shou|d
take |nto account househo|d dynam|cs, gender ro|es, and the da||y act|v|t|es of
ch||dren - |nc|ud|ng domest|c dut|es (such as car|ng for s|b||ngs or e|der|y and
s|ck re|at|ves} and schoo| attendance. Prov|s|on shou|d be made for de||very to
ch||dren or househo|ds that cannot access d|str|but|on s|tes w|thout endanger|ng
ch||dren (for examp|e, |f careg|vers are forced to |eave young ch||dren unattended
|n order to access d|str|but|on s|tes}.
F7 >%-,+/O1/,2# 42,#/+) Work w|th ch||d protect|on team co||eagues (where
appropr|ate} to make sure a 'ch||d-fr|end|y` desk |s set up at the po|nt of
reg|strat|on or where ch||dren |eave the d|str|but|on s|te. Make sure that at |east
one staff member |s present to act as a soc|a| worker. Staff shou|d be tra|ned
and can reg|ster any unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren who may be
|dent|fed at the d|str|but|on. They can a|so ra|se awareness of peop|e`s r|ghts |n
re|at|on to the d|str|but|on, and act as a report|ng mechan|sm for more ser|ous
comp|a|nts of abuse or exp|o|tat|on. +
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M7 .%41O1/%$ 03,@$O%#)
lf a ch||d |s found a|one at a d|str|but|on s|te or e|sewhere and |s thought to be
separated from the|r fam||y, do not |mmed|ate|y remove the ch||d. Ask peop|e
around the ch||d |f they know anyth|ng about the ch||d, and |f the ch||d |s tru|y
thought to be separated or unaccompan|ed, as the parents may return short|y.
For bab|es and younger ch||dren who do not know the|r names and p|aces of
or|g|n, or ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es, adu|ts and o|der ch||dren around them shou|d
be asked whether they know the ch||d or the|r fam||y and where the group
came from, before mov|ng the ch||d from the area (un|ess |t |s unsafe to keep
a ch||d there}. As these part|cu|ar ch||dren w||| not genera||y know the|r names
or deta||s of where they are from, often the on|y chance of obta|n|ng accurate
re|evant |nformat|on |s from peop|e around the ch||d at po|nt of separat|on (see
Standard 13}.
G7 \1O-%/%$ 1++,+/1#0%)
Avo|d targeted he|p based on b|anket categor|es of ch||dren (such as 'separated
ch||dren` or 'ch||dren former|y w|th armed forces or armed groups`}. Rather, work
w|th the ch||d protect|on work|ng group to out||ne cr|ter|a for he|p|ng ch||dren
based on vu|nerab|||ty to abuse, exp|o|tat|on and v|o|ence. Where poss|b|e
and appropr|ate, |t |s adv|sab|e to d|str|bute as w|de|y as poss|b|e to affected
popu|at|ons, and to ensure that thorough d|str|but|on processes reach the most
vu|nerab|e groups |n need of he|p.
7. Comp|aints mechanisms.
Oonfdent|a| comp|a|nts methods shou|d be set up to rece|ve and |nvest|gate
a||egat|ons of sexua| exp|o|tat|on and abuse exper|enced by women, g|r|s, boys
and men |n rece|v|ng goods or seek|ng reg|strat|on. The number and type of
comp|a|nts shou|d be rev|ewed regu|ar|y by sen|or staff (th|s can be a stand|ng
agenda |tem |n project management meet|ngs}, as shou|d the rate of response
and sat|sfactory reso|ut|on. Oomp|a|nts shou|d tr|gger |mmed|ate responses and
|nvest|gat|ons, as de|ays may |ead to further abuse, |nc|ud|ng repeated abuse
or |nt|m|dat|on of surv|vors.
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M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#!
References
lASO (2006}. Home|, G|||s, So,s a|d /e|. D|//e|e|| |eeds - Eq0a|
Oooo||0||||es. |/5C Ge|de| |a|dooo| || |0ma|||a||a| /c||o|.
Ohaps: Gender and Food D|str|but|on |n emergenc|es and Gender
and Non-Food ltems |n emergenc|es
The Sphere Project (2011}. T|e 5o|e|e |a|dooo|. |0ma|||a||a|
C|a||e| a|d /|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || |0ma|||a||a| |esoo|se.
/|||m0m 5|a|da|ds || /ood sec0|||, a|d |0|||||o|, p.139
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
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A
N
N
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X
E
S

A
N
D

G
L
O
S
S
A
R
Y
Annexes
and glossary
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#&
ANNEXES
Relevant legal instruments
0h|L0-SP0|F|0 h0NAh 8|6hTS |hST80NhTS
Q@2'1@
l|O Oonvent|on No. 138 on the m|n|mum age for adm|ss|on to emp|oyment
and work (1973}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (1989}
l|O Oonvent|on No. 182, Worst Forms of Oh||d |abour Oonvent|on (1999}
Opt|ona| protoco| to the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d on the
|nvo|vement of ch||dren |n armed conf|ct (2000}
Opt|ona| protoco| to the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d on the sa|e of
ch||dren, ch||d prost|tut|on and ch||d pornography (2000}
Opt|ona| protoco| to the Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d on a
Oommun|cat|on procedure (2011}
>%-,2#1@
European Oonvent|on on the Exerc|se of Oh||dren's R|ghts (1996}
Oounc|| of Europe Oonvent|on on the Protect|on of Oh||dren aga|nst Sexua|
Exp|o|tat|on and Sexua| Abuse (2007}
Afr|can Oharter on the R|ghts and We|fare of the Oh||d (1999}
6h8AL h0NAh 8|6hTS |hST80NhTS
Q@2'1@
Oonvent|on on the Prevent|on and Pun|shment of the Or|me of Genoc|de
(1951}
lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts (1966}
lnternat|ona| Oovenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Ou|tura| R|ghts (1966}
Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of D|scr|m|nat|on aga|nst Women
(1979}
Oonvent|on aga|nst Torture and Other Orue|, lnhuman or Degrad|ng
Treatment or Pun|shment (1987}
lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on on the Protect|on of the R|ghts of A|| M|grant
Workers and Members of The|r Fam|||es (1990}
Rome Statute of the lnternat|ona| Or|m|na| Oourt (1998}
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Persons w|th D|sab|||t|es (2006}
lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of A|| Persons from Enforced
D|sappearance (2006}
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#'
Pa|ermo protoco| to prevent, suppress and pun|sh traffck|ng |n persons,
espec|a||y women and ch||dren, supp|ement|ng the Oonvent|on on Transnat|ona|
Organ|zed Or|me (2000}
>%-,2#1@
European Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms (1953}
Amer|can Oonvent|on on Human R|ghts (1969}
Afr|can Oharter on Human and Peop|es R|ghts (1981}
Protoco| No. 7 to the European Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Human
R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms (1984}
Add|t|ona| Protoco| to the Amer|can Oonvent|on on Human R|ghts |n the
Area of Econom|c, Soc|a| and Ou|tura| R|ghts, 'Protoco| of San Sa|vador,`
(1988}
Afr|can Oharter on the R|ghts and We|fare of the Oh||d (1999}
Arab Oharter on Human R|ghts (2004}
|hT8hAT|0hAL h0NAh|TA8|Ah LAw
F|rst Geneva Oonvent|on for the Ame||orat|on of the Oond|t|on of the
Wounded and S|ck |n Armed Forces |n the F|e|d, 1864
Second Geneva Oonvent|on for the Ame||orat|on of the Oond|t|on of
Wounded, S|ck and Sh|pwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 1906
Th|rd Geneva Oonvent|on re|at|ve to the Treatment of Pr|soners of War, 1929
Fourth Geneva Oonvent|on re|at|ve to the Protect|on of O|v|||an Persons |n
T|me of War, 1949
Protoco| l (1977} re|at|ng to the Protect|on of v|ct|ms of lnternat|ona| Armed
Oonf|cts
Protoco| ll (1977} re|at|ng to the Protect|on of v|ct|ms of Non-lnternat|ona|
Armed Oonf|cts
|hT8hAT|0hAL 8F06 LAw
Oonvent|on Re|at|ng to the Status of Refugees (1951}
Protoco| re|at|ng to the Status of Refugees (1967}
Oonvent|on re|at|ng to the Status of State|ess Persons (1954}
Oonvent|on on the Reduct|on of State|essness (1961}
S0FT LAw
n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts (1948} (Art|c|es 2, 26}
Amer|can Dec|arat|on of the R|ghts and Dut|es of Man (1948}
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )#(
Gu|d|ng Pr|nc|p|es on lnterna| D|sp|acement (1998} (Paragraph 23}
Par|s Pr|nc|p|es and Gu|de||nes on Oh||dren Assoc|ated w|th Armed Forces
and Armed Groups (2007} (the 'Par|s Pr|nc|p|es"}
Par|s Oomm|tments to Protect Oh||dren from n|awfu| Recru|tment or se
by Armed Forces or Armed Groups (2007} (the 'Par|s Oomm|tments`}
European Soc|a| Oharter (1961}
Afr|can Oharter on Human and Peop|e`s R|ghts (1981}
Afr|can Oharter on the R|ghts and We|fare of the Oh||d (1999}
n|ted Nat|ons Ru|es for the Protect|on of Juven||es Depr|ved of the|r ||berty
n|ted Nat|ons Standard M|n|mum Ru|es for the Adm|n|strat|on of Juven||e
Just|ce ('The Be|j|ng Ru|es`}
EOOSOO Gu|de||nes for Act|on on Oh||dren |n the Or|m|na| Just|ce System
n|ted Nat|ons Gu|de||nes for the Prevent|on of Juven||e De||nquency ('The
R|yadh Gu|de||nes`}
Bangkok Pr|nc|p|es on Status and Treatment of Refugees (adopted at the
As|an-Afr|can |ega| Oonsu|tat|ve Oomm|ttee |n 1966}
OA Oonvent|on Govern|ng the Spec|fc Aspects of Refugee Prob|ems |n
Afr|ca (1969}
European n|on's Oounc|| D|rect|ve on m|n|mum standards for the
qua||fcat|on and status of th|rd country nat|ona|s and state|ess persons as
refugees or as persons who otherw|se need |nternat|ona| protect|on and
content of the protect|on granted (2004}
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))#
23455678
6
Access
The word |s used frst|y |n re|at|on to the proport|on of the popu|at|on that can
use a serv|ce or fac|||ty. nrestr|cted access means that there are no pract|ca|,
fnanc|a|, phys|ca|, secur|ty-re|ated, structura|, |nst|tut|ona| or cu|tura| barr|ers
to access|ng serv|ces or fac|||t|es. 'Access" can refer to the genera| popu|at|on
(un|versa| access}, or to equ|tab|e access of peop|e w|th spec|fc needs. lt may
a|so be used to refer to the ab|||ty of a|d agenc|es to ga|n secure access to
popu|at|ons |n need.
90/2O+
Governments and |oca| author|t|es, commun|t|es, and the m|||tary or pr|vate
sector bod|es, that are |nvo|ved |n, or |nfuence, human|tar|an responses.
9002"#/1',@,/(
There |s no one sector-w|de defn|t|on of accountab|||ty. The Sphere Project
understands accountab|||ty as the respons|b|e use by human|tar|an agenc|es
of the resources at the|r d|sposa|. To ach|eve th|s, agenc|es need to:
Exp|a|n how the|r programmes conform w|th best pract|ce and common|y
agreed comm|tments (for examp|e, ev|dence-based standards accepted
across the sector} by shar|ng resu|ts and reasons for act|on and non-act|on
|n a part|cu|ar context |n a transparent way
lnvo|ve stakeho|ders |n the|r work. W|th regard to affected popu|at|ons,
th|s means tak|ng |nto account the|r needs, concerns and capac|t|es at a||
stages of human|tar|an response, respect|ng the|r r|ght to be heard and to
be |nvo|ved |n dec|s|ons affect|ng the|r ||ves, and prov|d|ng them w|th the
means to cha||enge agenc|es` dec|s|ons (see a|so 'Oua||ty`}.
9-%
=3,@$O%# are peop|e under 18 years of age. Th|s category |nc|udes |nfants (up
to 1 year o|d} and most ado|escents (10-19 years}.
9$2@%+0%#/+ are norma||y referred to as peop|e between the ages of 10 and 19.
9@/%O#1/,B% 01O%
A|ternat|ve care may take the form of |nforma| or forma| care. A|ternat|ve care
may be k|nsh|p care; foster care; other forms of fam||y-based or fam||y-||ke
care p|acements; res|dent|a| care; or superv|sed |ndependent ||v|ng arrange-
ments for ch||dren.
Armed Conict
See 'Oonf|ct".
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )))
Assessment
Assessment |s the process of estab||sh|ng:
V7 The |mpact of a d|saster or conf|ct on a soc|ety
VV7 The pr|or|ty needs and r|sks faced by those affected by d|saster
VVV7 The ava||ab|e capac|ty to respond, |nc|ud|ng cop|ng mechan|sms of the
affected popu|at|on
V^7 The most appropr|ate forms of response g|ven the needs, r|sks and capac|t|es
^7 The poss|b|||t|es for fac|||tat|ng and exped|t|ng recovery and deve|opment.
An appropr|ate response depends on an understand|ng of the po||t|ca|, soc|a|
and econom|c context w|th|n wh|ch a|d |s to be prov|ded. lt a|so depends on
adequate ev|dence of needs and r|sk factors, |nc|ud|ng |nformat|on der|ved
from consu|tat|on w|th those affected by d|saster (see a|so Oore Standard 3:
Assessment}.
Initia| assessment |s a pre||m|nary enqu|ry fo||ow|ng a sudden d|saster or
report of a new cr|s|s. lts purpose |s to determ|ne whether there |s, or cou|d
be, a prob|em that mer|ts an |mmed|ate ||fe-sav|ng response and/or an
assessment of the s|tuat|on, and to prov|de pre||m|nary |nd|cat|ons of the type
and sca|e of externa| ass|stance, |f any, that m|ght be needed. lt re||es pr|mar||y
on secondary data, |.e. ex|st|ng reports and contacts w|th observers |n the
area, poss|b|y together w|th a few rap|d fe|d v|s|ts.
Rapid assessment |s conducted through a v|s|t to a number of s|tes to
co||ect pr|mary (new} data through key |nformant and group |nterv|ews and,
somet|mes, through quest|onna|res to a ||m|ted number of househo|ds. lts
purpose |s to ga|n a suffc|ent understand|ng of the s|tuat|on to dec|de on the
type, sca|e and t|m|ng of response needed, |f any. A rap|d assessment wou|d
norma||y produce a report w|th|n a week when the area |s sma|| and/or the
popu|at|on homogeneous, and up to 6 weeks when the area or popu|at|on
affected |s |arge or heterogeneous.
In-depth assessment |s undertaken us|ng e|ther (|} a comb|nat|on of rap|d
appra|sa| methods and a househo|d survey based on probab|||ty samp||ng;
or (||} rap|d appra|sa| methods |nc|ud|ng mu|t|p|e |n-depth |nterv|ews w|th
sma|| groups of peop|e represent|ng d|st|nct subgroups w|th|n the affected
popu|at|on. The a|m |n both cases |s to generate a re|evant househo|d prof|e
for each d|st|nct subgroup w|th|n the popu|at|on; a deta||ed understand|ng of
the current s|tuat|on; and the prospects for recovery for each subgroup. ln-
depth assessments requ|re a substant|a| |nvestment |n t|me and resources,
often adopt representat|ve cross-sect|ona| random samp||ng, and have the
object|ve of prov|d|ng a better understand|ng of the s|tuat|on |n a|| sectors
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))!
9
=1410,/(R'",@$,#-
Oapac|ty-bu||d|ng |s the strengthen|ng of know|edge, ab|||ty, sk|||s and
resources to he|p |nd|v|dua|s, commun|t|es or organ|zat|ons ach|eve agreed
goa|s. ln the context of th|s Handbook, capac|ty-bu||d|ng refers |n part|cu|ar
to d|saster-affected popu|at|ons. 'Oapac|ty" |s the comb|nat|on of a|| those
attr|butes ava||ab|e to ach|eve agreed goa|s.
=3,@$RNO,%#$@( +410%+ Y=!.Z
These are safe spaces and schoo|s where commun|t|es create nurtur|ng
env|ronments for ch||dren to access free and structured p|ay, recreat|on, |e|sure
and |earn|ng act|v|t|es. Oh||d-fr|end|y spaces may prov|de hea|th, nutr|t|on and
psychosoc|a| support and other act|v|t|es that restore a sense of norma||ty and
cont|nu|ty. They are des|gned and operated |n a part|c|patory manner, and may
serve a spec|fc age group of ch||dren or a var|ety of age ranges. Oh||d-fr|end|y
spaces and schoo|s are |mportant throughout cr|ses, from emergenc|es to
recovery.
=3,@$ @1'2"O
Oh||d |abour |s work undertaken by ch||dren under the |ega| m|n|mum
work|ng ages. Nat|ona| |eg|s|at|on norma||y |ays down var|ous m|n|mum ages
for d|fferent types of work. For examp|e, the age for norma| fu||-t|me work
shou|d not be |ower than the age at wh|ch compu|sory schoo||ng ends. Other
categor|es of work |nc|ude ||ght work, hazardous work, and other worst forms
of ch||d |abour. The term `ch||d |abour` |s often descr|bed as work that depr|ves
ch||dren of the|r ch||dhood, the|r potent|a| and the|r d|gn|ty. lt refers to work that
|s menta||y, phys|ca||y, soc|a||y or mora||y dangerous and harmfu| to ch||dren,
and wh|ch |nterferes w|th the|r schoo||ng by depr|v|ng them of the opportun|ty
to attend schoo|, ob||g|ng them to |eave schoo| premature|y, or requ|r|ng them
to attempt to comb|ne schoo| attendance w|th excess|ve|y |ong and heavy
work.
=2-#,/,B%
Oogn|t|ve process are menta| processes such as thought, |mag|nat|on,
percept|on, memory, dec|s|on-mak|ng, reason|ng and prob|em-so|v|ng.
Comp|ex emergency
A comp|ex emergency |s a human|tar|an cr|s|s |n a country or reg|on |n wh|ch
author|ty has tota||y or substant|a||y broken down due to mu|t|p|e causes, and
where peop|e`s ||ves, we||be|ng and d|gn|ty are affected. The cr|s|s may have
been caused by human act|v|ty (e.g. conf|ct or c|v|| unrest} and/or by natura|
factors (e.g. drought, food, hurr|canes}.
Conict
Oonf|ct refers to v|o|ent fght|ng between two or more part|es that threatens
the safety and secur|ty of commun|t|es or of the genera| popu|at|on. Th|s
|nc|udes s|tuat|ons of repress|on through coerc|on or fear backed by the threat
of v|o|ence, as we|| as acts of v|o|ence up to and |nc|ud|ng the |eve| of armed
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))$
conf|ct. Accord|ng to |nternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw, the term 'armed conf|ct"
|s used to refer to s|tuat|ons where host|||t|es reach a thresho|d synonymous
w|th war. A|though rare|y quest|oned when app||ed to conf|cts between
states, the term often comes under debate when used |n re|at|on to |nterna|
conf|ct. ln essence, |t |nvo|ves armed part|es at a h|gher and more susta|ned
|eve| of v|o|ence than 's|tuat|ons of |nterna| d|sturbances and tens|ons, such
as r|ots, |so|ated and sporad|c acts of v|o|ence or other acts of a s|m||ar
nature" (Art|c|e 8.2(d}, Rome Statute of the lnternat|ona| Or|m|na| Oourt}.
The lnternat|ona| Oomm|ttee of the Red Oross (lORO} has a re|evant spec|a|
mandate |n lnternat|ona| Human|tar|an |aw and prov|des techn|ca| gu|dance
on th|s quest|on.
=24,#-
Oop|ng |s the process of adapt|ng to a new ||fe s|tuat|on, manag|ng d|ffcu|t
c|rcumstances, mak|ng an effort to so|ve prob|ems, and/or try|ng to m|n|m|se,
reduce or put up w|th stress or conf|ct.
=O,+,+
See 'D|saster".
:
*%+A O%B,%6
A rev|ew of documentat|on.
*,-#,/(
D|gn|ty enta||s more than phys|ca| we||be|ng. lt |mp||es the capac|ty to make
one`s own de||berate cho|ces, and consequent|y to be acknow|edged as a
free subject. lt refects the |ntegr|ty of the person, and |s seen as the source
from wh|ch a|| human r|ghts der|ve. The foundat|on of ||fe w|th d|gn|ty |s the
assurance of access to bas|c serv|ces, secur|ty and respect for human r|ghts.
Equa||y, the way |n wh|ch human|tar|an response |s |mp|emented strong|y
affects the d|gn|ty and we||be|ng of d|saster-affected popu|at|ons.
*,+1',@,/(
The lnternat|ona| O|ass|fcat|on of Funct|on|ng D|sab|||ty and Hea|th (lOF}
defnes d|sab|||ty as an umbre||a term for |mpa|rments, act|v|ty ||m|tat|ons and
part|c|pat|on restr|ct|ons. Hence lOF encompasses both med|ca| and soc|a|
mode|s of d|sab|||ty. As an examp|e, d|sab|||ty cou|d |nc|ude |mpa|rment of
see|ng and wa|k|ng, us|ng the to||et, gett|ng dressed and/or access|ng schoo|s
or soc|a| serv|ces (un|versa| r|ghts for a|| g|r|s and boys}.
*,+1--O%-1/%$ $1/1
These are stat|st|cs separated accord|ng to part|cu|ar cr|ter|a, most common|y
sex and age. Sex-d|saggregated data means separate popu|at|on stat|st|cs for
ma|es and fema|es. Age-d|saggregated data separates popu|at|on stat|st|cs
by age groups.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))"
*,+1+/%O
A d|saster |s a ser|ous d|srupt|on of the funct|on|ng of a commun|ty or a soc|ety
|nvo|v|ng w|despread human, mater|a|, econom|c or env|ronmenta| |osses and
|mpacts that exceeds the ab|||ty of the affected commun|ty or soc|ety to cope
us|ng |ts own resources and therefore requ|res urgent act|on. We use the
word "d|saster" to refer to natura| d|sasters as we|| as to conf|ct, s|ow- and
rap|d-onset s|tuat|ons, rura| and urban env|ronments and comp|ex po||t|ca|
emergenc|es |n a|| countr|es. The term thus covers natura| and man-made
d|sasters and conf|cts and encompasses re|ated terms such as 'cr|s|s" and
'emergency".
*,+1+/%O 4O%41O%$#%++
D|saster-preparedness refers to act|v|t|es and measures taken |n advance of
a d|saster to ensure an effect|ve response to the |mpact of hazards, |nc|ud|ng
|ssu|ng t|me|y and effect|ve ear|y warn|ngs and the temporary evacuat|on
of peop|e and property from threatened |ocat|ons. lt |s often ca||ed s|mp|y
'preparedness" and can a|so app|y to the state of read|ness to respond as
demonstrated by organ|zat|ons, NGOs or government departments.
*,+1+/%O O,+A O%$"0/,2#
Th|s refers to the concept and pract|ce of reduc|ng the r|sk of d|saster through
systemat|c efforts to ana|yze and manage causa| factors. lt |nc|udes reduc|ng
exposure to hazards, |essen|ng the vu|nerab|||ty of peop|e and property, w|se
management of |and and the env|ronment, and |mprov|ng preparedness for
adverse events.
*"/( '%1O%O+
A duty-bearer |s respons|b|e for mak|ng sure that, |f someone has r|ghts, they
are be|ng met.
;
W1O@( O%02B%O(
Ear|y recovery |s a mu|t|-faceted process of recovery that beg|ns |n a
human|tar|an response sett|ng. lt |s gu|ded by deve|opment pr|nc|p|es that
seek to bu||d on human|tar|an programmes and encourages susta|nab|e
deve|opment opportun|t|es. lt a|ms to generate se|f-susta|n|ng, nat|ona||y
owned, res|||ent processes for post-cr|s|s recovery. lt encompasses the
restorat|on of bas|c serv|ces, ||ve||hoods, she|ter, governance, secur|ty and
ru|e of |aw, env|ronment and soc|a| d|mens|ons, |nc|ud|ng the re|ntegrat|on of
d|sp|aced popu|at|ons.
Ear|y chi|dhood deve|opment (ECD}
Ear|y Oh||dhood deve|opment (EOD} |s the processes through wh|ch young
ch||dren, aged 0-8 years, deve|op the|r opt|ma| phys|ca| hea|th, menta|
a|ertness, emot|ona| confdence, soc|a| competence and read|ness to
|earn. These processes are supported by soc|a| and fnanc|a| po||c|es and
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))%
comprehens|ve programm|ng that |ntegrate hea|th, nutr|t|on, water, san|tat|on,
hyg|ene, educat|on and ch||d protect|on serv|ces. A|| ch||dren and fam|||es
beneft from h|gh-qua||ty programmes, but d|sadvantaged groups beneft the
most.
Emergency
See 'D|saster`.
Exp|osive remnants of war (ERW}
ERWs are exp|os|ve mun|t|ons that rema|n act|ve and wh|ch are present dur|ng
or |eft beh|nd fo||ow|ng conf|ct, |nc|ud|ng art|||ery she||s, grenades, mortars,
rockets, a|r-dropped bombs, c|uster mun|t|ons and ammun|t|on. nder the
|nternat|ona| |ega| defn|t|on, ERWs cons|st of unexp|oded ordnance (O}
- exp|os|ve mun|t|ons wh|ch have been used but fa||ed to detonate - and
abandoned exp|os|ve ordnance (AO} - weapons that were not used but
wh|ch were abandoned and |eft beh|nd fo||ow|ng a conf|ct. Wh||e |andm|nes
(see defn|t|on be|ow} are not |nc|uded |n the |nternat|ona| |ega| defn|t|on of
ERW, the use of 'ERW" |n th|s document |nc|udes |andm|nes.
2
Q%#$%O
'Gender" refers to the ro|es, respons|b|||t|es and |dent|t|es of women and
men, and how these are va|ued |n soc|ety. These vary |n d|fferent cu|tures
and change over t|me. Gender |dent|t|es defne how soc|ety expects women
and men to th|nk and act. Gender ro|es, respons|b|||t|es and |dent|t|es can be
changed because they are soc|a||y |earned (see a|so 'Sex`}.
<
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A hazard |s a potent|a||y damag|ng phys|ca| event, natura| phenomenon or
human act|v|ty that may cause |oss of ||fe, |njury or other hea|th |mpacts,
property damage, |oss of ||ve||hoods and serv|ces, soc|a| and econom|c
d|srupt|on or env|ronmenta| damage.
<1T1O$2"+ 62OA
Hazardous work |s work wh|ch, by |ts nature or by the c|rcumstances |n wh|ch
|t |s carr|ed out, |s ||ke|y to harm the hea|th, safety and mora|s of ch||dren, and
wh|ch must be proh|b|ted for ch||dren under the age of 18 years (even when
th|s |s above the genera| m|n|mum work|ng age}. The m|n|mum age |s defned
under l|O Oonvent|on No.138, and the four worst forms of ch||d |abour are
defned by l|O Oonvent|on No. 182. The Oonvent|ons do not defne what
exact|y th|s category |nc|udes: th|s |s |eft to |nd|v|dua| countr|es to determ|ne
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))&
|n the form of what |s common|y ca||ed the 'hazardous ch||d |abour ||st".
Neverthe|ess, the l|O`s Worst Forms of Oh||d |abour Recommendat|on, 1999
(No. 190}, the non-b|nd|ng gu|de||nes that accompany Oonvent|on No. 182,
g|ve some |nd|cat|on as to what work shou|d be proh|b|ted. lt urges member
States to g|ve cons|derat|on to:
Work that exposes ch||dren to phys|ca|, emot|ona| or sexua| abuse
Work underground, under water, at dangerous he|ghts or |n confned spaces
Work w|th dangerous mach|nery, equ|pment and too|s, or wh|ch |nvo|ves the
manua| hand||ng or transport of heavy |oads
Work |n an unhea|thy env|ronment, wh|ch may, for examp|e, expose ch||dren
to hazardous substances, agents or processes; or to temperatures, no|se
|eve|s, or v|brat|ons damag|ng to the|r hea|th
Work under part|cu|ar|y d|ffcu|t cond|t|ons, such as work for |ong hours or
dur|ng the n|ght, or work that does not a||ow for the poss|b|||ty of return|ng
home each day.
Human rights
Human r|ghts are r|ghts that every human be|ng |s ent|t|ed to enjoy s|mp|y by
v|rtue of be|ng human. They |dent|fy the m|n|mum cond|t|ons for ||v|ng w|th
d|gn|ty that app|y to a|| of us. They are un|versa| and |na||enab|e: they cannot
be taken away.
ln an emergency context, certa|n human r|ghts may be temporar||y suspended,
but on|y |n except|ona| c|rcumstances and under str|ct cond|t|ons.
R|ghts such as those concern|ng ||fe, hea|th and phys|ca| secur|ty are ||ke|y
to be a pr|or|ty for act|on |n emergenc|es, governed by the pr|nc|p|e of non-
d|scr|m|nat|on. Human r|ghts are cod|fed |n the n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human
R|ghts (1948}, and |n var|ous |nternat|ona| |ega| convent|ons concern|ng
human r|ghts.
=
V#/%O#1@@( $,+4@10%$ 4%O+2#+
lnterna||y d|sp|aced persons are persons or groups of persons who have
been forced or ob||ged to fee or to |eave the|r homes or p|aces of hab|tua|
res|dence, |n part|cu|ar as a resu|t of or |n order to avo|d the effects of armed
conf|ct, s|tuat|ons of genera||zed v|o|ence, v|o|at|ons of human r|ghts or natura|
or human-made d|sasters, and who have not crossed an |nternat|ona||y
recogn|zed state border.
Internationa| human rights |aw
lnternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw |s conta|ned |n the body of |nternat|ona| treat|es
and estab||shed |ega| ru|es that govern states` ob||gat|ons to respect, protect
and fu|f| human r|ghts (see the N Oharter of 1945 and the var|ous human
r|ghts convent|ons ||sted under Key Documents re|ated to the Human|tar|an
Oharter}.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))'
V#/%O#1/,2#1@ O%N"-%% @16
lnternat|ona| refugee |aw |s a set of ru|es and procedures that a|ms to protect,
frst|y, persons seek|ng asy|um from persecut|on and, second|y, those
recogn|zed as refugees under the re|evant |nstruments.
Internationa| humanitarian |aw (IHL}
Bes|des the prov|s|ons of human r|ghts |aw, s|tuat|ons of armed conf|ct are
a|so governed by |nternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw (lH|}. The spec|fc prov|s|ons
that app|y depend on whether the conf|ct |s |nternat|ona| or non-|nternat|ona|
(|.e. c|v||} |n character. The var|ous |nstruments of lH|, |nc|ud|ng the 1949
Geneva Oonvent|ons and the 1977 Add|t|ona| Protoco|s, regu|ate the conduct
of host|||t|es and p|ace dut|es on both state and non-state armed actors.
3
Landmines
ln th|s document, |andm|nes refer to ant|-personne| or ant|-veh|c|e exp|os|ve
dev|ces, wh|ch are p|aced on or under the ground, and wh|ch are des|gned to
be exp|oded by the presence, prox|m|ty or contact of a person or a veh|c|e,
and wh|ch w||| |ncapac|tate, |njure or k||| one or more persons. For the purposes
of these m|n|mum standards, references to 'ERW` are |nc|us|ve of |andm|nes.
8%1O#%O+
Peop|e, |nc|ud|ng ch||dren, youth and adu|ts, who part|c|pate |n educat|on
programmes. Th|s |nc|udes students |n forma| schoo|s, tra|nees |n techn|ca|
and vocat|ona| educat|on and tra|n|ng programmes, and part|c|pants |n non-
forma| educat|on such as ||teracy and numeracy c|asses, ||fe sk|||s courses |n
the commun|ty and peer-to-peer |earn|ng.
8,N% +A,@@+
Sk|||s and ab|||t|es for pos|t|ve behav|our that enab|e |nd|v|dua|s to adapt to and
dea| effect|ve|y w|th the demands and cha||enges of everyday ||fe. ||fe sk|||s
he|p peop|e th|nk, fee|, act and |nteract as |nd|v|dua|s and as part|c|pat|ng
members of soc|ety. ||fe sk|||s can be genera| (for examp|e, ana|ys|ng and
us|ng |nformat|on, and commun|cat|ng and |nteract|ng effect|ve|y w|th others},
or they may concern spec|fc top|cs such as r|sk reduct|on, env|ronmenta|
protect|on, hea|th promot|on, Hlv prevent|on, prevent|on of v|o|ence and
peace-bu||d|ng. The need for ||fe sk|||s often |ncreases |n s|tuat|ons of cr|s|s,
requ|r|ng |ncreased emphas|s on bu||d|ng ||fe sk|||s that are re|evant and wh|ch
app|y to the emergency and |oca| contexts.
8,B%@,322$
Th|s refers to the capab|||t|es, assets, opportun|t|es and act|v|t|es requ|red |n
order to be ab|e to make a ||v|ng. Assets |nc|ude fnanc|a|, natura|, phys|ca|,
soc|a| and human resources - for examp|e, stores, |and and access to markets
or transport systems (see a|so the |ntroduct|on to the Food secur|ty and
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on ))(
nutr|t|on chapter for a chapter-spec|fc defn|t|on of ||ve||hood}. A househo|d`s
||ve||hood |s susta|nab|e or secure when |t can cope w|th and recover from
shocks, and ma|nta|n or enhance |ts capab|||t|es and product|ve assets.
>
[,/,-1/,2#
Th|s refers to the |essen|ng or ||m|tat|on of the adverse |mpacts of d|sasters.
lt |nc|udes phys|ca| |nfrastructura| measures as we|| as |mprovements to the
env|ronment, strengthen|ng ||ve||hoods or |ncreas|ng pub||c know|edge and
awareness.
?
Non-discrimination
Th|s refers to the pr|nc|p|e that unfa|r d|st|nct|ons shou|d not be made between
peop|e or commun|t|es on any grounds of status, |nc|ud|ng age, gender,
race, co|our, ethn|c|ty, nat|ona| or soc|a| or|g|n, sexua| or|entat|on, Hlv status,
|anguage, re||g|on, d|sab|||ty, hea|th status, po||t|ca| or other op|n|on, or other
status. lt does not mean that everyone shou|d be treated |n the same way,
but |s about equa||ty of access and outcomes, a||ow|ng d|fferent types of
ass|stance and support based on actua| needs and capac|t|es.
@
P1O/,0,41/,2#
Part|c|pat|on refers to the processes and act|v|t|es that a||ow |ntended
benefc|ar|es to be |nvo|ved |n the des|gn, |mp|ementat|on and eva|uat|on of
projects. Rea| part|c|pat|on |nc|udes a|| groups, |nc|ud|ng the most vu|nerab|e
and marg|na||zed. lt enab|es peop|e and commun|t|es to take part |n dec|s|on-
mak|ng processes and to take act|on on certa|n |ssues that are of concern
to them. lt |s a way of |dent|fy|ng and mob|||z|ng commun|ty resources and
bu||d|ng consensus and support. Part|c|pat|on |s vo|untary.
PO%41O%$#%++
See 'D|saster preparedness".
PO%B%#/,2#
Th|s refers to act|ons taken to avo|d the adverse |mpacts of hazards and
re|ated d|sasters upon peop|e, property, ||ve||hoods and the env|ronment (see
a|so 'Preparedness` and 'D|saster r|sk reduct|on"}.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!*
PO2/%0/,2#
Th|s term refers to a|| act|v|t|es a|med at obta|n|ng fu|| respect for the r|ghts of
the |nd|v|dua| |n accordance w|th the |etter and sp|r|t of the re|evant bod|es of
|aw, name|y human r|ghts |aw, |nternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw and refugee |aw
(lASO, 1999}. Protect|on therefore a|ms to ensure fu|| and equa| respect for the
r|ghts of a|| |nd|v|dua|s, regard|ess of age, gender or ethn|c, soc|a|, re||g|ous or
other background. lt goes beyond the |mmed|ate ||fe-sav|ng act|v|t|es that are
often the focus dur|ng an emergency.
P+(032+20,1@ +"442O/
Th|s term refers to processes and act|ons that promote the ho||st|c we||be|ng
of peop|e |n the|r soc|a| wor|d. lt |nc|udes support prov|ded by fam||y, fr|ends
and the w|der commun|ty. Examp|es of fam||y and commun|ty support dur|ng
cr|ses |nc|ude efforts to reun|te separated ch||dren and to organ|ze educat|on
|n an emergency sett|ng.
A
`"1@,/(
Oua||ty |s about do|ng work we||. ln the human|tar|an sector, th|s means
effect|veness (|mpact}, effc|ency (t|me||ness and cost of a response or serv|ce}
and appropr|ateness (tak|ng account of needs and context}. lt requ|res
assessments and feedback from stakeho|ders on what an agency |s do|ng
we||, and how |t can |earn how to do better. lt means measur|ng outcomes
aga|nst recogn|zed mechan|sms and/or standards (see a|so 'Accountab|||ty"}.
`"1@,/1/,B% 1#$ _"1#/,/1/,B% $1/1
Oua||tat|ve data |s data co||ected through case stud|es, |nterv|ews, etc. lt
prov|des descr|pt|on, exper|ence and mean|ng. Ouant|tat|ve data focuses on
numbers and stat|st|cs and does not prov|de |n-depth descr|pt|on.
7
>%+,@,%#0%
Th|s refers to the ab|||ty of |nd|v|dua|s, commun|t|es or countr|es to ant|c|pate,
w|thstand and recover from advers|ty - be |t a natura| d|saster or cr|s|s.
Res|||ence depends on the d|vers|ty of ||ve||hoods, cop|ng mechan|sms and
||fe sk|||s such as prob|em-so|v|ng, the ab|||ty to seek support, mot|vat|on,
opt|m|sm, fa|th, perseverance and resourcefu|ness.
>,+A
'R|sk` refers to the ||ke||hood that a hazard w||| happen, |ts magn|tude and |ts
consequences. lt re|ates to the probab|||ty of externa| and |nterna| threats (such
as natura| hazards, Hlv preva|ence, gender-based v|o|ence, armed attacks
etc.} occurr|ng |n comb|nat|on w|th the ex|stence of |nd|v|dua| vu|nerab|||t|es
(such as poverty, phys|ca| or menta| d|sab|||ty or membersh|p of a marg|na||zed
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!#
group}. R|sk |s m|t|gated by protect|on aga|nst phys|ca| hazards, reduct|on
of structura| and non-structura| r|sks, resources and sk|||s for response-
preparedness, and res|||ence and cop|ng sk|||s (see a|so 'R|sk assessment`}.
Risk assessment
Th|s |s a methodo|ogy to determ|ne the nature and extent of r|sk by tak|ng |nto
account potent|a| hazards and ex|st|ng cond|t|ons of vu|nerab|||ty that together
cou|d harm peop|e, property, serv|ces, ||ve||hoods and the env|ronment on
wh|ch they depend. R|sk assessment shou|d a|so take account of commun|ty
capac|ty to res|st or recover from the hazard |mpact (see a|so 'R|sk`}.
5
.1N%/(
Th|s |s the state of be|ng safe, and refers to peop|e`s phys|ca| and persona|
we||be|ng and |ntegr|ty as we|| as to the|r freedom from phys|ca|, env|ronmenta|,
soc|a|, sp|r|tua|, po||t|ca|, emot|ona| or psycho|og|ca| harm.
.%0"O,/(
Secur|ty refers to a genera| env|ronment of |aw and order, and freedom from
phys|ca| threats.
.%]
Th|s word refers to the b|o|og|ca| attr|butes of women and men. lt |s natura|,
determ|ned by b|rth and, therefore, genera||y unchang|ng and un|versa| (see
a|so 'Gender"}.
./1A%32@$%O
A person, group or |nst|tut|on w|th |nterests |n a project or programme.
Survivors of ERW/|andmines
v|ct|ms/surv|vors of ERW and |andm|nes refers to |nd|v|dua|s or groups of
peop|e who have suffered non-fata| |njur|es as a resu|t of ERW/|andm|nes,
|nc|ud|ng phys|ca|, emot|ona| and psycho|og|ca| |njury, econom|c |oss, or
substant|a| |mpa|rment of the|r fundamenta| r|ghts. Th|s |s a broader defn|t|on
meant to encompass |nd|v|dua|s and groups who have been d|rect|y and
|nd|rect|y affected, |nc|ud|ng fam|||es of surv|vors (e.g. where the househo|d`s
pr|mary breadw|nner has been k|||ed/|njured} and commun|t|es (e.g. where
commun|t|es have |ost access to arab|e |and}.
."+/1,#1'@%
lf someth|ng |s susta|nab|e, |t |s ||ke|y to be econom|ca||y v|ab|e, env|ronmenta||y
sound and soc|a||y just over the |ong term.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!)
B
^"@#%O1',@,/(
Th|s term refers to phys|ca|, soc|a|, econom|c and env|ronmenta| factors or
processes that |ncrease the suscept|b|||ty of a commun|ty or |nd|v|dua|s to
d|ffcu|t|es and hazards and put them at r|sk as a resu|t of |oss, damage,
|nsecur|ty, suffer|ng and death. Some peop|e may be d|sproport|onate|y affected
by d|srupt|on of the|r phys|ca| env|ronment and soc|a| support mechan|sms
|n d|saster or conf|ct because of d|scr|m|nat|on or neg|ect |n the|r soc|ety.
vu|nerab|||ty |s spec|fc to each person and each s|tuat|on. However, some
groups common|y ||ab|e to |ncreased vu|nerab|||ty |nc|ude unaccompan|ed
ch||dren, persons w|th d|sab|||t|es, o|der peop|e, s|ng|e-headed househo|ds,
ch||dren former|y assoc|ated w|th armed forces and armed groups, and peop|e
suffer|ng from ||| hea|th (|nc|ud|ng Hlv and AlDS}.
C
S%@@'%,#-
The cond|t|on of ho||st|c hea|th and the process of ach|ev|ng th|s cond|t|on,
we||be|ng refers to phys|ca|, emot|ona|, soc|a| and cogn|t|ve hea|th. We||be|ng
|nc|udes what |s good for a person:
Part|c|pat|ng |n a mean|ngfu| soc|a| ro|e
Fee||ng happy and hopefu|
||v|ng accord|ng to good va|ues (as |oca||y defned}
Hav|ng pos|t|ve soc|a| re|at|ons and a support|ve env|ronment
Oop|ng w|th cha||enges through the use of pos|t|ve ||fe sk|||s
Hav|ng secur|ty, protect|on and access to qua||ty serv|ces (see a|so 'cogn|t|ve`}.
Worst forms of chi|d |abour
'Worst forms of ch||d |abour" |s a term defned |n l|O Oonvent|on No. 182. lt
must be proh|b|ted for a|| peop|e under the age of 18 years and |nc|udes the
fo||ow|ng:
A|| forms of s|avery or pract|ces s|m||ar to s|avery, such as the sa|e and
traffck|ng of ch||dren, debt bondage, serfdom and forced or compu|sory
|abour, |nc|ud|ng forced or compu|sory recru|tment of ch||dren for use |n
armed conf|ct
s|ng, procur|ng, or offer|ng a ch||d for prost|tut|on, the product|on of porno-
graphy, or for pornograph|c performance
s|ng, procur|ng, or offer|ng a ch||d for ||||c|t act|v|t|es-|n part|cu|ar, for the
product|on and traffck|ng of drugs as defned |n the re|evant |nternat|ona|
treat|es
Work wh|ch, by |ts nature or because of the c|rcumstances |n wh|ch |t |s car-
r|ed out, |s ||ke|y to harm the hea|th, safety, or mora|s of the ch||d (common|y
referred to as 'hazardous work"}.
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!!
6D0E.FG+ -./ -HH0IJK-,KE.+
92> Area of respons|b|||ty
9aC Abandoned exp|os|ve ord|nance
UV* Best |nterest determ|nat|on
=99= Secur|ty Oounc|| on Oh||dren and Armed conf|ct
=99!9Q Oh||dren assoc|ated w|th armed forces or armed groups
=U=P[ Oommun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sm
=UC Oommun|ty-based organ|sat|on
==[ Oonvent|on on O|uster Mun|t|ons
=!. Oh||d-fr|end|y space
=8[. Oh||d |abour mon|tor|ng systems
=8S. Oh||dren ||v|ng and work|ng on the streets
=P Oh||d protect|on
=P,W Oh||d protect|on |n emergenc|es
=PV[. Oh||d protect|on |nformat|on management system
=P>9 Oh||d protect|on rap|d assessment
=PSQ Oh||d Protect|on Work|ng Group
=>= Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d
=>P* Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Peop|e w|th D|sab|||t|es
=6* Oh||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es
**> D|sarmament, demob|||zat|on and re|ntegrat|on
*>> D|saster r|sk reduct|on
W=* Ear|y ch||dhood deve|opment
W=C.C= n|ted Nat|on`s Econom|c and Soc|a| Oounc||
W>S Exp|os|ve remnants of war
!\> Fam||y trac|ng and reun|fcat|on
QU^ Gender-based v|o|ence
QU^V[. Gender-based v|o|ence |nformat|on management system
V9 =P V[. lnter-agency ch||d protect|on management system
V9.= lnter-agency stand|ng comm|ttee
V9SQ lnter-agency work|ng party
V9SQR:9.= lnter-agency Work|ng Group on naccompan|ed and
Separated Oh||dren
V==P> lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts
V=>= lnternat|ona| Oomm|ttee of the Red Oross
V*P lnterna||y d|sp|aced person
V*\> ldent|fcat|on, documentat|on, trac|ng and reun|fcat|on
V[\! lnformat|on management coord|nat|on taskforce
V;WW lnter-agency Network for Educat|on |n Emergenc|es
V;QC lnternat|ona| non-governmenta| organ|sat|on
VC[ lnternat|ona| Organ|zat|on for M|grat|on
V>= lnternat|ona| Rescue Oomm|ttee
[9>9 Mon|tor|ng, ana|ys|s and report|ng arrangements
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!$
[U\ M|ne Ban Treaty
mhGAP WHO menta| hea|th Gap Act|on Program
[<P.. Menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support
[2: Memorandum of understand|ng
[>[ Mon|tor|ng and report|ng mechan|sm
;!V+ Non-food |tems
;QC Non-governmenta| organ|sat|on
;>=. lORO and Nat|ona| Red Oross and Red Orescent Soc|et|es
C=<9 Offce for the Oo-ord|nat|on of Human|tar|an Affa|rs (N}
C<=<> Offce of the H|gh Oomm|ss|oner for Human R|ghts
P!9 Psycho|og|ca| frst a|d
P.. Psychosoc|a| support
.%%P Sma|| Enterpr|se Educat|on and Promot|on Network
.CP+ Standard operat|ng procedures
.>.Q Spec|a| Representat|ve of the Secretary Genera|
\2>+ Terms of reference
:9.= naccompan|ed and separated ch||dren
:*<> n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts
:; n|ted Nat|ons
:;9V*. Jo|nt n|ted Nat|ons programme on Hlv/AlDS
:;!P9 n|ted Nat|ons Popu|at|on Fund
:;=<> n|ted Nat|ons Oomm|ss|on of Human R|ghts
:;V=W! n|ted Nat|ons Oh||dren`s Fund
:;V=W! === n|ted Nat|ons Oore Oomm|tments for Oh||dren
:aC nexp|oded ord|nance
S9.< Water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene
S=!8 The worst forms of ch||d |abour
SS;? What We Need to Know
SSSS 2O FS Who does What, Where, When
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!"
=?:;L
abuse
|nvest|gat|ons 212
report|ng 66, 145
|n schoo|s 177
see a|so grave v|o|at|ons; phys|ca| v|o|ence; sexua| v|o|ence
abusers, emp|oyment |n ch||d-centred organ|zat|ons 94
access KKD
to a|d d|str|but|on 209, 210, 211, 212
to ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 152
to econom|c recovery programmes 168, 170
to educat|on 104, 175
gender equ|ty |n camps 206
to hea|th serv|ces 181, 182
r|ght to ass|stance 28, 158
to soc|a| protect|on measures 169
accommodat|on
for ch||dren |n she|ters 199
for d|sab|ed peop|e 159
accountab|||ty KKD
act|on |nd|cators 19
see a|so measurement
Add|t|ona| Protoco|s, Geneva Oonvent|on 14
adm|n|strat|ve detent|on 131
ado|escents KKD
ch||d-fr|end|y space requ|rements 152
econom|c recovery programmes 171
exp|o|tat|on of g|r|s 89, 95
r|sk-tak|ng by boys 82, 89, 106
safety support for g|r|s 92
adopt|on 126
advocacy
for ch||dren |n armed groups 104, 105
coord|nat|on 39, 40
deta|ned ch||dren 129, 131
for exc|uded groups 157, 158
to |dent|fy perpetrators of v|o|ence 93
on safety 80
standards 50, 51-2, 53, 54
see a|so |obby|ng
age, defn|t|ons KKD
age-appropr|ate |ntervent|ons
d|sab|||ty 79, 181
san|tat|on 196
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!%
a|d (d|str|but|on}, standards 208-213
a|d workers see staff
AlDS see Hlv
a|ternat|ve care 125-12, KKD
A|ternat|ve Oare |n Emergenc|es Too|k|t 120
ana|ys|s of data 57, 59, 174, KKF
anonym|ty, ma|nta|n|ng 52, 63, 66
armed conf|ct see conf|ct; conf|ct s|tuat|ons
armed forces and groups, ch||dren |n see ch||d so|d|ers
assessment fat|gue 59
assessment teams 57
assessments KKK
effect on at-r|sk ch||dren 59, 79, 95
ana|ys|s of case management system 138
for camp management 203, 205
ch||d |abour 112
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150, 151
for coord|nat|on 39
of current ch||d protect|on 57
for d|str|but|on of a|d 208
for econom|c recovery programmes 170
for educat|on 173
for hea|th |ntervent|ons 180, 193, 194
for |dent|fy|ng exc|uded ch||dren 158
|nc|us|veness 59-60
mu|t|-sectora| 59
of phys|ca| v|o|ence 87
of r|sk to ch||dren 72, 140
separated ch||dren 120
of sexua| v|o|ence 94-5
for she|ters 198, 200
at-r|sk ch||dren
access to a|d 168, 209, 210
effect of assessment |nterv|ews 59, 79, 95
exc|us|on 157
hea|th |ntervent|ons 181, 187, 194
|dent|fy|ng scenar|os 144, 204, 211
|njury 79, 82, 83
mon|tor|ng 86
separat|on 106
support to prevent ch||d |abour 113, 114
v|o|ence 86, 91, 92, 94
see a|so exc|uded ch||dren; marg|na||zed ch||dren
awareness ra|s|ng
at d|str|but|on centres 211
of ch||d protect|on |ssues 53
of ch||d recru|tment |nto armed groups 106
of psychosoc|a| response to v|o|ence 86, 88
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!&
of sexua| v|o|ence 91, 92, 94
of standards 22, 23
see a|so pub||c|ty
bab|es see |nfants
barr|ers to access see access
be||ef systems, staff 15
best |nterests of the ch||d
|n case management 141
ORO pr|nc|p|e 15
and data co||ect|on 70
and med|a pub||cat|on 51
b|rth reg|strat|on 29
breastfeed|ng 187, 188, 190
burns, fata||t|es 79
OAAFAG see ch||d so|d|ers
camp management, standards 203-207
capac|ty bu||d|ng KKE
address|ng exc|us|on 155
advocacy 53
care for separated ch||dren 120
for case management 136
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 153
ch||d protect|on systems 30, 45
ch||d recru|tment mon|tor|ng (armed groups} 104
commun|ty-based mechan|sms 146
hea|th serv|ces 184, 189, 195
|nformat|on management 65
juven||e just|ce systems 129
sexua| v|o|ence responses 94
she|ter prov|s|on 201
soc|a| we|fare systems 138
staffng 46-49, 48
care p|ans 119, 121, 136
careg|vers
support for 98, 101, 167, 181
see a|so women
case conferences 141
case management
c|osure of case 141
lA OP lMS 123-24
|njur|es 80, 83
process 137
standards 135-142
and WFO| 114
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!'
case p|ans 140
case referra| 73, 174
cash transfer programmes 170
OBOPM see commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms
OBOs 38
Oentra| Emergency Re||ef Fund (=W>!} 16
OFS 86, 149-54, 174, 205, 206
ch||d deve|opment
awareness of norms 20
ORO pr|nc|p|e 15
support |n ear|y years 100
ch||d-fr|end|y just|ce areas 129
ch||d-fr|end|y serv|ces 92, 182
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 86, 149-54, 174, 205, 206
ch||d-headed househo|ds 108, 123, 125, 208, 209-210
ch||d |abour 111-116, 190, KKE
see a|so ch||d so|d|ers
ch||d |abour mon|tor|ng systems (O|MS} 114
ch||d part|c|pat|on
|n advocacy 53
a|d d|str|but|on des|gn 209
camp management 204
case management 135, 140
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150, 152
ch||d |abour responses 112
commun|cat|on fac|||t|es 50, 53
commun|ty-based mechan|sms 145
|njury awareness p|ann|ng 82
|nvo|vement of exc|uded ch||dren 159-60
med|a pub||c|ty 52
pr|nc|p|es 15, 27, 30
|n programmes 57, 60
protect|on |n|t|at|ves 88
for psychosoc|a| we||be|ng 100
r|sk reduct|on 79, 81
ch||d protect|on
OPWG defn|t|on 13
respons|b|||ty for 166
Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on, M|n|mum Standards see
M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on
ch||d protect|on needs
ch||d so|d|ers 103-110
dangers and |njur|es 79-4, 184
|n emergenc|es 16
just|ce 128-32
protect|on from v|o|ence 85-90, 91-6
psychosoc|a| prob|ems 97-102
separated ch||dren 117-27
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )!(
strengthen|ng systems 30
ch||d protect|on po||c|es
contr|but|ng to standards 18
deve|opment for preparedness 44
|n organ|sat|ons 48
Oh||d Protect|on Rap|d Assessment too|k|t 59
ch||d so|d|ers
data co||ect|on from 65
protect|on standards 103-110
recru|tment 65, 103, 106, 178
ch||dren KKD
a|d d|str|but|on needs 208
behav|oura| and soc|a| cons|derat|ons 20
best |nterests 15, 51, 70, 141
part|c|pat|on |n human|tar|an act|on 15
portraya| |n med|a 51-2
res|||ence 31
response to stress 97
r|ghts see r|ghts
san|tat|on needs 196
see a|so ado|escents; vu|nerab|e ch||dren; young ch||dren
ch||dren assoc|ated w|th arms forces or armed groups (OAAFAG} see
ch||d so|d|ers
ch||dren w|th d|sab|||t|es (OwD} see d|sab|||ty
ch||dren ||v|ng and work|ng on the streets (O|Ws} 159
c|v|| groups see commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms
c|oth|ng, a|d d|str|but|ons 208, 210
O|Ws 159
codes of conduct
organ|zat|ons 48
on sexua| exp|o|tat|on 94
tra|n|ng |n 44, 81, 174, 175, 194, 205, 210
coerc|on
protect|on from 29
see a|so abuse; grave v|o|at|ons; phys|ca| v|o|ence
commun|cat|on, standards 50-5
commun|ty, defn|t|on 143
commun|ty act|v|t|es, for ch||dren 98, 108
commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms (OBOPMs} 143
advocacy for 50
camp management 204, 206
|nvo|vement 38
prevent|on of |njury 82
prevent|on of v|o|ence 88
to protect aga|nst armed groups recru|tment 106
standards 143-52
support|ng 30, 32
and WFO| 114
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$*
commun|ty-based organ|sat|ons (OBOs} 38
commun|ty fac|||t|es, to promote ch||dren`s we||be|ng 100-2
commun|ty response p|ans 144
competenc|es, recru|tment for 46
comp|a|nts report|ng 146, 204, 206
a|d d|str|but|on 209, 210, 211, 212
comp|ex emergenc|es KKE
confdent|a||ty
|n case management 141
of comp|a|nts 212
and coord|nat|on 42
data 63, 66
of exc|uded groups 156
|n hea|th prov|s|on 182, 184
Pr|nc|pa|s 27
conf|ct KKEbKF
conf|ct s|tuat|ons
detent|on of ch||dren 131
grave v|o|at|ons 70, 71, 73-4
|njury 81, 105
remova| of educat|on to safe areas 175
secur|ty of data on ch||dren 67
consent see |nformed consent
consu|tat|on
commun|ty groups |n mon|tor|ng 73
see a|so ch||d part|c|pat|on; part|c|pat|on
cont|ngency p|ann|ng 38
Oonvent|on on Oerta|n Oonvent|ona| Weapons 83
Oonvent|on on O|uster Mun|t|ons 83
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d (ORO}, key pr|nc|p|es 15
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of Persons w|th D|sab|||t|es 83, 159
coord|nat|on
across sectors 22, 136-7, 175
for advocacy 51
ch||d protect|on groups 30
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng 69, 72
ch||d so|d|er |ntervent|ons 104
ch||d-fr|end|y space creat|on 150
for econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons 168
for educat|on 173
on fam||y separat|on 119, 122
hea|th d|scuss|on 180
|nformat|on management 62, 63, 64
mon|tor|ng of r|ghts v|o|at|ons 104
mu|t||ayered psychosoc|a| support 99
|n programme assessment and p|ann|ng 58-9, 63
psychosoc|a| support 97
response to separated ch||dren 122
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$#
shar|ng of |ssues 51
standards 37-43
through d|scuss|on 168, 169, 173, 175, 180, 182, 186, 188, 193, 194,
198, 199, 203, 205, 208, 210
see a|so |nter-agency coord|nat|on; |nter-d|sc|p||nary teams;
mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary teams
ORO 9
cr|m|na| act|v|t|es affect|ng ch||dren 128
cr|s|s, defn|t|on 13
cu|tura| |ssues
and advocacy 53
cons|derat|on for 32
coord|nated approach 42
and gender equa||ty 51
v|o|ence 85, 87, 91
cu|tura| med|a, ro|e 146
OwD see d|sab|||ty
dangerous s|tuat|ons
ch||d protect|on standards 79-4
see a|so conf|ct s|tuat|ons
data ana|ys|s see d|saggregated data
data co||ect|on 38
assessment of |njury and r|sks 81-2
ch||d |abour 112
on ch||d so|d|ers 65
on econom|c recovery 169
errors 65
from exc|uded groups 156
|nformat|on management 38
on just|ce v|o|at|ons 131
qua||tat|ve and quant|tat|ve KEL
tra|n|ng of staff 63
on v|o|ence 88, 95
data secur|ty 63, 65
death from |njur|es 79
dec|s|on-mak|ng, |n coord|nated response 42
defecat|on, hyg|ene 196
depr|vat|on of ||berty 130-1
detent|on of ch||dren, just|ce system 129-31
d|gn|ty 60, KKF
d|sab|||ty KKF
access to ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 152
address|ng exc|us|on 158
fac|||t|es |n she|ters 200
factor |n assessment 59
and recru|tment 47
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$)
response to ch||dren 181
effect on r|sks 79, 82
and sexua| v|o|ence 94, 95
see a|so exc|uded ch||dren
d|saggregated data 57, 59, 174, KKF
d|sarmament, demob|||zat|on and re|ntegrat|on (DDR} processes 103-4
d|saster preparedness 10, KKM
advocacy, commun|cat|on and med|a 50-1
case management 136
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150
ch||d |abour 112
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng 69-70
ch||dren |n armed groups 103-4
coord|nat|on 37-38
dangers and |njur|es 79-80
human resources 44-49
|nc|us|on |n response 23
|nformat|on management 62-3
juven||e just|ce 129
phys|ca| v|o|ence 85-6
programme management 56-7
protect|on of exc|uded ch||dren 155
psychosoc|a| d|stress 97
sexua| v|o|ence 91-2
unaccompan|ed and separated ch||dren 118, 120
d|saster r|sk reduct|on (DRR} 23, KKM
d|sasters KKM
d|sc|a|mers, |n med|a pub||c|ty 54
d|scr|m|nat|on
|dent|fcat|on and response 15, 28
towards g|r|s and women 171, 186
see a|so exc|uded ch||dren; non-d|scr|m|nat|on; sexua| v|o|ence
d|sp|aced persons 79, KKH
see a|so refugees
d|str|but|on of ass|stance, standards 208-213
d|str|but|on po|nts 211
d|vers|on, |n juven||e just|ce 128
documentat|on
separated ch||dren 123
support |n rep|ac|ng 29
domest|c v|o|ence 85-6
DRR 17, KKM
ear|y ch||dhood deve|opment 100, KKMbKKG
see a|so ch||d deve|opment; |nfants; young ch||dren
ear|y recovery KKM
econom|c recovery programmes 114, 190
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$!
standards 167-72
educat|on
equ|ty 177
|nvo|vement of staff |n other |ntervent|ons 173, 186, 193
need for fex|b|||ty 176
safe access 104, 175
standards 173-9
and WFO| 114
see a|so schoo|s
e|ectron|c databases 65, 66
emergenc|es, effects 13
emp|oyment see ch||d |abour; econom|c recovery programmes
enro|ment, w|thout documentat|on 177
env|ronment
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 86, 149-54
protect|ve |n educat|on 177
and sexua| v|o|ence 93, 94-5
for staff 45
equa||ty, |n staff teams 47
equ|pment needs, reun|fcat|on of separated ch||dren 119
ethn|c m|nor|ty groups, |nc|us|on |n assessment 59
evacuat|on 181, 184
exc|uded ch||dren
access to a|d 209, 210
defn|t|on 155
and econom|c recovery programmes 168
hea|th |ntervent|ons 181, 189
|dent|fcat|on 28
standards for protect|on 155-61
see a|so at-r|sk ch||dren; marg|na||zed ch||dren
ex|t strateg|es, case management 137
exp|o|tat|on
ch||d |abour 111-6
ch||dren |n armed groups 103-110
of g|r|s 89, 94, 106
exp|os|ve remnants of war r|sks (ERW} 79, 80, 181, KKG
faeces, hyg|ene procedures 196
fam|||es
nutr|t|on 190
phys|ca| v|o|ence 85
reun|fcat|on 108-109
sexua| v|o|ence 91
support for d|sab|ed members 158
support fo||ow|ng v|o|ence 86
support to prevent separat|on 118, 119, 125, 190
fam||y trac|ng 104, 108, 118, 121, 124
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$$
Fam||y Trac|ng and Reun|fcat|on (FTR} databases 118
feedback mechan|sms 48
feed|ng programmes 190
foca| po|nt contacts 187, 191, 203, 205-6
fo||ow-up
nutr|t|on |ntervent|ons 187
reun|fcat|on of fam|||es 108, 109, 119, 125
foster care 120, 125, 144
fund|ng 39, 147
fundra|s|ng, and advocacy 51
gay peop|e, cons|derat|on for 47
gender KKG
arrangements |n she|ters 201
equa| representat|on |n camps 204
and nutr|t|on 186
and r|sk of v|o|ent harm 89
see a|so ado|escents; g|r|s; women
gender equa||ty 51
Geneva Oonvent|on 14
g|r|s
access to econom|c recovery programmes 170
a|d needs 208, 210
assessment 60
ch||d-fr|end|y space requ|rements 152
re|ntegrat|on needs 98
r|sk of exp|o|tat|on 89
sexua| v|o|ence aga|nst 94, 106, 178
WASH fac|||t|es 196
goa|s, qua||ty ch||d protect|on standards 37, 44, 50, 56, 62, 69
grave v|o|at|ons 71, 72, 73-4
see a|so sexua| v|o|ence
Gu|de||nes for the A|ternat|ve Oare of Oh||dren 120
harm, protect|on from see protect|on from harm
harmfu| pract|ces see phys|ca| v|o|ence; sexua| v|o|ence
hazardous work 114, KKG
hazards KKG
hea|th
standards 180-5
see a|so hyg|ene
hea|th programmes 100, 183-1
ma|nutr|t|on 190-1
nutr|t|on 186-92
hea|th supp||es 183-4
hea|thcare, breastfeed|ng fac|||t|es 187
Hlv
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$"
and breastfeed|ng 190
exc|us|on through 159
homosexua|s, cons|derat|on for 47
hosp|ta| adm|ss|on, prevent|on of separat|on 118, 181
human resources
standards 44-49
see a|so staff; tra|n|ng
human r|ghts |aw 14, 131, 217-8
human|tar|an act|on, defn|t|on 10
human|tar|an |aw 14, 218
human|tar|an response
access to ass|stance 28, 158
advocacy, commun|cat|on and med|a 51-2
avo|dance of categor|sat|on 20
case management support 136-7
ch||d-fr|end|y space creat|on 150
ch||d |abour 112-4
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng 70
ch||dren |n armed groups 104-5
coord|nat|on 38-1
dangers and |njur|es 80
defn|t|on 16
dep|oyment of staff 44-5
for exc|us|on 156
gaps |n 39, 41
|nformat|on management 63
juven||e just|ce 129
programme management 57
psychosoc|a| d|stress 97-8
separated and unaccompan|ed ch||dren 118-20, 120-21
sexua| v|o|ence 92-3
human|tar|an workers see staff
hyg|ene
standards 193-7
see a|so hea|th; hea|th programmes
|dent|fcat|on, documentat|on, trac|ng and un|fcat|on (lDTR} 118-20, 123
||||teracy, and |nformed consent 54
|mages for med|a, d|sc|a|mers 54
|mpact assessments 60
|mpr|sonment of ch||dren 129-131
|n-depth assessments KKK
|ncent|ves, ch||d protect|on workers 40
|nc|us|on
|n assessment 59-60
|n commun|ty-based mechan|sms 146
see a|so exc|uded ch||dren
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$%
|ndependent ||v|ng, ch||d-headed househo|ds 108, 125, 126
|nd|cators see measurement
|nfants
feed|ng 190
san|tat|on needs 196
|nformat|on
on ch||d protect|on 58
on ch||dren |n armed groups 103
on ch||dren need|ng she|ter 198
for exc|uded groups 156
see a|so pub||c|ty
|nformat|on management
|n assessment 60
for case management 136
for case study process 139
coord|nat|on 72
data co||ect|on 38
hea|th |nformat|on 180
for programme p|ann|ng rev|ew 56
for separated ch||dren 123-24
standards 62-68
see a|so case management; pub||c|ty
lnformat|on Management Task Force (lMTF} 64
|nformat|on serv|ces, for separated fam|||es 119
|nformat|on shar|ng 39, 57, 58-1, 63, 70, 118
protoco|s 66
|nformat|on too|s, adaptat|on 62, 64
|nformed consent
ch||dren 66-9
for data co||ect|on 63
guarantee|ng 27
and med|a pub||c|ty 51
med|ca| reports 184
use of |nformat|on 54
|nher|tance, support |n c|a|m|ng 29
|n|t|a| assessments KKK
|njur|es
ch||d protect|on standards 79-5
spec|a||sed response 181, 184
lnter-Agency Oh||d Protect|on Assessment too|k|t 59
lnter-Agency Oh||d Protect|on lnformat|on Management System 123-24
|nter-agency coord|nat|on 38, 57, 58
fam||y separat|on adm|n|strat|on 118, 123
|nformat|on too|s 62
tra|n|ng 48
see a|so coord|nat|on; |nter-d|sc|p||nary teams; mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary teams
lnter-Agency Network for Educat|on |n Emergenc|es (lNEE}
M|n|mum Standards 174
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$&
|nter-agency po||c|es, contr|but|ng to standards 18
|nter-d|sc|p||nary teams
just|ce mon|tor|ng 129
see a|so coord|nat|on; |nter-agency work|ng; mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary teams
|nter|m care 98, 121, 125
|nterna||y d|sp|aced persons KKH
lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts (lOOPR} 131
lnternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw 14, 217-8, KKH
lnternat|ona| human|tar|an |aw 14, 218, KKI
lnternat|ona| refugee |aw 14, 218, KKI
|ntervent|on pyram|d, psychosoc|a| support 99
|nterv|ews
contr|but|on to harm 88, 95
tra|n|ng 118
job descr|pt|ons, case workers 136
journa||sts 50, 51
see a|so med|a
just|ce for ch||dren, standards 128-32
juven||e just|ce 128
key act|ons 19
|abe|||ng, avo|dance 156
|andm|nes 80, 81, 181, KKI
|anguage, for good commun|cat|on 51, 98
|anguage barr|ers, and |nformed consent 54
|eadersh|p, coord|nated 39
|earners KKI
see a|so educat|on; out-of-schoo| ch||dren; schoo|s
|ega| context, cons|derat|on for 32
|ega| ent|t|ements, support|ng 29
|eg|s|at|on, for ch||d protect|on |n emergenc|es 14, 105, 217-9
|GTBl persons, cons|derat|on for 47, 59
||fe sk|||s KKI
teach|ng |n schoo|s 178
||ne managers, tra|n|ng and appra|sa| 45
||ve||hood KKIbKKJ
see a|so ch||d |abour; econom|c recovery; nutr|t|on
|obby|ng
for |mprovement 151, 168, 174, 181, 187, 194, 199, 204, 209
see a|so advocacy
ma|nstream|ng of ch||d protect|on
camp management 203-7
d|str|but|on 208-213
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$'
econom|c recovery 167-72
educat|on 173-9
hea|th 180-5
nutr|t|on 186-92
purpose 165-6
she|ter 198-202
water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene 193-7
WFO| 113-4
ma|nutr|t|on programmes 190-2
mapp|ng
armed group recru|tment prevent|on 104
for case management 136
ch||d-fr|end|y referra|s 91
for ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng 71
ch||d protect|on systems 57, 58, 69
for exc|us|on 155
just|ce systems 129
response for domest|c v|o|ence 85
r|sks and assessment 80
schoo|s |n conf|ct areas 174
separated ch||dren 118
MARA 71, 72, 93
marg|na||zed ch||dren
and ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 151
|nc|us|on |n assessment 59-60
pr|or|t|s|ng 57
sexua| v|o|ence support 92
see a|so at-r|sk ch||dren; exc|uded ch||dren
mass med|a, ro|e 146
measurement
advocacy, commun|cat|on and med|a 52
a|d d|str|but|on effect|veness 210
camp management 205
case management 138
ch||d |abour |ntervent|ons 113
ch||d-fr|end|y space creat|on 151
ch||d so|d|er |ntervent|ons 105
commun|ty-based ch||d protect|on mechan|sms 145
coord|nat|on 40
educat|on fac|||t|es 176
exc|us|on |n|t|at|ves 157
hea|th |ntervent|ons 183
human resources 46
|nformat|on management 64
|njury and danger 81
juven||e just|ce systems 130
nutr|t|on |ntervent|ons 188
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )$(
phys|ca| v|o|ence strateg|es 87
programme management 58
psychosoc|a| support 98
separated ch||dren |n|t|at|ves 121
sexua| v|o|ence strateg|es 93
WASH |ntervent|ons 195
med|a, |n human|tar|an response 51-2, 53, 54, 158
med|ca| evacuat|on 181, 184
med|ca| reports 184
menta| d|sorders, standards 97-102
menta| hea|th and psychosoc|a| support (MHPSS} 97
messages to commun|t|es see pub||c|ty
m|||tary governments, adv|s|ng 30
M|ne Ban Treaty 83
m|n|mum emp|oyment age, and econom|c recovery programmes 171
M|n|mum Standards for Oh||d Protect|on |n Human|tar|an Act|on
adaptat|on for context 22-23
ava||ab|||ty and tra|n|ng 39, 40
deve|opment 20
purpose and use 19-20, 21, 22-23
re|at|onsh|p w|th Sphere standards 17
structure 18-19
mon|tor|ng
a|d d|str|but|on 211
a|ms 73
at-r|sk ch||dren 86
|n camps 204
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 153
ch||d |abour 113, 114
ch||d protect|on 69-75
ch||d protect|on |n schoo|s 174
ch||d recru|tment to armed groups 104
econom|c recovery programmes 171
nutr|t|on 187, 188
performance 40, 42
programmes 57
reun|fcat|on w|th fam||y 108, 109, 119, 125
separated ch||dren 120, 187
standards 17
we||be|ng 101
Mon|tor|ng, Ana|ys|s and Report|ng Arrangements (MARA} 71, 72, 93
Mon|tor|ng and Report|ng Mechan|sm (MRM} 71, 72, 73-6, 93
morta||ty rates, from |njur|es 79
mothers
ear|y ch||dhood support 100, 187, 188, 190
see a|so women
MRM 71, 72, 73-6, 93
mu|t|-d|sc|p||nary teams
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"*
just|ce mon|tor|ng 131
prevent|on of domest|c v|o|ence 85
see a|so coord|nat|on; |nter-agency coord|nat|on; |nter-d|sc|p||nary teams
mu|t|-sectora| assessments 59
mu|t|-sectora| care, v|ct|ms of v|o|ence 86, 92
nat|ona| protect|on systems, connect|on w|th 147
needs of ch||dren see ch||d protect|on needs
neg|ect, mandatory report|ng 66
neutra| organ|sat|on, ro|e |n ch||d protect|on 30
non-d|scr|m|nat|on 45, 47, 57, KKJ
ORO pr|nc|p|e 15
non-governmenta| organ|zat|ons (NGOs} 38
non-state author|t|es, adv|s|ng 30
nutr|t|on
mon|tor|ng of a|d d|str|but|on 209
standards 186-92
offend|ng 128-31
organ|zat|ons
advocacy, commun|cat|on and med|a 53
ch||d protect|on po||c|es 48
staff management 46
out-of-schoo| ch||dren 83, 174, 177
outcome |nd|cators 19
see a|so measurement
over-report|ng 70
ownersh|p, of commun|ty-based |ntervent|on 145
parent support groups 153
parent|ng |ntervent|ons 100
part|c|pat|on (surv|vors} 19, KKJ
|n a|d d|str|but|on des|gn 209
|n assessment 60
on ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150
coord|nated response 42
d|scuss|on of standards 17
educat|on p|ann|ng 173
feedback on staff 48
|n |dent|fy|ng exc|us|on |ssues 156
|n |ntervent|on d|scuss|on 168, 173, 180, 186, 193, 198, 203, 208
|n mon|tor|ng 73
|n p|ann|ng WASH fac|||t|es 194
Pr|nc|p|es 27, 30
for psychosoc|a| we||be|ng 100
ra|s|ng awareness of v|o|ence 86
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"#
|n she|ter des|gn 200
see a|so ch||d part|c|pat|on; consu|tat|on
pay, ch||d protect|on workers 40, 45
peer support networks 190
performance mon|tor|ng 40, 42
PFA 97, 100
phased assessments 59
phys|ca| dangers 81, 146
phys|ca| v|o|ence and harm
protect|on from 29, 85-90
see a|so abuse
p|ann|ng, for post-emergency 30
p|ay, |n ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 152
po|ygamy, reg|strat|on of w|ves for a|d 201, 209
preparedness see d|saster preparedness
Pr|nc|p|es 26-32
pr|or|t|sat|on, case management 140
programme cyc|e management, standards 117-27
programme des|gn
to meet needs 57
to strengthen res|||ence 31-2
programme eva|uat|ons 60, 171
property, support for rega|n|ng 29
protect|on from harm KEL
med|a pub||c|ty 51-2
and med|ca| reports 184
m|n|m|s|ng r|sk from programmes 92, 146, 156, 167
Pr|nc|p|es 26-32
see a|so |eg|s|at|on; r|ghts; safety measures
Protect|on Pr|nc|p|es 26-32
protect|ve env|ronments (educat|on} 177
psycho|og|ca| frst a|d (PFA} 97, 100
psycho|og|ca| harm, protect|on from 29
psychosoc|a| support 92, 104, 187, 188, 189, KEL
standards 97-102
pub||c|ty
on armed group recru|tment of ch||dren 104
on avo|d|ng fam||y separat|on 119, 122
on ch||d |abour 112
ch||d protect|on message strategy 53
on coord|nat|on 38, 40
d|sc|a|mers 54
on d|str|but|on of a|d 208
from commun|ty-based mechan|sms 144
on hyg|ene pract|ces 193, 194, 195-6
need for pos|t|ve effect 50
on nutr|t|on 187
on r|sk reduct|on 79, 80, 146
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )")
separated fam|||es 118
on sexua| v|o|ence prevent|on 91, 189
target|ng 50
through educat|on 174, 178
see a|so awareness ra|s|ng
pun|shment |n schoo|s, |mprov|ng 174, 175
qua||tat|ve data, ch||d protect|on 58
qua||ty of ch||d protect|on 35-75, KEL
advocacy, commun|cat|on and med|a 50-5
ch||d protect|on mon|tor|ng 69-75
coord|nat|on 37-43
human resources 44-49
|nformat|on management 62-68
programme cyc|e management 56-61
quant|tat|ve date, ch||d protect|on 58
rap|d assessments KKK
for exc|uded ch||dren 156
|nter-agency cooperat|on 39
rat|on cards 208, 209-210
recept|on areas, prevent|on of separat|on 118
recreat|ona| act|v|t|es
|nc|us|on of marg|na||sed groups 156
for psychosoc|a| d|stress 98
recru|tment
ch||dren |nto armed groups 65, 103, 178
staff 23, 38, 44, 45, 46, 47, 63, 70
referra| systems 69, 73, 86
|n camps 204
econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons 168, 169
|n educat|on 174
for fam|||es need|ng she|ter 198, 199
for |||ness 180, 181
for |njured ch||dren 80, 83, 105, 180
for menta| hea|th 98
for nutr|t|on 187, 189
for psychosoc|a| support 97
for separated and m|ss|ng ch||dren 118, 119
for sexua| v|o|ence v|ct|ms 92
refugees
defn|t|on 14
|eg|s|at|on 14, 218
separated ch||dren 122
see a|so d|sp|aced persons
reg|strat|on
|n a|d d|str|but|on 211
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"!
|n camps 204
of po|ygamous w|ves for a|d 211
separated ch||dren 123
re|ntegrat|on programmes 98, 108
re|at|onsh|ps of surv|vors, need for support 27, 31
re|ease from armed groups 105, 106-7
re||g|ous ceremon|es, for hea||ng of ch||d so|d|ers 108
report|ng referra| 73
res|dent|a| care
|nter|m arrangements 125
r|sk of benefts encourag|ng separat|on 125, 168, 190
res|||ence 31-5, KEL
respect for ch||dren 15, 27
see a|so d|gn|ty
respons|b|||t|es, coord|nat|on 38, 41
reun|fcat|on 108-109, 119-20, 122, 124
r|ghts
to ass|stance (Pr|nc|p|e 4} 29, 158
for d|sab|ed persons 83
|eg|s|at|on 14, 217-8
respons|b|||ty of State 14
v|o|at|ons |n just|ce system 129
r|sk 146, KEL
educat|on for r|sk reduct|on 79, 83, 178
r|sk assessment 59, 72, 80, 81-2, 95, 140, KED
road traffc deaths 79
safe env|ronments see ch||d-fr|end|y spaces
safeguard|ng po||c|es
|n organ|sat|ons 48
see a|so ch||d protect|on po||c|es
safety KED
safety measures
a|d d|str|but|on 209, 210, 211
|n armed conf|ct s|tuat|ons 175
|n camps 206
to prevent sexua| v|o|ence 93
|n she|ters 201
water co||ect|on 194
see a|so ch||d-fr|end|y spaces
sa|ar|es 40, 45
san|tat|on
|n schoo|s 174, 177
standards 193-7
schoo|s
ch||d protect|on |ntervent|ons 174, 175
re|at|onsh|p w|th ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 152
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"$
r|sk educat|on 83
targets for v|o|ence 178
see a|so educat|on
screen|ng, for armed group |nvo|vement 98
Secretary Genera|, report to Secur|ty Oounc|| on OAAO 74
secur|ty KED
of data 63, 65
see a|so safety measures
sens|t|ve |ssues, coord|nated response 42
separated ch||dren 117- 27
defn|t|on 117
|dent|fed at d|str|but|on po|nts 212
protect|on standards 117-27
rat|on cards 208, 209-210
reduc|ng r|sk of armed group recru|tment 106
see a|so ch||d-headed househo|ds; unaccompan|ed ch||dren
sexua| hea|th 182
sexua| v|o|ence
effects on ch||dren 91
|dent|fcat|on 92
|nvest|gat|on of comp|a|nts 212
mon|tor|ng 71-2, 174, 178
protect|on standards 91-6
she|ter, standards 198-202
sk|||s, |dent|fcat|on 45
soc|a| norms 27, 32, 87
soc|a| workers 182, 187, 191, 203, 205-206
soc|oeconom|c status, and sexua| v|o|ence 94
soft |aw 14, 218-9
Sphere Handbook 17, 26-32
Sphere Project 17, KKD
staff
awareness of own be||ef/va|ue systems 15
coord|nat|on mechan|sm 41
d|sab|ed staff 47
from exc|uded groups 160
gender equa||ty 47
non-d|scr|m|natory att|tudes 47
recru|tment and tra|n|ng 23, 38, 44, 45, 46, 47, 63, 70, 72, 104
soc|a| workers and psycho|og|sts 182, 187, 191, 203, 205-206
support 48
term|nat|on of contracts 45
we||be|ng 48
work|ng env|ronment 45
staff capac|ty 46, 139
staff management 44-5, 46
Standard Operat|ng Procedures (SOPs} 139
State, respons|b|||t|es for ch||d protect|on 14
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )""
stat|st|cs, ch||d protect|on 62-3
status offences 131
stereotyp|ng, avo|dance 52, 171
st|gmat|zat|on, avo|dance 103, 108, 159, 191, 199
strateg|c response p|ans, |nter-agency 39
strateg|es for ch||d protect|on
case management 135-42
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 149-54
commun|ty based mechan|sms 143-8
exc|uded ch||dren 155-61
street ch||dren 159
success stor|es
a|d d|str|but|on 209
camp management 204
econom|c recovery |ntervent|ons 168
educat|on |ntervent|ons 174
hea|th |ntervent|ons 181, 187, 194
she|ter |ntervent|ons 199
superv|s|on 48
surve|||ance systems, separated ch||dren 120
surv|va|, ORO pr|nc|p|e 15
surv|vor ass|stance, fo||ow|ng |njury 83, 105
surv|vors see part|c|pat|on (surv|vors}
surv|vors of ERW/|andm|nes KED
see a|so d|sab|||ty; |njur|es
teachers, tra|n|ng and support 175, 177
test|mony, med|a 54
too|s
coord|nat|on 38, 39
|nformat|on 62, 64
trac|ng 104, 108, 118, 121, 124
tra|n|ng
for a|d d|str|but|on 209, 211
avo|dance of fam||y separat|on 122
for case management 136, 156
on ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 149
on ch||d protect|on |n educat|on 174
codes of conduct 169
on coord|nat|on 38
data co||ect|on |ssues 63
on econom|c recovery 168
on fam||y separat|on 118
for foca| po|nt contact 44, 187
gender |ssues 175
on hyg|ene pract|ces 193
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"%
for |dent|fcat|on of vu|nerab|e ch||dren 92, 104
on ||fe sav|ng procedures 80
for mon|tor|ng act|v|t|es 70, 72
for nutr|t|on staff 189
other sector workers 51
for psycho|og|ca| frst a|d (PFA} 97
for psychosoc|a| support 98
for sexua| v|o|ence |ssues 94
for she|ter staff 199
on standards 23
teachers, for ch||d protect|on 175, 177
for v|o|ence prevent|on 85, 86
transgender persons, cons|derat|on for 47
trans|t|on p|ans
ch||d-fr|end|y spaces 150
post-emergency 30
staff 45
DHR 131
unaccompan|ed ch||dren
defn|t|on 117
standards 117-27
see a|so separated ch||dren
under-nutr|t|on 186
under-report|ng 70
NlOEF, ro|e 16, 41
n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts (DHR} 131
va|ue systems, staff 15
ver|fcat|on, fam|||es of separated ch||dren 124
v|ct|ms of d|sasters see part|c|pat|on (surv|vors}
v|||age deve|opment comm|ttees 145
v|o|ence
|n fam|||es 85
|dent|fcat|on 181
protect|on standards 29, 85-96
target|ng of schoo|s 178
see a|so abuse
v|tam|n A supp|ementat|on 191
vu|nerab|||ty KEK
vu|nerab|e ch||dren
agree|ng defn|t|ons 31, 136, 139
and exc|us|on 155
|dent|fy|ng |n camps 204
|njur|es and damage 79, 82, 83, 181, 184
vu|nerab|e persons, safe access to a|d 210, 212
M|n|mum standards for ch||d protect|on |n human|tar|an act|on )"&
water
co||ect|on 194, 196
standards for prov|s|on 193-7
water, san|tat|on and hyg|ene (WASH}, fac|||t|es 150, 193-7
of staff 48
see a|so d|gn|ty; psychosoc|a| support; success stor|es
Who Does What, Where, When (WWWW} 38, 39
WHO menta| hea|th GAP Act|on Programme 100
women
access to econom|c recovery programmes 170
a|d needs 208, 210
assessment 60
as hea|th care staff 183
mother support groups 190
reg|strat|on of po|ygamous w|ves 201, 209
WASH fac|||t|es 194, 196, 201
see a|so g|r|s; mothers
worst forms of ch||d |abour (WFO|} 111-4, 115, KEK
WWWW too| 38, 39
young ch||dren
ch||d-fr|end|y space requ|rements 152
hea|th strateg|es 182, 196
nutr|t|on 187, 188, 190
psychosoc|a| act|v|t|es 188
r|sk from danger 82
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