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100 (TF 10:30- 12:00)

24 Hour Exam

Test I
1. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the ancient Philippine political institutions.

Before the Spaniards came to the Philippines, we already have a simple political
institution. Filipinos before lived in a kinship headed by a Datu or a chief within a community
called Barangay (compose of no more than a few hundred individuals). Some Datu are also
called Rajah. They make and execute laws which also have their own council of leaders. The
second in line is the Babaylans. They are women and the religious leaders at their time wherein
they perform rituals to the environment. Filipinos ask wisdom from them. Lastly is the Bagani or
the warrior class. They are considered the military body, the protectors of the kin.

2. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about political institutions in the Philippines under the
Spanish rule.

In 1565- 1821, the Philippines was captain-general by the Spanish king through
viceroyalty of Nueva Espana (Mexico). All Spanish possessions were governed by the Royal
Supreme Council of the Indies. The bureaucracy of the colonial Philippines was subdivided into
different levels of administration. The national level was governed by the Gobernador- General,
the representative of the king. He was the commander-in-chief of the army and the navy,
president of the Supreme Court and has a vice-patrol or the power over ecclesiastical
appointments in the church and the right to supervise mission work.
Next in line is the Alcalde Mayor for the lalawigan or provincial level. He exercised
executive and judicial powers in the pacified provincial level (Luzon and the Visayas regions) and
multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector and
even vice-regal patron. Corrigidor General ruled over the not pacified regions (regions not
colonized by the Spain) which were mostly the Islam community.
The Ayuntamiento who governed the city was formed last 1894. An example was the
Manila cabildo (city council) consisted of alcalde ordinaries (elected by Spanish residents of the
regidors (councilors), alguacil mayor (chief constable) and escribano (secretary).
The highest position that a Filipino could achieve was the Gobernadorcillo who
governed the municipal. He was assisted by the 3 supernumeraries or inspectors and 4 tenientes
segundos. Lastly is the Cabeza de Barangay who ruled the barrio or barangay. They were the tax
and contributions collector for the gobernadorcillo and exempted from taxation.

3. Analyze and compare the changes of the ancient Philippines political institutions and the
Hispanized Philippine political system and government.

Before the Spaniards came, the political institution of the Philippines was simple and
decentralized. It was simple since there were only three levels and with simple tasks that were
to ensure food and unity of the kin for the datus; keep the faith from the environment for the
babaylans; and protection from the other kin for the warriors. It was decentralized since they
had their own duties to fulfil and there were not any step by step process of doing things like
reporting to whom and to whom. We also have our own simple rules and policies.
Under the Spaniards, the political system was very centralized and complex. There was a
bureaucratic system that is up to now used in our government. They were asked to report in
every head of that province, city, municipal and barangay. It was complex in the sense that the
church has a big influence of these leaders. Every decision, rules, and policies had their
blessing or interventions and are only for their own good. Furthermore, the political system
was changed from 3 hierarchies to 6 hierarchies which made it more complex.

4. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the ancient Filipino social stratification.

Ancient Filipino was composed of the Datu, Datus his family, and the noble as the
highest class followed by the Babaylans, and the Bagani or the warrior class. Third was the
Freeman. They were class that dont hold any political positions. Lastly were the oripuns or the
slaves that were categorized into two: Aliping Sagigilid and Aliping Namamahay. They were
slaves because of debt to the datus, and captives of the kin from other kin during wars.

5. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the Hispanized social stratification.

There were five Hispanized social stratifications in the Philippines. They were the
Peninsulares, who were the born and raised in the Spain; the Inuslares, who were born in the
Philippines but full blooded Spaniards; the mestizos, who were half bloodied Spaniards;
Principalles, who were the datus and the Cabeza de Barangay; and the Indios, who were the
ordinary native Filipinos. Indios were considered second class citizens to their own native land.

6. Analyze and compare the changes between the ancient Philippine social stratification and the
Hispanized Filipino social stratification.

We already had our own social stratification before the Spaniards came. This social
stratification had the concept of rich who were the datus and noble class; and poor that
constitutes to slavery. When the Spaniards came, slavery became worst not just on the oripuns
but they also considered the freemen as well.
Before, we already had given our own rights to the society and we are free to exercise
those rights in the different levels according to class. Unfortunately, when the Spaniards came,
they had taken away our rights and considered us as the second class of the society in our own


1. What is the political socialization theory? Discuss how it can be utilized in the study in the life
and works of Jose Rizal?
Political socialization is a theory in which human beings acquire and develop values and
opinions in which in turn affects their behaviour. Individuals become acquainted with the
political system wherein a significant degree determines their perception about politics and
reactions to political phenomena. It has three levels of analysis: personal level, events on ones
personal lives; nation level, events of the immediate environment; and global level, events of
the world.

It can be utilize in the study of Rizals life and his works through looking at his personal
events just like at a very young age he was aware of the political system around him. He was
that accustom that even at innocent age, leads him to how he thinks about the future
especially for his countrymen. His immediate events and how it affects his family and friends.
Also in looking at the global environment especially when he went to Europe for studies and
how it affects his ideas and principles. Also it is important to study the institutions, the peer,
primary and secondary groups that influenced and formed Rizal's life and his works.

2. What is your stand regarding the debate between Jose Rizals reformation movement and
Andres Bonifacios nationalist revolutionary struggle? Who do you think should be the
Philippine National Hero? What do you think constitutes being a hero?

For me, I realized that there are different boundaries that constitute a reformation
movement and a nationalist revolutionary struggle. The reformation movement was through
the Propaganda movement. There was same objective, to free the abused Filipino from the
Spaniards but with different means. Rizal used the pen and paper as a mean to end the struggle
while Bonifacio used bolo or deadly weapons. Both showed nationalism and their love for the
country to the extent of risking their lives for the Filipino people.
Both have slight difference in family background and personal experiences that
triggered their response towards freedom. Freedom for Rizal was at first, equality between
Filipinos and the Spaniards. Freedom for Bonifacio was a totality of executing the Spaniards.
Both eventually wanted the Spaniards to flee away in our land. Both succeeded in doing so but
Rizal greatly contributed to the freedom that we experienced from the Spaniards. This thought
me that violence is not always the means of giving solutions to problems.
Jose Rizal is the rightful hero since he awakened the first movers of the revolution
against the Spaniards. He depicted the importance of education as a weapon in removing the
ignorance of the people. He did not waste every opportunity that he had to save the country
and fight for the Filipino people.
For me a hero is someone who believes and dies for his principle which results for the
common good of the people. Rizal up to the very end fought and stood brave with his principles.
He was selfless in offering service for the country through his writings that lasted for years and
will be remembered forever.

3. Enumerate the economic and socio-cultural institutions in the Philippines under Spanish rule
and discuss its effect on the development of Jose Rizals ideas and writings.
The economic and socio-cultural institutions in the Philippines under Spanish rule were
the Taxation without Representation, Polo y Servicio Personal or Prestacion Personal,
Encomienda, Manila- Acapulco Galleon Trade, Royal Economic Society of Friends, Royal
Philippine Company and Infrastructure, Telecommunications and Public Utilities Development.

Taxation without Representation is a situation in which a government imposes taxes
on a particular group of its citizens, despite the citizens not consenting or having an
actual representative deliver their views when the taxation decision was made. Income
generating mechanism, consisting of: direct taxes (personal tribute and income tax); indirect
taxes (customs duties and the bandala); monopolies (rentas estancadas) of special crops and
items as spirituous liquors, betel nuts, tobacco etc. Buwis ( tribute) may be paid in cash or
kind, partly or wholly, as play or tabacco, chickens, textile and special regional produce,
depending on the area of the country. Equally exempted were the laborers of the arsenal and
artillery yard of Cavite, the mediquillos (Filipinos who had medical experience but
no title), vaccinators and college and university students of Santo Tomas, San Jose, San Juan de
Letran and San Carlos (Cebu). This taxation without representation gave Rizal an idea that the
Filipinos shold be represented in imposing taxes since they are the once who paid taxes and it
should be within the capacity of the Filipinos.

Polo y Servicio Personal was an enforced system of recruiting male Filipinos and Chinese
mestizos from 16 to 60 years old to work for free in community projects like construction and
repair infrastructure, church construction, cutting logs and building ships, for forty days. In 1884,
it was reduced to fifteen days. This resulted to economic activities or livelihood of the Filipinos
were neglected, forced separation from family, hatred for manual labor since they were forced
to do it without pay, mentality that manual labor was for the poor was developed, and
decimation of the male population because those who did not want to render polo y servicio
were forced to flee to the mountains where some get killed. This made Rizal angry and awakens
his nationalism since Filipinos were forced to work with a very little salary which is even not
enough to pay their tribute and everyday living.

Encomienda was another revenue-getting Hispanic institution introduced to the
Philippines via Mexico. Encomienda was a system whereby the Spanish king entrusted or
granted to the Spanish conquistadores in return for their good deeds and services, the right to
administer a specific place, an encomienda, including its inhabitants. Encomenderos were
granted the right of imposing tribute (buwis) according to the limit and kind set by higher
authorities. Abuses were committed and some of the encomenderos violated the regulations.
They (1) collected excessive tributes, raising the rate of tribute paid in money or in kind and
increasing the value and appraisal of the products at different periods; (2) Some temporarily
hoard staples and sell them at a higher rate; (3) they collected according to their personal whim;
(4) they tortured and imprisoned Filipinos who cannot pay. This also made Rizal angry and it was
reflected in his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, the abuses of the friars and the
injustice that the Filipino received from the Spaniards.

Manila-Acapulco galleon trade began when Andres de Urdaneta, sailing in convoy under
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, discovered a return route from Cebu City to Mexico in 1565. It only
benefitted a very small group of privileged Spaniards-the Spanish governor, members of the
consulado and Spanish residents in Manila. It neglected the development of the colony's local
industries which affected the Indios since agriculture was their main source of income, the
building and operation of galleons put too much burden on the colonists' annual polo y servicio
which ignited some revolt like the Sumodoy revolt in 1649 and Pampanga revolt in 1660. Thew
abuses of the friars to the Indios build up the anger and nationalism of Rizal which made him
realized to help his fellowmen in his own way that is through reformation.
Also, Royal Philippine Company and Infrastructure, Telecommunications and Public
Utilities Development helped Rizal communicate his ideas to his friends and family.

4. Enumerate the socio-political and economic events in Europe that help to shape Jose Rizals
ideas and works.
The European explored the sea in search for the best spices in the world and also the
church funded the navigation in exchange of propagating Christianity. This was the great age of
discovery. There was also mercantilism which is an economic system used by nation as a
measurement of power. This means that accumulation of metal is power. This led to the
colonization of the Philippines that turned to abuses in power.
Rizal was also exposed in the French revolution against that monarchy. This gave Rizal
the idea that like them, they can be free from the Spaniards through a revolution and there can
be equality among the Spaniards and the Filipinos. Rizal wanted this idea to be in a more
peaceful ways and that is through the reformation, using the pen and paper or through his

5. Discuss the six patterns of local responses or resistance waged by the Filipinos against Spanish
First, was the Personal Motive that were personally led by former barangay datus and
maharlikas, as well as babaylans and katalonas, who had lost their prestige and power in their
communities with the coming of the Spaniards, and were supplanted by leaders chosen by the
Spaniards and by the Spanish friars. Some of them are: Lakandula and Soliman Revolt in 1574
was triggered by the removal of privileges granted to the families of Lakandula and Rajah
Soliman previously awarded by Legazpi and even toleration of the encomenderos abuse and
oppression of their people; the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas , or the Tondo Conspiracy of
1587-1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen or datus of
Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga under Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan
Dula and his first cousin, Martin Pangan; Tamblot of Bohol that employed magic and religion
in alluring the unbelieving people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs;
and the rebellion in Carigara (Leyte) Bankaw Revolt, led by Bankaw, Datu of Limasawa.

Second was the Religious Motives. Here were some of the revolts: Two Christianized
Isnegs of Northwest Cagayan, Miguel Lanab and Alalaban of Capinatan (Apayao), revolted in
1625, by mutilating and beheading the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia and Bro. Onofre Palao;
nativist revolt with religious overtones was led by Tapar in Oton, Iloilo, whom proclaimed
himself, God Almighty; the Magtangaga Revolt in Cagayan in October 1718 led by Francisco
Rivera, a vissionary who appropriated for himself the title of Papa Rey; and Ermano Apolinario
de la Cruzs revolt which was divided into two phases: phase 1 from 1832- 1841 was from the
founding of the Confradia de San Jose in 1832 to the death of Dela Cruz in 1841, and phase 2
from 1870- 71, with the revival of the Confradia in 1870, terminating with the revolt and capture
of Januario Labios in 1871.

Third was the Secularization Movement wherein the society is slowly transforming from
that having close identification with the religious institution to a more separated relationship.
This was considered to be the dawn of Philippine Nationalism, particularly after the execution
of Gomburza. Conflict began when the bishops insisted on visiting the parishes that were being
run by regular priests. It was their duty, they argued, to check on the administration of these
parishes. But the regular priests refused these visits, saying that they were not under the
bishops jurisdiction. They threatened to abandon their parishes if the bishops persisted.

Fourth was the Cavite Mutiny. It was caused by the removal of personal benefits of the
workers such as tax, and forced labor exemptions upon the order of new Governor General
Rafael de Izquierdo. The Cavite Mutiny was used by Izquierdo to target the Gomburza and other
notable Filipinos known for their liberal thinking. They were arrested and sentenced to death,
prison or exile and beheaded to the Gomburza.

All the previous revolts were a failure due to the geographical location of the country;
the weapons used were only bolo against guns; and no concept of unity between the region.

Fifth was the Freemasonry is a fraternal organization that arose from obscure origins in
the late 16th to early 17th century. The formation of organizations was known scholars and
scientists recognized as the International Association of Filipinologists. Dr. Rizal became a
Master Mason at the Logia Solidaridad 53 in Madrid, and two years later, he was designated
Honorable and Venerable Master at the Nilad Lodge, Manila, where he gave a lecture titled, La
Masoneria. Masonry preaches and practices the sacred principles of liberty, equality, and
fraternity among all men and they compose the Masonic virtues, the only virtues whose practice
would banish among men wars and abuses and bring about that state of which all great
reformers dream. This concept helped Rizal formed the Propaganda movement and was used by
Andres Bonifacio in the KKK.

Lastly was the Propaganda Movement. It was formed due to the problems that the
Filipinos faced just like the policies that were aggressive by Governor dela Torre and the Cavite
Munity. It aimed for equality of Filipinos and Spaniards, assimilation of the Philippines as a
regular province of the Spain, restoration of Philippine reperesentation and Filipinization of
Philippine priests. Some of its notable propagandists were Marcelo del Pilar (second editor of La
Solidaridad), Graciano Lopez Jaena (founder editor of La Solidaridad), Juan Luna and Jose
Protacio Rizal. They used the organization to produce the La Solidaridad in propagating the
abuses of the friars to the Filipinos and even to the Spanish government.