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Emirate of Abu Dhabi

Municipalities & Agricultural Dept.

Health & Safety


Codes of Practice
for
Construction Projects

Site
Standards & Guidelines
for
Consultants & Contractors
Foreword

Table of Contents

Definitions and Contact Details

PRELIMINARIES

SITE TRANSPORT, PLANT & EQUIPMENT

SITE TOOLS & MACHINERY

LIFTING OPERATIONS

CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

WORKING AT HEIGHT

SPECIAL PROCESSES
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Foreword

In an industry such as ours with its diversity of activities, personal injury and health risks are,
unfortunately, an ever present hazard.

To successfully combat these hazards it is important that all of us contribute to the health and safety of
ourselves and others in all our work activities.

This H&S Construction Codes of Practice (Part Two) is intended to provide a base at which the
highest level of safety can be achieved on all our construction projects. It provides not only for the
physical working environment, but for appropriate consultation and discussion between the
department, consultants and contractors on accident prevention and occupational Health & Safety
matters;

Although the standards and guidelines contained in this manual have been developed from the best
and most appropriate international health and safety standards, they are not intended to replace any
present, or future Ministerial Orders applicable to health and safety of persons at work, nor any
specific health and safety requirements incorporated in contract specifications, all of which should be
fully adhered to at all times.

All concerned should note that as these manuals are controlled documents and as such, various forms
and checklists contained in them are sample formats only and should not be removed. A master file of
all the forms checklists and drawings are held with ADM Health and Safety Unit, copies of which are
readily available on request by quoting the Document No. located in the footers.

Both manuals will be regularly reviewed by ADM’s H&S Committee, and any amendments or additions
made by that committee, will be circulated to all concerned.

I look forward to the full co-operation of all concerned in, over a period of time, adopting the standards
and guidelines laid down in this manual, and to work together to achieve an improved safety record for
this very important industry.

Signed:

Undersecretary of Municipalities & Agricultural Department

Document No. Revision Date Section title (i)


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 Foreword 1 of 1
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

TABLE OF CONTENTS - PART TWO

FOREWORD
(i) Foreword

TABLE OF CONTENTS
(ii) Table of Contents

DEFINITIONS & CONTACT DETAILS


(iii) Definition of terms used in Part Two

(iv) Municipalities & Agricultural Dept. Abu Dhabi Municipality H&S Contact Details +
Emergency Contacts

PRELIMINARIES
1.0 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
2.0 WORKING IN HIGH TEMPERATURES AND REMOTE LOCATIONS
3.0 NOISE AT WORK
4.0 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
5.0 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH
6.0 OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND SERVICES
7.0 ELECTRICITY AT WORK
8.0 MANUAL HANDLING & LIFTING
9.0 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS & LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES
10.0 SAFETY SIGNAGE
11.0 PERMIT TO WORK
12.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (P.P.E)

SITE TRANSPORT, PLANT & EQUIPMENT


13.0 SITE TRANSPORT
14.0 MOBILE PLANT & EQUIPMENT
15.0 STATIC PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS - PART TWO continued

Document No. Revision Date Section title (ii)


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 Table of Contents 1 of 2
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SITE TOOLS & MACHINERY


16.0 PORTABLE TOOLS
17.0 ABRASIVE WHEELS
18.0 WOODWORKING MACHINERY

LIFTING OPERATIONS
19.0 CRANES AND HOISTS
20.0 LIFTING GEAR

CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS
21.0 CONFINED SPACES
22.0 ROAD WORKS - BRIDGES
23.0 EXCAVATIONS - COFFERDAMS
24.0 TUNELLING - SHAFT SINKING
25.0 FALSEWORK
26.0 PILING
27.0 WELDING
28.0 WORKING OVER OR ADJACENT TO WATER

WORKING AT HEIGHT
29.0 SCAFFOLDING – LADDERS – CRADLES – SAFETY NETS
30.0 ERECTION OF STRUCTURES
31.0 DEMOLITION
32.0 SAFE WORKING ON ROOFS
33.0 REFURBISHMENT
34.0 MAINTENANCE

SPECIAL PROCESSES
35.0  High Pressure Water Jetting
 Lasers
 Site Investigation
 Watercraft & Dredging
 Diving

Document No. Revision Date Section title (ii)


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 Table of Contents 2 of 2
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Definition of terms used in Part Two

H&S Health and Safety

ADM Municipalities & Agricultural Dept. Abu Dhabi Municipality

Consultant Company appointed by the Owner/Client for all


Design/Management aspects of Project

Contractor Main Contractor appointed by the Owner/Client for the


Construction of the Project

Sub Contractor Company appointed by the Contractor, Owner or Client to


carry out designated aspects of the Project

Health & Safety Plan Format used by the Consultant to identify the main H&S risks
during the design stage of a contract
Lifting Appliances A grab, winch, pulley block, gin wheel, hoist, crane,
excavator, dragline.
Lifting Gear A chain, sling, rope sling, webbing sling or similar gear and a
ring, link, hook, shackle, swivel or eyebolt.
SWL Safe Working Load.
ASLI Automatic Safe Load Indicator.
Scaffold Any temporarily provided structure on or from which persons
perform work in connection with operations or works to which
this manual applies.
Site Any place where building operations or works of engineering
construction, or both such operations of such works are
being carried on, and any temporary storage or workshop
area associated with the works.
Sloping Roof A roof with a pitch of more than 10 degrees.

CE mark Recognised mark for personal protective equipment tested


and approved to international standards.

ADWEA. Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority


RCCB Residual Current Circuit Breakers
mA milli Amp

Document No. Revision Date Section title (iii)

ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 Definition of Terms used in Part 2 1 of 1


SECTION 1

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DEFINITION 1
INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
MAIN APPLICABLE BEST PRACTICE AND TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
EXECUTIVE REGULATIONS AND LOCAL ORDERS

1.1 GENERAL 2
1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT –
IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 3

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MINIMISATION OF IMPACTS 3

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ONGOING INSPECTIONS 4

1.5 THE FEDERAL LAW ON PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE 5


ENVIRONMENT (1999)

SECTION 1
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

SECTION 1

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DEFINITION
The key issues that must be taken into consideration when undertaking any work which may, to any
extent, impact the environment.

INTRODUCTION

During construction certain development projects pose a significant risk to the environment. This risk
must be addressed through the consideration of Environmental Protection which involves
environmental assessment, management and monitoring to ensure that the effects of development
are not significantly detrimental. All personnel are responsible for considering the environmental
implications of their activities. This should be overseen by the consultant, or a specialist
environmental consultant where appropriate. Construction practices that fail to control pollution can
cause damage to the terrestrial environment, upset ecological systems and wildlife communities, and
result in the contamination of land and groundwater.

The issue of environmental protection during the contract period should be discussed with the
consultant prior to the site hand-over. Where deemed appropriate the consultant should seek
guidance from an approved specialist environmental consultant. Stiff penalties can be brought to bear
upon individual persons and companies whose actions result in damage, be it temporary or
permanent, direct or indirect, to the environment.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Federal Law No. 24 (1999) on Protection and Development of the Environment

Ministerial Order No.32 (1982) regarding protection of employers against occupational hazards

Local orders on discharge and disposal of wastes (Environmental Protection Section - Food and
Environmental Control Centre - Abu Dhabi Municipality)

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 1 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

MAIN APPLICABLE BEST PRACTICE AND TECHNICAL GUIDELINES


ERWDA (2003).Technical Guidance Document (TG-0003R)
Standards and Limits for:
A. Pollution to Air and Marine Environments.
B. Occupational Exposure.
C. Pesticides and Chemical Use. Draft July 6 2003.

ERWDA (2003). Technical Guidance Document


Development of Construction Environmental Management (CEMP) - Onshore. Draft November 2003.

EXECUTIVE REGULATIONS AND LOCAL ORDERS


The contractor should contact the Environmental Protection Section of the Food and Environmental
Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality to ascertain what standards and/or regulations are currently
in force.

1.1 GENERAL
• all contracts, whether new or existing, must comply with the Federal law and enforcing
regulations on environmental protection and also any local orders currently in place.

• it is recommended that all contracts, whether new or existing, comply with best practice
and technical guidance.

• in accordance with best practice recommendations, the contractor must have in place/be in
the process of developing an integrated Health, Safety Environmental Management
System in order to minimise risks.

• the contractor should make himself aware of any risks to the environment which may occur
within or outside the agreed site area as a result of his activities.

• the contractor should seek advice from an approved specialist environmental consultant as
to what measures should be taken to prevent or reduce to an acceptable level (as agreed
by the local authorities) the impact on the environment of activities taking place under the
contract in question.

• the contractor should have procedures in place to enable the monitoring of all discharges
into the environment, be they liquid, solid or gaseous and ensure adherence to permissible
threshold emission levels. Scrutiny of data arising from environmental monitoring may be
undertaken by the relevant authorities.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 2 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT-


IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
In order the have a full appreciation of the all potential environmental implications of a project,
the consultant must be familiar with all details any previous environmental studies,
conducted/instructed by Abu Dhabi Municipality. This should include the identification of all
direct and indirect impacts including secondary and cumulative implications of the works. In
particular the consultant, should be aware of any significant impacts that may occur as well as
any sensitive receptors. For example when construction occurs near built-up areas, poor
practices may result in air and noise pollution which may cause annoyance and affect the health
of neighbouring communities.

If necessary the contractor should seek advice from an approved specialist environmental
consultant.

The contractor should be aware that potential sources of pollution could include, but may not be
limited to, the following:-

• noise generated by machinery or construction activities.

• dusts and/or fumes produced by construction activities.

• disposal of solid wastes arising from construction activities, be they on or off site.

• discharge of waste waters, sewage or ground waters to land, sewer, surface water drain,
the marine environment or any other location.

• the disturbance of species or habitat either within or in the immediate vicinity of the site.

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MINIMISATION OF IMPACTS


Contract documents, specifications and drawings should be examined to establish whether any
activities which take place as part of the contract may have an impact upon the environment,
e.g.;
a) the disposal of waste waters to surface water drain, sewer or on land,

b) the production of noise, dusts or fumes,

c) the de-watering of ground and disposal of water arising,

d) the disposal of waste materials arising,


e) the damage to existing wildlife habitats due to construction activities.

In order to ensure that the contractor minimises all potential environmental impacts, and has
best working practices to minimise risks the consultant must also ensure that the contractor has
an appropriate Health, Safety Environmental Management System (HSEMS) in place. The
HSEMS aims to establish quality systems to consistently high health, safety and environmental
outcomes for the project as a whole.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 3 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

For projects which are deemed to be environmentally sensitive, as defined by the regulatory
authority, the contractor will be required to develop a Construction Environmental Management
Plan (CEMP).

The CEMP is required to contain all aspects of a projects environmental management, and
should be prepared by the main contractor before work commences. This aims to implement
mitigation measures that may be required as defined by any previous environmental
assessments conducted by the Municipality. The CEMP should contain best practice sources
documents which can be used to address significant environmental impacts. These are generic
and should be applied to the site conditions via the environmental control plan.

The CEMP should be developed in accordance with ERWDA Techncial Guidance and should
include details of:

• Environmental Control Plan


• Work Scheduling
• Land Disturbance
• Stormwater Management
• Control Installations and Measures
• Soil Stockpiles
• Special Operational Precautions
• Contingency Plans
• Rehabilitation
• Maintenance, Inspections and Surveillance
• Ongoing Assessment and Management
The CEMP is the responsibility of the contractor. The consultant is required to ensure that the
contractor fulfils all their obligations as stated in the CEMP. Both the consultant and the
contractor may require the input of an approved specialist environmental consultant.

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ONGOING INSPECTIONS


Construction sites are constantly changing and systems need to be in place to modify control
measures to maintain their effectiveness. Frequent inspection and monitoring may therefore be
required to continually check the effectiveness of measures. The CEMP should also be
updated to address deficiencies identified by the monitoring or audit program as new impacts
are identified through surveillance.

Any laboratory testing is required to be conducted in ERWDA approved laboratories.


Monitoring methodologies and plans need also to be approved by ERWDA.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 4 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

1.5 THE FEDERAL LAW ON PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE


ENVIRONMENT (1999)
The contractor should make himself aware of relevant articles in the above law. In particular
he should be aware of the following:-

The law aims at achieving the following purposes:-

article 2
To combat pollution of all forms and to prevent any immediate or long-run damage or effects
due to economic, agricultural, industrial or reconstruction development plans and programs
aimed at improving quality of life and to secure co-ordination between the Authority and the
parties involved in the environment protection, conservation of its diversity and natural
balance and to spread environmental awareness and anti-pollution principles.

articles 49-55
The contractor should make himself fully aware of the Executive Regulations which relate to
the above articles.

article 49
Machinery, engines or vehicles generating combustion beyond the limits specified by the
Executive Regulations shall not be used.

article 52
In carrying out drilling, construction, demolition, or transportation of whatsoever results
therefrom, including garbage or sands, all parties and individuals shall take the necessary
precautions in the course of practising such activities, as well as the precautions, needed for
their safe storage and transportation to prevent their scattering, in the manner to be shown in
the Executive Regulations.

article 54
• in carrying out production or service activities or otherwise, especially in operating
machinery, equipment, horns, loudspeakers all parties and individuals shall not exceed
the permissible limits for noise.

• the Executive Regulations shall show the tolerable limits for the maximum volume of
sound and the time limit to exposure thereto.

The contractor should make himself aware of the penalties which may applied for non-
compliance with this Law which could include:-

• death penalty,

• imprisonment

• maximum fine of 10 million Dirhams.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 5 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

article 71
Any person, whose act or negligence causes damage to the environment or a third party,
due to violation of the provisions of this law or the regulations or decisions issued in
implementation thereof, shall be held responsible for all costs required for the handling or
elimination of such damage. He shall be bound as well to pay any consequent indemnity.
article 77
Whosoever pollutes drinking or ground waters, shall be punished with imprisonment for a
period of not less than one year and a fine not less than five thousand Dirhams and not more
than one hundred thousand Dirhams.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 6 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

ADM & TP H&S Contact Details


Telephone No. Fax No.
Chairman of ADM H&S
Committee Eng. Ibrahim Hussain Baquer 02-6771821 02-6724417
Building Directorate
Health and Safety Unit Eng. Raafat Radi Elias 02-6955173 02-6724417
Building Directorate
Health and Safety Unit Eng. Mohammed Saleh Al Naqeeb 02-6955787 02-6724417
Buildings Directorate
Quality Assurance Eng. Marie Mahmoud Al Ghadi 050-6153144 02-6724417

Roads Directorate Eng. Issa Mubarak Al Mazrouie 02-6772227 02-6794518

Roads Directorate Dr. Rasin Kadri Mufti 02-6764002 02-6956367

Sewerage Directorate Eng. Nader Asaad Bin Taher 02-6711244 02-6790218

Town Planning Eng.Fadel ali Al Briki 02-6978283 02-6786716

Agriculture Section Eng. Helmy Abbas Abu Atia 02-6956716 02-6793699

Forestry Section Eng. Abdul Hakeem Eida El Jaberi 02-5839159 02-5839030


Agriculture Guidance
Marketing and Livestock Eng. Ahmed Mohd. Al mutwaly Salim 02-6955451 02-6788724
Public Health and
Environment El Wathiq Tibara Idris 02-6980349 02-6785961

Municipality Garage Mohamed Saeed Muhair El Qubaisi 02-4446500 02-4444038

Municipality Garage Hakeem Abdulla Nasser Shayaa 02-4446500 02-4444037

Stores Directorate Abdul Latif Ali Ibrahim Al Mansoori 02-4446619 02-4444746


General Transport Tariq Mohammed Abdul Rahman Al
Directorate Shahie 02-4071614 02-4431800

Financial Affairs Directorate Mohammed Osman Abasher 02-6955518


Traffic Signals (Roads
Directorate) Eng. Majid Eid Ali Eidat Al Katheiry 02-6727324 02-6779173
Abdel Fatah Mohammed Abu El
Abu Dhabi Compost Factory Nass 02-5554450 02-5555605
Industrial Security
Directorate Elmor Mohammd El Neyadi 02-6956001 02-6790684

I.T. Section Zayed Ahmed El Hamely 02-6955910 02-6775877

Statistics Section Eisa Ali Al Hosani 02-6955055 02-6774919

Public Relations Section Fahad Salmeen Al Madhi 02-6955036 02-6780064

Document No. Revision Date Section title (iv)


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ADM TP & Emergency H&S Contact Details 1 of 2
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Emergency Contact Details Telephone No.

FIRE/CIVIL DEFENCE 997

AMBULANCE SERVICE 998

POLICE 999

ELECTRICITY 4464677

WATER 991

ETISALAT 8005500

ADNOC 6023177

COAST GUARD 6731900

Document No. Revision Date Section title (iv)


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ADM TP & Emergency H&S Contact Details 2 of 2
SECTION 1

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DEFINITION 1
INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
MAIN APPLICABLE BEST PRACTICE AND TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
EXECUTIVE REGULATIONS AND LOCAL ORDERS

1.1 GENERAL 2
1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT –
IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 3

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MINIMISATION OF IMPACTS 3

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ONGOING INSPECTIONS 4

1.5 THE FEDERAL LAW ON PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE 5


ENVIRONMENT (1999)

SECTION 1
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

SECTION 1

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DEFINITION
The key issues that must be taken into consideration when undertaking any work which may, to any
extent, impact the environment.

INTRODUCTION

During construction certain development projects pose a significant risk to the environment. This risk
must be addressed through the consideration of Environmental Protection which involves
environmental assessment, management and monitoring to ensure that the effects of development
are not significantly detrimental. All personnel are responsible for considering the environmental
implications of their activities. This should be overseen by the consultant, or a specialist
environmental consultant where appropriate. Construction practices that fail to control pollution can
cause damage to the terrestrial environment, upset ecological systems and wildlife communities, and
result in the contamination of land and groundwater.

The issue of environmental protection during the contract period should be discussed with the
consultant prior to the site hand-over. Where deemed appropriate the consultant should seek
guidance from an approved specialist environmental consultant. Stiff penalties can be brought to bear
upon individual persons and companies whose actions result in damage, be it temporary or
permanent, direct or indirect, to the environment.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Federal Law No. 24 (1999) on Protection and Development of the Environment

Ministerial Order No.32 (1982) regarding protection of employers against occupational hazards

Local orders on discharge and disposal of wastes (Environmental Protection Section - Food and
Environmental Control Centre - Abu Dhabi Municipality)

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 1 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

MAIN APPLICABLE BEST PRACTICE AND TECHNICAL GUIDELINES


ERWDA (2003).Technical Guidance Document (TG-0003R)
Standards and Limits for:
A. Pollution to Air and Marine Environments.
B. Occupational Exposure.
C. Pesticides and Chemical Use. Draft July 6 2003.

ERWDA (2003). Technical Guidance Document


Development of Construction Environmental Management (CEMP) - Onshore. Draft November 2003.

EXECUTIVE REGULATIONS AND LOCAL ORDERS


The contractor should contact the Environmental Protection Section of the Food and Environmental
Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality to ascertain what standards and/or regulations are currently
in force.

1.1 GENERAL
• all contracts, whether new or existing, must comply with the Federal law and enforcing
regulations on environmental protection and also any local orders currently in place.

• it is recommended that all contracts, whether new or existing, comply with best practice
and technical guidance.

• in accordance with best practice recommendations, the contractor must have in place/be in
the process of developing an integrated Health, Safety Environmental Management
System in order to minimise risks.

• the contractor should make himself aware of any risks to the environment which may occur
within or outside the agreed site area as a result of his activities.

• the contractor should seek advice from an approved specialist environmental consultant as
to what measures should be taken to prevent or reduce to an acceptable level (as agreed
by the local authorities) the impact on the environment of activities taking place under the
contract in question.

• the contractor should have procedures in place to enable the monitoring of all discharges
into the environment, be they liquid, solid or gaseous and ensure adherence to permissible
threshold emission levels. Scrutiny of data arising from environmental monitoring may be
undertaken by the relevant authorities.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 2 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

1.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT-


IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
In order the have a full appreciation of the all potential environmental implications of a project,
the consultant must be familiar with all details any previous environmental studies,
conducted/instructed by Abu Dhabi Municipality. This should include the identification of all
direct and indirect impacts including secondary and cumulative implications of the works. In
particular the consultant, should be aware of any significant impacts that may occur as well as
any sensitive receptors. For example when construction occurs near built-up areas, poor
practices may result in air and noise pollution which may cause annoyance and affect the health
of neighbouring communities.

If necessary the contractor should seek advice from an approved specialist environmental
consultant.

The contractor should be aware that potential sources of pollution could include, but may not be
limited to, the following:-

• noise generated by machinery or construction activities.

• dusts and/or fumes produced by construction activities.

• disposal of solid wastes arising from construction activities, be they on or off site.

• discharge of waste waters, sewage or ground waters to land, sewer, surface water drain,
the marine environment or any other location.

• the disturbance of species or habitat either within or in the immediate vicinity of the site.

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MINIMISATION OF IMPACTS


Contract documents, specifications and drawings should be examined to establish whether any
activities which take place as part of the contract may have an impact upon the environment,
e.g.;
a) the disposal of waste waters to surface water drain, sewer or on land,

b) the production of noise, dusts or fumes,

c) the de-watering of ground and disposal of water arising,

d) the disposal of waste materials arising,


e) the damage to existing wildlife habitats due to construction activities.

In order to ensure that the contractor minimises all potential environmental impacts, and has
best working practices to minimise risks the consultant must also ensure that the contractor has
an appropriate Health, Safety Environmental Management System (HSEMS) in place. The
HSEMS aims to establish quality systems to consistently high health, safety and environmental
outcomes for the project as a whole.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 3 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

For projects which are deemed to be environmentally sensitive, as defined by the regulatory
authority, the contractor will be required to develop a Construction Environmental Management
Plan (CEMP).

The CEMP is required to contain all aspects of a projects environmental management, and
should be prepared by the main contractor before work commences. This aims to implement
mitigation measures that may be required as defined by any previous environmental
assessments conducted by the Municipality. The CEMP should contain best practice sources
documents which can be used to address significant environmental impacts. These are generic
and should be applied to the site conditions via the environmental control plan.

The CEMP should be developed in accordance with ERWDA Techncial Guidance and should
include details of:

• Environmental Control Plan


• Work Scheduling
• Land Disturbance
• Stormwater Management
• Control Installations and Measures
• Soil Stockpiles
• Special Operational Precautions
• Contingency Plans
• Rehabilitation
• Maintenance, Inspections and Surveillance
• Ongoing Assessment and Management
The CEMP is the responsibility of the contractor. The consultant is required to ensure that the
contractor fulfils all their obligations as stated in the CEMP. Both the consultant and the
contractor may require the input of an approved specialist environmental consultant.

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ONGOING INSPECTIONS


Construction sites are constantly changing and systems need to be in place to modify control
measures to maintain their effectiveness. Frequent inspection and monitoring may therefore be
required to continually check the effectiveness of measures. The CEMP should also be
updated to address deficiencies identified by the monitoring or audit program as new impacts
are identified through surveillance.

Any laboratory testing is required to be conducted in ERWDA approved laboratories.


Monitoring methodologies and plans need also to be approved by ERWDA.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 4 of 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
Health & Safety at Work
PART TWO

1.5 THE FEDERAL LAW ON PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE


ENVIRONMENT (1999)
The contractor should make himself aware of relevant articles in the above law. In particular
he should be aware of the following:-

The law aims at achieving the following purposes:-

article 2
To combat pollution of all forms and to prevent any immediate or long-run damage or effects
due to economic, agricultural, industrial or reconstruction development plans and programs
aimed at improving quality of life and to secure co-ordination between the Authority and the
parties involved in the environment protection, conservation of its diversity and natural
balance and to spread environmental awareness and anti-pollution principles.

articles 49-55
The contractor should make himself fully aware of the Executive Regulations which relate to
the above articles.

article 49
Machinery, engines or vehicles generating combustion beyond the limits specified by the
Executive Regulations shall not be used.

article 52
In carrying out drilling, construction, demolition, or transportation of whatsoever results
therefrom, including garbage or sands, all parties and individuals shall take the necessary
precautions in the course of practising such activities, as well as the precautions, needed for
their safe storage and transportation to prevent their scattering, in the manner to be shown in
the Executive Regulations.

article 54
• in carrying out production or service activities or otherwise, especially in operating
machinery, equipment, horns, loudspeakers all parties and individuals shall not exceed
the permissible limits for noise.

• the Executive Regulations shall show the tolerable limits for the maximum volume of
sound and the time limit to exposure thereto.

The contractor should make himself aware of the penalties which may applied for non-
compliance with this Law which could include:-

• death penalty,

• imprisonment

• maximum fine of 10 million Dirhams.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 1


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article 71
Any person, whose act or negligence causes damage to the environment or a third party,
due to violation of the provisions of this law or the regulations or decisions issued in
implementation thereof, shall be held responsible for all costs required for the handling or
elimination of such damage. He shall be bound as well to pay any consequent indemnity.
article 77
Whosoever pollutes drinking or ground waters, shall be punished with imprisonment for a
period of not less than one year and a fine not less than five thousand Dirhams and not more
than one hundred thousand Dirhams.

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SECTION 2

WORKING IN HIGH TEMPERATURES


AND REMOTE LOCATIONS

DEFINITION 1
INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

2.1 DRIVING TO REMOTE SITES 2


2.2 WEATHER 3
2.3 INSECTS, SPIDERS AND SNAKES 4
2.4 EFFECT OF HEAT WHILST WORKING ON SITE 5
2.5 PREVENTION OF HEAT RELATED CONDITIONS 6
2.6 VEHICLES, HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND PLANT 7
2.7 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 7

SECTION 2
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 2

WORKING IN HIGH TEMPERATURES


AND REMOTE LOCATIONS

INTRODUCTION

Driving and working in remote areas such as the Deserts of the UAE, and working on sites where the
temperature exceeds 75° F, requires planning and preparation to assure the safety of the men and
resources involved in the activity.

Complacency while working in the desert, and not appreciating the effects of excessive heat on sites
can lead to serious problems.

It is the management’s responsibility to ensure that the appropriate resources and training are in place
before sending his workforce into remote areas, and working in high temperatures.

DEFINITIONS

remote locations
A remote work site e.g. (working in the desert), that requires all resources brought in to complete the
activity safely.

high temperature
When temperature on any site in any location, exceeds 210 Celcius (750Farenheit)

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. 32 (year 1982) Articles 5 & 7

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2.1 DRIVING TO REMOTE SITES


• make sure of the location of the site and how to get there, if not take someone who does.

• allow plenty of time to make the journey.

2.1.1 check your vehicle


• oil pressure. • radiator level.

• tire pressure and condition, including • petrol tank level.


the spare.

• battery.

2.1.2 ensure the availability of the following


• drinking water. • shovel

• tool kit, jack and jack handle. • block of wood for the jack.

• owners manual. • mobile phone or two-way radio.

• tire pressure gauge.

2.1.3 supplies required


• warm clothing. • fluorescent marking strips.

• food. • flares and smoke canisters.

• toilet roll • 10 litres of water per man.

• sunshade (space blanket).

2.1.4 checking out procedure


• a plan of your route, be specific. • the name of the driver and all
passengers.
• your time of departure.
• remember to book in on your arrival and
• your time of arrival.
call departure point to confirm your
• type, colour and vehicle number. arrival.

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2.1.5 break down or lost


• never leave the vehicle. • drink water as you require it, do not
save it for later.
• call for help.
• keep in contact with base site if possible,
• get comfortable and wait for help to
use high ground.
come to you.
• keep calm and rest as much as possible.
• set up sunshade.
• release a flare and smoke canister if you
• layout marking strip on high ground.
hear an approaching vehicle or aircraft.

2.2 WEATHER
2.2.1 dust storm
• slow down immediately and get off the highway

• turn your lights off

• stay in your vehicle and wait until it is all over

2.2.2 flash flood


• monitor road and weather reports before
travelling

• flash floods can fill low spots to dangerous levels


very quickly

• do not drive into water on the road if you can’t


tell how deep it is

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2.3 INSECT, SPIDERS AND SNAKES


2.3.1 bark scorpion
• this is the small light – coloured one (a little over 2 inches fully
grown).

• a sting will be very painful to touch and commonly causes


numbness around the area.

• allergic sensivity may result in swelling of the tongue and


difficulty in breathing. If so, you should get emergency medical
assistance.

2.3.2 black widow spider


• symptoms may include muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting,
headache and hypertension.

2.3.3 bees, wasps, ants and other bugs


• Any of these may result in itching, welts, nausea,
headache, and in more severe reactions, difficulty in
breathing.

2.3.4 general recommendations for avoiding insect danger


• never put your hands or feet anyplace you cannot see.

• shake out all clothes and shoes before reaching into them.

• never go barefoot.

• do not wear perfume or bright clothes in the desert.

2.3.5 general treatment


Since you may not know what bit you, the following are a few things you can do that are
generally recommended for most of the above insect stings:-

• wash the affected area with soap and water.

• apply ice, using a layer of cloth between it and the skin (no longer than 10 minutes at a
time).

• elevate the area if possible.

• seek medical attention as soon as possible.

If you have not had a Tetanus booster in the past 10 years, you should get one within 72 hours
following the sting.

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2.3.6 snakes
Snakes are best avoided by never putting
your hands or feet where you can’t see.

If you should sustain a snake bite, keep as


quiet as possible and get emergency medical
aid immediately.

2.4 EFFECT OF HEAT WHILST WORKING ON SITE

The two main effects are called heat exhaustion and heat stroke. They are quite different and
must be recognised since the treatment of the two conditions differs.

Heat exhaustion can be compared to a faulty radiator and heat stroke can be compared to a
breakdown of the thermostat.

2.4.1 heat exhaustion


This is caused by failure of the body’s cooling process due to a lack of water and salt caused
either by excessive sweating or insufficient intake.

look for

• complaints of tiredness, drowsiness, • there may be a feeling of sickness or


thirst, dryness of the throat, cramps and actual vomiting.
headache.
• sweating still occurs.
• a decrease in the amount of urine
• a tendency to faint.
produced.

• the temperature may be normal or


slightly raised.

treatment

• replace fluids, large quantities of water or isotonic saline (1/4 teaspoon of salt in 1 litre
of water.

• if the patient is vomiting give water as above and seek medical treatment immediately,
as intravenous fluid replacement may be required.

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2.4.2 heat stroke


This is caused by a breakdown or overload of the body’s heat regulating mechanism as a
result of an excessive build up of heat in the body due to a high surrounding temperature
and/or the production of excessive heat by muscular exercise.

look for
• a sudden dramatic rise in body temperature above 40 o c.
• the cessation of sweating.
• the patient will feel very hot and dry.
• there may be disorientation, struggling or convulsions or unconsciousness.

treatment
• immediate cooling of the body is essential to prevent death.
• remove patient to a cool environment.
• wrap in wet sheets and/or sponge down with cold water. Immerse in cold water bath if
possible until temperature is down to 39oc, at which time cooling should be stopped to
avoid shock.
• seek medical attention as soon as possible.

2.5 PREVENTION OF HEAT RELATED CONDITIONS


• drink enough water to replace sweat loss. This may be from 5 litres to 10 litres per day
during summer months.

• take sufficient salt (the best way is with food).

• avoid alcohol intake before or during work.

• eat sparingly during the day.

• avoid exposure to the sun in the heat of the day, if possible arrange work during the
cooler hours.

• while working outside prepare shade over the task area if possible.

• wear light, loose clothing a hat and sunglasses.

• avoid overexposure to the direct rays of the sun.

• if stranded in the desert, take steps to maintain good fluid intake until rescued. Prepare
shade and stay with your vehicle. Reduce exercise.

• move workers to activities in shaded areas in shifts to prevent a build up of body heat.
Alternate heavy and light work activities.

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2.6 VEHICLES, HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND PLANT


• keep equipment fluids up by regular inspections and checks.

• clean cab areas of rags and inflammable materials.

• keep a fire extinguisher in the cab of all equipment.

• prepare shade for the cab of equipment so as not to hinder the operator’s field of vision.

• park equipment in the shade whenever possible.

• inspect heavy equipment electrical system’s regularly.

• equipment and operators in remote areas of the site should be checked every 3 hours
min.

2.7 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


• labourer’s in the field should be provided with light, loose coveralls.

• sunglasses and helmets to prevent direct exposure to the sun.

• gloves to prevent damage to hands when handling tools or equipment that has been
sitting in the sun.

• coolers and shade tents set-up at work activity areas.

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SECTION 3

NOISE AT WORK

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

3.1 WHAT IS NOISE 2


3.2 HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH NOISE 2
3.3 ESTABLISHING NOISE LEVELS 3
3.4 NOISE LEVELS AT PLANNING STAGE 4
3.5 REDUCING NOISE LEVELS 4
3.6 RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM EXPOSURE WITH PROTECTION 6
3.7 TYPICAL SOUND LEVELS OF THE MOST POPULAR
CONSTRUCTION AND PILING EQUIPMENT 6

SECTION 3
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 3

NOISE

INTRODUCTION

Safety in the building industry has a high priority, however, health hazards are often less understood.
Many causes of occupational ill-health, including noise, are recognised by industry but can be difficult
to manage because there is often a long latency period before the disease or effect develops and
susceptibility varies.
Strategies for controlling occupational health risks are on the whole led by legislation and are seen as
requiring time and resources to develop and as not producing immediate direct cost benefits, for
example audiometry

Little wonder then that difficulty is often experienced by:


• designers (when taking into account health risks in the design and specifications)
• consultants (in highlighting health risks in the pre-tender health and safety plan)
• contractors (in determining when and at what level, health protection should be provided to their
employees)
• employees (in being aware of health risks and in using correctly the controls put in place or issued
to them for their protection)

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (1)

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (5) d

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (15)

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3.1 WHAT IS NOISE?


Noise is usually defined as unwanted sound. But strictly noise and sound are the same.

noise can:
• be a nuisance, resulting in disturbance and loss of enjoyment of life, loss of sleep and
fatigue
• it can distract attention and concentration, mask audible warning signals or interfere with
work, thereby being a factor in workplace accidents; and
• result in hearing impairment.

The danger levels for noise are identified as being, 85dBA and 90dBA. At 85dBA which is
known as the first action level, employees will probably have to shout to be heard at a
distance of 2m away from the person they are talking to, and must be provided with hearing
protection at their request.

At the second action level which is 90dBA or above, employees will probably have to shout
to be heard at a distance of 1 m away from the person they are talking to. The exposure of
employees to noise must be reduced as far as reasonably practicable, without the use of
hearing protection. If it cannot be reduced below this level then hearing protection must be
provided and reasonable steps taken to ensure that it is used; employees have a duty to use
hearing protection in such circumstances.

3.2 HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH NOISE


The human ear is a delicate organ which is highly susceptible to damage, and this can
frequently be induced by the working environment,

There are two types of hearing loss associated with damage to the receptive hairs,
temporary and permanent threshold shift.

Temporary threshold shift is a temporary dullness in hearing after exposure to loud noises.
Hearing will subsequently recover, the time taken depends on factors such as loudness and
duration of the noise. If hearing does not fully recover after 48 hours, the level of hearing
loss that remains can be considered permanent.

There are two categories of ‘permanent threshold shift’

noise induced or occupational deafness, which results when the sufferer has been
regularly exposed to noise over a long period of time. Normally, hearing loss will be similar in
both ears and increase with continued exposure to the noise.

acoustic trauma, occurring with exposure to a very high sound level over a short period of
time, in some cases resulting in perforation of the eardrum. Once permanent damage has
occurred to the inner ear, it is irreversible.

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3.3 ESTABLISHING NOISE LEVELS


3.3.1 unit of measurement
• the unit of measurement for sound levels is the
decibel dB.

• this scale is logarithmic which means that 90dB is


ten times the intensity of 80 dB and a hundred
times the intensity of 70dB.

• an increase of 3dB doubles the sound intensity, so


that 87dB is twice as noisy as 84dB.

• sound level meters, used for measuring noise


levels have standard characteristics built into them,
which attenuate, or emphasis signals at different
frequencies, this is known as 'frequency weighting'.

• an instrument with a weighting corresponding to


the frequency response of the human ear (known
Fig. 1- Examples of Sound Level Meters
as an ‘A’ weighted scale) is commonly used on
Measuring “A” weighted scale.
building sites to measure noise from the dB(A).
(see Fig.1)

• noise meters vary considerably depending on type, size and cost, but even the
inexpensive range will give a reasonable indication of sound levels being produced. Most
instruments can be switched to 'slow' response which dampens the oscillation of the
reading needle to allow easier reading.

3.3.2 surveys
• noise surveys should only be carried out by a person who has received adequate training
in noise measurement techniques.

• surveys are advisable when it is necessary to shout in order to be audible to a person


about one metre away.

• if conversation would be difficult in the nearest building (with windows closed) noise
levels are probably excessive.

• when the sound level at a building facade is to be estimated, an addition of 3dB(A)


should be allowed for reflection.

• noise levels may be irregular or steady.

• a reasonably steady sound level is where the level fluctuates through a total of less than
8dB(A) on a slow response scale.

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3.3.3 maximum exposure


• recommended maximum exposure to equivalent continuous sound levels without
protection are listed (see table in section 24.6).

• these are minimum requirements and everything possible should be done to improve on
them and reduce exposure to noise.

3.4 NOISE LEVELS AT THE PLANNING STAGE


Attention should be given at the planning stage to the following factors:

• design of project, and of processes and equipment involved.

• alternative methods and processes.

• phasing of operations (especially if a number of contractors are working on site).

• municipality requirements.

• location of site, or sites if work involves changing locations.

• noise levels likely to be produced.

• site layout (i.e. siting of access points, batching plants etc.)

• hours of working.

• provision for controlling noise on site.

• disturbance of nearby residents (if this is likely, the situation and measures to be taken to
reduce noise should be explained to persons likely to be affected).

Note: Failure to plan the control of noise may lead to delay and increased cost later.

3.5 REDUCING NOISE LEVELS


Where noise cannot be avoided, it may be reduced by:

• siting or location of noise source (i.e. static plant)

• control of noise at source e.g. acoustic hoods/covers

• equipping individual with ear protectors

• a combination of these methods will often be necessary

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3.5.1 siting or location


• removing source of noise - i.e. static plant, loading/unloading areas - to a distance
whenever possible

• orientating plant to direct noise away from living/working zones

• placing site buildings, stores, etc between noise source and noise sensitive areas.

• screening source with a barrier, wall, acoustic screen, spoil heap or locating source
behind partly completed buildings.

• the effectiveness of a noise barrier will depend on its dimensions, its position relative to
the source and the listener, and the material used for the barrier.

• care must be taken to ensure barriers do not, by reflecting sound, transfer the nuisance
from one sensitive area to another.

3.5.2 control of noise at source


• design and manufacture of equipment.

• mufflers, acoustic shields and exhaust silencers


for equipment. (see Figs. 2&3)

• use of alternative, less noisy equipment or Fig.2 - Acoustic Gaskets fitted


methods. to a compressor.

• acoustic screens and sheds enclosing operator.

• regular inspection and maintenance.

• absorbent mountings to reduce noise


transmission through structures.

Fig.3 - Soundproofing foam


3.5.3 ear protectors used for wall insulation.

• all practicable methods should be used to reduce noise


levels, but where these remain excessive and harmful,
ear protectors must be worn. Ear protectors are not a
substitute for other methods of noise control.

• individuals may be reluctant to wear protection, and


personnel at risk should be made aware of the damage
caused to hearing by excessive noise levels, which can
result in permanent less of hearing.

Fig.4 - Standard pair of Ear protectors.

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3.6 RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM EXPOSURE WITHOUT PROTECTION

Average Noise Level dB (A) Maximum Exposure in one working day

90 8 hours
93 4 hours
96 2 hours
99 1 hour
102 30 minutes
105 15 minutes
108 7 1/2 minutes
111 3 3/4 minutes

Notes:

• this is the noise level at the ear and not at the source

• the table above is based on the logramithic calculation where an increase of 3 dB (A) is
regarded as doubling the noise level or halving the exposure time.

3.7 TYPICAL SOUND LEVELS OF THE MOST POPULAR CONSTRUCTION


AND PILING EQUIPMENT

Sound Level dB (A) General Construction Equipment Piling Equipment


95 Hand tools - Electric
100 Hand tools - Air
101 Fork lifts
102 Hammer Drill
103 Dumpers
104 Concrete Mixer
105 Hand Tools
106 Tower Cranes
107 Circular Saw Bench
108 Trucks
109 Excavators 6Ton Drop hammer (Cased Piles)
110 Crawler Cranes
111 Ready Mix
112 Heavy Lorries
113 Hoists - Diesel
114 Loading Shovel
115 Rock Drill

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Sound Level dB (A) General Construction Equipment Piling Equipment


116 Batching Plant Trench Hammer (Sheet Piles)
117 Generators Rotary Bored Piles
118 Loaders Screened Drop Hammer (Sheet Piles)
119 Cranes Lorry mounted
120 Compressors - Compactors Impact Boring (Driving Case Method)
121 Bulldozer - Graders 2 ton drop hammer (precast concrete
piles)
125 Vibration System (sheet piles)
126 Resonant sheet 'H" Section
128 Single Acting Air Hammer (precast
Concrete)
136 Diesel Hammer (sheet piles)
138 Double acting air hammer (sheet
piles)

Notes:

• sound levels are for guidance only and are taken at source.

• for accurate measurement of site noise - a survey is necessary.

• information should be sought from plant hire company regarding machines on site.

• noise level emitted from the machines will be affected by the competence of the operator
and the quality of maintenance.

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SECTION 4

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

4.1 HEALTH HAZARDS 2


4.2 TOXICITY OF SUBSTANCES 2
4.3 ROUTES OF ENTRY 3
4.4 MINSTRIAL DECISON NO. (37/2) YEAR 1982 – 4
MEDICAL CARE WHICH THE EMPLOYER IS
OBLIGED TO PROVIDE TO HIS WORKERS.

SECTION 4
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 4

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

INTRODUCTION

Occupational health anticipates and prevents health problems which are caused by the work which
people do. In some circumstances the work may aggravate pre-existing medical condition and
stopping this is also the role of occupational health.

Health hazards often reveal their effects on the human body only after the passage of time; many have
cumulative effects, and in some cases the way this happens is not fully understood.

Because the effects are often not immediately apparent, it can be difficult to understand and persuade
others that there is a need for caution and control.

Good occupational hygiene practice encompasses the following ideas:-

• recognition of the hazard or potential hazard

• quantification of the extend of the hazard - usually by measuring physical/chemical factors and
their duration, and relating them to known or required standards.

• assessment of risk of actual conditions of use, storage, transport and disposal.

• control of exposure to the hazard through design, engineering, working systems, the use of
personal protective equipment and biological monitoring.

• monitoring change in the hazard by means of audits or other measurement techniques, including
periodic re-evaluation of work conditions and systems.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Decision No. (37/2) Year 1982 re-

The Medical - Care which the Employer is Obliged to Provide to his Workers.

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4.1 HEALTH HAZARDS


Health hazards can be divided into four broad categories: physical, chemical, biological and
ergonomic. Examples of the categories are:

• physical — air pressure, heat, dampness, noise, radiant energy, electric shock

• chemical — exposure to toxic materials such as dusts, fumes and gases

• biological — infection, e.g. tetanus, hepatitis and legionnaire’s disease

• ergonomic — work conditions, stress, man-machine interaction

4.2 TOXICITY OF SUBSTANCES


Toxicity is the ability of a substance to produce injury once it reaches a site in or on the body.
The degree of harmful effect which a substance can have depends not only on its inherent
harmful properties, but also on the route and the speed of entry into the body.

Substances may cause health hazards from a single exposure, even for a short time (acute
effect) or after prolonged or repeated exposure (chronic effect). The substance may affect
the body at the point of contact, when it is known as a local agent, or at some other point,
when it is described as a systemic agent.

Absorption is said to occur only when a material has gained access to the bloodstream and
may consequently be carried to all parts of the body.

4.2.1 what makes substances toxic?


The effect a substance will have on the body cannot always be predicted with accuracy, or
explained solely on the basis of physical and chemical laws. The influence of the following
factors combines to produce the effective dose:

• quantity or concentration of the substance

• the duration of exposure

• the physical state of the material, e.g. particle size

• its affinity for human tissue

• its solubility in human tissue fluids

• the sensitivity to attack of human tissue or organs

4.2.2 long and short-term exposure


Substances which are toxic can have a toxic effect on the body after only one single, short
exposure. In other circumstances, repeated exposure to small concentrations may give rise
to an effect. A toxic effect related to an immediate response after a single exposure is called
an acute effect. Effects which result after prolonged (hours or days or much longer) are
known as chronic effects. Chronic implies repeated doses or exposures at low levels: they

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generally have delayed effects and are often due to unrecognised conditions which are
therefore permitted to persist.

4.3 ROUTES OF ENTRY


Substances harmful to the body may enter it by three main routes.
These are:
Absorption - through the skin, including entry through cuts and abrasions, and the
conjunctiva of the eye. Organic solvents are able to penetrate the skin, as a result of
accidental exposure to them or by washing. Tetraethyl, lead and toluene are examples.

Ingestion - through the mouth, which is generally considered to be a rare method of


contracting industrial disease. However, the action of the main defence mechanisms
protecting the lungs rejects particles and pushes them towards the mouth, and an estimated
50 per cent of the particles deposited in the upper respiratory tract and 12.5 per cent from
the lower passages are eventually swallowed.

Inhalation - the most important route of entry, which can allow direct attacks against lung
tissue which bypass other defences such as those of the liver. The lungs are very efficient in
transferring substances into the body from the outside environment, and this is the way
inside for 90 per cent of industrial poisons.

4.3.1 results of entry


Having gained entry into the body, substances can have the following effects:

Cause diseases of the skin such as:

Non-infective dermatitis - an inflammation of the skin especially on hands, wrists and


forearms. This can be prevented by health screening, good personal hygiene, use of barrier
creams and/or protective clothing.

Scrotal cancer - produced by rubbing contact with workers’ clothing impregnated with a
carcinogen such as mineral oil, in close contact with the scrotum. This can be prevented by
substitution of the original substance, by use of splash guards, and by provision of clean
clothing and washing facilities for soiled work clothing.

Cause diseases of the respiratory system such as:

Pneumoconiosis - resulting from exposure to dust which deposits on the lung, such as
metal dust and man-made mineral fibre. Other examples of these fibroses of the lungs are
silicosis due to the inhalation of free silica, and asbestosis from exposure to asbestos fibres.
Humidifier fever — giving influenza-like symptoms and resulting from contaminated
humidifying systems.

Legionnaire’s disease - from exposure to legionella bacteria.

Cause cancer and birth defects - by encouraging cells to undergo fundamental changes by
altering the genetic material within the cell. Substances which can do this are carcinogens,

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which cause or promote the development of unwanted cells as cancer.

Examples are asbestos, mineral oil, hardwood dusts and arsenic. Teratogens cause birth
defects by altering genetic material in cells in the reproductive organs, and cause abnormal
development of the embryo. Examples are organic mercury and lead compounds. Mutagens
trigger changes affecting future generations.

Cause asphyxiation - by excluding oxygen or by direct toxic action. Carbon monoxide does
this by competing successfully with oxygen for transport in the red cells in the blood.

Cause central nervous system disorders - by acting on brain tissue or other organs, as in
the case of alcohol eventually causing blindness.

Cause damage to specific organs - such as kidneys and liver. An example is vinyl chloride
monomer (VCM).

Cause blood poisoning - and producing abnormalities in the blood, as in benzene


poisoning, where anaemia or leukaemia is the result.

4.4 MINSTRIAL DECISON NO. (37/2) YEAR 1982 RE MEDICAL - CARE


WHICH THE EMPLOYER IS OBLIGED TO PROVIDE TO HIS WORKERS.
The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs,
After taking cognizance of the Federal Law No (I) for the year 1972 in respect of the
jurisdiction of Ministries and power of and the laws amending thereto. And, the Federal Law
for the years 1980 in respect of the Regulation of Labour Relations and on the submission of
the Ministry’s undersecretary.

Is hereby decided:

Article (1)
The obligation of an employer for the medical treatment of workers shall be in accordance
with the medical care standards set forth in the provisions of this decision and within the
limits of available treatment in the State.

Article (2)
An employer whose the number of employees in his establishment in not more than fifty in
one place or within an area the radius of which is twenty kilometres, shall provide at the work
place in his establishment with first aid kits.

Article (3)
An employer whose the number of his workers in one place or within an area the radius of
which is twenty kilometres, is exceeding fifty workers and less than two hundred, and in

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
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PART TWO

addition to his obligation to provide first aid kits, must employ; nurse holding a nursing
certificate recognised by the Ministry o Health who shall be entrusted with rendering first aid
treatment The employer shall also appoint a doctor to treat workers at the place prepared by
him for that purpose and shall give then medicines required, all free of charge.

And if treatment requires a specialist doctor, the establishment doctor shall recommend in
writing for the treatment of the worker by a specialist provided that in such case. Treatment
expenses shall equally be shared by both the employer and the worker.

Article (4)
An employer whose employees are two hundred workers or more in one place or within an
area the radius of which is twenty kilometers shall provide the treatment facilities stipulated in
Article (2) and (3) of this decision in addition to his obligation to provide all other treatment
facilities in cases the treatment of which require specialist doctors, or undergo surgical
operations or otherwise, as well as necessary medicines, all of which are at the expense of
the employer.

If the worker is treated in a hospital or a governmental or private or charity clinic, the


employer shall pay to such hospital or clinic the expenses of treatment, medicines and the
admission fees of the worker as determined by the Ministry of Health for hospitals and
governmental clinics or according to the rates fixed by the management of such hospital, or
private clinic.

Article (5)
The doctor of an establishment which the number of its’ workers is two hundreds or more
must treat any disease in the normal way and dispense necessary medicines.

He shall refer the worker to a specialist doctor or to the hospital in cases which require so. In
such case the worker may not ask that his treatment shall he by a specialist doctor, or
undergoes a surgical operation or be treated at a hospital except upon the decision of the
establishment doctor or on the basis of a certificate issued by specialist and approved by the
medical administration or the concerned medical zone within which jurisdiction the
establishment is situated.

The worker may not ask for treatment by specialist doctors other than those determined by
the employer, nor in hospital not been agreed.

Article (6)
The place assigned for the workers clinic and for their treatment shall be as near as possible
from the work place and shall have adequate ventilation, lighting and healthily conditions;
and it shall be equipped with necessary equipments and devices.

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PART TWO

Article (7)
The expenses of transportation of workers to the clinic shall be paid by the employer and at
the times specified for treatment or medical check-up.
However, the worker shall not be entitled to such expenses unless he complies with the
instructions of the employer as to the times specified for treatment or medical examination at
the clinic except in emergencies or urgent cases.

The employer may designate means of transportation for transporting patients and injured
workers, and in such a case the worker may not refuse such transportation means if they are
suitable and shall not be entitled to transportation expenses if he refuses to use the
transportation means without justifiable reason.

Article (8)
If there is a fund in the establishment or a scheme providing medical services in which the
worker is contributing which gives the right to receive medical treatment for himself and the
members of his family, the employer shall reduce the subscription fees of the worker in such
fund or scheme to an amount equal to the expenses of his treatment which the employer
bears, pursuant to the provisions of this decision. be pu
shall t

Article (9)
An employer who employs fifty workers or more must display at the main gates used by
workers to enter to the workplace, the following information:

• The location of workers clinic.

• Days, and working hours of such clinic.


• Address of the hospital, and the specialist doctors who are entrusted to treat workers, and
timings of such treatment if the employer is bound to provide according to the provisions
of this decision.

Inspectors of the labour inspection division at the Ministry may instruct to display all the
foregoing information or some of them, as the case may be, at another place or suitable
places whenever they deem it necessary.

Information must be displayed in an easy a manner for workers to see.

Article (10)
Any employer who is employing workers from out of the country must be sure of their
physical fitness, through a certified medical certificate proving that which must be
authenticated by the official concerned authorities.
In all cases, the employer must be sure of the physical fitness of the worker employed by
him before he joins work after subjecting him to medical examination; the result of which
must be included in a written report approved by the competent authority at the Ministry.

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PART TWO

Article (11)
Any employer must prepare for every worker employed by him a medical file including the
following:

• The result of medical examination of the worker at the time he joined work.
• The result of medical check-up, and the prescribed treatment whenever the worker
reports for medical check-up and any date thereof.
• The Results of medical analysis, or treatment and X-ray, if any.
• Result of medical examination to know whether the worker is suffering from chest or
dermatological disease.
• The period for which the worker was absent because of illness provided that every (4)
days of absence due to illness or accidents shall be shown separately.

Such files shall be confidential, and shall not be seen except by the treating doctor, or the
employer or who represents him.

Article (12)
An employer who employs fifty workers or more must send a list of two copies every three
months to the concerned labour department showing the number of workers who received
medical treatment at the expense of the employer, the nature ol their diseases and the days
of absence because of illness.

Article (13)
Compliance with the provisions of this decision shall not prejudice nor nullify any other
regulations related to medical treatment in the establishment if such regulations achieve
better medical care than those set forth herein.

Article (14)
This decision shall be published in the official gazette and shall come into force from the date
of its publication.

Seif Al Jarwan - Minister of Labour and Social Affairs

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SECTION 5

SUBSTANCES
HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH

INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

5.1 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INHALATION 2


5.2 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INGESTION 4
5.3 PENETRATION HAZARDS 4
5.4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL 5

SECTION 5
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 5

SUBSTANCES
HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH

INTRODUCTION

Hazardous substances are considered to be chemical materials and products which are used every
day for a variety of purposes, many of which are dangerous if not handled correctly, majority are toxic,
corrosive, flammable, oxidising or irritants and all pose a risk to workers, the public, and the
environment.
There are four routes by which chemical substances may enter the body and cause harm, inhalation,
ingestion, penetration and skin absorption, but the one by which building site workers are more at risk
is that of inhalation, and this section, in the main, gives priority to this.

DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION


Chemicals are defined and classified according to type of hazard:
Class I Explosives
Class 2 Gases (flammable, non-flammable compressed gas oxidising gas and poisoning gas)
Class 3 Flammable liquids
Class 4 Flammable solids (spontaneously combust - dangerous on wetting)
Class 5 Oxidising agents & organic materials (Peroxides)
Class 6 Poisons & Infectious substances
Class 7 Radioactive substances
Class 8 Corrosives

MAIN APPLICABLE UAE LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) For the Year of 1982. Article 6, 9, 18 & 23

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
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PART TWO

5.1 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INHALATION


When material in the air is breathed in it can consist of dust, vapour, gas, fumes or mist. It
may be mildly irritant or be highly poisonous.

The material may lodge in the mouth, nose or throat or be comprised of small enough
particles to penetrate the deep lung. It may be cleared from the respiratory tract by the
body’s natural mechanisms or may lodge in the lungs, or it may be absorbed by the body
and transported in the blood to other organs.

Solvent vapours, welding fumes, asbestos, legionella and silica are all inhalation toxins or
hazards.

5.1.1 dust, fumes and gasses


Some dusts are directly composed of toxic materials, such as silica or hardwood. Dusty
conditions are common in construction, especially on dry, windy sites and where there is
blasting, excavation, batching, plastering, crushing or demolition.
Where possible, dust inhibiting measures, including dampening of floors and surfaces,
vacuum cleaning and exhaust ventilation of power tools should be used. Some materials,
particularly metals and metal coatings, may be hazardous as dusts from cutting or grinding,
or as fumes when welding or gas cutting is in operation.
The fumes to which construction workers are typically exposed are related to hot work,
either welding or cutting. The standards of control, in order to prevent lead poisoning, metal
fume fever, or ill-health arising from inhaling paint fumes when paint burning therefore relate
to the materials made airborne in such processes.
Typical dangerous dusts fumes and gasses encountered in the Building and Construction
Industry are tabled below:

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required

DUST

ASBESTOS Asbestosis: Chronic Industrial Lung • dampen asbestos during cutting/sawing


disease. operations.
Mesothelioma: Serious form of Lung • Wear appropriate R.P.E.
Cancer.
• exhaust ventilation
CADIUM (DUST OR FUMES) Cadium Poisoning, Long Term – • personal hygiene
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
Emphysema & Kidney Damage.
• RPE may be necessary.
• adequate ventilation (where appropriate
HARDWOOD DUST Dermatitis and Asthma • extraction equipment should be fitted to
machines
• suitable gloves where the wood is a
dermatitic agent

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
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PART TWO

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required


• total enclosure, where practicable
LEAD (DUST OR FUMES) Lead poisoning, anemia and systemic • protective clothing which does not hold
dust
poisoning
• good personal hygiene and welfare
facilities (including showers, where
necessary)
Silicosis, Breathing Difficulties leading • no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
SILICA and QUARTZ DUST eventually to respiratory disablement. • where appropriate, the use of wet
methods
• total enclosure
• exhaust ventilation
• air-fed RPE
• impervious clothing
• segregation of other workers
• where appropriate, the use of wet
CEMENT DUST Breathing Difficulties leading eventually to
methods
respiratory disablement.
• exhaust ventilation
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
• respiratory protection

FUMES
• ventilation at source
WELDING & CUTTING Metal fume fever: Flu-like illness. • respiratory protection
• personal hygiene
FUMES
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job

GASES, VAPOURS AND MISTS


• high standard of ventilation, especially in
CO poisoning; Drowsinness; Loss of
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) excavations and confined spaces
Muscular Control; Vomiting; Unconscious
• controlled entry (e.g. by a permit to work)
(Toxic Gas) and Death.
• removal of source of CO from confined
spaces
• forced ventilation and extraction,
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) Being heavier than Displaces Oxygen in
(especially where working in confined
the Atmosphere, can lead to death due to
spaces)
(Asphyxiant Gas) lack of oxygen.
• air monitoring
• controlled entry by permit to work
• breathing apparatus and a rescue
procedure may be necessary
Low concentrations: Irritation of eyes, • forced ventilation and extraction
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE nose and throat, headaches and • air monitoring
dizziness. • controlled entry by permit to work
(H2S)
• breathing apparatus and a rescue system
(Highly Toxic and Flammable). High concentrations: rapid death from
may be necessary
respiratory paralysis.
• adequate high and low level ventilation in
GASES LIQUEFIED Asphyxiation due to depletion of Oxygen,
site huts
could also have a narcotic effect.
• some appliances may need individual
PETROLEUM GASES
flues
(LPG).
• high standard of ventilation
METHANE Asphyxiant gas-highly - flammable and • air monitoring
• controlled entry by permit to work
explosive.
• breathing apparatus and a rescue system
may be necessary

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PART TWO

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required


Inhalation or absorption through the skin • adequate ventilation
SOLVENTS can cause impaired judgement and • air monitoring and the use of breathing
dizziness, followed by confusion, apparatus in confined spaces.
(commonly used in paints, sleepiness and unconsciousness. • rescue arrangements may be necessary.
paint strippers, varnishes, • avoid skin contact, wear impervious
mastics, glues, surface Other symptoms are irritation of the
respiratory tract and headache. The clothing where appropriate.
coatings, etc). • prevent accidental ingestion by good
inhalation risk is greatest when solvents
are used in confined spaces; skin contact hygiene;
can also lead to dermatitis. • forbid the carrying of cigarettes in work
areas.

5.2 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS BY INGESTION


The hazards of such substances are not always obvious, and poisoning still occurs on
construction sites. In most cases the hazard can be eliminated or significantly reduce by
using substitute materials which are safer or less toxic, and ensuring that employees are
aware of the hazard when:

• using poisonous substances.

• establishing and instructing employees on safe systems of use and handling of chemical
products.

• ensuring clear and correct labelling - especially when products are decanted from their
original containers, prohibition of drinking and smoking in areas when chemicals are
used, or on sites where general contamination may be present.

• actively promoting programmes of health education, with particular regard to the need for,
and value of good personal hygiene,

• provision of appropriate personal protection including gloves respirators, etc., and


actively ensuring the use of special equipment.

5.3 PENETRATION HAZARDS


Construction workers can be exposed to infection through micro-organisms which can give
rise to a number of specific conditions, e.g.:

5.3.1 tetanus (lock-jaw)


This is a serious disease resulting from wound infection by an organism which has specific
ability to form spores. They are found in animal intestines and excreta and are highly
resistant to destruction, even by heat or antiseptics. They are, therefore, ubiquitous although
the disease itself is more commonly encountered in tropical countries.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
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PART TWO

Construction workers are vulnerable when breaking new ground and particularly when
working on sites previously used for agriculture. Large, dirty, lacerated wounds are very
susceptible, but infection can result from minor pricks or puncture wounds, e.g. treading on a
nail.

Workers should be encouraged to arrange an appropriate course of immunisation with


Tetanus through their own doctor. This should be arranged by the employer where company
medical facilities exist.

5.4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL


5.4.1 symbol signs
A systematic approach to the identification of potential chemical hazards is an essential
requirement

Signs shown below are an example of hazardous substance control safety signs
commonly used to identify hazards and mark areas to protect employees.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 5


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SECTION 5

SUBSTANCES
HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH

INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

5.1 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INHALATION 2


5.2 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INGESTION 4
5.3 PENETRATION HAZARDS 4
5.4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL 5

SECTION 5
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 5

SUBSTANCES
HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH

INTRODUCTION

Hazardous substances are considered to be chemical materials and products which are used every
day for a variety of purposes, many of which are dangerous if not handled correctly, majority are toxic,
corrosive, flammable, oxidising or irritants and all pose a risk to workers, the public, and the
environment.
There are four routes by which chemical substances may enter the body and cause harm, inhalation,
ingestion, penetration and skin absorption, but the one by which building site workers are more at risk
is that of inhalation, and this section, in the main, gives priority to this.

DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION


Chemicals are defined and classified according to type of hazard:
Class I Explosives
Class 2 Gases (flammable, non-flammable compressed gas oxidising gas and poisoning gas)
Class 3 Flammable liquids
Class 4 Flammable solids (spontaneously combust - dangerous on wetting)
Class 5 Oxidising agents & organic materials (Peroxides)
Class 6 Poisons & Infectious substances
Class 7 Radioactive substances
Class 8 Corrosives

MAIN APPLICABLE UAE LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) For the Year of 1982. Article 6, 9, 18 & 23

Document No. Revision Date Section title 5


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH 1 of 5
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

5.1 SUBSTANCES HARMFUL BY INHALATION


When material in the air is breathed in it can consist of dust, vapour, gas, fumes or mist. It
may be mildly irritant or be highly poisonous.

The material may lodge in the mouth, nose or throat or be comprised of small enough
particles to penetrate the deep lung. It may be cleared from the respiratory tract by the
body’s natural mechanisms or may lodge in the lungs, or it may be absorbed by the body
and transported in the blood to other organs.

Solvent vapours, welding fumes, asbestos, legionella and silica are all inhalation toxins or
hazards.

5.1.1 dust, fumes and gasses


Some dusts are directly composed of toxic materials, such as silica or hardwood. Dusty
conditions are common in construction, especially on dry, windy sites and where there is
blasting, excavation, batching, plastering, crushing or demolition.
Where possible, dust inhibiting measures, including dampening of floors and surfaces,
vacuum cleaning and exhaust ventilation of power tools should be used. Some materials,
particularly metals and metal coatings, may be hazardous as dusts from cutting or grinding,
or as fumes when welding or gas cutting is in operation.
The fumes to which construction workers are typically exposed are related to hot work,
either welding or cutting. The standards of control, in order to prevent lead poisoning, metal
fume fever, or ill-health arising from inhaling paint fumes when paint burning therefore relate
to the materials made airborne in such processes.
Typical dangerous dusts fumes and gasses encountered in the Building and Construction
Industry are tabled below:

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required

DUST

ASBESTOS Asbestosis: Chronic Industrial Lung • dampen asbestos during cutting/sawing


disease. operations.
Mesothelioma: Serious form of Lung • Wear appropriate R.P.E.
Cancer.
• exhaust ventilation
CADIUM (DUST OR FUMES) Cadium Poisoning, Long Term – • personal hygiene
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
Emphysema & Kidney Damage.
• RPE may be necessary.
• adequate ventilation (where appropriate
HARDWOOD DUST Dermatitis and Asthma • extraction equipment should be fitted to
machines
• suitable gloves where the wood is a
dermatitic agent

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ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH 2 of 5
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required


• total enclosure, where practicable
LEAD (DUST OR FUMES) Lead poisoning, anemia and systemic • protective clothing which does not hold
dust
poisoning
• good personal hygiene and welfare
facilities (including showers, where
necessary)
Silicosis, Breathing Difficulties leading • no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
SILICA and QUARTZ DUST eventually to respiratory disablement. • where appropriate, the use of wet
methods
• total enclosure
• exhaust ventilation
• air-fed RPE
• impervious clothing
• segregation of other workers
• where appropriate, the use of wet
CEMENT DUST Breathing Difficulties leading eventually to
methods
respiratory disablement.
• exhaust ventilation
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job
• respiratory protection

FUMES
• ventilation at source
WELDING & CUTTING Metal fume fever: Flu-like illness. • respiratory protection
• personal hygiene
FUMES
• no eating, drinking or smoking on the job

GASES, VAPOURS AND MISTS


• high standard of ventilation, especially in
CO poisoning; Drowsinness; Loss of
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) excavations and confined spaces
Muscular Control; Vomiting; Unconscious
• controlled entry (e.g. by a permit to work)
(Toxic Gas) and Death.
• removal of source of CO from confined
spaces
• forced ventilation and extraction,
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) Being heavier than Displaces Oxygen in
(especially where working in confined
the Atmosphere, can lead to death due to
spaces)
(Asphyxiant Gas) lack of oxygen.
• air monitoring
• controlled entry by permit to work
• breathing apparatus and a rescue
procedure may be necessary
Low concentrations: Irritation of eyes, • forced ventilation and extraction
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE nose and throat, headaches and • air monitoring
dizziness. • controlled entry by permit to work
(H2S)
• breathing apparatus and a rescue system
(Highly Toxic and Flammable). High concentrations: rapid death from
may be necessary
respiratory paralysis.
• adequate high and low level ventilation in
GASES LIQUEFIED Asphyxiation due to depletion of Oxygen,
site huts
could also have a narcotic effect.
• some appliances may need individual
PETROLEUM GASES
flues
(LPG).
• high standard of ventilation
METHANE Asphyxiant gas-highly - flammable and • air monitoring
• controlled entry by permit to work
explosive.
• breathing apparatus and a rescue system
may be necessary

Document No. Revision Date Section title 5


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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Substance/Hazard Main Risk Main Precautions Required


Inhalation or absorption through the skin • adequate ventilation
SOLVENTS can cause impaired judgement and • air monitoring and the use of breathing
dizziness, followed by confusion, apparatus in confined spaces.
(commonly used in paints, sleepiness and unconsciousness. • rescue arrangements may be necessary.
paint strippers, varnishes, • avoid skin contact, wear impervious
mastics, glues, surface Other symptoms are irritation of the
respiratory tract and headache. The clothing where appropriate.
coatings, etc). • prevent accidental ingestion by good
inhalation risk is greatest when solvents
are used in confined spaces; skin contact hygiene;
can also lead to dermatitis. • forbid the carrying of cigarettes in work
areas.

5.2 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS BY INGESTION


The hazards of such substances are not always obvious, and poisoning still occurs on
construction sites. In most cases the hazard can be eliminated or significantly reduce by
using substitute materials which are safer or less toxic, and ensuring that employees are
aware of the hazard when:

• using poisonous substances.

• establishing and instructing employees on safe systems of use and handling of chemical
products.

• ensuring clear and correct labelling - especially when products are decanted from their
original containers, prohibition of drinking and smoking in areas when chemicals are
used, or on sites where general contamination may be present.

• actively promoting programmes of health education, with particular regard to the need for,
and value of good personal hygiene,

• provision of appropriate personal protection including gloves respirators, etc., and


actively ensuring the use of special equipment.

5.3 PENETRATION HAZARDS


Construction workers can be exposed to infection through micro-organisms which can give
rise to a number of specific conditions, e.g.:

5.3.1 tetanus (lock-jaw)


This is a serious disease resulting from wound infection by an organism which has specific
ability to form spores. They are found in animal intestines and excreta and are highly
resistant to destruction, even by heat or antiseptics. They are, therefore, ubiquitous although
the disease itself is more commonly encountered in tropical countries.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 5


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH 4 of 5
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Construction workers are vulnerable when breaking new ground and particularly when
working on sites previously used for agriculture. Large, dirty, lacerated wounds are very
susceptible, but infection can result from minor pricks or puncture wounds, e.g. treading on a
nail.

Workers should be encouraged to arrange an appropriate course of immunisation with


Tetanus through their own doctor. This should be arranged by the employer where company
medical facilities exist.

5.4 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL


5.4.1 symbol signs
A systematic approach to the identification of potential chemical hazards is an essential
requirement

Signs shown below are an example of hazardous substance control safety signs
commonly used to identify hazards and mark areas to protect employees.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 5


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH 5 of 5
SECTION 6

OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND


SERVICES

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

6.1 UNDERGROUND SERVICES 2


6.2 DIGGING – MECHANICAL OR MANUAL 5
6.3 PILING 6
6.4 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 6
6.5 BACKFILLING 7
6.6 OVERHEAD SERVICES 7

SECTION 6
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 6

OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND


SERVICES

INTRODUCTION
Live overhead lines have been responsible for a number of serious and fatal accidents on construction
sites when contact with the lines has been made by workmen or machines. The voltages may lie in
the range between 240 and 400,000 volts, and they all have lethal potential.

Underground services are, to a great extent, out of sight and out of mind until the time comes for
someone to dig a hole or start excavating. Accidental contacts with buried services such as electricity
cables and gas pipes may lead to serious injury or fatality.

The damage and injury can be avoided if the proper procedures outlined in this section are followed.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article (20)

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
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PART TWO

6.1 UNDERGROUND SERVICES


6.1.1 types of buried services
The most obvious examples of buried services are those used to carry gas, electricity, water,
sewerage, and telecommunications services.

There are many other types of buried services, often confined to specific locations, which
are not likely to be the subject of public knowledge at all, they include services associated
with:

• hydraulics process fluids,

• pneumatics,

• petroleum and fuel oils,

• highway authorities,

• street lighting,

• military authorities.

Work in the vicinity of oil & gas transmission pipelines, often requires special measures to be
taken and the oil & gas company will supply detailed procedures on request.

6.1.2 risks and cost of damage


The greatest risk of injury lies in contacting electricity cables. Some people are electrocuted,
but the majority suffer major burns from the explosive arcing of the damaged cable. (see
Fig.1)

Most injuries are caused to persons using pneumatic drills of jackhammers, ruptured gas
pipes can cause a leak, a fire, or an explosion.

The consequences of damaging water pipes


and telephone cables may be less immediately
evident, but are nonetheless serious, both in
terms of disruption and costs. The interruption
of services can create serious problems for
places critically dependent upon them, for
example, hospitals, and many people are likely
to be inconvenienced.

Fig.1 - This is what can happen when


you cut a live underground
electrical cable.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

The cost of damage can be considerable. The new generation of fibre optic
telecommunication cables are very expensive - and an apparently simple break may mean
the replacement of two kilometre length, at a cost measured in thousands of dirhams.

Indirect costs, in some cases resulting from loss of production and disruption of business
activities, will be borne by all affected, including those whose negligence caused the
incident.

6.1.3 checking for buried services


Before any digging takes places, a check must be made with all public and private utilities
and the owner or occupier of the land for the existence of services in the proposed work
area, and, where applicable, a site clearance/no objection form received from the
department concerned.

The following are the main points to be considered:

• any service said to exist, should be clearly marked on the site plans.

• when looking at plans, it should be borne in mind that reference points may have been
moved, surfaces may have been re-graded, services moved without authority or consent,
and that not all service connections or private services are shown.

• plans must be interpreted with care; a pencil on a map may cover a width equivalent to a
metre on the ground.

• where appropriate the route, when established, should be identified with paint, tape or
markers - not steel spikes, which might penetrate a cable or pipe.

• a line on a plan does not mean a pipe or cable is located exactly in the position marked. It
only indicates that it is roughly in that location.

• the exact position will only be known when the buried service is found, as in many cases,
there is no indication above the ground that a buried service exists. They may be found
almost anywhere and at any depth from immediately beneath the surface of the
pavement, or tarmac, to 1.5 metres or more.

• indications that buried services do exist include the presence of lamp posts, illuminated
traffic signs, telephone boxes, concrete or steel manhole covers, hydrant and valve pit
covers, etc.

• small concrete indicator posts, usually on the verge, or plaques on walls have this
specific function. Indicator posts belonging to water authorities often give the size of the
pipe and its distance from the post.

• the absence of posts or covers, must not be taken as evidence that there are no buried
services. Access covers can be a substantial distance apart.

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• cables or pipes may be laid loose in the ground, run in earthenware, concrete, metal,
asbestos or plastic ducts, or be buried in cement-bound sand, loose sand, fine backfill or
material dissimilar from the surrounding ground.

• plastic marker tape, tracer wire, boards, tiles or slabs may have been laid above the
service to indicate that there is something below. These may, however, have been
removed or damaged in the past; they are also liable to be laterally displaced by ground
water or movement and thus no longer indicate the true location of the service.

It is now becoming a widespread


practice for brightly coloured
polythene tape or expanded plastic
mesh, sometimes incorporating
metallic tracer wire, to be placed in
the backfill above the pipe or service.
A text on the tape usually identifies
the service below, when uncovered, Fig.2 - Example of Fig.3 - Example of
these tapes indicate the presence of a expanded brightly
plastic mesh coloured tape
pipe or cable before any damage is
incorporating a used to identify
done. metallic tracer underground
(see Figs. 2 & 3) wire. services.

Note: The absence of a tape should not be taken as evidence that there are no pipes or
cables at the location; it may simply mean that no marker tape was used.

6.1.4 use of cable and pipe locators


A wide range of instruments
is available for the detection
of buried services. Several
different principles may be
applied in the task of
detection, and an instrument
may incorporate more than
one of these like Hum
Detection, Radio Frequency,
Transmitter and Receiver,
Metal Detectors, etc. (see
Fig. 4)

Fig.4 - Typical examples of cable and pipe locators


commonly used to detect underground services

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6.2 DIGGING - MECHANICAL OR MANUAL


Once the approximate location of a service has been identified using all available information
(including plans, marker posts, cable detection results etc). trial holes should be dug
carefully by hand to establish the exact location and depth of the service.

The following points should be considered prior to, and during digging operations:

• where two holes are dug at intervals, it should not be assumed that the service runs in a
straight line between them.

• mechanical excavators and power tools should not be used within 0.5 metres of the
indicated line of a service, unless prior agreement on a safe system of work has been
reached with the service owner.

• power tools may be used to break paved surfaces, but great care must be taken to avoid
over-penetration, since a service may have been laid at an unusually shallow depth,
especially in the vicinity of buildings or other services.

• power tools must never be used directly over the indicated line of a cable unless it has
been made dead or steps have been taken to prevent damage.

• excavations must be adequately supported, especially it more than 1.2 metres deep, or
dug in poor ground, at a location exposed to traffic vibration or near a building, or
embankment, etc.

• check with all utilities and land owners before commencing.

• assume presence of service when digging, even though nothing is shown on plans.

• detectors must be used, and close watch kept for signs or tapes, etc., indicating a buried
service.

• although there are recommended minimum depths for all services, they may be closer to
the surface than normal, especially in the vicinity of works, structures, or other services.

• markers such as plastic tape, tiles, slabs or battens may have been displaced, and not
indicate the exact location of the buried service.

• some electric cables, gas pipes and water pipes look alike. Ensure proper identification
before working on them.

• spades and shovels are safer than forks and pickaxes.

• careful use of spades and shovels enables services, which could easily be damaged by a
fork or a pickaxe forced into the ground, to be safely uncovered.

• rocks, stones, boulders, etc., should be carefully levered out.

• over-penetration of the ground or surface with hand-held power tools is a common cause
of accidents.

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• if an excavator or digger is being used near any service, extra care must be taken in case
the service is damaged or broken.

• when possible, no one should be near the excavator or digger while it is digging.

• if the service is embedded in concrete or paving material, the utility or owner should de-
energise it or otherwise make it safe, or approve a safe system of work before it is broken
out.

• closed, capped, sealed, loose or pot ended services should always be assumed to be live
or charged, not dead or abandoned, until proven otherwise.

• follow the guidelines and advice issued by the electricity, gas, water and
telecommunication authorities.

6.3 PILING AND DRILLING


Piling, drilling, thrust boring, bar holing and augering must never be commenced until all the
necessary steps and precautions have been taken, and a safe system of work has been
devised and implemented. (see Pt 2 section 26) for further information on Piling.

Services shown or thought to be nearby should be exposed by hand digging to establish


their precise location.

6.4 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS


6.4.1 protection of services
Even if a service is exposed in the bottom of a trench or excavation, it should be protected
with suitable timber or other material to prevent damage; e.g.

• services across a trench or along a trench above the bottom should be supported by
slings or props, to avoid unnecessary stresses. In cases of doubt, advice should be
sought from utilities or the owner.

• cables and services must never be used as jacking or anchorage points, or as footholds
or climbing points.

• if a service pipe or cable needs to be moved to allow work to progress, the owner should
be consulted and advice sought.

6.4.2 reporting damage


Any damage to buried services must be reported to the owners. Minor damage to the sheath
of a cable or to a coating on a pipe can result in moisture penetration, corrosion and
subsequent failure. A cable pulled and stretched may result in a conductor or core broken
and an earthenware or concrete duct broken may prevent a service being installed.

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6.4.3 gas pipe is fractured or starts leaking


• evacuate all personnel from area.

• enforce no smoking no naked lights.


where
• prevent approach by public or vehicles. applicable.

• inform gas authority immediately.

6.4.4 if an electricity cable is broken


• avoid contact with it.

• do not attempt to disentangle it from excavator or digger buckets, etc.

• jump clear of excavators or diggers - do not climb down.

• inform electricity authority.

• keep everyone clear.

6.4.5 underground telecommunication cables


• leave alone.

• Inform Etisalat

6.4.6 breakage of any other service pipe or cable


• leave alone.

• inform owner.

6.5 BACKFILLING
• surplus concrete, hard core, rock, rubble, flint, etc., must never be tipped onto a service
while backfilling a trench or hole, since it may result in damage.

• selected backfill material should be adequately settled and compacted, care being taken
to avoid mechanical shocks to the service pipe or cable.

• warning tapes, tiles, etc., should be placed above the service.

• when gas service pipes have been exposed, advice on backfill should be sought from the
gas companies.

6.6 OVERHEAD SERVICES


6.6.1 general

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On sites the electricity supply will generally be obtained either from Electricity Department or
from site generators.

Overhead lines belonging to A.D.W.E.A. are subject to the requirements of their rules. High
voltage overhead lines are not normally insulated and comprise bare conductors mounted
on insulators on steel or wooden towers or poles.

Low and medium voltage lines may be insulated or uninsulated but, in either case, care is
necessary if hazards and accidents are to be avoided.

Where any electrically charged overhead cable or apparatus is liable to be a source of


danger to persons employed on the sites, all practicable precautions shall be taken to
prevent such danger by the provision of adequate and suitably placed barriers. (see Fig.5)

275 or 440KV 132 KV 33KV 11KV Low Voltage


Minimum Minimum
Clearance 7m Minimum Clearance 5.2m
Clearance 6.7m

Fig.5 - Showing the Minimum clearance required on both Low, Medium and High
Voltage Overhead Electricity Lines.

6.6.2 precautions against danger from overhead lines


sites where plant, e.g., mobile cranes, excavators, trucks may pass under overhead
lines

• where a roadway or passage is required under a line the crossing should be at right
angles to the line and be restricted to the smallest possible working width for the type of
plant using the roadway.

• this width should not exceed 10 metres.

• such crossings should be restricted to the smallest possible number and should be
fenced to give a clear indication of the roadway, and goalposts should be erected on both
sides of the overhead line to act both as gateways and height limits.

• the height and position of such goalposts will depend upon the voltage of the overhead
line and A.D.W.E.A. will advice on these points. (see Fig.6) below.

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Traffic Passing Beneath Overhead Power Lines

6m Absolute minimum 10m Maximum

Advance
Warning Sign

Between 3 – 6m

Height to be specified by A.D.W.E.A.

Fig.6 - Showing various safe heights required for traffic to safely pass under Overhead Power Lines.

Note: If any work takes place after dark, notices and cross bar should be
illuminated.

• danger notices should be installed which give a clear


indication of the working height and instructions given to
plant drivers to lower crane jibs, to tip bodies of lorries,
etc., and to drive carefully.(see Fig.7)

Fig.7 - Showing type of approved sign used to


indicate presence of overhead lines.

6.6.3 sites where work will be done under lines


• additional precautions are necessary where work must be carried out under overhead
lines and in each case early consultation with A.D.W.E.A is necessary.

• A.D.W.E.A. will advise on safe working clearances and all plant, equipment or hand tools
to be used must be of such construction or be so restricted that these safe working limits
cannot be exceeded. In extreme cases it is usually possible for the Department to make
the line dead for certain periods of time so that work can proceed.

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SECTION 7

ELECTRICITY AT WORK

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

7.1 DUTIES 2
7.2 SUPPLIES 2
7.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 5
7.4 PLUGS, SOCKET-OUTLETS, COUPLERS 6
7.5 EQUIPMENT EARTHING (PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS) RCD 7
7.6 SYSTEM VOLTAGE 8
7.7 CABLES 9
7.8 PLANT AND TOOLS 10
7.9 LIGHTING 11

SECTION 7
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 7

ELECTRICITY AT WORK

INTRODUCTION

The use of electrical energy to assist in the construction process is extensive. The misuse or
malfunction of electrical equipment could have harmful effects on people and plant, but electricity is
perfectly safe if treated with respect.

This section is aimed to assist site managers, safety advisors and people in similar positions to satisfy
themselves that necessary steps are taken to ensure that electrical installations are safe.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Government of Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA)

Regulations for Electrical Installation Works (1980)

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
BS 7671 : Requirements for electrical installations
(Formerly the IEE Wiring Regulations Sixteenth Edition)

BS 4343 : Industrial plugs, socket outlets and couplers for AC and DC supplies.

BS 4363 : Specification for distribution units for electricity supplies for construction and building
sites.

BS 7375 : Code of Practice for distribution of electricity on construction and building sites

BS 7430 : Code of Practice for earthing

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7.1 DUTIES
7.1.1 consultants
The consultant engineering company shall ensure that:-

• the necessary and appropriate approvals are given for a selected electrical contractor or
sub contractor.

• the fixed and temporary ‘Electrical Distribution System’ and utilisation of ‘Electrical
Energy’ required for the construction phase of the contract complies and is operated
within the requirements of this section.

7.1.2 contractor
The Contractor shall ensure that:-

• both the fixed and temporary ‘Electrical Distribution System’ is designed with due
consideration of its purpose, external influences, compatibility of equipment and
maintainability of equipment used.

• they appoint, in accordance with ADWEA regulations, a ‘Competent Person’ who shall be
responsible for the installation, its use and modification during the construction phase of
the contract. The name of the designated person shall be prominently and permanently
displayed close to the main switch or circuit breaker controlling the installation.

• appropriate ‘Electrical Safety and First Aid’ signs are displayed.

7.2 SUPPLIES
7.2.1 incoming supplies
In making an assessment of the incoming supply requirements due consideration shall be
given to the size and locations of electrical loads and the manner in which they vary with
time during the project.

Ample allowance should be made in respect of welfare facilities. It should be noted that in
practice the air conditioning plant, heaters, drying room heaters, water heaters and canteen
cooking equipment, tend to be in continuous use. The use of thermostats, time or light
sensitive switches should be considered.

On large sites, allowance has to be made for the use of large items of equipment, e.g. tower
cranes. Where the load is sizeable or where there are special problems, such as remote
locations or large site areas, early and detailed planning of the site electrical system will be
necessary.

For large and complex installations, design and circuit drawings should be prepared,
showing the type and location of equipment.

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When this estimated load is known, a decision as to how the supply is to be obtained may
be made. The options being from the Public Utility or where such a supply cannot be
obtained or where perhaps such a supply would be uneconomical, the only alternative is to
generate the electricity locally on site.

7.2.2 temporary supplies


Distribution of electricity on site is essentially quite different from a permanent installation.
There is constant need for convenient means of connecting plant which operates on a
variety of voltages, phases and currents in different places at different times. Load
requirements vary considerably. (see Fig.1)
Incoming
Stand by
Supply
Generator

Site Incoming
Unit

Main Distribution Unit


Fitted with 300mA
Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers Batching
Outlet panel Plant
fitted with
30mA- ELCB,s

Portable
Tools

oooo
oooooo
Accommodation
Outlet panel Outlet Units
fitted with Tower Crane
30mA- ELCB,s
Outlet
oooo Units
Tower
Flood
oo Extension Compressor Lighting
o Outlet Units

Festoon Lighting

FIG. 1 - Shows a Site Electricity Distribution Scheme designed to I.E.E.Standards.


Note: All equipment specified in B.S. 4363 includes provision for major switches to be
locked off.

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Wiring problems can arise because runs require re-routing or extension. Site conditions
themselves are scarcely conducive to planning a safe distribution system and the long
flexible cables for portable tools and lighting only make the overall situation the more
hazardous. Control gear may need to be portable thus its siting should be carefully planned.

7.2.3 unit distribution problems


In light of the less hazardous situations arising from the use of reduced voltage, a unit
distribution system has been evolved which is efficient, safe, flexible and economic for all
site work. It provides for the control and distribution of electricity from a main AC supply of
415 V (3-phase: 4 wire) and incorporates:-
• protection for the heavier electrical gear (415V: 3-phase) by using monitored earth
systems with or without sensitive earth – leakage circuit breakers.
• Reduced voltage (single – and three – phase) facilities for safety and flexibility with
portable tools and lighting. BS EN6039, 4363, 5486 & 7375 cover the technical
specifications for plugs, socket outlets, distribution units etc.
It should be stressed that this system is for site work only. Stores, site offices, canteens,
drying rooms etc. should be regarded as standard installations at normal mains voltage
(230V: 1 – phase) and conform to BS 7671.
Note: It is strongly recommended that this system be adopted for all site work and that a
clause requiring its use be included in all contract specifications.

7.2.4 main earthing terminal


Due consideration shall be given to the following earthing requirements:
• it is the responsibility of the consumer to provide and maintain an effective means of
earthing, the public utility regulations stipulates earthing electrodes.
• shall be driven to depth such that it penetrates the summer water table by a minimum of
2 metres.
• the resistance of any point in the earth continuity system shall not exceed 0.5 ohms.
• where the incoming supply is from the public utility and emergency standby generation is
also provided, then the supplies shall be mechanically and electrically interlocked so as
to ensure only one incoming supply can be switched into use.

7.2.5 existing services


Existing electrical installations will often be present on the site before the contract
commences, in the form of overhead lines, or underground cables. A survey should always
be conducted before work commences to determine the position and nature of such
installations and the results recorded and kept on site. The electricity supplier should
always be contacted for help and advice. (see Pt 2 section 6) for further advice on
Overhead/Underground cables.

Note: No work must be carried out on any live cable, or so near as to cause danger, unless
it is not practicable to make the cable dead and all necessary precautions are taken to
ensure safety.

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7.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


7.3.1 maintenance
All electrical systems (which include all constituent parts) must be properly maintained to
ensure safety. Thus, inspection, tests and maintenance must be carried out on a routine
basis.

in addition to an initial inspection and test:

• fixed installations must be inspected and tested at least at three monthly intervals, routine
maintenance being carried out in accordance with equipment manufacturers’
recommendations.
• moveable and portable/transportable electrical equipment (as defined in BS 7671) should
be inspected, tested and maintained on a routine basis, depending on the use and
application of the particular item.
• records of training, permits-to-work, inspection, testing and maintenance should be kept
throughout the working life of an electrical system. In addition, records of circuit
diagrams, cable runs, loading diagrams and other relevant information should be retained
and kept up to date.

7.3.2 instruction, training and supervision


The installation, operation, maintenance and testing of electrical systems and equipment
should be carried out only by persons who are competent for the particular class of work.

Where employees’ knowledge or experience is not sufficient, adequate supervision must be


provided. The responsibilities of supervisors should be clearly detailed by relevant duty
holders.

7.3.3 first aid


Notices should be posted which give advice on treatment in the event of an electric shock
and there should be adequate provision for calling the emergency services. (see pt 2
section 10) – Safety Signage.
Speed is essential in dealing with any electrical accident and all electricians should be
familiar with action to be taken in an emergency.
7.3.4 testing and commissioning
All completed electrical installations must be inspected, tested and commissioned before
being made available for use. The inspection and tests necessary are listed in IEE Wiring
Regulations, but the construction site user should satisfy himself that the tests have been
carried out.

Written certificates should be completed for these tests.

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7.4 PLUGS, SOCKET-OUTLETS AND COUPLERS


For distribution of electrical energy cable Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for AC and DC
supplies are readily available to BS 4343 specifications

The BS specification covers single and three-phase components, a safeguard being


incorporated so that electrical apparatus operating at one voltage cannot be plugged into the
wrong supply. This is achieved by setting the earth point of plugs and socket-outlets at a
different “hour” position for each voltage and having a key (plug) and key-way (socket-outlet)
at a standard 6 o’clock position, so that they can only fit one way.

Plugs and sockets are available in a variety of designs providing varying degrees of
protection against damage and weather. The two types most commonly used on construc-
tion sites are the “splashproof” and the better “waterproof” designs. (see Figs. 2,3,4 & 5)

220/240V

110/130V

Fig.3 - Free plugs – straight incorporating


Fig.2 - Plugs with splash proof spring external cable grommet which allows
return covers: water to run off the back of the plug.

Fig.4 - Plugs fitted with central Fig.5 - Angled panel sockets which allow for
water tight cable gland and easier insertion and extraction when
strain relief clamp for used on vertical surfaces.
mechanical support

Note: Distribution of electrical energy to moveable equipment shall only be


permitted where such plugs and sockets are used.

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7.5 EQUIPMENT EARTHING (PROTECTIVE CONDUCTORS) ELCB


There is always the risk of shock, fire, or burns if electrical insulation deteriorates or is
damaged and there is leakage of current. It is therefore usual practice to earth all metalwork
which could be made live by such leakage.

On all building sites where temporary electricity supplies are required voltage operated earth
leakage circuit breakers shall be installed and shall be arranged to have the operating coil
connected between the consumers earthing terminal and the main earth electrode with
insulated connecting leads.

Additional residual current earth leakage circuit breakers should be fitted on the advice of
the duty holder. In particular, BS 7671 requires the fitting of residual current device
protection for socket outlets used to supply portable equipment outdoors. However, it is
emphasised that such devices, in themselves, do not provide complete protection against
shock.

All extraneous metalwork and exposed conductive parts should be bonded together and
connected to the system’s main earth terminal. Circuit protective conductors must be
installed to provide the return path from each outlet of an installation to the main earthing
terminal.

protective conductors comprise


• conduit, trunking, ductng or parts of
• part of a cable or flexible cord,
enclosures designed for the purpose.
• the armour, or metal sheath of a cable,

Reduced voltage provides increased protection against shock, but its effectiveness depends
upon the transformer being correctly earthed and this must not be overlooked.

Figs. 6,7,& 8 showing typical examples of RCD protected sockets and adaptors:

Fig.6 - RCD protected outlet Fig.7 - Metal Clad RCD Fig.8 - 13 amp RCD Adaptors
plug. Sockets.

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7.6 SYSTEM VOLTAGE


Ideally, the most acceptable reduced voltage compromise for site work (including portable
tools and lighting) is 110 V, single-or three phase, so that no part of the installation is at
more than 55 V or 65 V respectively to earth, but appreciating that , especially for the smaller
Contractors, this may not be practicable due to availability and cost, the use of 240v is
acceptable providing the requirements of section 9.5 Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers
(ELCB), and section 9.8 Plant & Tools are fully adhered to.

recommended distribution voltages


Fixed and moveable plant
above 3.75 kW 415 V: 3 phase
Fixed floodlights 240 V: 1 phase
Small mobile plant up to 3.75 kW 110 V: 3 phase or 240v with ELCB Protection
Portable handlamps (general use) 110 V: 1 phase or 240v with ELCB Protection
Portable hand-held tools 110 V: 1 phase or 240v with ELCB Protection
Local lighting up to 2 kW 110 V: 1 phase or 240v with ELCB Protection

obtaining reduced voltages


Where it is practicable to use 110v, the following is the correct method to be used for
achieving this:-

110 V 3-phase

• using a double-wound transformer with the neutral point of its star-connected secondary
winding earthed so that the nominal voltage to earth is approximately 65 V.

110V 1-phase

• using a double-wound transformer with the centre tap of the secondary winding earthed
so that the nominal voltage to earth is 55 V.

110 V 3-phase

• using portable generator set properly or 1-phase earthed in accordance with BS 7375.

7.6.1 identification colours


The use of the following colour coded cables should be adopted for distribution:

operating voltage AC colour


25 Violet
50 White Where
Applicable
110 Yellow
220/240 Blue
380/415 Red
500/650 Black

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7.7 CABLES
For all site offices, workshops, huts, drying rooms and similar premises which are regarded
as permanent type installations, BS 7671 must be adhered to. For general site work
additional precautions are necessary.

Other than supplies for welding purposes, cables carrying a voltage to earth in excess of
65V should have continuous metal armour or sheath which has been effectively earthed.
Where. trailing cables are concerned, this earthing should be in addition to the normal cable
protective conductor.

In view of the rough conditions on site, all cables should be sheathed overall.

7.7.1 main types of cable sheaths


TRS (tough rubber sheath)
good mechanical properties; resistant to wear and abrasion; unable to withstand solvents or
oil.

PVC (polyvinyl chloride)


unsuitable for outside work where low temperatures are to be expected, but permissible for
site offices and similar permanent work.

PCP (polychloroprene)
combines the advantages of TRS and PVC, i.e. resists wear and abrasion; withstands
solvents, oil, etc.

Cables buried directly in the ground shall be of a type incorporating an armour or metal
sheath or both or be of the PVC insulated concentric type. Such cables shall be marked by
cable covers or a suitable marking tape and be buried at a sufficient depth to avoid their
being damaged by any disturbance of the ground. Cable routes should be marked on the
plans kept in the site electrical register.

Low and medium voltage cables often have to be suspended and some type of bold marking
or “goal post” arrangement of non-conductive material should be erected to indicate their
presence. Where these cables need to cross open areas, or where spans of 3m or more are
involved, a catenary wire on poles or other supports will provide a convenient means of
suspension. Minimum height should be 6m above ground.

It is sometimes necessary, because of the nature or circumstances of a particular job, for


cables to lie on the ground, if only for a short time. In such cases, additional protection
should be provided by means of a conduit and special provisions made if vehicles have to
cross (e.g. ramps). The line should be clearly marked.

Joints in cables should be avoided wherever possible. Where unavoidable, they should be
enclosed in purpose-built housings.

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PART TWO

7.8 PLANTS AND TOOLS


7.8.1 plants
A large proportion of plant in use on site is electrically driven. Particular attention should be
paid to its positioning and to its supply leads.

fixed plant

(415 V: 3-phase), e.g. tower cranes, large hoists, continuous batch mixers, etc. Siting should
be carefully planned so that they can remain in one position throughout the job and so that
supply cables, of sufficient capacity, can be routed clear of construction work and be
protected against traffic movement.

movable plant

With load in excess of the 110 V: 3-phase system capacity, e.g. compressors (415 V: 3-
phase). The earth conductor in the heavy trailing supply cable must remain unimpaired if the
plant is to be used safely. If it is broken, current cannot flow to earth if a fault occurs, and it is
therefore strongly recommended that earth monitoring and/or a residual current operated
circuit breaker is provided.

7.8.2 light movable plant and portable tools


(110 V: 1- or 3-phase) or, 240v. supply panel fitted with a 30mA ELCB - e.g. drills, sanders,
polishers, grinders, vibrators, paint sprayers, soldering irons, etc.

supply leads

to these tools are likely to be lengthy; every effort should be made to protect them from
damage. Tools should be disconnected before any adjustments are made or attachments
changed.

portable tools

for use on high frequencies (in excess of 50 Hz) need a supply from a special generator and
manufacturer’s instructions should be consulted before any connections are made.

certified (kite-marked)

double-insulated or all-insulated tools may be used without earthing (i.e. with two core
cables), but they should still be used only if power supply unit is either protected by Earth
Leakage Breakers, or the portable tool itself is fitted with a 13amp. RCD plug.

Where tools have to be used away from the supply plant, an OU (outlet unit) or EOU
(extension outlet unit) should be used.

7.8.3 maintenance of plant and tools


In view of the risks from damaged or faulty electrical equipment, an appropriate maintenance
system should be set up. It is also important that equipment is regularly serviced in
accordance with manufacturers’ instructions.

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PART TWO

Visual checks should be carried out daily by users and formal inspections should be carried
out by competent persons at regular intervals.

These checks and inspections should ensure that:-

• bare wires are not visible, • the cable covering is gripped where it enters
the plug or equipment,
• the cable covering is not damaged,
• the outer casing of the equipment is not
• the plug is in good condition,
damaged or loose
• there are no taped or other non-
• there are no signs of overheating on the plug,
standard joints in the cable,

Residual Current Devices (RCD’s) should be checked to ensure they are working correctly
(the test button should be pressed daily).

Testing, by a competent person can detect faults such as loss of earth continuity,
deterioration of the insulation and internal or external contamination by dust, water, etc.

Note: The practice of connecting portable tools or any other type of electrical apparatus by
inserting bare wires into a distribution board or socket, is strictly forbidden.

7.9 LIGHTING
As well as supplementing poor daylight and enabling work to continue after dark, site lighting
is always necessary if in those areas are devoid of natural light, e.g. shafts and enclosed
stairways. Apart from permitting men to see what they are doing, adequate lighting helps to
minimise physical hazards; it facilitates the delivery and movement of material after dark; it is
an effective deterrent to intruders, pilferers and vandals. In short it safeguards men,
equipment and materials and makes for efficient, economic production.

Site lighting must be sufficient, well planned, of the right type and in the right place for it to
be properly effective. Lighting ought not to introduce the risk of electric shock.

7.9.1 measuring illumination level


Illumination levels on any part of a site can easily be checked with a pocket lightmeter,
calibrated in lux. These meters should be checked periodically and be kept covered when
not in use.

7.9.2 level of illumination


The unit of measurement for levels of illumination is the lux. One lux equals one lumen of
light falling on one square metre (lm/m2).

The level of illumination required to provide conditions in which work can be carried out
without undue risk or fatigue should not be less than the figures shown below. The figures
quoted take into account the effect of dust and dirt, depreciation, low contrast areas, etc.

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Recommended minimum levels of illumination:

Interior movement only 5 lux


General movement 5 lux
Handling materials, unloading 10 lux
Exterior general 10 lux
Clearing sites, general rough work 15 lux
Interior working places 15 lux
Interior reinforcing and concreting 50 lux
Bricklaying (except facings), 100 lux
Bench work, facing brickwork and plastering 200 lux
Interior workshops 400 Iux
Drawing boards 600 lux

The term interior lighting covers those parts of structures which may not have cladding
during erection, but which will become interiors when the work is finished.

7.9.3 area lighting


The object of area lighting should be to produce an overall level of illumination sufficient for
men and vehicles to move about in safety. Every part of the area should receive light from at
least two directions to avoid dangerous, dense shadows.

Luminaires of the area lighting type should be mounted on poles, towers, or static crane
towers. Moving supports, e.g travelling cranes, are quite unsuitable since they cause lamps
to cast dangerously deceptive moving shadows.

If luminaires are spaced too widely, illumination becomes patchy, confusing and ineffective.

Luminaires of the non-symmetrical type should be spaced at not more than three times the
mounting height. Other area luminaires should be spaced at not more than 1.5 times the
mounting height.

7.9.4 beam flood lighting


Beam floodlights are used to throw concentrated light over an area from a relatively great
distance. The beam may be conical or fan-shaped and a ribbed spreader glass is sometimes
fitted to widen the beam in one plane.

Floodlight beams are usually classified according to their spread - wide, medium or narrow -
and it should be noted that performance changes radically with size and type of lamp. A
flood that gives a medium spread with a GLS lamp can give a wide spread with an MBF
lamp.

Narrow beam floodlights are only used on sites with large open group areas and they are
usually mounted in clusters on temporary towers at least 30m high.

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With narrow beam luminaires there is always a hazard from glare because the beams are
intense. To minimise glare, they should be mounted as high as possible and the beams
should be directed downwards on the work.

significant points:

• the area illuminated decreases and the level of illumination increases as the floodlight is
brought closer to the work on the basis of the “inverse square rule”;

• to increase or decrease the level of illumination, floodlights should be moved closer to, or
further from the work — or their power should be changed;

• beam floodlights are often used to raise the light level at the point of work. (Sufficient light
should reach the workpoint from at least two directions to avoid creating shadow
hazards).

Figs. 9 & 10 show typical examples of Beam Flood Lighting lamps available.

Fig.9 - High Pressure Sodium Lamps. Fig.10 - Metal Halide -


Environmentally protected

7.9.5 dispersive lighting

Dispersive luminaires are similar to


industrial indoor types, but are
weatherproof and protected against
corrosion. They are used wherever
they can be suspended over the area
to be illuminated.

Luminaires should be spaced to


provide an even spread of light; the
ratio of spacing to mounting height is
usually 1.5:1 There are also
Fig.11 - Portable Site lighting attached to mobile Generators recommended minimum heights,
according to the lamp which must be
observed. (see Fig.11)

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PART TWO

7.9.6 walkway lighting


• includes stairs, ladderways, corridors, scaffold access routes and the localised
illumination of what would otherwise be small shadow areas, which could in themselves
be dangerous.

• luminaires are of the well glass or bulkhead type: when fitted with red lamps or red or
orange glasses, these types are widely used to delineate danger areas -hales,
excavations, obstructions, etc.

• If practicable, 11OV supply should be used for regular site work, e.g. on scaffolding and
other temporary structures, because both fittings and cables are prone to damage. A
230V supply should only be used where luminaires and cables are properly fixed, well
protected and supply protected with Earth Leakage Breakers.

• mounting should be as high as possible to avoid glare.

• spacing should be such that the light is evenly spread.

• sufficient light for access purposes on a scaffold platform 1 -1 .5 m wide can be obtained
from walkway luminaires using 60 watt Filament amps or two B waif fluorescent tubes,
set 2.5m - 3m above the walkway and not more than 6 m apart.

• mounting centrally above the walkway is to be preferred.

7.9.7 local lighting


This group covers the most widely used forms of lighting on sites, and since these fittings
are generally accessible to operatives, it is most important that they are either connected to
a 110v supply, or if 230v used, and supply protected with Earth Leakage Breakers.

Tungsten Filament lamps provide the most convenient forms of local lighting, but these
lamps, being relatively small sources of light, tend to produce hard shadows. Therefore, they
should be used with diffusers, or strung in a row so that each bulb in turn softens the
shadows created by the bulb on either side of it.

All lamps required for this type of work should be in waterproof lampholders and be
protected by guards or shades. Local lighting at the work point should supplement the
general Lighting scheme.

Luminaires should always be placed so that no person is required to work in their own
shadow and so that the local light for one person is not a source of glare for the next.

Great care should be taken that local light reaches the work from the same general direction
as light will come from window or permanent fitment when the job is finished. By doing so,
blemishes that would show up badly in the final lighting can be avoided.

Pendant luminaires should be supported so that the supply cable is not required to bear any
weight. Festoon lighting is an exception but, in this connection, only the type which uses
moulded-on lampholders is to be recommended.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST -
MANUAL HANDLING & LIFTING

Preparation

 what is being lifted?

 where to and how far?

 how many people are needed?

 are they trained in kinetic lifting and handling?

 what methods and equipment are required?

 is equipment required available?

 would mechanical means be more practicable?

 is the lifting and handling area clear of hazards?

 is the operation part of a routine. If so, could it be more effectively planned and executed?

Lifting and handling

 protective clothing in use?

 proper (kinetic) method being employed?

 co-ordination satisfactory in dual and team lifting?

 necessary equipment in use or to hand?

 are excessively heavy weights being lifted?

 are loads being deposited/stacked safely and securely?

 adequate supervision employed where necessary?

After lifting and handling

 any incidents/accidents should be reported and recorded?

 where injuries sustained, has medical attention been sought?

 damage or loss of equipment etc., recorded?

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SAFETY CHECKLIST -
MANUAL HANDLING & LIFTING

Preparation

 what is being lifted?

 where to and how far?

 how many people are needed?

 are they trained in kinetic lifting and handling?

 what methods and equipment are required?

 is equipment required available?

 would mechanical means be more practicable?

 is the lifting and handling area clear of hazards?

 is the operation part of a routine. If so, could it be more effectively planned and executed?

Lifting and handling

 protective clothing in use?

 proper (kinetic) method being employed?

 co-ordination satisfactory in dual and team lifting?

 necessary equipment in use or to hand?

 are excessively heavy weights being lifted?

 are loads being deposited/stacked safely and securely?

 adequate supervision employed where necessary?

After lifting and handling

 any incidents/accidents should be reported and recorded?

 where injuries sustained, has medical attention been sought?

 damage or loss of equipment etc., recorded?

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SECTION 9

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS &


LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES

INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E LEGISLATION

9.1 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS 2


9.1.1 storage 2
9.1.2 fire 3
9.1.3 handling of highly flammable liquids 3
9.1.4 empty containers and tanks 4
9.1.5 use of highly flammable liquids 4
9.1.6 spraying of highly flammable liquids 5
9.1.7 petroleum based adhesives 5
9.2 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 6
9.2.1 characteristics and hazards 6
9.2.2 refillable cylinders 6
9.2.3 transportation 7
9.2.4 use of LPG in cylinders 7
9.2.5 general precautions 7

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS & LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES


SAFETY CHECKLIST
(ADM/H&S/CL/2.9/1)

SECTION 9
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 9

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS &


LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES

INTRODUCTION

Both highly flammable liquids (HFL) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are widely used in building site
processes and operations. The principle hazard associated with both is fire, and it is essential that
precautions are taken to limit the risk involved.

Broadly speaking in dealing with both substances safety may be divided into three aspects:
• Storage
• Handling/transport

• Use

DEFINITION

Highly Flammable Liquid means any liquid, liquid solution, emulsion or suspension which when tested:

(a) gives off a flammable vapour at a temperature of less than 32°c.

(b) supports combustion.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas means commercial butane, commercial propane or any mixture thereof.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 - Article (9)

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9.1 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (HFL)

9.1.1 storage
On building sites, highly flammable liquids are not normally stored in fixed tanks. The following
details relate to the facilities necessary for safe storage of adhesives, paint, solvents etc. in
drums and cylinders up to 225 litres (50 gals’) capacity.

in open air

• the store should be formed on a concrete paving or


other impervious surface. A low sill ramp greater
than 150mm, should surround the paving at a height
sufficient to contain the maximum contents of the
largest drum stored. The paving should be bounded
by wire mesh fencing with access to the storage
area by way of a ramp over the sill. (see Fig.1)
• containers should be protected from direct sunlight
by a roof of light fire resistant material. The distance
between the store and any adjacent building,
workplace or boundary fence should not be less
than 4m.

• drums should be stored so that their contents can be


identified and where, in the event of leakage, they are Fig.1 - Open air Storage cage
accessible for removal. with fire resistant roof,
lockable doors,
segregated storage area
• gangways should be of sufficient width to allow easy
for empty and full
handling. cylinders.

• the store should be marked ‘Highly Flammable’ or specify


flammability, e.g. ‘Flashpoint below 32°C, in clear bold
letters. (see Fig.2). Where this is impracticable, display
‘Highly Flammable Liquids’ sign as near to store as possible.

• naked flames, smoking or means of ignition should be


prohibited in the area of the store. Lighting should be of the
approved flameproof type.

• portable fire extinguishers of the dry powder or vaporising


liquids (BCF) type should be sited at strategic positions in, or
adjacent to the store as necessary.

Fig.2 – Approved Sign for an


LPG Store.

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inside buildings

• a separate building should normally be provided and used solely for the storage of highly
flammable liquids where security and protection from weather is required. Such a building
need not be constructed of a fire resisting material.

• It should be located in a safe position, i.e. the distance between the outside wall of the store
and any adjacent buildings or boundary fence should not be less than 4m. Should space be
insufficient to isolate the store in this way, wall/partitioning must constructed with a fire
resisting material.

• rooms in finished buildings are generally unsuitable for use as storerooms.

additional points

• adequate ventilation of the store should be achieved by louvers or grilles. Care should be
taken not to obstruct these vents by stacked drums.

• a sill,no greater than 150mm should be provided at each door opening to prevent the outflow
of spilled flammable liquid.

• store should be marked ‘Highly Flammable’, or flammability specified, e.g. ‘Flash point below
32oC’, in clear bold letters.

• naked flames, smoking or means of ignition should be prohibited in the area. Lighting
should be of the approved flameproof type.

• portable fire extinguishers of the dry powder or vaporising liquids (BCF) type should be sited
at strategic positions adjacent to the store as necessary.

• where the quantity of highly flammable liquid to be stored is not more than 50 litres (10 gals)
it may be stored in the workplace, in a suitable cupboard or bin of fire resisting structure.

9.1.2 fire
For small fires involving highly flammable liquids Foam (AFFF) portable fire extinguishers are
preferable. Dry powder should only be used in the absence of Foam - especially if the liquid is
flowing; when the liquid is contained (as in a drip tray) CO2 extinguishers also suitable, but is
best used in covered areas preferably by trained personnel.

You should note that the efficiency of the external use of CO2 is severely restricted because it
gets quickly dispersed with the wind.

Note: Water must never be used to extinguish fire involving flammable liquids.

9.1.3 handling of highly flammable liquids


• bulk delivery of HFL should be made directly into the store and not off-loaded and left till
removed to the store.

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• decanting of HFL should be carried out either in the open air or in a separate room of fire
resisting construction. Containers should be checked for leaks, sealed or contents
transferred as necessary. Small ready-to-use containers should be marked ‘Highly
Flammable’ and capped. A number of companies supply special drums, containers, taps
and drip trays, especially designed for HFL, incorporating spring loaded caps and spouts
etc. (see Fig.3) funnels should be used to minimise spillage and trays to contain any
unavoidable spillage.
• filling of small containers from larger drums should
not be carried out in the store but in a well-
ventilated place, preferably in the open air. Small
containers should be marked ‘Highly Flammable’
and fitted with an effective cap. Where applicable,
cans should be fitted with pouring nozzle with
spring-loaded closure cap.

• spillage should be soaked up with non-combustible


absorbents or sand, which should be disposed of
safely. Fig.3 - Type of Drip tray
used for de-canting
flammable liquids.
9.1.4 empty containers and tanks
• heat must not be applied to, nor any attempt be made to cut or section empty containers.
They may explode.

• special care is necessary when the demolition or dismantling of tanks is undertaken as


disturbing or heating solid residues remaining in them may cause hazardous concentrations
of flammable vapours. Entry into tanks requires a certificate written and signed by a
responsible technical specialist.

9.1.5 use of highly flammable liquids


• heavy concentrations of vapour arising from the use of HFL should be avoided if possible,
and dispersed using natural or mechanical ventilation. If it is necessary to employ a
mechanical extraction system, a flameproof electrical motor should be used to avoid risk of
explosion.

• in general, where work involves the use of HFL inside a room or confined space, the power
supply should be cut off. Any space-heating appliance provided must either be sited remote
from any flammable vapour source or be incapable of causing ignition.
• naked flames, welding, heating torches, cigarettes, etc. should be prohibited in an area
when HFL vapour is present.

• metal bins with lids should be provided for off cuts, waste material and cleaning rags
contaminated with HFL, and should be emptied frequently.

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• HFL or toxic solvents should never be used to wash hands, floors or surfaces. Use
detergent degreaser cleaner.

• if brushes and scrapers require soaking, use suitable container with lid.

9.1.6 spraying of highly flammable liquids


Care should be exercised in:
• identifying the material in use and observing the manufacturer’s recommendations for use
and safety.
• selecting the correct type of spraying equipment. Spray booths with both appropriate and
approved exhaust ventilation should be used.
• providing personnel with protective clothing, respiratory equipment, hygiene and cleansing
facilities.
• avoiding the introduction of sources of ignition into working areas, i.e. non-flameproof
electrical equipment, combustion engines, hand tools, heating equipment, cigarettes, or
anything which might cause sparks.
• providing warning notices at entrances and physical barriers where necessary.
• controlling, storing and decanting material.
• providing fire-fighting equipment.

9.1.7 petroleum based adhesives


With the development of plaster and similar type boards used as coverings to walls and ceilings
and tiles for floors and other areas, the use of petroleum based adhesives in fixing is becoming
widespread.
Dangers arise from these materials, particularly when used in poorly ventilated areas where
concentrations of vapours are allowed to accumulate. Ignition of the vapours by a spark, e.g.
the simple action of switching on a light, may result in an explosion or fire, therefore the
following precautions should be observed:

• identify adhesive, its flash point and manufacturers recommendations for use and safety.

• open doors and windows; provide mechanical exhaust ventilation where necessary.

• when fixing floor coverings with highly flammable adhesives, treat only small areas at a time
and work towards door from further point.

• provide protective clothing and respiratory equipment as necessary.

• provide fire-fighting equipment.

• avoid introducing sources of ignition into work areas, e.g. cigarettes, hand tools, combustion
engines, heating equipment producing naked flames. Electrical equipment and fittings
should be of suitable flameproof design, or be isolated by removal of fuses.

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PART TWO

• provide warning notices at entrances to the area and, where necessary, barriers to prevent
unauthorised access.

Note: Where petroleum-based adhesives are in use and doubts exist as to the concentration
of flammable or explosive vapours, sampling equipment should be employed.

9.2 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)


On building sites, LPG has numerous uses ranging from heating bitumen cauldrons and boilers,
site offices and huts, to use as a fuel to power hand tools and oxy-propane cutting equipment.
Properly used, LPG is a convenient and valuable source of energy. Carelessly used, it is
extremely dangerous.

9.2.1 characteristics and hazards


• LPG is colourless; its vapour is heavier than air, and if it leaks will sink and flow into drains,
excavations etc.

• leakage, especially of liquid, may release large volumes of highly flammable gases. One
cubic metre of liquid propane equals roughly 250 cubic metres of propane gas.

• a small, proportions of gas in air (for propane, between 2% and 10%) can give rise to an
explosive mixture. If present in a confined space and ignited, it will cause an explosion.

• because LPG vapour will sink and flow, any vapour/air mixture arising from leakage may be
ignited some distance from the point of leakage and the resulting flame travel back to the
point of leakage.

• LPG is normally odorised before distribution so as to enable detection by smell.

• leakage may be noticed by smell or the cooling effect on the air at the point of leakage
causing condensation. Leaks should not be traced using a lighted match or naked flame.
Use soapy water.

• in contact with skin, the liquid will cause severe frost burns.

• though non-toxic, it is an asphyxiate and an anaesthetic.

9.2.2 refillable cylinders


• a store for refillable cylinders should be located away from site boundaries, enclosed
buildings, fixed sources of ignition and electrical equipment, in accordance with the following
table of weights/distances.

KGs Distance in
metres
50-300 1

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PART TWO

300-1000 2
1000-4000 4

• a base should be compacted or paved, and enclosed by a fence minimum of 2m high.

• cylinders should be protected from direct sunlight by a roof of light, fire resistant material.

• two exits should be formed (not adjacent to each other) with doors opening outwards and
not self locking.

• signs should be displayed indicating the presence of LPG and prohibiting smoking and
naked flames.

• the storage area should be kept free of weeds and grass. Sodium chlorate should not be
used for this purpose. Access/egress must be kept clear.

• cylinders should be stored with valves uppermost.

• LPG cylinders may be stored with other cylinders of flammable gases but should be
separated from oxygen, toxic or corrosive gases by a distance of 3m.

• stocks should be grouped by the 1000kg and groups separated by 1.5m gangways.

• LPG cylinders should not be stored within 3m of flammable liquids or combustible materials.

• cylinders must not be dropped during handling or brought into violent contact with other
cylinders, or adjacent objects.

• valves should be in the closed position, and valve caps fitted.

• where lighting is necessary, it should be mounted at least 4m above ground level and at
least 2m above the topmost cylinder of the stack.

9.2.3 transportation
When loaded on vehicles for transportation, cylinders, (whether full or empty), must be stood
upright and secured. Vehicles should have fire extinguishers (CO2 - dry powder) readily
available, should carry first aid packs, and display appropriate warning notices.

9.2.4 use of LPG in cylinders


All personnel responsible for the storage of LPG should understand the characteristics of the
product. They should be familiar with the fundamentals of fire fighting and control and aware of
the procedures in force for dealing with such emergencies.

It is difficult to cover all aspects of the use and application of LPG; following list of points should
not be regarded as exhaustive.

9.2.5 general precautions

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PART TWO

• before and after use, valve protection caps and plastic thread caps/plugs should be fitted to
minimise damage.

• cylinders should be kept upright and care should be taken during handling.

• full and empty cylinders should remain separated. Valves should be left in closed position
when not in use.

• never place cylinders below ground level, since any leakage of gas will not disperse.

• regulators should be handled with care and the hose


and connections should be examined before fitting.
All LPG containers are fitted with left hand thread
connections. Union nuts and couples have grooves
on the outside corners of the nut confirming left-
hand thread. Use correct size spanner. (see Fig.4)

• flexible hoses should be in good condition and


be protected, or steel braided if likely to be Fig.4 - Typical type of Regulator fitted
subjected to damage by abrasion. (see Fig.5) to most LPG Containers used
on Building Sites.
• over tightening connections will damage threads
and may cause leaks. Checks should be carried
out by smell-or use soapy water.

• weekly inspections should be carried out on LPG


appliances and equipment. Checklist should cover
testing for leaks, cleaning, adjusting, checking
hoses, hose clips and ferrules. (see checklist at
the end of this section). Fig.5 - Flexible High Pressure steel
braided hose with non return
valve connection.

bitumen boiler and cauldrons

• the gas cylinder should always be positioned at least 3m away from the boiler or cauldron.

• full cylinders, not connected, should be kept at least 6m away from appliance. Full cylinders
awaiting use should be kept out of direct sunlight.

• supply hoses should be checked for crushing, damage to metal braiding and impregnation
by bitumen. Unserviceable hoses should be replaced.

• if frost forms on outside of cylinder, flow rate is excessive. Avoid by using two or more
cylinders and a manifold or, if possible, a smaller burner.

blow torches, roofing irons

• lash cylinder to prevent it falling on its side when pulled.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

• a suitable high-pressure hose should be used and inspected frequently for wear.

• manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure should be observed.

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ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS & LIQUEFIED PRETROLEM GASES 9 of 10
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

site huttage

• cylinders and regulators should be fixed outside the building and the supply taken in at low
pressure via rigid pipe (copper or iron), with a flexible connection to the appliance.

• flexible tubing should be limited to a maximum length of 2.438m.

• pipework should be exposed and easily accessible for checking.

• appliances designed for use outside and requiring high ventilation should not be used within
huts.

• ventilation for convector heaters and cookers should be both permanent and adequate.

• weekly inspections should be carried out if soot forms or smell occurs, the reasons should
be determined.

fire

Instructions for dealing with LPG in the event of fire may vary with given situations. However, in
an emergency, it is of paramount importance to avoid endangering human life.

the following action should be taken by persons discovering a fire:

• summon the Fire Services (civil defence department). Acquaint Fire Officer with location of
all cylinders.

• if it can be done safely, turn off all valves to cut fuel supply and remove cylinders from the
danger area. Where this is not practicable, cool by copious spraying of water.

• if cylinders are equipped with automatic relief valves and fire exposure is severe, it must be
remembered ignited gas jets from these valves can extend a considerable distance.

• if cylinders are exposed to severe fire conditions and engulfed in flame, no attempt should
be made to fight fire. In such conditions summon Civil Defence and evacuate the area.

• where flame from a leaking gas bottle is extinguished, but gas or vapour continues to
escape, there is danger of an explosive re-ignition.

• instructions concerning emergency procedures should be provided and displayed as


necessary. Employees should be trained in the use of fire fighting equipment.

fire extinguishers

• sufficient numbers of adequate size dry powder fire extinguishers should be available.
Foam extinguishers are only suitable for small internal LPG fires.

• extinguishers should be provided for all operations and locations involving LPG, ranging
from the use of hand tools to site huttage and bulk storage.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

Note: As a guide to the requirements for the latter,


a minimum of 4.5kg (10lb) dry powder is
necessary for up to a total of 450kg (1000lb)
weight of LPG. For larger storage areas
consultation with the Civil Defence is
advised. (see Fig.6)

Fig.6 - Showing example of 4.5 kg Dry


Powder Extinguisher suitable
for fires involving LPG.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 9


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS & LIQUEFIED PRETROLEM GASES 11 of 10
SAFETY CHECKLIST - H.F.L. & L.P.G.

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (HFL)


General storage requirement
a) stores
 mark ‘Highly Flammable’ - indicate flash point

 access clear

 fire extinguishers provided

b) storage in open air


 concrete base

 mesh fence

 roof cover

 sill and ramp

 separation distance 4m

c) storage in building
 used exclusively for HFL

 sill at doorway

 well ventilated

 separation distance 4m

Workplace
 50 litres (10 gals) or less in fire resistant, marked bin/cupboard

Decanting
 in open air or fire resistant building

 into small marked containers with effective closure

 funnels/trays used

 spillage mopped up/sanded

 absorbents disposed of safely

Use of Highly Flammable Liquids


 good ventilation or mechanical extraction with flame proof motor

 no naked flame or ignition sources

 waste bins provided, with lids

 warning notices displayed

 fire extinguishers provided

Document No. Rev Date Title Checklist

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - H.F.L. & L.P.G.

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (HFL) continued…

 containers with lids, for cleaning brushes etc.

Spraying
 identify materials: observe precautions in use and storage

 use correct equipment

 protective equipment/clothing

 avoid ignition risks

 warning notices, barriers in use

 fire extinguishers provided

Flammable adhesives
 identify type of adhesive and check precautions for safe usage

 use exhaust ventilation as necessary – spark free motors

 use respiratory/protective clothing

 no ignition sources; avoid sparks and naked flames

 electrical installations – isolate fuses

 provide warning notices: erect barriers

 solvent not used to clean hands, surfaces etc.

 empty containers not to be heated or cut.

 tanks - precautions taken against risk of explosion

 entry into tanks, authorising permit obtained first.

Fire Emergency Procedures


 emergency procedures - provide and display instructions.
 procedures practised
 summon Civil Defence
 fight fire, but do not endanger life

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - H.F.L. & L.P.G.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)

Storage
 fixed/movable tanks - obtain specialist advice

 separation distance 4m

 compacted/paved base

 mesh fence

 fire resistant roofing

 two exits - outward opening

 warning signs displayed

 weed free area - no sodium chlorate

 access clear

 fire extinguishers provided

 cylinders stored upright

 3m from oxygen, corrosive or toxic gases

 avoid violent contacts, dropping of cylinders

 grouped by 1000kg - 1.5m gangways

 lighting - 4m above ground, 2m clear of top most cylinder

Transportation
 cylinders upright and secured

vehicle equipped with:


 fire extinguishers

 first aid

 warning notices

Use of LPG Cylinders and Appliances


 before and after use: valve in off position; fit valve caps/plugs

 handle regulators carefully

 avoid cross-threading/use correct spanner

 inspect equipment weekly, hoses, clips etc. Test for leaks - use soapy water.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - H.F.L. & L.P.G.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) continued…

Bitumen Boilers
 cylinder - 3m from boiler (not in use - 6m)
 protect from direct sunlight

 inspect hose frequently

Hand tools
 lash cylinders upright

 check hose for wear

 operate at recommended pressure

Huttage
 cylinders outside building

 rigid pipe in use and accessible for inspection.

 maximum length of flexible tubing to appliance 2.438m

 high-ventilation appliances; do not site in huttage

 carry out weekly inspections

Fire Emergency Procedures


 fire/emergency procedures: provide and display written instructions

 do not endanger life

 summon Civil Defence

 fight fire with dry powder. Cool cylinders with water

 turn off gas supply if safe to do so

 if flames engulfing cylinders, do not fight fire

 beware ignited gas jets from automatic relief valves

Document No. Rev Date Title Checklist

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SECTION 10

SAFETY SIGNAGE

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

10.1 PROHIBITION 2
10.2 MANDATORY 3
10.3 WARNING 4
10.4 SAFE CONDITION 5
10.5 FIRE EQUIPMENT 6
10.6 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL 7
10.7 DETERMINING SIGN SIZES 8
10.8 STANCHION SIGNS 8
10.9 SAFETY NOTICE BOARDS 9

SECTION 10
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 10

SAFETY SIGNAGE

INTRODUCTION
Safety Signs should be used to inform, advise, instruct, warn of danger and improve safety in the
workplace. Signs incorporate certain colours which have specific meanings as follows:

PROHIBITION MANDATORY WARNING SAFE CONDITION FIRE EQUIPMENT

- You Must Not - -You Must Do - - Caution - - The Safe Way - - To indicate -

- Do Not Do - - Carry out the - - Risk of Danger - Where to go in Fire Equipment


action given by an emergency
- Stop - the sign - Hazard Ahead -

Outline Circle with Solid Circle Outline Triangle Square or Square or


Crossbar Rectangle Rectangle

RED BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED


means means means means means
RISK OF FIRE
STOP OBEY GO
DANGER EQUIPMENT

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. 32 (year 1982) Article 14

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
BS 5378: Part 1:1980

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H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.1 PROHIBITION
• background colour should be white

• circular band and crossbar shall be red

• the symbol shall be black and placed centrally on the background and shall not obliterate
the crossbar

• red shall cover at least 35% of the area of the safety sign

10.1.1 example of prohibition safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.2 MANDATORY
• background colour shall be blue
• the symbol or text shall be white and placed centrally on the background
• blue shall cover at least 50% of the area of the safety sign

10.2.1 example of mandatory safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.3 WARNING
• background colour shall be yellow
• triangular band shall be black
• the symbol or text shall be black and placed centrally on the background
• yellow shall cover at least 50% of the area of the safety sign

10.3.1 example of warning safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.4 SAFE CONDITION


• background colour shall be green
• the symbol or text shall be white
• the shape of the sign shall be oblong or square as necessary to accommodate the
symbol or text

• green shall cover at least 50% of the safety sign

10.4.1 example safe condition safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.5 FIRE EQUIPMENT


• background colour shall be red
• the shape of the sign shall be oblong or square as necessary to accommodate the text or
symbol

• the symbol or text shall be white

10.5.1 example of fire equipment safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.6 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTROL


hazard
A systematic approach to the identification of potential chemical hazards is an essential
requirement

symbol signs

Used to identify hazards and mark areas to protect employees

10.6.1 example of hazardous substance control safety signs

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.7 DETERMINING SIGN SIZES


The size of sign required should be assessed depending on the sign viewing distance.

10.7.1 determine the size of signs required as follows

450
400
200
100

100 150 300 600

Viewing distance Viewing distance Viewing distance Viewing distance


up to 4.5m (15ft) up to 7.7m (25ft) up to 15.5m (50ft) up to 23m (75ft)

10.8 STANCHION SIGNS


Used for displaying signs on a temporary basis for both indoor and outdoor use, they are
simple to assemble and can be quickly positioned near to a potential danger.

Clips are supplied for retaining signs into the frame, this allows interchangeable messages
to suit the necessary requirements

Single sided Double sided

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

10.9 SAFETY NOTICE BOARDS


Contractors shall set up and maintain throughout the course of the contract, Safety Notice
boards for the use of his labour force.

Safety Notice boards should:

• be set up in prominent locations on the site that are clearly visible to the Contractors
employees and anyone entering the works

• contain all relevant emergency and contact numbers required for the contract

• be fully illustrated with relevant safety signage showing precautions required

• be safely supported and suitably placed to withstand bad weather conditions e.g. strong
winds

The Contractor’s staff and labour force shall be made fully aware of the safety signs and the
emergency contact information, prior to commencing duties on site.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 10


ADM/HSE/Pt 2 00 January 2005 SAFETY SIGNAGE 9 of 9
PERMIT FORM - HOT & COLD WORK

Permit Issued to - Section/Contractor:


To do the Following:
Exact Location:

Validity Period: Date: Duration: (Max.24hrs.) From: To:

A Actions/Conditions Yes No N/A B Safety Eq. & Protective Clothing Yes No N/A
Depressurised/ Drained Reqd.
Goggles/Face Visors/Hard Hats
Steamed/Water Flushed PVC Gloves/Safety Boots
Ventilated Properly Respirators
Isolated Mech. & Tagged Escape Sets/Full BA Sets
Isolated Electrically & Tagged Safety Belts/Safety Harnesses & Safety
Combustible Mats Cleared Lines
Three in One Gas Monitor
Lighting is Sufficient Man Riding Winch
Continuous Monitoring Reqd Portable Fire Appliances
Area clean & Safe Overalls - Chemical/Ordinary
C Other Safety/Protective Equipment or Actions Required:

I Certify That I have Inspected the Site, and Subject to all the Safety Requirements detailed in this Permit being fully
implemented, I Confirm that it is Safe for Hot/Cold Work to Start.
Name: Position: Signature: Date:
D Toxic/Hazardous Mats. To Safe Limit Test N/A Time Date Name Signature
be tested Result
Combustibles/Methane Gas L.E.L. 5%
Oxygen Above 19%
Hydrogen Sulphide 10 PPM.
Chlorine 1 PPM.
Carbon Monoxide 50 PPM.
Special Instructions:

E Acceptance by the Person in Charge of the Operation:


I Confirm That I Fully Understand and Will Implement All The Safety Requirements Detailed in This Permit, and
That All Those Under My Control Will Be Fully Informed and Instructed in it’s Implementation.

Name: Position: Company/Section: Signature: Date:


F Completion: Hot/Cold Work is Stopped/Completed At …….............…Hrs. and this Permit may be Cancelled.
Performer/
Person in Charge Signature: ………….....…… Originators Signature: ………..…….…….Date: …………Time …..………

Note: A new Permit Must be Issued For Any Change In Conditions: IMPORTANT: This Permit Does Not Allow
“SMOKING” At Any Time

Document No. Rev Date Title Form

ADM/H&S/FM/2.11/1 01 March 2005 HOT & COLD WORK PERMIT 1 of 1


PERMIT FORM - CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

Contractors Name: Contract:


Location of Confined Space:
Work to be done in Confined Space:

P This Permit is VALID ONLY from: (hrs) to (hrs) Date


A
R THIS PERMIT COVERS ENTRY ONLY INTO A CONFINED SPACE
T All work entailed in effecting entry and after entry shall be covered by the appropriate
WORK PERMIT –See Part 3A below.
1

CONDITION OF PLANT Yes/No N/A Signature


1. The plant/equipment *IS isolated from all sources of danger
2. The main valves ARE closed and locked.
P 3. The equipment HAS been drained/vented*.
A
R 4. Dangerous sludge and other deposits HAVE been removed
T 5. Mechanical drives HAVE been disconnected.
6. Electrical circuits HAVE bee locked off.
2 7. The atmosphere HAS been tested and IS free from toxic and flammable
substances.
8. There IS an adequate supply of fresh air to the work location.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN


A. Additional permit for hot work/cold work release* is required.
P
A B. Protective clothing SHALL be worn, (specify type).......................................
R C. Safety belt and lifeline shall be worn.
T D. Forced ventilation SHALL be provided.
E. Fresh air/self contained *breathing apparatus SHALL be worn.
3
F. Flameproof/intrinsically safe * lighting SHALL be used.
*delete as applicable

AUTHORISATION:
Signature of issuing authorised person Time: Date

RECEIPT:
P I have read this form and understand the special precautions to be taken prior to and during entry.
A Signed: (person in charge of the work) Time: Date:
R
T
CLEARANCE:
4 Work in the above enclosed space has been completed (or stopped) and all the men under my charge withdrawn.
Signed: (person in charge of the work) Time: Date:

CANCELLATION:
All copies of this permit are hereby cancelled.
Signed: (person in charge of the work) Time: Date:

Document No. Rev Date Title Form

ADM/H&S/FM/2.11/2 01 March 2005 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PERMIT 1 of 1


PERMIT FORM - ELECTRICAL WORK

Project:

Authorisation is given to the Contractor/Person as indicated below , to carry out the following task/s and shall adhere
to the precautions as listed to ensure the work is carried out safely.

Signature: .................................................. (Electrical Engineer) Date: .................... Time: ....................

Location or area of work:

Description of work:

Plant/Equipment/System:

Precautions necessary:
1.
2.
3.

Location of:-

Isolation: …………………………………………….. Locks: ……………………………….……….......

Notices: …………………………………….. …… Earthing (if applicable) ……………..……..…...

Other Precautions: …………………………………………………………………………………………….…...

I acknowledge receipt of this permit and I am satisfied that the precautions taken are adequate and I accept
responsibility for undertaking the work specified above in a safe manner. I declare that neither myself nor those
persons within my control will attempt any task other than as specified above.

Signature: ……………………………………… (Task Supervisor) Date: …………….. Time: ………………

I certify that the work specified above has been completed/stopped*, and that the safety measures have/have not*
been removed.

Signature: ……………………………………… (Task Supervisor) Date: …………….. Time: ………………

I certify that the above safety measures have been removed and the plant/equipment* is safe to operate and is hereby
returned to normal service. This permit is hereby cancelled and his completed form is filed for record purposes.

Signature: ………………………………… (Electrical Engineer)) Date: …………….. Time: ………………


* Delete as appropriate

Document No. Rev Date Title Form

ADM/H&S/FM/2.11/3 01 March 2005 ELECTRICAL PERMIT 1 of 1


PERMIT FORM – EXCAVATION WORK/ROAD CLOSURE

Permit Issued To: Section/Contractor: ………………………….………………………………………………….......……….

Details of Excavation Work Required: ……………………………………………………………………………….......……..

Exact Location: …………………………………… Validity Period: From: ………….…......…. To: …………....………

“A” - ELECTRICAL CHECKS

Underground Electrical Cables Yes No - Overhead Electrical Cables Yes No

If present – specify exact location and precautions: …………................…………………………………………………………

MECHANICAL/CIVIL CHECK

Underground Pipelines/Drains etc. Yes No If present – specify exact location and Precautions
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....…………..
Name Position Signature Date

“B” - TELECOMMUNICATION CHECKS

Underground Running Telephone Cables etc.: Yes No - If present – specify exact location and Precautions
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........
Name Position Signature Date

“C” - SAFETY DEPARTMENT CHECKS

Road Closure: Yes No If yes - Give full details: ………………………………………………………...

Safety Eequipment: (tick box) Road Signs Barriers Flashing Lights Traffic Lights

Other Instructions: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

I have personally checked the site and conditions and permission is granted for work to commence under all the above
mentioned precautions.
Name Position Signature Date

“D” - ACCEPTANCE BY THE PERSON IN CHARGE OF THE OPERATION

I confirm that I fully understand and will implement all the safety requirements detailed in this permit, and that all
those under my control will be fully informed and instructed in its implementation.
Name Position Signature Date

“E” - COMPLETION: Work is stopped/completed. Site Inspected and made safe. Work permit cancelled.

PERSON IN CHARGE PERMIT ORIGINATOR DATE TIME


Name Signature Name Signature

Document No. Rev Date Title Form

ADM/H&S/FM/2.11/4 01 March 2005 EXCAVATION / ROAD CLOSURE PERMIT 1 of 1


SECTION 11

PERMIT TO WORK

INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

11.1 FORMULATING THE PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEM


11.2 PERMIT TO WORK GUIDANCE
11.2.1 CONTROL
11.2.2 ASSESMENTS OF RISK
11.2.3 OBJECTIVES
11.2.4 UNDERSTANDING
11.2.5 LINE MANAGEMENT
11.2.6 INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES
11.2.7 CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH PERMITS MUST BE USED
11.3 ATTACHMENTS
HSE/FM/2.11/1 - HOT & COLD WORK PERMIT
HSE/FM/2.11/2 - CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PERMIT
HSE/FM/2.11/3 - ELECTRICAL PERMIT TO WORK FORM
HSE/FM/2.11/4 - EXCAVATION / ROAD CLOSURE PERMIT

SECTION 11
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

PERMIT TO WORK
INTRODUCTION

For work involved in areas defined as confined spaces or when isolation of either Electrical,
Mechanical or High Pressure Systems etc. is required, the most satisfactory way of ensuring a safe
system of work is by observing a permit to work system.

The permit to work is an operational document prepared by a responsible person who is familiar with
the work procedures, the hazards and all necessary precautions and who has carried out a thorough
assessment of the situation.

The permit gives a written authority that the area concerned is safe to enter and the work to start, and
lays down the time when it must stop. It sets out the correct sequence of work, the precise way in
which the work is to be done, the responsibilities of all persons involved, and the safety checks made
and all the precautions taken. The permit to work is not issued until the responsible person has put his
signature to this record, signifying that every step in the sequence of safety checks has been taken.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

Ministerial Order No. 32 (year 1982) Article 7 & 9

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

11.1 FORMULATING THE PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEM


A typical permit to work system should lay down:

• location/description of work to be done

• types and details of hazard/risks involved

• certificate of isolation where appropriate

• safety/protective equipment required

• limitation of time

• authorisation for work to commence

• acceptance by person(s) carrying out the work

• clearance of isolation

• completion of work or renewing certificate

• cancellation of permit

11.2 PERMIT TO WORK GUIDANCE


11.2.1 control
A permit to work procedure is a formal written system used to control certain types of work
which are potentially hazardous.

The term Permit to Work refers to the pro-forma or certificate which forms a part of an overall
safe working system.

The essential features of Permits to Work are:-

• clear definition of who may authorise particular work.

• clear identification of who is responsible for specifying the necessary precautions to be


taken.

• effective instructions and training to all personnel in the issue and use of permits.

• performance monitoring in order to ensure that the safe system is implemented as


intended.

The permit is therefore a written document that gives authorisation to certain people to carry
out specific work within certain time constraints and which sets out the main precautions
needed to complete the work safely and without risk to health and safety of all those who are
involved.

Note: The mere issue of a Permit to Work does not simply give permission to carry out
dangerous work or, In itself, make a job safe.

11.2.2 assessment of risk

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H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

The purpose of a Permit to Work system is to ensure that proper consideration is given to
the risk of particular work and that these are assessed and controlled before work starts.

11.2.3 objectives
The primary objectives of the procedure are to ensure proper authorisation of designated
work which may be of certain types and type within certain designated areas (other than
normal production).

11.2.4 understanding
Management and Supervision must ensure that persons involved in such work fully
understand the exact:-

• identity, nature and extend of the job

• the hazards involved

• precautions to be taken

• limitations as to the extend of the work and time during which the work may be carried
out

11.2.5 line management


It is important to ensure that the line manager in direct charge of an area, location, unit,
plant, installation or equipment is fully aware of all the work being done

A system of control must be provided and provisions made for a record showing that the
nature of the work and the necessary precautions have been checked by the appropriate
persons.

Line management should also provide a formal hand - back procedure to ensure that the
part of the plant, installation or equipment affected by the work is in a safe condition before
normal work is resumed.

11.2.6 Individual responsibilities


Clear information, instruction, training and guidance should be given to all who have
responsibilities under Permit to Work procedure including:-

• management, and where appropriate, occupiers and owners

• contractors and sub contractors

• supervisors, foremen and charge hands

• other employees or non management and supervisory staff

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

11.2.7 circumtances in which permits must be used


These include potentially hazardous non – production work for which Permits to Work are
normally required e.g.

• maintenance • working in confined spaces

• repairs • electrical installations

• inspection • dismantling

• testing • hot/cold work

• alteration • modification

• construction • cleaning

• re-construction • excavation work

11.3 Attachments
Attachments A, B, C & D are samples of typical formats that can be used when a Permit to
Work is required.

Document No. Revision Date Section title 11


ADM/H&S/Pt 2 01 March 2005 PERMIT TO WORK 4 of 4
SECTION 12

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


(PPE)

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
12.1 DUTIES 2
12.2 SUITABILITY 2
12.3 HEAD PROTECTION 3
12.4 EYE PROTECTION 5
12.5 HEARING PROTECTION 7
12.6 FOOT PROTECTION 9
12.7 HAND PROTECTION 10
12.8 BODY PROTECTION 11
12.9 RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (RPE) 12
12.10 SAFETY HARNESSES AND BELTS 16
12.11 ENERGY ABSORBING DEVICES 17

SECTION 12
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 12

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


(PPE)

INTRODUCTION
Where a risk cannot be controlled adequately by other means, employers have a duty to provide
suitable PPE.

The use of personal protection in the form of clothing or equipment should be considered as a last
resort in the minimisation of accidents. All too often there is insufficient effort to reduce or eliminate a
hazard, and too much reliance on personal protection to prevent the hazard giving rise to personal
injury.

When engineering control measures are not possible to be provided for total elimination of hazards,
the use of personal protective equipment is required.

There is considerable requirement within the Construction Industry for the use of personal protection,
even as a last resort, in view of the fact that, even on the safest of sites, hazards are not totally
eliminated.

In this section, required safety standards and advice is given on the following items:

Head Protection
Eye Protection
Hearing Protection
Foot Protection
Hand Protection
Body Protection
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE)
Safety Harness and Belts
Energy Absorbing Devices

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


British Standards referred to in applicable sections
Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article (1), (6), (9), (15), (22)
Part V–Industrial Safety Preventative Measures, Health & Social Care for Workers – Article (91)

Document No. Revision Date Section title 12


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12.1 DUTIES
12.1.1 employers
• assess hazards and risks prior to work to ensure proper selection and adequate provision
of personal protective equipment.

• ensure arrangements for employees to report loss or defects to enable replacement or


repair, before the employee concerned is allowed to re-start work.

• equip all visitors with a minimum of hard hats and safety boots.

• erect signage to inform of PPE requirements when entering a site area and near site
hazards (see signage section)

• provide suitable storage arrangements for when PPE is not in use.

• ensure the user is trained in :

- the hazards of the activity that PPE is required for,

- how the PPE is used,

- limitations of the PPE,

- maintenance, storage and inspection requirements.

12.1.2 employees
• be trained before using any PPE

• make full and proper use of PPE.

• care for PPE and follow any maintenance requirements.

• report any defects or loss, and where appropriate, return PPE to storage after use.

12.2 SUITABILITY
12.2.1 recognised marking
• All PPE shall either have a BS kite mark or CE mark (both being recognised marks
for PPE tested and approved to International Standards).

12.2.2 inspection and maintenance


• properly trained persons should examine PPE in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommendations prior to issuing.

• the wearer should also inspect it before use to ensure that it is clean and not defective.

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12.2.3 checks
To be suitable, PPE must:

• be assessed as appropriate both to the risk and the work condition.

• be selected to take account of factors such as length of time it needs to be worn and the
need to see and hear.

• be capable of fitting the wearer correctly.

• be compatible with other PPE which may need to be worn (e.g. safety helmets and
hearing protection).

• carry a CE mark, BS Kite mark or other mark to internationally recognised standard.

• be comfortable and convenient to the wearer.

• allow wearer to be selective and have a degree of choice, where appropriate, before final
selection is made.

12.3 HEAD PROTECTION


In the vast majority of construction operations, there is a foreseeable risk of persons
incurring an injury to the head, either due to falling material, or due to the head striking
against another object.

12.3.1 required safety standards


• a safety helmet is required to be Examples below are situations where
used on construction sites, head protection may not be required,
excavation work, overhead crane but will still have to be worn to cross the
operation, low structures / pipes / site:
beams or wherever there is risk of
∗ maintenance or decorative work
head injury.
on completed buildings where
• All contracts shall be classed as there is sufficient headroom
“Hard Hat Areas” and notices shall and no multi layers of working
be displayed. levels

• anyone having control over other ∗ inside site offices, temporary


persons at work has a duty to ensure accommodation etc.
that head protection is worn. This
∗ inside the cabs of vehicles and
applies to main contractors, sub
plant, if provided with falling
contractors and also to individuals
object protection
such as site managers, foremen,
engineers and surveyors. ∗ when work is at ground level,
e.g. roadworks such as kerb
laying or resurfacing

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12.3.2 main types of head protection

industrial safety helmets/hard hats

should conform to BS EN 397 Industrial hard hats - heavy


duty, or an equivalent standard. Photo shows safety helmet
shell and section through to the harness.

industrial scalp protectors/bump caps

should conform to BS EN 812 Industrial hard hats – light


duty, used as protection against abrasion or bruising in
confined spaces, such as ducts etc. They are intended only
to protect against minor risks and must not be used where
industrial safety helmets are required.

12.3.3 use and maintenance of head protection


• for the harness to be properly • not to paint, mark or label a helmet,
adjusted, but not too tight, and for as this can affect its protective
the helmet not to be worn at an properties.
angle.
• to minimise exposure to sunlight,
• to keep the clearance between extreme heat or cold, chemicals etc.
helmet and harness; i.e. nothing
• to remove all dirt and moisture after
must be carried in the helmet.
use with warm soapy water.
• to handle the helmet with care.
• to provide places to store correctly,
• for regular inspection of the helmet when not in use.
shell for cracks and signs of wear
• to request a replacement, if the
and of the harness for loose or
helmet is lost or the harness is
broken straps, worn stitching etc.
damaged.

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12.3.4 accessories
When determining the type of helmet to be supplied, consideration should be given to other
protective equipment which may be needed to be worn. Equipment, which can be mounted
on safety helmets, includes:

chin straps

used for work that might cause the helmet to fall off e.g. steel
fixing, where much of the work is done whilst bending over.

ear defenders

built in brackets for the attachment of hearing protectors when


working in a noisy environment.

face shields

may be fitted to certain helmets by a swivel mount fitting. These may


be needed on operations where there is a danger of flying particles,
chemicals etc.

lamp brackets

these allow lights to be fitted to safety helmets for work in dark


areas.

12.4 EYE PROTECTION


12.4.1 required safety standards
• should be to BS EN 166 which covers general industrial eye protectors including
spectacles, goggles and face shields.

• suitable face and eye protection must be worn by employees to protect face/eyes against
any flying particles / splash of chemical / hot solutions.

• impact resistant safety glasses with side shields / safety goggles/full face shield suitable
for grinding, buffing, chipping operations shall be provided and used.

• welding masks with appropriate filter glasses must be used when performing welding
operations and be to BS 1542.

• in addition, eye wash fountain shall be readily available at the site. In remote locations,
eye wash bottles may be substituted.

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12.4.2 types of eye protectors


safety spectacles

these include those with robust Acetate frames with


toughened glass lenses and Lightweight Nylon frames.
Side shields are fitted for lateral protection. Safety
spectacles are available in both Grade 1 and Grade 2
standards.

safety goggles (box goggles)

wide vision goggles, usually with lenses giving General


Purpose Grade 2 or Grade 1 impact protection. The
ventilation styles offered cover most industrial hazards,
e.g. dust, chemical and gas hazards. “Antimist” and
“Molten Metal Splash” approved goggles are also
available. This type of eye protection can be worn over
ordinary prescription goggles.

welding goggles and shields

fibreglass polyester welding shields are available either as


hand shields, or, as with face shields, fitted to the safety
helmet lens holder. Welding filters are supplied depending on
the wearer and job requirements.

welding spectacles welding goggles welding shield

face shields

lightweight face shields in acetate, polycarbonate, etc. are


manufactured for total eye and face protection and can be
worn secured to the front of the safety helmet. Styles vary
(brow guards, flare etc.) as does length of visor. Models are
available for antiglare and gas welding. Light mesh type face
shields are available for use with chain saws etc. when cutting
timber.

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12.4.3 eye protectors are marked as follows

Type/Hazard Marking

General purpose industrial eye BS EN 166 S


protection
Impact Grade 2 BS EN 166 F
Impact Grade 1 BS EN 166 B
Molten Metal goggles BS EN 166 - 9
Chemical goggles BS EN 166 - 3
Dust goggles BS EN 166 - 4
Gastight goggles BS EN 166 - 5
Lens filters (for welding) BS 679
Face and hand shields : helmets for BS 1542
protecting during welding

Note: Glass lens supplied for use in impact and/or molten metal eye protectors in
combination with plastic lenses, must be additionally marked with the word “outer”.

12.5 HEARING PROTECTION


Ear defenders are used to prevent loss of hearing when persons would otherwise be
exposed to levels of noise which are considered to be hazardous.

The maximum levels to which persons may be exposed are expressed as a function of
intensity and time, e.g. 90 decibels [db (A)] for a period of 8 hours, or its equivalent This
value is quoted as the ‘equivalent continuos sound level’ or 90dB(A) Leq (8hr). The noise
levels in any particular working environment should be determined by measurement with
meters but, as a rough guide, if it is necessary to shout over a distance of 1 metre or less in
order to he heard, then the noise level may be excessive.
12.5.1 required safety standards
• persons working in areas with excessive noise above 90 dB(A), shall wear ear muffs/ear
plugs.

• hearing protection should conform to BS EN 352 Hearing Protectors: Safety


Requirements and Testing.

• high noise level areas should be identified and appropriate warning notices should be
exhibited to warn employees.

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12.5.2 types of hearing protection


In order to combat noise, which cannot reasonably practicably be, reduced sufficiently at
source, ear protection, which may range from the simplest forms of ear plugs to extremely
efficient ear muffs and noise helmets, must be used.

ear plugs
These are effective in relatively low noise level areas and many different types are now
available e.g:

• disposable types of wax impregnated cotton wool, glass


down or similar materials with are shaped and inserted in
the ear canal.

• permanent moulded pre shaped plugs of fiber or plastic for


insertion into the ear canal.

• foam ear plugs which are compressed in order to fit into the
ear and expand to maximise protection.

Notes: - plain cotton plugs do not give adequate protection.


- some ear plugs are supplied in different sizes and it is important that the
correct size is used..

ear muffs

• these consist of two rigid cups or shells which cover


the ears and are fitted with absorbent material. They
fit to the head by means of soft sealing rings known
as ear seals. The ear cups are connected to suitable
headbands so designed to maintain cups firmly
against the ear. Seals are either fluid or foam filled.
Note: - Fluid seals may not be sufficiently robust to
withstand the rigours of the construction
environment.

12.5.3 communication systems


These are available incorporating receivers in the ear cups and are operated, generally on a
loop transmitting system, to enable the wearer to receive messages.
An alternative is a two way wired communication system, incorporating noise cancelling
boom microphones and amplifiers in the ear cups that can be connected together allowing
two way communications in noisy areas. This could have particular application where noisy
work has to he carried out in confined spaces, such as sewers, where effective
communication is essential.

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12.5.4 selection of hearing protection


level of protection

The level of protection (amount of noise reduction) offered by hearing protectors, known as
the attenuation, will be dependent on the frequency of the sound source. Each manufacturer
of ear protection will have available an attenuation chart or graph showing the level of
attenuation at a range of different frequencies. Also quoted will be a standard deviation and
this figure should he deducted from the attenuation value to determine the assumed
protection. This is only if the equipment is properly fitted and adequately maintained.

compatibility with other PPE

Hearing protection, particularly ear muffs, should be selected so that it is compatible with
other items of protective clothing which may have to be worn.

12.6 FOOT PROTECTION


12.6.1 required safety standards
• safety footwear should conform to: BS EN 345, BS EN 346 & BS EN 347 or equivalent.

• standard safety boots with metal toe caps must be worn by all personnel on site and in
places where foot injury could occur.

• in specific operations, rubber boots with steel toe should be used.

12.6.2 protective footwear is used to


• provide protection to the toes in the event of material falling on the foot by the use of a
steel toecap built into the boot or on the outside surface.

• prevent injury by the penetration of nails and similar sharp objects. Steel midsoles are
standard only on some boots and shoes and is preferred for building construction sites.

• provide protection against the ingress of water.


Rubber/wellington boots are used when persons are required to
work with their feet in wet substances, such as concrete or mud
and for work in places such as sewers.

• provide a good grip on surfaces which are potentially


slippery.

• provide protection during certain specific operations, e.g


special electrical safety shoes should be used by those
involved in electrical trades.

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12.6.3 selection
The selection of foot protection will depend primarily on the assessed risk. In general, safety
boots rather than shoes are recommended for site work as they provide support for the
ankle on uneven or soft ground. Where there is a risk of injury from penetration or crushing,
protective steel toecaps and midsoles will be required.

comfort

• comfort is an important factor to be considered particularly in the selection of


rubber/wellington boots which are obviously required to be 100% waterproof. Rubber and
PVC boots are inexpensive, but they are not permeable; moisture is kept out, but
perspiration is kept in. With such boots the wearing of socks is recommended, but it is
important that these are regularly washed.

• the weight factor particularly with boots having safety features such as steel toe caps and
midsoles can he important with respect to foot comfort.

• steel toe caps, designed to protect toes from falling objects may bruise and chafe the
toes across the foot joint after prolonged wear. It is important to choose the correct size
of footwear allowing for the type of socks to be worn.

12.7 HAND PROTECTION

12.7.1 required safety standards


• hand gloves must be used in jobs likely to
cause injury to hands.

• gloves must be used near moving machinery


parts.

• PVC/rubber gloves must be used when


handling chemicals.

• electricians using tested rubber gloves must


check them for defects prior to start of work.

• select and use the gloves suitable for the job.

12.7.2 selection
The first consideration in the selection of industrial protective gloves must be to identify the
hazard to be overcome and the handling requirements.
The handling of small components will require that the glove must be highly flexible and give
good dexterity to the worker.

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12.7.3 considerations when selecting


abrasion
gloves which are used to protect against abrasion will usually be of
leather, or those having leather palms. Where gloves are to be worn in
the wet, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) will give a high standard of water, oil
and chemical resistant, in addition to preventing abrasion.

grip
where grip is important, gloves made of a base material such as knitted
nylon or cloth with a latex coating, are suitable

chemical resistance

air-impermeable (plastic or rubber) gloves will be necessary for


operations such as degreasing, paint spraying and pesticide handling.

heat resistance

this will be required by welders, burners and other such as those working
on live heating systems. Leather gauntlets will be appropriate for these
trades

water resistance

resistance to water and other fluids is rarely a quality which is


required on its own and PVC gloves resistant to abrasion would
normally be suitable.

12.8 BODY PROTECTION


12.8.1 required safety standards
• wear proper protective clothing/coverall.( Loose or baggy clothing is not permitted in work
areas).

• a PVC apron must be worn against splash from any chemical or corrosive substances,

• a leather apron is required to be worn by welders and others where there is potential
hazard of hot metal/sparks.

• full PVC suit to cover full body is required for persons entering tanks/vessels/sumps/pits
to protect against any chemical/corrosive substance.

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12.8.2 types of body protection


wet weather clothing

usually In the form of PVC either one or two piece suits, and often in company livery. PVC
clothing is particularly prone to condensation on the inside and the incorporation of vents will
help alleviate the problem. Clothing manufactured from a breathable fabric (Gortex) is
available, but is quite expensive.

high visibility clothing

normally in the form of waistcoats or jackets for use when workers


are working adjacent to moving traffic, either on public highways,
or on such operations as earth moving. These garments will
incorporate retro reflective strips front and rear.

overalls

these will normally be made of poly cotton and arrangements must


he made for regular cleaning- Specialist trades such as asbestos
strippers and lead burners will have lightweight overalls suited to
the operation; such overalls may be of the disposable type.

leather aprons

used by welders and burners to provide protection against sparks and molten metal which
might otherwise ignite their clothing

trousers

incorporating ballistic nylon or similar material, are available to give round leg protection to
chain saw operators.

12.9 RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (RPE)


Whether toxic materials, which are liable to produce, dust, gases or vapours are being used,
or are present in the working environment, there is always a respiratory hazard. Ideally, the
contaminant should be controlled at source to minimise the hazard, but this is often not
possible. If it is necessary to provide RPE the first step is to determine whether the
environment is deficient in oxygen, in which case, air supplied equipment (breathing
apparatus) must be used; if sufficient oxygen is present, but the air is contaminated air,
purifying equipment (respirators) can be used.

The overall choice of equipment is wide. As the wrong choice could seriously affect the
health of the wearer, or lead to asphyxiation, expert advice is essential combined with
training and information being given to the wearer. In addition, cleaning and maintenance
facilities for the equipment must be provided to ensure continued effective protection.

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12.9.1 required safety standards


• dust mask respirators must be worn to protect against dust particles.

• chemical cartridge respiration must be worn when painting/spraying solvent or chemicals.

• when there is potential for the presence of toxic gas/vapor or oxygen deficient
atmosphere, the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used.

• only authorized /qualified personnel can issue Respiratory Protective Equipment.

• persons trained /certified on the usage of self contained breathing apparatus shall be
engaged and the work should be done under direct supervision. The basic tests to
ensure proper fitting of face masks must be done before each operation.

• proper selection and use of RPE should be ensured by taking into consideration
hazardous operation, contaminant, time, protection from the particular equipment,
limitations, state of health of individual.

• when working with asbestos, staff shall be provided with respiratory equipment approved
for use with asbestos which does not allow penetration by, or retain dust and which
should be a close fit with head cover.

• when engaged in grit blasting, the use of air supplied hood is essential If blasting in direct
contact with the dust / grit.

12.9.2 types
Inhaled air is drawn through a medium that is designed to remove most of the contaminant.
It is imperative that the correct medium is used for the particular contaminant and, where
dust and fibres are concerned the actual size range of the particles is an important
consideration. Filters are used to collect dust and fibres whereas, for gases and vapours, a
chemical absorbent is used usually contained within a replaceable cartridge.

disposable respirators
manufactured from filtering material and are usually termed
filtering facepeices or facemask. The facepiece is at a
negative pressure.

half mask respirator


made from rubber or flexible plastic and designed to cover nose
and mouth. They are fitted with a single or two side-by-side
replaceable cartridges, different ones being available to protect
against a range of dust. gases and vapours. The facepeice is at
a negative pressure.

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full-facepeice respirator
are made from rubber or flexible plastic, but designed to cover the nose, mouth and eyes.
The filter median is contained in a cartridge or canister directly coupled to the facepiece or
connected via a flexible tube with the appropriate filter fitted, it is suitable for either dust
gas or vapour and the facepiece is at a negative pressure.

positive pressure powered respirators


have filtered air supplied to the breathing zone, via a flexible tube from a battery powered
blower. The filter fan and battery are usually fixed around the wearers waist. Alternatively
positive pressure to the breathing zone may be provided by a blower and filter mounted in
the respirator, with only the battery fixed to the wearers waist, as shown opposite.

12.9.3 breathing apparatus


Used primarily where the atmosphere is deficient in oxygen as may occur in confined
spaces. However it is sometimes used in other circumstances where the atmosphere is
contaminated, e.g. in the removal of asbestos insulation and coating. The equipment
consists of a facepiece by which the wearer can breathe uncontaminated air, either drawn
from fresh air or supplied by compressed air.

fresh air breathing apparatus

consists of a full facepiece, with insulation and exhalation valves connected by a non
kinking hose to fresh air. The hose is normally less than 25mm in diameter and should not
exceed 9m in length unless breathing air is assisted by means of a hand or mechanical
power to maintain a positive pressure in the facepiece.

compressed air-line

breathing apparatus, in which an is supplied to the


facepiece through an air line from a compressor. These
devices depend on a good face fit. They may supply air
on demand (by suction demand or positive pressure
demand), or they may provide air continuously to the
facepeice.

self contained breathing apparatus

in which the air supply is provided to a full face piece


from cylinders carried on the back. Air may be supplied
to the wearer on demand, or the exhalation and
demand valve may be so designed that a positive
pressure is maintained inside the facepiece.

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12.9.4 selection
RPE should be selected so that the wearer does not breathe level of contaminants above
the relevant occupational exposure limits. A wide range of equipment is available, which
have various limitations in respect of efficiency and wearability. Proper selection is essential
if wearers are to receive adequate protection.

Heat stress call also be a factor when working in hot and humid atmospheres, or when
clothing is sealed as in asbestos stripping. The cooling effect of the supplied air in power-
assisted equipment and the low breathing resistance, make it more acceptable than non-
powered equipment.

Freedom of movement must also be considered. With compressed air line, breathing
apparatus movement is restricted by the air line, which must not become entangled or
kinked. Self-contained breathing apparatus does not have this limitation, but is bulky and
heavy; power assisted respirators are lighter.

12.9.5 use of RPE


Where a face piece is incorporated, a good seal is essential. Where it is possible to close
the inlet of the equipment, e.g. by a card over the filter, the wearer should carry out the
following “negative pressure test” each time the respirator is worn:-

• after the harness straps have been properly tensioned and adjusted, the inlet should be
lightly closed and the wearer should inhale gently. The face piece should collapse
slightly. Excessive leakage is indicated if the face piece does not collapse, in which case
the equipment should be readjusted and the test repeated. If excessive leakage is still
indicated, it is unlikely that the equipment will be suitable to the wearer. Alternative
equipment should then be made available for test.

In the case of power assisted respirators fitted with face masks, loss of air flow will be
indicated by increased breathing resistance.

12.9.6 inspection and storage


All equipment, with the exception of disposable types, require cleaning, disinfecting and
inspection after use and before wearing by another person, and properly stored when not in
use.

12.9.7 training
Training in the use and application of RPE is essential for all types of equipment. Only
persons who are thoroughly familiar with the equipment and know the procedure to adopt in
an emergency should wear RPE.

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12.10 SAFETY HARNESSES AND BELTS


The main reason for the use of safety harnesses is to limit the distance of any fall and
thereby minimising the risk of injury. They will also be used to facilitate the rescue or persons
working in confined spaces, such as manholes etc. Safety belts are not suitable for arresting
a fall, but only as a restraint to prevent access to a danger area.

12.10.1 required safety standards


• safety belts with life lines must be worn when hazards of falling from height exist or when
working on elevated platforms or baskets. Select the proper safety belt and use it.

• safety belts shall be examined periodically. Defective and worn out safety belts must
never be used.

• rescue safety belts with harness / life line must be worn when an employee is working in
a confined space.

• when using ladders, a fall arrest device connected to body harness must be used.

12.10.2types of harnesses and belts


full body harness

this comprises straps, fittings, buckles etc. suitably


arranged to support the whole body of a person and to
restrain the wearer during a fall and after the arrest of a
fall. The harness should be fitted with a lanyard which will
limit the fall to maximum of 2m. The use of an energy
absorber to further minimise risk of injury during arrest, is
strongly recommended.

general purpose belts and chest harnesses

are used in situations where short duration work is necessary in areas where provision or
fall prevention measures would be impracticable. Belts and harnesses should be fitted with
a line of the appropriate length to prevent access to the danger area.

rescue harness

a rescue harness is used for protecting or rescuing workmen entering dangerous enclosed
places It must be capable of reasonable adjustment, be easy to fit in an emergency, and
be used in such a way that the fall is limited to 600mm.

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12.10.3 use of harnesses and belts


It is of the utmost importance that, whenever a safety belt or harness is provided, there is
also an effective means of fixing it to the structure at all times while the protection is
required. All too often, a belt or harness is provided in the hope that the wearer may find
somewhere to attach it. It is also vital that that the fixing point for a harness is strong enough
to withstand the snatch load of a fall. The use of two lanyards will sometimes be necessary
to ensure constant attachment whilst moving.

The distance of fall should be as small as is possible, and to that end, the harness lanyard
should be fixed to the structure, or fixing point, as high as practicable above the working
position.

12.11 ENERGY ABSORBING DEVICES


An energy absorber should be part of a fall arrest system whenever possible. In order to
reduce the possibility of injury to the body in the event of a fall, energy absorbers have been
developed. These devises installed between harness and the anchorage point, allow the fall
to be slowed down, thus absorbing energy and reducing the final load on the body.

12.11.1 types of energy absorbing devices available

A pack containing a strip of 350 lbs nylon tear web,


parallel with a main load-bearing web, together linking
the nylon lanyard to the safety harness. In the event of a
fall, the tear web absorbs the shock as it tears apart.

A corrugated curved stay of metal designed to reduce


the shock by straightening out under a shock load.

A simple rubber labrinth through which the anchorage


rope is threaded.

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12.11.2 selection
The selection of energy absorbing devices is as important as the proper selection of your
body belt or full-body harness.

• one of the most important aspects of selecting energy absorbing devices is fully
planning the operation before it is put into use. Probably the most overlooked
component is planning for suitable anchorage points.

• lanyards should be kept as short as possible to reduce the possibility of serious injury
and should not exceed 2 metres.

• ensure that forces incurred during a fall would be less than 1,800 lbs.

• ensure the anchorage point and device will take the dynamic loads generated in a fall.

• energy - absorbing device selected should match the particular work situation, and any
possible free fall distance should be kept to a minimum.

• consideration should be given to the particular work environment and conditions. For
example, the presence of acids, dirt, moisture, oil, grease, etc., and their
effect on the device, should be evaluated. Hot or cold environments may
also have an adverse effect on the system. Wire rope should not be used
where an electrical hazard is anticipated.

12.11.3 use
• choose the correct type of anchorage point or restraint system.

• choose the correct type of equipment.

• assess the possible free fall distance.

• check for dangerous obstacles which a person could hit or swing into.

12.11.4 inspection
• check the equipment prior to use for damage (If in doubt seek expert advice
or replace it)

Note: If a harness and lanyard has been subjected to a fall, they should be disposed of and
replaced. The human eye cannot evaluate the stresses that have been put on the
equipment and next time they may not work. A suitably qualified person should
inspect energy absorbing devices, anchorages and systems annually or following a
fall.

12.11.5.1 training
• ensure you have received comprehensive instructions from the supplier as to
the devices proper use and application.

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• train personnel in the correct use of equipment and the procedures that
should be followed.

• put in place emergency procedures and have means available to promptly rescue an
employee should a fall occur, since the suspended employee may not
be able to reach a work level independently.

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SECTION 13

SITE TRANSPORT

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

13.1 TRAINING 2
13.2 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS 2
13.3 SELECTION OF DRIVERS/OPERATORS 2
13.4 GENERAL SAFETY RULES 3

SECTION 13
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Codes of Practice Manual
PART TWO

SECTION 13

SITE TRANSPORT

INTRODUCTION
Transport accidents continue to contribute to the overall toll of injury and consequent personal misery.

About one quarter of all fatal industrial accidents involving transport occur in construction. Common
sense therefore suggests the need for clear rules and systems of work to ensure the safe use of
vehicles in the construction environment.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


In compliance with Abu Dhabi Police Traffic Regulations

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13.1 TRAINING

The provision of adequate training and instruction is a legal requirement as well as being
essential to good general safety management. This is particularly so in regard to the safe
use of mechanically propelled vehicles.

13.2 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS


• at the commencement of each day/shift the driver should check the following items as
appropriate :

∗ fuel

∗ water

∗ oil

∗ tyre pressure and soundness

∗ wheel nuts (in place and properly tightened)

∗ efficiency of brakes and steering mechanism

∗ efficiency of lights, horn, reversing light/klaxon, direction indicators, flashing beacon,


windscreen wipers/ washers, etc.

∗ batteries – for secure placing, cleanness, corrosion, and correct electrolyte level
before use and charging.

• any defects, damage or other condition considered by the driver as being likely to make
the operation of the vehicle unsafe should be reported immediately.

13.3 SELECTION OF DRIVERS/OPERATORS

Persons selected to drive site vehicles should be physically fit with normal eyesight and
hearing. They should be mature, reliable and have the capacity to carry out the work in a
responsible manner.

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13.4 GENERAL SAFETY RULES


• the authorised driver is at all times responsible for the safe operation of his vehicle. He
must ensure that all movements are made smoothly and at a safe speed. Site speed
limits must not be exceeded. Unauthorised persons must not be permitted to operate the
vehicle.
• the driver must ensure that the vehicle is not overloaded and that the load is secure.
• the vehicle should be kept tidy and free from tools, rubbish or other materials which could
obstruct the controls.
• passengers must only be carried on vehicles, trucks, etc. designed for the purpose and
fitting with fixed seating. Vehicles which do not meet this standard should display a notice
stating “NO PASSENGERS”.
• vehicles must not be manoeuvred too close to excavations so that they run the risk of
causing the sides to collapse. There is also the danger that a laden vehicle may fail to
stop at the edge.
• the driver should not leave his vehicle unattended with the engine running. When parked
on an incline, in addition to applying the parking brake, the engine should be left in gear
and wheel chocks used to prevent movement.
• before reversing the vehicle, the driver must ensure that there is no obstruction in his
path and should obtain the assistance of a banksman or signalman to accompany him
and direct the operation. Where appropriate, audible/visual warning devices should be
fitted to indicate that a vehicle is reversing.
• no vehicle may be used on the public highway unless:
∗ the driver is in possession of a valid current driving licence issued under the
authority of the Road Traffic Acts:
∗ the vehicle is licensed for use on the public highway and complies with Department
of Transport inspection and test requirements.
• when an emergency or rescue towing operation is necessary, the connection between
the towing vehicle and the casualty should, wherever possible, be by means of a solid
bar and purpose-made towing apparatus. Lifting gear should not be used unless this is
unavoidable, in which case it should not be used again in a lifting operation until it has
been re-tested/examined, as appropriate, by a competent person.
• no person must remain on any vehicle, truck or wagon whilst it is being loaded by
mechanical means if he is endangered by doing so. Where a falling objects protective
structure is fitted to a vehicle, it is normally acceptable for a driver to remain in his cab.

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SECTION 14

MOBILE PLANT & EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

14.1 GENERAL PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 2


14.1.1 drivers, operators and banksmen 2
14.1.2 maintenance 2
14.1.3 general precautions 3
14.1.4 tyre changing 3
14.2 SPECIFIC TYPES OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 4
14.2.1 earthmoving plant 4
14.2.2 fork lifts and telescopic materials handlers
14.3 PRECAUTIONS WITH SOME MISCELLANEOUS MOBILE PLANT 14

SECTION 14
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 14

MOBILE PLANT & EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION
Mechanical plant and equipment in use in the Construction Industry are available in a wide and ever
increasing variety. The categorisation of such plant and equipment can be produced as follows:

∗ earthmoving Plant

∗ miscellaneous Mobile Plant

This section covers hazards common to the above categories in addition to those hazards specifically
associated with the safe control of individual items of mobile plant and equipment.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No 32 (year 1982 Articles 11 - 14

In compliance with Abu Dhabi Police Traffic Section Regulations

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14.1 GENERAL PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

14.1.1 drivers, operators and banksmen


The minimum required, but not limited to, qualifications of all drivers, operators and
banksmen of mechanical plant and equipment, are as follows:

• competence in performance of their duties.

• attainment of the legal age (as per Applicable UAE Legislation Section above) and to be
eligible of driving and operating such equipment.

• achievement of training on the correct operation of the specific plant or equipment, the
limitations of its use, and the hazards which exist if, it is not used properly.

• full awareness of usage instructions for the plant and equipment that will be operated by
them.

• ability to maintain stability of the mobile type plant they use and its load at all times.

• awareness that mobile plants should be parked on firm, level ground, with the engine
turned-off, brakes on, and any load lowered to the ground.

employers responsibilities

• ensuring that their drivers, operators and banksmen have the minimum of the
qualifications and achievements mentioned above.

• establishing a procedure to ensure that only drivers and operators, holding Certificates of
Authorization issued by the appropriate authority, use their equipment.

14.1.2 maintenance

It is only after proper maintenance that mechanical plant or equipment will remain safe to
operate. In this regard, the measures to be undertaken by the person, or department
assigned by the user to do the maintenance of the plants or equipment, are as follows:

• establishing a programme whereby every plant and mechanical equipment is regularly


and systematically inspected, serviced, maintained and repaired as necessary.

• maintaining during repair and maintenance activities a safe system of work whereby
permit to work system, like lock-off systems, are established to ensure that no part of the
equipment can accidentally go into motion while work on it is in process.

• ensuring that measures like the propping of raised attachments (e.g. bodies, cabs, etc.)
are applied to prevent the occurrence of accidents as a result of accidental lowering.

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14.1.3 general precautions

General precaution measures, as listed below, are to be seriously implemented by all


involved persons. These measures can be summarized as follows:

• minimum clearance distances are to be preserved whenever operating plant and


equipment are used in the vicinity of overhead, buried electrical cables and underground
gas mains.

• clear visibility of mobile plant drivers should be secured at all times. The following
measures must be secured:

∗ restricting speed limits, applying one-way traffic system within the site, in addition to
the spraying of water can help prevent dust from impairing visibility.

∗ keeping all persons not performing any activity related to the work under execution,
well outside the work boundary of working plant and equipment.

• driver of mobile plant should be provided with well-trained banksmen as necessary.

• drivers should never remain on a vehicle being loaded unless falling objects protective
structures/ cabins are used.

• drivers should always use the safe means of access to the cab (like ladders, steps, stairs
etc.) that should always be provided.

• noise produced by powerful plants should be reduced at source to a minimum. Persons


performing work around noisy plant must wear hearing protection, and, where applicable,
protective clothing. (refer to section 1)

• all mobile plant should be properly equipped with lights, side and rear view mirrors.

14.1.4 tyre changing


Failure to follow proper tyre changing procedures can lead to serious accidents, injuries or
death. The general guidelines for tyre changing are the following:

• only trained persons having the proper tools are to mount or dismount, inflate or deflate
tyres which should be carried out following the manufacturers’ recommended
procedures, especially if the tyre is ballasted.

• maximum inflation pressures specified by the manufacturer should be posted on the


equipment using a clear label as close as possible to the tyres location.

• persons should be trained to distinguish between the different required precautions with
the different designs and sizes of tyres.

• the jack should never be relied upon on its own to support a machine during the changing
of a tyre; sound and substantial timber must be used as a support for the jack.

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• before removal, tyres must be


deflated and the pressure in the
stem should be decreased by
depressing the valve core stem.

• during the inflating of a tyre, either


a safety cage or extension to the
air hose should be used to prevent
any accident or occurrence to
Fig. 1 - Example of a tyre cage mounted on a fixed
persons standing over or in front of column which will effectively protect the
the tyre. (see Fig.1) operator should the tyre explode.

14.2 SPECIFIC TYPES OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

14.2.1 earthmoving plant


general

• when earthmoving plant are driven on the highway, tooth guards should always be fitted
to excavator bucket teeth.

• when loading/unloading earthmoving plant on to a transporter vehicle, measures to be


taken are: (see Fig.2)

∗ the plant operator should supervise the loading/unloading of the plant under the
directions of the transporter driver to ensure that such activities are done at low
speed and safely.

∗ the vehicle should be designed to carry loads exceeding the anticipated maximum
floor load to be carried.

∗ the carried plant should be securely fixed so that there is no possibility of potential
moving, toppling, or falling off the vehicle during transport. Brakes are to be also
engaged.

∗ best arrangements of the plant on the transporter vehicle should be made so as to


eliminate the possibility of the load blocking the driver’s visibility, especially to the
rear.

∗ the carried plant should also be loaded in such a way as to keep its center of gravity
as low as possible, and as close as possible to the centerline of the vehicle in order
to increase its stability.

∗ the availability of sufficient area to prevent the striking of the machine with
obstructions, is to be checked.

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∗ the transporter on which the plant is loaded should be parked on a firm and level
ground and never on a ramp with an unsafe angle.

Lashings from rear


towing point prevent
forward movement and
movement of dipper arm

Lashings from front towing point through idler


sprockets prevent rearward movement. Note
tracks butted against stowed loading ramps

Fig.2 – Diagram showing how to safely load an excavator onto a transporter.

Type Brief about machine


crawler tractors All-purpose powerful
(dozers) machines for pushing and
pulling. Usually noisy and
with restricted vision.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Require supervision of the machine and nearby site activities.

• Special care to be made in soft fill areas since there is possibility of sinking of the lower track deeper than
the upper one.

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Type Brief about machine


scrapers Motorised scrapers are
fast movers of soils.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Require well maintained haul roads for safety

• Minimum clearance to be kept between closely operating scrapers is 25m

• To be in low gear during downhill travel

• During travel, the bowl should be kept high enough to prevent any collision with low objects and ground, and
low enough to prevent any instability occurrence on turns.

Type Brief about machine


360º Excavators Obviously, used for
excavating and are
available in two types:
Mounted on tracks and
Mounted on wheels

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• A minimum clearance of 60 cm is to be kept in order to allow for tail swing.

• No person should be present in the work area of the excavator. When necessary, the person may access
this zone only after informing the operator by signs or radio.

• Size of the bucket as recommended by the manufacturer should never be exceeded.

• The machine should be positioned so that the wheels or tracks are at 90ºto the workface to allow for rapid
withdrawal when necessary.

• The bucket should not be extended too far in the downhill direction so as to prevent unstable conditions.

• It is advisable to use stabilizing devices when wheels-mounted excavators are in operation.

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Type Brief about machine


180º backhoe Serving in excavating
loaders and/or loading excavated
materials.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

In addition to those applicable to excavator (item c above), the following is applicable to backhoe:-

• Backhoe attachment must be set in the travel position when the front shovel is used.

• The shovel should be lowered to ground whenever the backhoe is operated in poor soils conditions which
could cause stabilisers to sink.

Type Brief about machine


trenchers Equipment used to make
trenches

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Correctness of Trenching depths is to be verified immediately before start, especially when working in multi-
service areas.

• Operator should not rely on the clutch slip mechanism which could stop the operation when a boulder is
encountered. He should manually disengage the digging mechanism before attempt of removal of boulders.

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Type Brief about machine


loading shovels Equipment mounted on
tracks or wheels and
used to excavate loose
soils and other materials,
transport them for short
distances and to load
transporter vehicles.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Bucket should be carried low during travel.

• Operators must check the rear before and during reversing the machine as for the majority of the time, this
equipment is operated in reverse direction.

Type Brief about machine


graders Essentially used as a
shaping and finishing
machine.

High-speed equipment
designed to work on
slopes.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• When working on slopes, special precautions are to be made in presence of wet soil conditions.

• Flags are to be fixed to the blade in addition to lights whenever the grader machine is working on a road
used by other equipment.

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PART TWO

14.2.2 fork lifts and telescopic materials handlers


introduction

The following guidance applies, in general terms, to the use of both Rough Terrain Fork Lifts
and Telescopic Materials Handlers. The expression "Fork Lifts" will be used in this chapter to
cover both types of machine.

operators and banksmen

The efficiency and safety in use of fork lifts depends mainly on the competence of those who
control, maintain and operate the equipment.

Operators must.

• Before anyone is permitted to operate a machine for the first time, he must be given off-
the-job basic training by a competent instructor and, at the end of the training, pass a test
on the skills and knowledge required for safe operation in all aspects of fork lift operation.

• A record must be kept which includes the details of basic training given and the nature of
the test. The employee will need a copy of the record, as evidence of training, on change
of employment.

• Employers should not allow personnel to operate fork lifts without written authorisation,
relating to specified types of fork lift.

• Banksmen should be 18 years of age or over and medically fit, with good eyesight,
hearing and reflexes. They should be familiar with any communication systems or signals
used in association with the machine's operation and have been sufficiently trained in the
workings of the fork lift to be able to direct the driver as necessary.

machine stability and safe load handling

Safety in fork lift operation demands that machine stability is maintained at all times. Fork
lifts should, therefore, be carefully selected for the work they are required to do. For
construction sites, only those types designed for site work should be used.

The rated capacity of a machine will be quoted by the manufacturer; but careful checks
should be made to ensure that the capacity is appropriate for the work to be done. For
example, safe loads will be lower if the mast is tilted forward or the boom of a telescopic
materials handler is extended. Stated capacities apply in a static condition and may be far in
excess of those which are safe when the machine is moving. Limits of safe operation will
depend on site conditions and, as far as possible, machines should be operated only on
designated routes.

Even with the right machine for the job and satisfactory site conditions, the safe operation of
fork lifts on site still depends on the machine being properly operated. The establishment of
safe systems of work (in written form where appropriate) and incorporated in operator
training programmes is all important.

When stabilisers are fitted to a machine, they should be used in accordance with

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manufacturers' instructions.

When operating fork lifts, drivers must be aware of the effect on the machine's stability of
induced forces. These are the forces which act upon a machine or on its load due to a
change in speed or direction; for instance, when starting, stopping, turning or rolling. The
greater the speed of the machine, the greater these induced forces. Accelerating,
decelerating and braking must be done progressively and smoothly, never hard or jerkily.
Turning must be done carefully, giving due consideration to the weight and placing of the
load and the condition of the ground.

Accident experience has indicated certain points which need particular attention:

• Load stability is crucial and should be checked before travelling.


• Wide loads have tilted and caused fatal accidents. Ensure that loads cannot tip sideways.
• Accessways must be checked to see that they are wider than any load which may be
carried along them. Loads should normally be carried close to the ground but, if they
have to be raised to clear obstructions, they must be lowered when the way is clear. The
operator should be assisted by a banksman.

• The weight of timber and other porous material should be re-estimated if it is wet.
• If the machine has a mast, loads should be lifted with the mast vertical or slightly tilted
back.

• Travelling on slopes, or in poor ground conditions, may be critical and the machine
manufacturer's recommendations should be followed. The danger of skidding and
overturning is particularly serious on two wheel drive machines where braking can cause
weight transfer away from the brake axle when negotiating a slope.

• There are reversing hazards with fork lifts, as with other transport. Audible warning
alarms are a useful aid, but their effectiveness can be limited by general background
noise and by operators relying on them, instead of carrying out a visual check before
reversing. The need for a banksman should always be considered.

Whenever the load impairs the operator's vision, a banksman should be used to guide the
operator.

With articulated fork lifts, a lift should not be made unless the front and back wheels are in
the same straight line.

Unit loads should not be broken down unless the overall weight would overload the machine.

stacking of materials

Stacking areas should be clearly designated and built on firm level ground with good
drainage. There should be adequate clearance between the stack and any wall, because
walls have been known to collapse as a result of the horizontal pressure exerted by the
weight of stacked material.

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The stability of a stack depends on:

• Relation of its height to the narrowest base dimension (height should not exceed three
times the narrowest base width).

• Interlocking of the material to prevent movement.


• Compactness and the security of wedging, where applicable, to avoid sideways
movement.

• Proper understanding of the weight to be carried by the components at the bottom of


the stack (this is particularly important where fragile materials are concerned).

• The avoidance of any projecting items which, if accidentally struck, could cause
the collapse of the stack.

• Adequate measures to ensure security in high winds.


Most accidents involving collapse occur during the destacking process, when material is
removed in an uncontrolled order to suit the operator's convenience, thereby leaving
portions standing at a height which cannot be supported by the remaining base. De-stacking
should be in the reverse order of the original stacking process.

safe systems of work - safety of site personnel

On sites operating fork lifts, all personnel must be fully instructed in the safe systems of work
laid down for their protection, and must observe them at all times. Some of the points which
should be covered by safe systems of work are:

• Everyone not directly involved in fork lift operations should keep well clear of the
machine.

• The carrying of passengers on fork lifts should be forbidden.


• Persons acting as banksmen, or guiding the driver in removing his forks from the pallet,
should:

1. keep a safe distance from the machine and its load

2. never stand under the elevated load of a fork lift

3. never stand between the load and any exposed floor edge, or between the load and
a fixed object

4. wear conspicuous clothing; reflective jackets should be worn during poor visibility

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attachments

Attachments are designed to increase the


scope of fork lifts. In each case it must be
remembered that the use of an attachment
can radically alter the fork lift's stability
characteristics and hence its safety (see
Fig. 1).

Preferably, any attachment should be made


by the manufacturer of the fork lift, and its
incorporation on the fork lift done in
OUTSIDE LOAD CENTRE - UNSTABLE
consultation with them; otherwise it is
essential that the attachment is designed by
a competent person and that adequate
testing is carried out before the equipment is
allowed into general use.

The use of attachments may involve


additional training for operators to ensure
overloading does not occur.

When using a jib/hook attachment, similar


operating procedures to those for mobile
WITHIN LOAD CENTRE - STABLE
cranes should be employed.
Fig. 1 – effect of fork extensions

safety devices

Each rough terrain fork lift should have a device incorporated in its hydraulic system which
will not allow the machine to lift weights greater than its rated load. The machine should also
have a device which will prevent a specified load being lifted beyond a given height.

The provision of a simple levelling indicator is strongly recommended, with the danger
zones, where it is not permitted to raise the load, clearly marked. Such indicators, if not
fitted as original equipment, can be fitted by the user; but only after consultation with the
manufacturer of the fork lift.

Every telescopic materials handler should be fitted with an Automatic Safe Load Indicator
which gives a continuous read out of forward stability and sounds an audible alarm when
the load exceeds 95% of the Safe Working Load. Other safety devices which should be
fitted to these machines are:

• a levelling indicator

• check valves which will hold the load in the event of hydraulic pressure loss

• an indicator lamp which will show when stabilisers are on firm ground

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working platforms

Due to height limitations and the necessity to have an absolutely level surface, the use of
working platforms on fork lifts will be very rare on site.

Where it is intended to use a working platform on a telescopic materials handler; it is


essential that the fork tilt control is isolated to prevent inadvertant operation.

maintenance

Fork lifts should be maintained in efficient state, efficient working order and in good repair.

Details of necessary maintenance will be given in manufacturers' manuals. It will be


necessary to arrange for this maintenance to be carried out, usually involving a fitter to do
the less frequent but more complex work and the driver to do the simple but vital checks.

The driver should:

• check that any defects previously reported to the supervisor have received
attention

• check battery levels, topping up where necessary

• check tyres for wear, damage and pressure

• check fork locating or retaining pins

• check water and oil levels

• check brakes

• check any rollover or falling-object protective structures (ROPS or FOPS), where


fitted

• check that steering is positive

• check the stability of the seat

• check the mirrors and test the horn (it is recommended that these items are fitted)

• check that lights are working correctly

• check working of lift mechanism; check chains for lubrication and for foreign
material caught in links

• check hydraulic hoses for chafing and leakage.

Any defects revealed by these checks should be reported by the driver to his supervisor.
Machines should not be used until defects which affect their safety have been rectified.

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14.3 Precautions with some Miscellaneous Mobile Plant

Type Brief about Equipment


Hydraulic Mechanical
Used to break and penetrate
Breakers
rock or concrete into pieces.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Ensure that before the start of work that the excavator is in proper working order and capable
of carrying the load of the attachments.

• Only involved persons are to remain close of the breaker and these persons should wear
safety helmets and eye protection.

• The danger of rock/concrete material splintering should always be considered.

Type Brief about Equipment


Telescopic
Used to pump concrete from
Boom Concrete
ground to various floors on
Pump
buildings under construction.

Measures and Precautions to be Undertaken

• Driver/operator must be fully trained in all operational and safety aspects of the plant.

• Outriggers must always be used prior to pumping.

• Communication to be maintained by use of a banksman or radio when discharge hose is out


of sight of the Pump operator.

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SECTION 15

STATIC PLANT & EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

15.1 DUTIES 2
15.2 SELECTION 2
15.3 SITING 3
15.4 USE 3
15.5 MAINTENANCE 3
15.6 SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SPECIFIC TYPE OF
PLANT & EQUIPMENT 4
15.6.1 compressors/air receivers & pneumatic tools 4
15.6.2 cement and concrete mixers 5
15.6.3 bar bending and cropping machines 6
15.6.4 burning and welding equipment 6
15.6.5 brick/block saws 6
15.6.6 woodworking machinery 7
15.6.7 winches 7
15.6.8 tirfors 8
15.6.9 hoists 9
15.6.10 drilling rigs 9
15.6.11 piling equipment 10
15.6.12 cement silos 10
15.6.13 batching plants/transmixers 11

SECTION 15
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 15

STATIC PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION
This section identifies the general principles of selecting, siting, maintaining and using static plant and equipment
commonly found on Building Sites in Abu Dhabi.

The general risks of specific items are also described.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article (1), (6), (7) (9), (10) (15),

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15.1 DUTIES
15.1.1 employers
Have a legal duty to ensure the proper selection and maintenance of mechanical plant and
equipment, and to provide the required information, instruction and training to their operators
in their safe use

15.1.2 operators
should have been trained not only in the correct operation of the plant and equipment, but
also in the limitations of its use, and the hazards which exist if it is not used properly. It is
recommended that all plant operators hold relevant Certificates of Training Achievement

15.1.3 manufacturers
Have a duty to provide information on any hazards associated with their products and advice
on their safe use. Users should ensure they are in possession of this information, and make
certain that the operators are instructed accordingly.

15.2 SELECTION
The proper selection of static plant and equipment is of paramount importance to reducing
risks in the workplace. The exact requirements for each specific item of plant or equipment
should be determined by risk assessment.

Above anything it should be safe and ‘fit for purpose’.

The following are the main points to consider:-

• location of use and any limitations, eg noise, weight, vibration, fumes, fire risk, etc. that
exist, or will exist.

• space required to safely operate the plant or equipment.

• method in which the plant or equipment will be safely transported to site, safely offloaded
and positioned.

• performance of the plant or equipment to ensure it is capable of performing the task


without being overloaded.

• availability of suitably trained, experienced and competent personnel to operate the


specific plant or equipment.

• any special requirements for guarding.

• if appropriate, whether electric or combustion engine options are more suitable for the
workplace?

• what type of ground conditions are required to support the plant or equipment?

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• if appropriate, whether solid tyres are a safer option than pneumatic tyres, or vice-versa?

• if appropriate, what heights are required to be reached?

• is the plant or equipment new. If not, are maintenance details available?

• what maintenance of the specific item is required and how frequently?

• whether the item of plant or equipment can be safely removed from its location after
construction works have progressed?

• will any lifting operations be required to position the plant or equipment? If so, are lifting
eyes available?

15.3 SITING
As previously mentioned, specific items of plant and equipment should be selected with
exact siting (location and suitability) requirements in mind.

In some cases, the area where the plant or equipment is to be sited will need to be
prepared. For instance, ground compaction, level firm surfaces, extract systems, exclusion
zones, sound barriers, etc, may be needed. A risk assessment should be used to determine
the safe method of siting the plant or equipment, taking into account all the hazards from
when it enters the site gate to its final position(s).

15.4 USE
Before any item of plant or equipment is put into operation, it should be assessed to ensure
that it is in accordance with the selection specification, and safe for use.

• all operatives should be trained and/or experienced and competent to safely operate the
plant or equipment.

• no plant or equipment should be used if it is not in a safe working condition.

• all specific safety control measures determined by risk assessment should be in place
before the plant or equipment is used.

15.5 MAINTENANCE
Any item of plant or equipment will remain safe to operate only if it is properly maintained in
good condition. A programme of regular preventative maintenance should be established to
ensure that all plant and equipment is systematically inspected, serviced, maintained and
repaired as necessary. Responsibility for taking this action should be clearly identified.

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Personnel undertaking maintenance work should be suitably trained, experienced and


competent to undertake their works safely. Those who are not fully competent, eg trainees,
should be provided with additional supervision.

A safe system of work must be maintained during all maintenance and repair operations
and, where necessary, a permit to work system (e.g. a lock-off system) should be
established to ensure that no part of the machinery is accidentally set into motion whilst
work on it is being carried out. (see Pt 2 section 11) - Permit to Work.

While personnel are carrying out inspections, maintenance or repair tasks, machinery
should be isolated and inspection covers, etc should be securely propped to ensure the
safety of the inspector.

The appropriate manufacturer’s repair and servicing instructions should be made available
to all persons responsible for carrying out the work.

15.6 SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SPECIFIC TYPE OF PLANT & EQUIPMENT

15.6.1 compressors, air receivers and pneumatic tools


The following points should be checked: (see Fig.1)

• V-belt and pulley drive is adequately


guarded.

• air receiver is:-

 clearly marked with its safe working


pressure and distinguishing number.

 is fitted with a safety valve, a pressure


gauge, a drain cock and a manhole.

 has been examined as required by an


approved inspector.

• if an airline is used for blowing out, the


activity is strictly controlled and that the Fig. 1 - Type of Compressor used in Workshops, can
person using the airline, and other persons be either fixed or used as a mobile unit.
in the vicinity, are adequately protected (e.g.
by eye protection).

• joints in air lines are made with purpose-made connections.

• air supply to all tools is switched off when tools are left unattended or changed.

Under no circumstances should horseplay with air lines be permitted.

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15.6.2 cement mixers


The following precautions should be taken when
using cement and concrete mixers: (see Fig.2)

• operatives should be experienced and competent


to operate the mixer. Where the operative is not
experienced, a higher level of supervision will be
required.

• should be sited on a firm level hard standing to


ensure its stability during all modes of operation. A
paved surface, eg concrete, will contribute to the
ease in which the workplace can be maintained in
Fig.2 - Type of te Mixer commonly used
a safe manner. on Building Sites

• sufficient room will be required around the mixer for easy/local access for materials.

• provision should be made to facilitate the delivery of materials to the mixer workplace
without the need to move the mixer, equipment, or materials.

• workplace should be maintained to provide a safe work environment for the attendant
and those people delivering materials and collecting cement or concrete.

• should be positioned to allow sufficient ventilation for diesel/petrol fumes to exhaust away
from the operation. If area is not sufficiently ventilated, a change of location should be
considered, but if this is not reasonably practicable, an exhaust extract system will be
required.

• all pulley wheels, belts and gears must be guarded as per the manufactures’ standards.

• on diesel/petrol engine mixers, the exhaust should be suitably shielded to prevent burns.

• unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer, the cover lid over the engine/motor should
be closed whilst the mixer is operational.

• fuel tanks should not be filled whilst the engine is running.

• should never be stopped when materials remain inside. Restarting the mixer when it is
loaded poses increased risks to safety.

• should not be loaded beyond its designed limits. If it will not do what is required of it with
reasonable ease, then it is probably not the correct machine for the job.

• oil levels must be regularly checked to prevent overheating.

• care should be taken when operating the wheel. A tight grip is required when unloading
the mixer to prevent the wheel spinning, which can result in arm and hand injuries.

• mixer and workplace should be inspected daily to ensure continued safe working. Any
faults or damage should be repaired.

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• many diesel engine mixers generate potentially harmful noise levels, especially for mixer
attendants working in the noise for many hours at a time. Risk assessment will determine
what ear defenders are required (if any) and who is required to wear them.

• proper procedure for starting diesel engines with a starting handle should be followed to
prevent thumb/hand injuries.

• attendants should wear suitable gloves whilst handling the mixer (but not for starting it).
gloves used should also be suitable for handling cement, lime and sand.

15.6.3 bar-bending and cropping machines


Hand and power operated bar benders and croppers should be: (see Fig.3)

• used only by authorised persons,

• used only as recommended by the


manufacturer; no attempt must be made to
exceed stated maximum capabilities,

• firmly mounted on a substantial base


ensuring stability in operation,

• fixed at a suitable height to ensure ease of


operation, and reduce the risk of strain or
injury to the operator; Fig.3- Example of a Bar Bending Machine
commonly used in Workshops on Building
• maintained in a fully serviceable condition, Site
e.g. pivot pins, ratchets or cutting edges are
not worn,

• located at a safe distance from other site personnel and activities,

• kept clean and lightly lubricated,

• stored, and adequately protected from the weather when not in use.

15.6.4 burning and welding equipment


(see Pt 2 Section 27) - Welding.

15.6.5 bricks/block saws


The brick saw has been used on construction sites for a number of years. It has a number of
advantages over other methods, namely:
• a neat, straight, flat and accurate cut is achieved.
• whilst cutting, the operative stands upright.
• are fitted with a dust suppression system (water), which effectively prevents dust
contamination.

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• fitted with a diamond tipped, steel blade to achieve a constant depth of cut throughout its
long life.

Because of the inherent dangers in using this type of saw, it is paramount that the
following precautions are taken:-

• saw should always be positioned on a firm, level and flat surface to ensure stability.

• cutting operations should be within a barriered off safety zone to prevent others being at
risk from the saw, and provide the operative (who cannot hear other work operations),
with protection from others.

• operative should be suitably trained and competent.

• area surrounding the saw should be kept in a tidy condition to prevent trip hazards whilst
carrying bricks and blocks.

• maintenance of the dust suppression system is of paramount importance to minimise the


risks of the dust created and prolong the life of the diamond tip blade.

• ear defenders should be worn, especially with diesel/ petrol driven saws.

• safety footwear and eye protection is a must.

• hands should be kept a safe distance away from the revolving blade during the cutting
operation.

15.6.6 woodworking machines


(see Pt 2 section 18) - Woodworking machinery.

15.6.7 winches
Checks should be carried out on all winches to ensure that:

• the winch is securely bolted down,

• the lead angle of the rope is as nearly at


right angles to the drum as possible,

• the rope is strong enough and long enough,


with at least two turns remaining on the
drum,

• the driving pinion engages properly and can


Fig. 4 - Helical/parallel gearing type Floor
be locked in position, Mounted Winch with enclosed gearing
and flange style roller bearing. Up to
• water and oil are kept out of break linings, 26000lb capacity.

• brakes are adequate,

• a guard is fitted over the driving cogs,

• persons are kept clear when the winch is operating,

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• the pawl and ratchet are in good condition.

• hand winches should be registered, inspected frequently, be thoroughly examined,


cleaned and lubricated at regular intervals. (see Fig.4)

15.6.8 tirfors
The following precautions are necessary in the use of a tirfor machine:

• It should never be released whilst under load.

• forward and reverse levers should not be operated


at the same time.

• secure anchorage must be ensured to hold the


applied load.

• only the operating handle supplied with the


machine should be used. Attempt must not be
made to increase leverage, e.g. by placing a tube
over the lever as an extension.

• only the appropriate manufacturer’s shear pins


Fig.5 - Example of a typical Lightweight
must be used. type of Tirfor having 800kg. Lift –
1250kg. pull and a 20 metre rope,
• when using multi-sheave blocks, it must be commonly used on Building Sites.
ensured that they are suited to the load applied.

• only the specially designed wire rope supplied by the manufacturer should be used.

• it should be remembered that, when using a tirfor machine for pulling purposes, the
necessary pulling effort is not equal to the load being moved. If the operation of the tirfor
is too much for one man, then the work should be stopped and the number of blocks
increased (within the rated capacity of the machine). (see Fig.5)

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15.6.9 hoists
(see Pt 2 section 19) – Cranes and Hoists.

15.6.10 drilling rigs


Surface drilling rigs, including augers, are
used in the work of site investigation,
sample recovery and testing, well drilling,
and other geotechnical processes such as
ground stabilisation and anchorage. (see
Fig.6)

As all drilling work requires a high degree of


skill and competence, without the overall
supervision normally expected on
construction sites, it is recommended that Fig.6 - Example of a Mobile Surface Type Drilling Rig
formal training of operatives is carried out commonly used on Building Sites and
Explorative work in Abu Dhabi.
followed by on the-job instruction under the
guidance of experienced drillers. This
method provides operatives who are both
knowledgeable and safe.

The proposed site should be investigated prior to any drilling operations, and particular
attention given to such hazards as overhead power lines, underground services, toxic fills,
mine cavities, cellars, derelict buildings etc., which could affect the safe installation and
operation of the drilling rig, and the safety of personnel. (see Pt 2 section 6) – Overhead
and Underground Services.

Permission must be sought from, and notification given to, the various interested bodies and
organisations, such as ADWEA, A.D.N.O.C, S.P.D. before site access or drilling operations
commence.

The working area immediately around the drilling rig should be kept tidy at all times, and any
working platforms, (e.g. on the vehicle-mounted rig) should be uncluttered and free of
grease and oil spillage. Rods, casings etc., should be stored in a safe manner; i.e., pegged
to prevent collapse and spreading

In particular:

• hand tools should be kept in a clean and serviceable condition.

• process of connecting and disconnecting rods and casings should be carried out in a
manner which avoids the possibility of injury to personnel.

• manual lifting of heavy equipment, rods and casings, should be carried out in the
recommended manner.

• loose attire such as scarves, ties and sleeves, and the wearing of wrist watches and

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jewellery such as finger rings can lead to serious injury, and should not be allowed.

• wearing of suitable gloves is essential in the handling of drilling equipment, in particular


steel wire rope. In the possible presence of toxic material, the use of protective barrier
cream is recommended.

• safety helmets should be worn at all times.

• when rotary percussive drilling is taking place, ear defenders should be worn.

• in the presence of rock dust, or similar hazards, suitable protection should be taken
against inhalation, ingestion, or damage to the eyes.

• wearing of safety footwear at all times is strongly recommended. (see Pt 2 section 12)
PPE

15.6.11 piling equipment


(see Pt 2 section 23) - Excavation & (see Pt 2 section 26) - Piling.

15.6.12 cement silos


Adequate lifting points must be fitted to facilitate
handling and positioning. Proper ladder access, with
safety hoops where appropriate, must be provided.
Where access to the top of the silo is needed, a safe
working platform must be provided.

A safe system of work must be established to allow


blockages of material to be cleared without the
operative having to enter the silo. When, for any
reason, it is necessary for a person to enter the silo
to carry out work, the Confined Space Requirements
apply. At least two competent people, fully trained in
rescue procedures, including the use of breathing
apparatus, must always be in attendance. Any
person entering a silo must always wear a safety
harness and line and adequate means of rescue
(sheer legs, winch or other means of leverage) must
Fig.7 - Type of Cement Silo complete
be provided. (see Pt 2 section 21) -Confined Space. with pneumatic fill pipe,
baghouse for dust control, a full
There must be adequate lighting during the hours of perimeter safety cage and
darkness or when natural light is inadequate. (see ladder, manhole and pressure
relief valve.
Fig.7)

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15.6.13 batching plant/transmixer


Static concrete batching plants are
now a common feature of large
building sites, and although they
are fairly safe when properly
operated and maintained, there
are inherent dangers such as
concrete dust, moving parts of
machinery etc. (see Fig.8)

The following are the main safety


features to consider: Fig.8 - Sowing a typical example of a static Batching Plant
commonly used on large Building Sites.
• only trained and authorised
persons should be allowed to
operate batching plants.

• cement dust from silo to be effectively controlled.

• entry into silo should be under a permit to work system as this is classed as a confined
space. (see Pt 2 section 11) – Permit to Work.

• all moving parts of any machinery should be effectively guarded.

• storage bins storing dry cement stored should be covered by a tarpaulin.

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SECTION 16

PORTABLE TOOLS

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
16.1 ELECTRIC TOOLS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2
16.2 PORTABLE ELECTRIC SAWS 3
16.3 PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILLS 3
16.4 PORTABLE ELECTRIC GRINDERS & CUTTING BLADES 3
16.5 CARTRIDGE OPERATED TOOLS 4
16.6 COMPRESSED - AIR TOOLS 5
16.7 HAND TOOLS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 7

SECTION 16
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 16

PORTABLE TOOLS

INTRODUCTION
The majority of power driven hand tool accidents are caused by improper handling and poor
maintenance of the equipment, both of these can be overcome by good supervision and proper
training of the tool operators.

This section will introduce the legal requirements, and applicable standards that should be adopted
when using ‘Power Tools’ on the Departments Building/Construction sites.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E.LEGISLATION


Ministerial Decision No. 32 of 1982 Articles; (10) – (14)

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
OSHA 2207, Part 1926, Subpart I, section 1926.300 – 1926.305

British Standard BS 4343, BS 1362, BS 2769

British Standard BS 2092, BS 4481, BS 4078

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16.1 ELECTRIC TOOLS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

condition of tools

All power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or employee, shall
be maintained in a safe condition.

guarding

When power tools are designed to accommodate guards, they shall be equipped with such
guards when in use.

power source

Portable electric tools, when used in normal industrial conditions working off 220/240v power
source, should be in good condition, properly maintained and power supply to the tool fitted
with an approved earth leakage detector. (refer to site electrical requirements section in this
manual section 9) Electricity at Work.

personal protective equipment

Employees using power tools and are exposed to the hazard of falling, flying, abrasive, and
splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapours, or gases shall be
provided with the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from
the hazard. (see Pt 2 section 12) PPE.

housekeeping

Good housekeeping is essential for good workmanship and safety. All tools shall be neatly
and correctly stowed when not in use. Work areas must be maintained in a clean and orderly
fashion.

maintenance

All tools shall be cleaned and inspected regularly, and those which are worn or damaged,
should be replaced or repaired immediately.

operators

Only authorised and competent persons shall be permitted to operate power tools.

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16.2 PORTABLE ELECTRIC SAWS

• all portable saws are equipped with a fixed guard over the upper half of the blade and a
moveable guard which automatically covers the lower half of the blade. Both these guards
must be kept in place; blocking of the lower guard to prevent closure is prohibited.
(see Fig.1)

• saw blades shall be regularly checked, kept in good condition and stored suitably.

• blades used must be those recommended for the material being cut.

• if a portable saw is adaptable for bench top use it


must be securely clamped before use to the support
designed for this purpose.

• operators exposed to harmful dust, as when cutting


concrete, tile, lead or stone, should wear approved
type respirators.

• operators should be trained in the use of the electric


saw and be familiar with the hazards associated with
the tool. Fig.1 - Portable Electric saw fitted
with a spring loaded
• appropriate personal protective equipment must be retractable guard.
supplied by the employer and worn by the employee.

16.3 PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILLS

• electric drills shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded in


accordance with site electrical requirements section in this manual.

• operators shall be trained in the use of the tool; selection of the bit for the material to be
drilled, use of ‘starter’ marks, clamping of work piece and elimination of loose clothing on
the operator.

• appropriate personal protective equipment for the task and material being drilled.

16.4 PORTABLE ELECTRIC GRINDERS & CUTTING BLADES


(see also Pt 2 section 17) Abrasive Wheels.

• no person shall operate an abrasive wheel grinder unless he is trained and found to be
competent to mount and operate an abrasive wheel or cutting blade and perform the task
safely.

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• grinding wheels maximum permissible speed should be higher or the same as the grinder
motor.

• the wheel must be inspected and dressed regularly. Appropriate eye shields and
respirators must be worn during the dressing operation.

• cracked stones shall be discarded immediately.

• tool rests shall be used and adjusted properly. The rest should not be adjusted when the
grinder is in motion.

• cutting-off wheels should only be used on machines designed specially for their use –
never use an un-reinforced cutting-off wheel on a portable grinder machine.

• all guards designed for use with a grinder must be used and never removed.

• so far as it is practicable, the work area shall be maintained in good and even condition,
shall be kept clear of loose material and prevented from becoming slippery.

• approved cautionary notices displaying the hazards associated with grinding wheels shall
be posted at the work area where grinding or cutting is being carried out.

• the side of the wheel shall not be used to perform work under any circumstances.

• appropriate approved personal protective equipment shall be used by the operator and
helpers.

• grinding or cutting operations shall be isolated from other activities and personnel by the
use screens or any other approved means.

16.5 CARTRIDGE OPERATED TOOLS

• no person shall operate a cartridge-operated tool or powder-actuated tool unless, he is


trained on the specific tools and found to be; competent in the use of the tool, understand
all risks and hazards associated with the device; and perform the task safely. (see Fig.2)

• additional training must be conducted for other makes and models.

• the operator must undergo a specific test to check for colour blindness.

• all guards designed for use with a cartridge operated shall be used at all times – there
are no exceptions.

• tools and cartridges must always remain in the possession of the person to whom they
are issued. When not in use, they must be locked up in a safe and controlled place. They
must never be left unattended at any location for even the shortest of times.

• used and spare cartridges must be returned to the stores as soon as possible, and must
tally with cartridges signed out.

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• the tool shall be examined when taken from the store, before use, and upon return to the
store for defects (by persons competent to carry out those examinations).

• any problems with the tool or cartridges shall be reported to the store keeper immediately
and a record kept for the life of the project.

• the tool must be dismantled and examined for defects (by a competent person duly
appointed and authorised to undertake this duty) every seven days and taken out of
service if any defects are found.

• the tool must always be operated from a firm and stable position. A scaffold is preferable,
but if use of a ladder is unavoidable, the operator must use effective fall-arrest equipment.
Mobile scaffolds must be securely tied to a stable structure.

• full face screen, safety helmet, ear protectors and suitable gloves shall be worn by the
tool operator and by any other worker who might be endangered by flying pins, particles
of materials, sparks, or the noise of firing.
Patent Head to
• cartridges must always be kept in the prevent over
penetration.
makers package and never be carried
loose or in a pocket.

• cartridge tools must never be used in any


area where flammable gases, vapour’s or
explosive dusts are present.
• cartridge operated tools will be controlled Fig.2 - Cordless Cartridge Gun fitted
by a storekeeper, registers and method with automatic nail feed and
statements and will be audited by the
patent head to prevent nail
Contractors safety department and the
Client on a regular basis. penetrating even thin sheets.

16.6 COMPRESSED-AIR TOOLS


Hose End Tool End
• pneumatic tools shall be secured to
the hose or whip by some positive
means to prevent the tool from
becoming accidentally disconnected.
Safety clips or retainers shall be
securely installed and maintained on
pneumatic impact tools to prevent Fig. 3 - Showing a “Whip Check” strong steel
attachments from being accidentally cable which, when attached to both the
hose and tool end, prevents hose whip in
expelled. see Fig.3 case of accidental seperation of
coupling or clamp device.

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• all pneumatically driven nailers, staplers and other


similar equipment provided with automatic fastener
feed, which operate at more than 100p.s.i.
pressure at the tool, shall have a safety device on
the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting
fasteners, unless the tool is in contact with the
work surface. (see Fig.4)

• compressed air shall not be used for cleaning


purposes except where reduced to less than 30
p.s.i., and then only with chip guarding and
personal protective equipment.

• the manufacturers safe operating pressure for Fig.4 - Showing a pneumatically driven
hoses and appurtenances shall not be exceeded. Nailer/Stapler fitted with safety
device at the muzzle to prevent
• the use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools shall tool from ejecting Nails/ Staples.
not be permitted.

• all hoses exceeding ½ “ inside diameter shall have


a safety device at the source of supply or branch
line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.(see
Fig.5)

• proper fire precautions will be taken with regards to


compressor operations.

• air supply lines shall be protected from damage by


vehicles, materials, etc and should be carried across roads Fig.5 - Showing types of Safety
and walkways by means of an overhead carriage or device Valves which can be fitted
either at source of supply or
designed for the specific purpose, or in protected channel branch line in order to reduce
ways. pressure in case of hose
failure.

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16.7 HAND TOOLS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

• defective tools shall not be issued or used to perform a task.

• all tools will be stored in storage racks or bins and will be cleaned and oiled to prevent
corrosion.

• cutting edges will be protected during storage, and transporting to work area.

• all damaged or worn tools will be promptly and soundly repaired to original condition. If
tools cannot be repaired on the job, they will be replaced and the damaged tool taken
from site and repaired or destroyed.

• replacement of hammer handles by anything other than original parts is forbidden.


Welded metal handles shall not be permitted.

• mushroomed chisels and cracked or broken chisel handles shall be repaired or replaced.

• appropriate personal protective equipment shall be used when performing work with tools.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - FORMWORK

Since errors in formwork erection are not always remediable, checking for the correctness of formwork
erection should be scheduled far enough ahead of erection time for the permanent structure. Items to
be checked for the correctness of formwork erection are the following:

General
 adequate anchorage, levelling and correct positioning of sole plates and grillages are achieved.

 base plates and grillages should be located to the centre of underlying sole plates.

 vertical supports checked.

 vertical alignment should be plumbed within deviation in accordance with specified tolerance.

 spacing for these members is to be executed in conformance with drawings and standard
details.

 all members, couplers, fittings, wedges of the formwork and others are installed properly,
secured, tightened and at correct positions. If these precautions are not taken into account,
loose and non-nailed wedges may fall-out in presence of any vibration arising from activities
such as concrete placing and consolidation.

At points of Load Transfer


 correct details applied as per fig.3.

 base and head jacks are not over extended unless detailed with adequate special bracing (see
figs. 4 & 5)

 that steel section web stiffeners are provided as detailed.

 there is positional accuracy of all members.

 there are no eccentricities in excess of allowances specified.

Lacings and Bracings


 all specified members are in place.

 all bracings and lacings are coupled as close to node points and never more than 150mm away.

 all bracings and lacings are connected to correct members e.g. diagonals to lacings to allow
right angle structural couplers to be used.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - FORMWORK

required precautions during erection and use of formwork


 during the construction of large items, suspended slabs with proper guarded edges and suitable
access ladders shall be used.

 no storage should be placed on formwork since it is not designed to carry additional heavy
loads for other purposes.

 formwork should be designed to allow safe lifting and handling from points designed for this
purpose.

 persons not involved in the construction process, dismantling or inspection of formwork should
be denied access.

 loose materials and plant should be fixed against any movement including lateral movement
induced by high winds.

 whenever it is possible that workers can fall from slab formwork by more than 2metres, suitable
edge guards shall be installed.

 whenever workers are erecting formwork elements higher than 2 metres over previously erected
slabs, guarded work platforms with access ways should be provided. These access ways
should be also guarded and wide enough to allow for workers to carry materials (see section 2 -
Scaffolding & Working Platforms)

 proprietary formwork systems should be erected and used in accordance with manufacturers’
instructions.

required precautions during dismantling of formwork


 it must be determined ahead whether back-propping before complete release of the formwork or
re-propping after release of the formwork is the method to be employed.
 for the safety and convenience of workers carrying out the dismantling activity, proper
temporary platforms must be provided.
 proper tarpaulins or nets should be placed to decrease the danger of any falling material.
 all dismantled and removed materials shall be immediately stored and properly handled to allow
for its use in the future.

dismantling steps should be carried out in the following sequence:


 removal of loose fittings and materials

 removal of projecting nails and sticking elements (in the case of concrete) as work proceeds.

 before removal of safety guardrails making part of the formwork, replacement safety guardrails
are to be installed and connected to the edges of concrete.

 after removal, formwork should be supported safely during repair, oiling and other maintenance
works needed before reuse.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - STEELFIXING

Precautionary measures to be taken with steel fixing include the following:


 steel bundles should never be carried or lifted by the binding wire. Proper slings should be
used.

 steel fixers should work at safe places or shops provided on site. Persons not involved in steel
shop work should be denied access.

 during the cutting of reinforcement, protective gloves and eye protection must be worn by
persons performing work.
 only recommended types of blades should be fitted to disc cutters to prevent any accident
arising from the breaking of a blade.

 only trained workers are to be authorized to use the disc cutters.

 torches shall not be used in cutting steel of types adversely affected by heat.

 the short end of the cut bar should not be left to fly off and endanger life of persons.

 projecting steel bars should be capped to reduce their risk potential.

 proper walkways should be installed over the fixed steel cages to secure the safety of persons
crossing over to access their destination.

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SECTION 17

ABRASIVE WHEELS

INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION
17.1 DUTIES OF OPERATORS 2
17.2 TRAINING AND APPOINTMENT OF PERSONS TO MOUNT WHEELS 2
17.3 SELECTION OF WHEELS 2
17.4 ABRASIVE WHEEL CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKINGS 2
17.5 MOUNTING OF WHEELS 4
17.6 CUTTING OFF WHEELS 5
17.7 PEDESTAL/BENCH MOUNTED GRINDERS 5
17.8 GUARDS 5
17.9 CONTROLS 6
17.10 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 6
17.11 SUMMARY OF MOUNTING PRECAUTIONS 7

SECTION 17
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 17

ABRASIVE WHEELS

INTRODUCTION
Abrasive wheels are commonly used in the workshop environment, and are potentially dangerous
because of their high speed of rotation, with the resultant possibility of break – up under centrifugal
stress.

For these reasons it is paramount that all personnel who use Abrasive Wheels follow the rules set out
in this section, in especially the wearing of suitable and approved eye protection.

Abrasive Wheels are defined as:-


• a wheel, cylinder, disk or cone which, whether or not any other material is comprised therein,
consists of abrasive particles held together by mineral, metallic or organic bonds whether natural or
artificial.

• a mounted wheel or point and a wheel or disc having in either case separate segments of abrasive
material.

• a wheel, or disc made in either case of metal, wood, cloth, felt, rubber or paper and having any
surface consisting wholly or partly of abrasive material.

• a wheel, disc or saw to any surface any of which is attached a rim or segments consisting in either
case of diamond abrasive particles, which is, or is intended to be, power driven and is for use in
any grinding or cutting operations;

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article (7), (10), (11) & (12)

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

17.1 DUTIES OF OPERATORS

• no employed person using an abrasive wheel shall wilfully misuse or remove any guard,
or wilfully misuse any protection flanges , other appliance provided, or any rest for a work
piece.

• every employee shall make full and proper use of guards, protection flanges and any
other safety devices fitted, and if he discovers any defect in the same, shall report such
defect to the manager, or other appropriate person.

17.2 TRAINING AND APPOINTMENT OF PERSONS TO MOUNT WHEELS


• no persons shall mount an abrasive wheel unless he has been trained, is competent, and
has been duly appointed in writing.

• all entries must specify the class or description of the abrasive wheels which the
appointed person may mount, and the person appointed must be provided with a copy of
the entry or certificate.

• the employer may revoke an appointment at any time by a signed and dated entry in a
Register.

17.3 SELECTION OF WHEELS


When selecting a wheel, due account shall be taken of the factors which affect safety.
Selecting the correct wheel for the job is equally important for efficient production and for
safety. As a rough and ready rule, soft wheels are more suitable for hard material and hard
wheels for soft material.

The best policy in selecting grinding plant is to consult manufacturers of machines and
abrasive wheels, and not to experiment without competent advice.

17.4 ABRASIVE WHEEL CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKING


The following are the variable elements in abrasive wheel manufacture and the
standard symbols that are used to designate them:

• abrasive means the abrasive used in the wheel construction. Aluminium Oxide is
expressed as A, Silicon Carbide as C.

• grain size means the size of abrasive grains used as cutting particles. The grains are
classified according to the sieve through which they have passed. The range is
expressed by numbers (coarse 8 to very fine 600).

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H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

• wheel grade is generally considered as the tenacity with which the bonding materials
hold the abrasive grains in a wheel. Wheels are graded as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ according to
this degree of tenacity. The Grade scale is expressed in letters from A (soft) to Z (hard).

• structure means the relationship of abrasive grain to bonding material, and the
relationship of both to the spaces or voids that separate them. The void or spaces in the
structure assist in rapidly removing ‘chips’ from the wheel face, thus eliminating or
choking of the abrasive surface.

• bond type means the bonding material used in the wheel construction, and is
described by letters V (vitrified) B (resinoid) etc.

17.4.1 british standard marking system for grinding wheels

SEQUENCE Prefix ABRASIVE GRAIN SIZE GRADE Structure BOND TYPE Suffix
W A 46 K 5 V 17

Manufacturer’s
Abrasive Type Symbol DENSE TO OPEN Manufacturer’s
(Use Optional) 1 9 Wheel Type
2 10 Symbol
3 11 (Use Optional)
4 12
5 13
Aluminium Oxide - A 6 14
Silicon Carbide - C 7 15
8 ETC

(Use Optional) V - VITRIFIED


B - RESINOID
R - RUBBER
E - SHELLAC
S - SILICATE

VERY
Examples of marks
COARSE MEDIUM FINE FINE
8 30 80
1. cutting-off wheel
220 intended for cutting
10 36 100 240
12 46 120 metal might be A 30 T B.
280
14 54 150 320 2. cutting-off wheel
16 60 180 400 intended for cutting
20 500
24
brick might be C 30 T B.
600
3. a general purpose wheel
for use on metal and
mounted on a portable
GRADE SOFT MEDIUM HARD
grinding machine might
SCALE ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQRST UVWXYZ be A 163 R 5 B.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

17.5 MOUNTING OF WHEELS


wheel speed

• before mounting the wheel, check that the speed of the spindle does not exceed the
maximum permissible speed marked on the wheel.

• it must be remembered that centrifugal force (the ultimate cause of wheel bursts)
increase, not directly with speed, but as the square of the speed. The speed at which the
grinding wheel revolves is, therefore, extremely important.

• It cannot be too strongly impressed that doubling the number of revolutions per
minute of a wheel, increases four fold its tendency to burst. The peripheral speed
is generally used for describing permissible wheel.

flanges

• every abrasive wheel must be mounted between suitable flanges, which should be not
less than one third the diameter of the wheel. The flanges should be recessed on the side
next to the wheel, to ensure that clamping pressure is not exerted near the hole.

• flanges should be of mild steel or other material of equal or greater strength and rigidity.
Ordinary cast iron is not suitable.

washers

Washers or blotters, as they are sometimes called, should be made of compressible material
not more than 1/16th of an inch thick. They should be used between the wheel and the
flanges whenever the clamping surfaces are flat, but not otherwise, as in the instance of
taper sided or dovetailed abrasive wheels.

starting new wheels

• before running the wheel make sure the guard is in proper adjustment.

• if the machine is fitted with a work rest, adjust this as close as possible to the surface of
the wheel, rotate the wheel by hand to make sure it is clear all the way round.

unacceptable practices

The following unacceptable practices increase the liability of the wheel to fracture because
they result in excessive stress concentrated near the hole:

• paper washers not used between the wheel and the flanges.

• flanges not recessed.

• flanges unmatched in outside diameter and diameter of recess.

• one flange omitted and the nut tightened directly against the wheel.

• the use of an ordinary steel washer as a substitute for a properly recessed flange.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

17.6 CUTTING-OFF WHEELS


• only be mounted on machines designed specially for their use.

• wheel must be of the reinforced type.


Tapered Surface
• flanges should be as large as practicable
and never less than one third of the wheel
diameter. It is most important that the
flanges should be equal diameter.
Fig. 1 - Flange Assembly for a Depressed Centre
Wheel.

• use of unequal flanges is liable to cause distortion and breakage of a cutting-off wheel.
(see Fig.1)

17.7 PEDESTAL/BENCH MOUNTED GRINDERS


• manufacturers safe operating and mounting
procedure must be followed.
• check the rated speed of the machine and peripheral
speed of the wheel labelled by the manufacturer.
• check for any crack or defect in the wheel.
Fig.2 - Showing open perspex type
• tool rest must be provided and the gap between tool guard for pedestal/bench
rest and wheel shall not exceed 1/8th of an inch. mounted grinders.
• apply only regulated pressure on wheel. Never take
too heavy a cut.
• allow wheel to run for a minute before starting
grinding.
• grinding must not be done at sides of wheel.
• screen of toughened glass should be provided to Figs.3 - showing framed type guard for
pedestal/bench mounted
protect operators eyes. (see Figs.2&3)
grinders.

17.8 GUARDS
• guards shall be securely attached to the body of the machine.

• for straight-sided wheels, the maximum angular


exposure of the abrasive periphery and sides shall not
exceed 180°. (see Fig.4)

• guards for straight grinding machines shall be Fig. 4 - Front enclosed Guard for
Straight Sided Wheels
provided with a front curtain, which shall be securely
fastened to the body of the machine.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

• for cup wheels, the back face and periphery shall be enclosed, and the guard shall be
adjusted to compensate for the wear of the wheel.
• for depressed centre grinding wheels, the wheel shall
have a maximum angular exposure of 180° and the
guard shall be located as to be between the operator
and the wheel during use. (see Fig.5)

• the clearance between the inside of the guard and the


periphery of the unused wheel, shall be not greater than
Fig.5 - Showing Correct Size
5% of the nominal wheel diameter.
Guard for Depressed
Centre and Cutting off
Wheels.

17.9 CONTROLS
• machines in which abrasive wheels are used must be provided with efficient devices for
starting and cutting off power, and the controls of such devices must be readily and
conveniently operated by the person using the machine.

• while the wheel is in motion, they must be properly secured and adjusted so as to be as
close as practicable to the exposed part of the abrasive wheel.

17.10 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


17.10.1 floors
Floor surrounding every fixed machine or area where portable tools are being used, shall be
maintained in good and even condition. So as far as practicable it will be kept clear of loose
material and prevented from becoming slippery.

17.10.2 cautionary notice


An approved cautionary notice of the hazards arising from the use of abrasive wheels shall
be affixed in every room where grinding or cutting is carried out.

17.10.3 eye protection


Persons carrying out dry grinding operations, truing or dressing an abrasive wheel, must
wear suitable eye protection, or be protected by suitable transparent screens, (see Pt 2
section 12) for further information on PPE.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

17.11 SUMMARY OF MOUNTING PRECAUTIONS


Given proper equipment, safety largely depends on the few simple rules previously
mentioned and summarised below: -

• before mounting, all wheels should again be closely inspected and ‘rung’ to make sure
that they have not been mishandled in transit or storage.

• wheel mounting should be carried out only by competent and authorised persons.

• the bush, if any, should not project beyond the side of the wheel.

• care should be taken to ensure that all wheels, washers and flanges are free from foreign
matter. Any burrs should be taken off flanges.

• washers of compressible materials not over 1/16th of an inch, should be fitted between
the wheel and its flanges where the surfaces are flat.

• wrinkles in washers should be avoided. Washers are not recommended for taper and
dovetail wheels.

• when tightening nuts, care should be taken to tighten them only just enough to hold the
wheel firmly. Excessive clamping pressure is liable to damage the wheel.

• the nuts should be tightened by hand pressure on a spanner and never by a hammer and
chisel or similar means.
• when the flanges are clamped by a series of bolts, care should be taken to screw up
each bolt uniformly. All the bolts should first be run up with the fingers and then tightened
in pattern formation afterwards.

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SECTION 18

WOODWORKING MACHINERY

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE UAE LEGISLATION

18.1 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 2


18.2 CIRCULAR SAWS 3
18.3 HAND HELD CIRCULAR SAWS 6
18.4 CHAIN SAWS 6
18.5 TRAINING 7

WOODWORKING MACHINERY SAFETY CHECKLIST


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.18/1)

SECTION 18
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 18

WOODWORKING MACHINERY

INTRODUCTION

Many accidents on different types of woodworking machinery are reported in the Building Industry.
Woodworking machine cutters can inflict very serious injuries and it is essential that all the precautions
for guarding them are strictly observed.

Neglect or ignorance of the safety rules governing the use of such machinery creates the conditions in
which accidents occur.

Everyone who operates woodworking machinery must understand and comply with the safety
requirements outlined in this section.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No.(32) Year 1982 - Article (10) to (12)

Ministerial Order No.(32) Year 1982 - Article (14) to (17)

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

18.1 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


18.1.1 duties of employed persons
• employees using woodworking machines must use and keep properly adjusted all guards
and other safety devices, and use push-stick spikes, push blocks, jigs, holders,
backstops, and any other safety devices provided.

• they must report to responsible persons any defects in machinery, guards, devices or
appliances, and any damage or defects in the surface or ground around the machine.

18.1.2 working environment


• sufficient clear and unobstructed space to be provided around machine to allow work
without risk of injury.

• floors to be level, in good condition, free of loose material, (which includes chips, shaving
and saw dust) and not slippery.

• adequate natural or artificial lighting must be provided for the work being done on each
machine.

• where artificial light is provided it must be positioned, or shaded, to prevent glare


affecting the operator.

• where persons are likely to be exposed continuously for eight hours to a sound level of
90dB(A) or more, ear protectors must be made available and used, and all reasonable
measures taken to reduce noise levels. see section 24 – Noise at Work.

18.1.3 exhaust extraction


Extraction equipment should be provided for planers and other specified machines to convey
chips and particles from cutters into suitable receptacles.

18.1.4 maintenance
• saw blades must not be cleaned while in motion.

• all machines must be of good construction, sound


material, and properly maintained.

• unless hand-held, they must be level, and fixed


securely to a substantial structure which ensures
their stability.

18.1.5 controls
• every machine must be fitted with start and stop Fig.1 - Showing an emergency
controls which can be quickly and easily controlled stop fitted at knee height
to a fixed circular saw.
by the operator. (see Fig.1)

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

18.1.6 guarding cutters


Cutters can include saw blades, chain cutters, knives, boring tools, detachable cutters and
solid cutters, and the following are the main safety points to consider:-

• must be guarded to the greatest practicable extent, having due regard to the work being
done.

• guards to be of substantial construction, properly secured and adjusted, and constantly in


position while cutters are in motion.

• no adjustment may be made to any guard while cutters are in motion, unless safe means
(i.e. mechanical adjusters) are provided.

• allowance can be made for the development of alternative safeguards for cutters
providing these are effective.

• all moving parts, other than cutters, must be guarded.

18.2 CIRCULAR SAW


(see Fig.2 - an overview of all the safety requirements for a floor mounted circular
saw)

Exhaust outlet

Extension
Table

Riving Knife Table


Rip fence

Saw
Guard

Exaust
Outlet Emergency
Stop

Cross – Cut
Fence

Push Stick

Fig.2 - Example of a Floor Mounted Circular saw Fitted


with all the Safety requirements.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

riving knife (splitter or spreader)


(see Fig.3)

• securely fixed below machine table level, behind and


in line with saw blade.

• must be strong, rigid, smooth and easily adjustable.

• radius of knife not to exceed radius of largest saw


blade for which machine is designed.

• adjusted as close as practicable to saw blade; gap


between knife and blade not to exceed 12 mm at table
level.

• in the case of a parallel plate saw blade, the knife must Fig.3 - Showing position of
Riving Knife
be thicker (usually about 10%) than the plate of the saw
blade.

• where the diameter of the saw blade is less than 600mm, the top of the knife should not
be more than 25mm below the top of the blade. knife must extend at least 225mm above
the table.

top guard (crown guard) (see Fig. 4)


• guard to be strong and easily adjustable.

• adjusted to extend from top of riving knife


to a point as close as practicable to the
surface of the material being cut, or, to a
point not more than 12mm above the
material being cut where squared stock
is being hand fed.

• the guard should have flanges on either


side of the blade and be adjusted so that
these extend beyond the roots of saw
Fig.4 - Showing an example of an
teeth. Where the guard has an adjustable adjustable Guard fitted on a
front extension piece, it must be flanged Circular Saw together with a
dust extraction unit.
on the side remote from the fence, and
adjusted to extend beyond the roots of
saw blade teeth.

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H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

size of saw blade


• saw benches with a one-speed spindle must not use a saw blade less than 60% of the
diameter of the largest saw blade the bench is designed to use.

• in the case of saw benches with more than one spindle speed, the blade must not be less
than 60% of the diameter of the largest blade the machine is designed to use at fastest
spindle speed.

• a notice must be displayed on the machine specifying the smallest diameter saw blade to
be used in compliance with the above provisions.

limitations on use
• no circular saw may be used for cutting any rebate, tenon, moulding or groove unless the
cutter above the table is effectively guarded.

• the saw blade teeth must project right through the upper surface of the timber at all times
in any ripping operation.

• circular saw must not be used for cross-cutting logs unless the material is firmly held by a
gripping device secured to a travelling table.

push sticks
be available for use on every hand-fed circular saw, and used to:

• feed material throughout any cut of 300mm


or less.

• feed material during the last 300mm of any


cut more than 300mm in length.

• remove cut material from between the saw


blade and the fence. (see Fig.5)

removal of material Fig.5 - Example of a Push Stick

• assistants employed to ‘take-off’ cut material may only stand at the delivery end of
machine.

• where this operation must be performed, the delivery end of the machine table must
extend (over its whole width) at least 1200mm from the up-running part of saw blade.

Not applicable to machines which have a roller table or a travelling table, or to


portable machines with a maximum blade diameter of less than 450mm.

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Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

18.3 HAND HELD POWER CIRCULAR SAWS (see Fig.6)


Modern machines are fitted with guards that completely enclose the saw blade, The depth of
cut is adjusted by altering the position of a moveable shoe or plate in relation to the saw.
For bevel cutting, the shoe may be set at an angle to the plane of the saw.

before using the saw, ensure that :

• correct type of blade is used for the material to be cut.

• blade is in good condition, not cracked or damaged

• blade will rotate in the correct direction

• depth of cut is adjusted so that the saw blade only just


projects through the underside of the material being
cut.

• guard which covers the saw blade shoe is designed to


retract as the blade enters the material.

• It must never be tied back or rendered inoperative Fig.6 - Example of a Hand Held Electrically
during sawing. operated Circular saw complete
with spring return guard.
• guard operates freely before using the machine.

• on/off switch is in good working order.

• sheet material is properly supported before cutting.

18. 4 CHAIN SAWS (see Fig.7)


All workers who use a chain saw should be
competent to do so. The operator should have
received appropriate training and obtained
relevant certificates of competence

It is recommended that all chain saw operators


have regular refresher/updates training every
2-3 years.

preparing to use a chainsaw


Fig. 7 Example of a type of
operators should check:- Chain Saw
commonly used on
• all nuts and screws etc. are tight. Building Sites.
• saw chain is correctly tensioned

• throttle cannot be squeezed unless throttle lock – out is pressed

• operators are wearing the correct PPE.

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H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

when starting a chainsaw

operators should:-

• place the saw on level ground

• secure saw firmly, e.g. put a foot on the rear handle base plate and a hand on the front
handle.

• set the controls as recommended by the manufacturer.

• pull the starter cord firmly.

18.5 TRAINING
No person should be employed on a woodworking machine, unless he has been trained and
instructed in its operation. Training should include:

• instruction on all machines the person is likely to operate and the types of work to be
undertaken on completion of training.

• instruction on the provisions in the law on Woodworking machines and the methods of
using guards, devices and appliances required by the law must be included.

• emphasise the dangers connected with the use of such machines.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - WOODWORKING MACHINERY

General
Operatives
 keep a list of authorised operatives.

 only trained operatives may work without supervision.

 operatives fully aware of requirements of woodworking machinery law and procedures for
testing new employees.

 adequate training given on types of machine used and kinds of work done.

 provided with all necessary equipment – including goggles, ear protectors, face masks and
other protective equipment where required.

Machines and surrounding area


 stop/start controls easily reached and operated.

 cutters guarded to greatest extent practicable.

 machine level and securely fixed to ensure stability.

 Machine of sound construction and properly maintained.

 sufficient space around machine for safe working.

 floors to be level, in good repair, free of loose material and not slippery.

 adequate natural or artificial light without glare.

 noise levels reduced as far as practicable – ear protection available where required.

 extraction equipment provided for chips and particles.

 extraction of fumes where necessary.

 fire extinguishers of correct type immediately available, and personnel trained in use.

Circular Saw
Riving knife
 secure, sound condition, easily adjustable.

 radius correct and in line.

 gap between knife and blade correct.

 knife of correct thickness.

 height correct for saw blade fitted.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - WOODWORKING MACHINERY

Fence
 correctly adjusted and secured.

Top guard
 sound; easily adjustable.

 adjusted correctly for work being done.

 flanges either side of blade extend below roots of saw teeth.

Feeding work
 gripping device in use for cross-cutting logs.

 push sticks or push blocks available and in use.

Saw blade
 in good condition – sharp, no cracks; not less than smallest diameter permitted.

 notice fixed to machines specifying smallest diameter permitted.

 projects through upper surface of timber when ripping.

 above table effectively guarded when rebating, tenoning, moulding or grooving.

Front extension guard


 adjusted to give maximum protection and cover teeth.

Bottom guard
 blade guarded below table (open frame machines).

Taking off
 delivery table to extend 1200mm from up- running part of saw blade.

 assistant correctly positioned.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - WOODWORKING MACHINERY

Hand Held Circular Saw


Operative
 trained in correct use.

 no loose clothing, tie. etc.

 aware of legal requirements

Prior to use
 machine and plug compatible with supply.

 leads, plug and switch undamaged.

 correct type blade for work.

 blade in good condition, sharp and not cracked.

 effectively guarded, above and below shoe plate.

 check condition and function of spring loaded bottom guard.

 blade securely fitted to rotate in the correct direction (teeth upwards at front end of saw towards
shoe plate).

 adjust fence (if used) to correct dimension.

 saw adjusted to correct depth and angle before use, with teeth projecting just through underside
of the material.

During use
 material being cut adequately supported.

 use fence or straight edge as a guide; ensure clamps do not impede movements of saw.

 sufficient free cable on saw.

 correct stance – behind and in line with saw.

 work area clear and free of obstructions.

 protective equipment in use.

 operator not to be distracted.

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SECTION 19

CRANES & HOISTS

INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION 1

19.1 KEY PERSONNEL AND DUTIES 2


19.2 PREPARATION AND PLANNING 3
19.3 CRANE SELECTION 4
19.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ERECTION 11
19.5 LOAD RADIUS INDICATORS 15
19.6 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURE 16
19.7 INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING 17
19.8 HOISTS 18
19.9 APPROVED CRANE SIGNALLING SYSTEM 24

MOBILE & TOWER CRANE SAFETY CHECKLIST


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.19/1)

SECTION19
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 19

CRANES & HOISTS

INTRODUCTION
Cranes and Hoists are used extensively on most building site, and although they each have their
different role, they are both primarily used to lift/transport men and material safely from ground level to
various levels and areas on a building site.

This section of the manual gives not only the safety standards required to select, erect, operate and
maintain this type of equipment, but also gives advice and guidance on how to achieve this, it is
therefore imperative that all contractors follow the standards and guidance outlines in this section
result of which will ensure the safe lifting of both men and materials at all times.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 - Article (20)

In compliance with Municipality Traffic Section Regulation

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19.1 KEY PERSONNEL REQUIRED & DUTIES


19.1.1 appointed person
A person should be appointed by management to be responsible for the organisation and
control of lifting operations.

The person so appointed should be given adequate training and possess the relevant
experience to carry out the following duties:

• make an assessment of the lifting operation

• plan such operations and select the most suitable lifting appliances, gear and equipment.

• consult with other responsible persons and coordinate lifting operations,

• ensure that adequate inspection and maintenance procedures are in effect for the
selected plant and equipment

• ensure that procedures exist for incident and defect reporting.

19.1.2 crane driver


It is the responsibility of management to ensure that the appointed crane driver has been
properly trained, is competent and fully conversant with all aspects of safe crane operation.
In particular, he must be familiar with the controls and capabilities of the machine that he is
to drive. It is recommended that all crane drivers hold valid Certificates of Training
Achievement issued by a recognised training organisation.

crane drivers should meet the following requirements:-

• must be at least 18 years of age and should be sufficiently mature to undertake the duties
involved.

• possess a valid U.A.E. driving license.

• be medically fit for the purpose, with particular emphasis on eyesight, hearing and re-
flexes, and have a head for heights. (Periodic medical examinations are advised).

• have an aptitude for judging distance, height, speed and perspective.

• be physically capable of operating the controls efficiently without undue fatigue.

• trained in the general principles of crane operation and specifically in the type of machine
he is required to operate.

• trained sufficiently in the mechanics of his machine to be able to carry out routine
maintenance if required by his employer and to identify and report defects.

• trained in the hand-signalling system (approved signalling system is shown at the end
of this section)

• be familiar with the fire appliances fitted to the crane.

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19.1.3 signaller / slinger


A signaller/slinger should be appointed by management to ensure clear and precise
commands are given to the crane driver so that no doubt can exist as to who is controlling
the lifting sequences.

Signallers should be readily identifiable to all concerned in lifting operations, (e.g. by wearing
a helmet in a distinguishing colour, or a high visibility jacket).

signallers/slingers should meet the following requirements:

• must be at least 18 years of age.

• be medically fit for the purpose with particular emphasis on eyesight, hearing, and
reflexes.

• have an aptitude for judging distance, height and clearance.

• be agile and strong enough to handle lifting gear.

• be trained in the general techniques of slinging.

• be capable of selecting lifting gear suitable for the loads to be lifted, and to identify
defects.

• have a sensible knowledge of the safe working loads at the various radii of the crane.

• be capable of directing the safe movement of the crane and its load to maintain the safety
of all personnel.

• be thoroughly trained in a hand-signalling system, and be capable, where necessary, of


giving clear and distinct instructions over radio or similar signalling systems. (approved
signalling system is shown at the end of this section)

19.2 PREPARATION AND PLANNING


All lifting operations should be carefully planned and a safe system of work developed. The
safe system should be suitably communicated to all those who are involved with the
operation in any way.

Planning should consider a wide range of factors including the selection of lifting appliances
and gear.

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this will be determined by:


• the load to be lifted, including the slings, shackles, blocks and other lifting gear.

• the radius of operation and height of the lift.


• the presence of any restrictions in the form of overhead cables or lifts inside buildings,
etc.
• visibility of the load throughout its travel
• method of attaching the slings.
• appointment of trained supervisors and operatives.
• positioning of the crane, taking account of ground conditions and proximity hazards.
• any necessary erection and dismantling of the crane.
• method of signalling to be used.
• maintenance of lifting appliances and gear.

19.3 CRANE SELECTION


It is important to select the most suitable crane type for the work in hand. Selection of the
wrong crane can produce not only difficulties on site, but also circumstances which may
tempt site personnel to resort to malpractice in order to expedite the work.

Initially the appointed person will have to select the type of crane most suited for the work in
hand. Each type of crane has certain features which usually dictate the most suitable for a
particular application.

19.3.1 mobile cranes


There are three types of mobile cranes:-
• Self propelled, (wheeled type)
• Truck mounted
• Crawler mounted

Mobile cranes are most suitable where the job duration is short and good mobility is required
around the site or between sites. Very few mobile cranes have pick and carry duties;
therefore they normally must be set up on their outrigger base at each lifting location.

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self propelled wheeled mobile crane:

Wheeled mobile cranes normally have the


capability to travel with a load, but again they
require firm level ground for lifting operations.

Where maximum mobility is required between


lifting operations, and for use on hard surfaces
such as a stock yard or stores area, they are
ideal. (see Fig.1)

truck mounted crane


Fig.1 - Self propelled wheeled
Telescopic boom truck – mounted cranes offers mobile crane.
great advantages in their comparative ease of
rigging. They enable lifts to be carried out quickly
and efficiently where the job duration is short and
mobility around site is necessary. In most cases,
these machines are designed for use on metalled
or made up roads and are not for use on soft
ground. (see Fig.2)

Most truck mounted cranes have severely limited


free-on wheels duties, and in many cases, are not
suited for work which requires lifting and carrying.

The majority of work will be carried out on


outriggers, and it is of utmost importance that
these are extended to their correct position. Most
cranes now have lines or arrows marked on the
outriggers beams, to clearly indicate when they are Fig.2 - Truck Mounted Crane

in the correct position, and should not be used


other than on those settings. (see Fig.3)

Fig.3 - Showing Outriggers extended to their correct


length - and
Spreader plate provided to distribute load
evenly.

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crawler cranes

Are best in off road positions where ground


conditions are not suitable for wheeled
cranes. They do however, require a firm
hard level standing where they are to
carry out lifting duties. Transportation
and rigging times are normally longer
with crawler cranes than mobile, and
therefore work duration is another factor
to be considered. (see Fig.4)
Fig.4 - Crawler type Crane

19.3.2 tower cranes


Any tower crane selected for use on site should he
chosen with full knowledge of maximum load, and
load at maximum radius requirements with a working
margin in reserve in respect of load, radius and
maximum hook height. (see Fig.5)

siting the crane:

Once a building or structure is finished, a tower crane


has to be dismantled, this factor should always be
taken into account when deciding its initial position.

gradients:

Bases for tower cranes (static or rail mounted) must be


properly designed and well drained. Manufacturer’s
recommendations on the maximum permitted gradient
Fig.5 - Typical type of Tower Crane
should be strictly observed. used on Building Sites in Abu
Dhabi
proximity hazards:

Sufficient clear space for the length of the jib involved should always be provided as with
other cranes nearby, overlapping of jibs can create a special problem. Jibs and counter jibs
might touch and it is essential, therefore, to have a height differential.

Consideration should also be given to the proximity of other structures, buildings, houses,
(including the possible violation of their air space), Public access areas like highways should
always be checked with the owners or appropriate local Utility.

Note: There is now a new Ministry of Labour directive that in future, Tower Cranes will be
required to be sited so that neither the boom nor the jib part of the crane will overhang
onto main streets or any other buildings.

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PART TWO

erection precautions:

The erection of a tower crane requires personnel with a good head for heights, specially
trained, and experienced in the particular type to be assembled working under the control of
a trained and competent supervisor.

Insistence must be placed upon the use of safety harness and the wearing of safety helmets
should be enforced where appropriate.

checks before erection commences,

• company carrying out the erection is approved and licensed by the Municipality.

• that foundations for a static crane, the track for a travelling crane, or the supports for a
climbing crane, meet the detailed requirements of the manufacturer, or engineer.

• crane selection in erecting a tower crane should be adequate for any lift involved,
therefore the weight of each component (and its centre of gravity) determined, and
sufficient margin allowed for error.

• suitability of all lifting gear should be carefully considered, particularly in terms of


clearance height, its weight, together with any attachments, should be included in the
load.

• local weather and wind speed forecasts should be obtained from the Meteorological
Office and erection should only take place if the wind speed is within the limit quoted in
the manufacturer’s instructions for erection.

• erection areas should be kept


clear of non-essential
materials, equipment and
men. Before transferring any
large crane section from one-
plane to another (e.g. from
horizontal to vertical) a check
should be made that no loose
items (tools, bolts, etc.) have
been left — falling objects
are dangerous. Fig.6 - Tower cranes should be tied back to the main
structure at the recommended intervals.
• where cranes are being 1. Ties (struts)
2. Braces as per maker’s instruction.
erected beyond free standing
3. Tie frame.
heights, consideration must 4. Crane Tower.
be given to the design and 5. Wedges as per makers instruction.
6. Ladder with safety back hoops.
fitting of the frames, and
anchorage points to nearby
buildings or solid structures.

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• concrete structures used for anchorage should be allowed to harden long enough to
acquire sufficient strength to take the loads imposed on the ties of climbing cranes. (see
Fig.6)

• rail mounted cranes should be operated in a fixed position or tied in. Secure stops
should be fitted to the rails in close contact with the bogies to eliminate all longitudinal
movement.

• at each stage of erection, the correct amount of ballast and counter-weight must be
properly positioned. On many cranes, the counter-weight is set in place on the counter-jib
before the main jib is erected.

• weight for ballast and counter-weight, as supplied by the manufacturer, should be marked
with their weight and secured in position to prevent accidental displacement and damage.

• ballast charts, showing the amount, distribution and unit weights of ballast used, must be
fitted to the crane base. Charts must be sited on the crane where they can readily be
seen at all stages of construction work.

• safe means of access must be provided to the cab and throughout the structure for the
purpose of inspection and maintenance. Access to the cab will be achieved using a
permanent steel ladder fitted with safety hoops and provided with rest platforms at 9m
vertical intervals.

• jib inspection may be afforded by the provision of an expanded metal walkway inside the
jib with life lines fitted to permit the fixing of safety harnesses, or by the use of an
inspection cage suspended from the jib or fitted to the saddle.

• wind speed indicators, visible in, or from the driver’s cabin, and at the base of the crane
should be fitted, and If the wind velocity registered is near the manufacturer’s safe
working limit, the crane should be placed out of service.

• automatic audible alarm must be fitted to sound when rail mounted cranes travel.

• warning lights should always be fitted where the top of the crane exceeds 150m above
local ground level and may be required where the obstruction exceeds 90m.

rail tracks - special notes:

base

• should be calculated from the maker’s given loading figure on any one bogie under the
worst conditions and the known bearing capacity of the ground.

track

• must be laid to an accuracy of 6mm in gauge and the maximum slope either along or
across the track should not exceed 1 in 200 metres, unless recommended by the
manufacturer. Curved track can be used for most crane rails, but special precautions are
required to prevent distortion - steel tie rods must be fitted to stop tendency to spread;

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curved fish plates should be used. A watch should be kept for any tendency of wheel
flanges to climb the rails

• where laid on a concrete base, the concrete should be level and strong enough to
stand the loading. Thin hardwood, grout or dry pack should be used between rails and
concrete to prevent the holding bolts from becoming loose as the rails bed down.

• when laid on timbers, it is preferable for these to be of rectangular section, set


longitudinally so that the rail itself does not have to act as a bridge between adjacent
sleepers. (Crane tracks have very different loadings from railway tracks.) If longitudinal
timbers need further support or load spread, timber sleepers should be set under - and
in direct contact with them. For levelling purposes, softwood packing is totally unsuitable.

• should be straight or true to curve, slightly but not excessively worn, and be free from
holes burnt in the web, and holes in rails should always be drilled (burning makes the
rails too brittle). Rails should preferably be bolted to timbers and bolts kept tight. (Dogs
or spikes are not recommended.)

• must be perfectly level on curves, radii of curves will be specified by the crane
manufacturer and track layouts should be set and thoroughly checked by competent
engineers.

• area between must be kept clear of all materials and other obstructions, effective steel
wheel stops should be clamped at the end of the rail tracks with sand boxes, or
alternative method of retardation fitted in front.

• earthing must be effective and provide electrical continuity between individual rails. Fish
plates are not enough to give electrical continuity. The resistance between rail and earth
should never exceed 1 ohm.

• deflection of rail track under full load should never exceed 3mm.

• Where practical, outriggers can be extended and the feet kept just clear of the ground for
added safety, but care must be taken to ensure that the outriggers do not foul the ground
or any obstacle.

19.3.3 excavators used as cranes


Any excavator which is to be used as a crane and has a safe working load (SWL) greater
than one ton, must have check valves fitted to the boom and outward reach side of the
stick/dipper.

main safety requirements

• lifting must be done with the stick/dipper in the outward reach mode only.

• if to be used as a crane without any restriction and with a variable SWL greater than one
ton, be fitted with an automatic safe load indicator and be subject an annual test and
thorough examination, or,

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• if to be used solely for work immediately connected


with an excavation and with a fixed SWL greater than
one ton have on site, a “Certificate of Exemption.”
• must have the SWL marked on the machine or
displayed in the cab.
• point of attachment for lifting slings, etc. must be
considered with great care.

• slings, for example, must not be hooked on to a


bucket tooth, but must be properly secured to a
correctly designed and manufactured lifting point.
(see Fig.7)
Fig. 7 – Showing Lifting hook welded underside of bucket, fitted with a safety
catch eliminating the need to use bucket teeth as lifting points

19.3.4 lorry mounted cranes


It should be borne in mind that lorry loaders are primarily an
accessory to a payload carrying vehicle and are designed as
such: nevertheless they are classed as cranes.
As with other jib cranes, lorry loader cranes with a maximum
safe working load (SWL) of one tonne or less are exempt
from the requirement for automatic safe load indicators
(ASLIs) to be fitted. Additionally, no lorry loader crane
requires an ASLI provided that it is used solely for the
Fig.8 - Showing a Hiab 250 Type
purpose of delivery or collection of goods to or from a site. Lorry Mounted Crane
(see Fig.8) having a maximum jib
length of 76ft.
main safety requirements
• siting of lorry loader should take account of the ground conditions which should be firm
and level.
• there should be space for extension of outriggers.
• consider proximity of overhead cables and underground services.
• safe working load of the equipment in relation to any loads being lifted.
• any effects of local weather eg. strong winds

• loads should always be lifted smoothly to prevent them from swinging.

19.3.5 hired cranes


Notwithstanding any advice the crane owner may have offered concerning the selection of a
particular crane or any other relevant matter, the responsibility for ensuring that a hired
crane (or a crane on loan) is of suitable type, size and capacity for the task being
undertaken, and for planning the operation, remains with the user of the crane.

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19.3.6 scaffold cranes

These small cranes, commonly known as


scaffold hoists, must comply with as
much of the general requirements of
cranes as are applicable, and be secured
to the scaffold in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instruction. (see Fig.9)

main safety requirements


Fig.9 - Typical type of small scaffold crane
• mounted either on tubular supports which securely fixed with double couplers
to scaffolding structure.
clip to scaffold over them.

• standards to which they are fitted should be


additionally braced to take extra strain.

• loads carried on scaffold cranes should be such that they cannot protrude into the
scaffold structure and become dislodged and, to that end, any protruding scaffold
member in the line of operation should be cut off.

Note: The safe working load specified by the manufacturer may not be achieved due to the
unsuitability of many scaffolds to which these cranes are attached. In order to positively
determine their capacity in any given situation, it is strongly recommended that they are
tested in situ so that any deficiency in the scaffold may be rectified. Alternatively, the crane
may be derated.

19.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ERECTION


19.4.1 crane siting and foundation
The positioning of a crane often requires
to be very precise. It is a requirement that
there is a minimum clearance of 600mm
between slewing parts of the crane and
any fixed installations to prevent men
600
from being trapped. If this is not mm
practicable, access at these points must
be blocked off. (see Fig.10)

Fig.10 - showing the requirement to have a 600 mm


clearance required between slewing part of crane
and fixed installation

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The Correct preparation of the crane foundation


is vital. The ground over which a crane has to
travel or operate should be carefully chosen or
prepared. There is often failure to realise that
ground conditions may not be capable of
supporting the required total load. Underground
hazards arise from cellars and basements (filled
or not), recently filled excavations, tidal or
floodwater areas where the ground water table is
high, buried pipes and mains etc.

It is imperative that the loading on any outrigger


jack is ascertained from the manufacturer or
supplier, therefore, the weight bearing
characteristics of the ground should be
thoroughly
examined and, if necessary, a good supply of Fig.11 - Showing Timber mats positioned
suitable timber or other material must he used to due to soft ground
spread the outrigger load.

On soft ground it will be necessary to pack solid material (timber, digger mats, hard core)
beneath crawlers and/or outriggers to allow for settling under load. Bearing plates or grillage
may be necessary to distribute the loads. (see Fig11)

For lorry mounted and mobile cranes, if there is any doubt about the suitability of the ground,
the following procedure must he adopted:

• test by lifting the load approximately 150mm off the ground and holding for a period over
one outrigger at maximum possible safe radius to see if the outrigger sinks.

• if an outrigger sinks, lower the load, increase the area of packing under the outrigger and
re-test as above.

19.4.2 work area control


Access to the working area during the lifting and moving operation should be restricted to
those involved in the work at hand.

The work area should be delineated and, where appropriate, process plant etc. which may
create risk should be isolated, also road closure may be necessary.

Care should he taken to ensure that, prior to erection of any large crane, air traffic control
authorities, both civil and military are consulted

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19.4.3 erection and dismantling


Insistence must be placed on the use of safety harness, and the wearing of safety helmets
should he enforced. It is essential that all personnel involved are totally familiar with, and
conform to the correct procedures specified by the crane manufacturer.

There must be available all the necessary parts and equipment to enable work to be carried
out safely. Substitution of parts with those of inferior quality or even incorrect components,
can lead to structural failure, often with disastrous consequences.

erection staff should:

• be supervised by a competent person,

• be familiar with crane erection and dismantling techniques.

• have access to the manufacturer’s instruction book appropriate to the particular crane.

Special care should be taken when unfolding swing-around fly jibs or lattice extensions.
Always ensure pins are in position before releasing the latch mechanisms. Careful control
during the swing around operation is important. Manufacturer’s instructions should be
followed, particular note being taken of the use of control ropes.

19.4.4 fly jibs


This is an additional jib which may be fitted to the end of the main boom of many cranes.
Care must be taken to ensure that the load/radius indicators and automatic safe load
indicators are compatible with this extension. It should be noted that the weight of the main
hook block should be deducted from the safe working load of the crane when using the fly
jib. The hooks on the main and fly jib must not he used simultaneously.

19.4.5 ropes
It is essential that the correct number
of hoist-rope falls are reeved for a
given duty in accordance with the
crane.
The ends of hoist and other ropes should be
properly secured. Where pear wedges are
fitted, they must be of the correct size and Fig.12 - Tail rope folded back on itself and
the tail of the rope should extend sufficiently secured with a bulldog grip.
Note: “U” part of bulldog clip should
through the wedge for it to be folded back on always be attached to the dead end of
itself and secured with a bulldog grip. (see rope.
Fig.12)

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Where the rope cannot be looped


back on itself because of the rope
diameter, then a small length of the
rope can be attached to the dead end.
(see Fig.13)

The following points should also be Fig.13 - Small length of rope attached to dead
end and secured by a Bulldog Clip.
observed:

• when transferring wire rope from reel to drum, every precaution should be taken to avoid
twists and kinks.

• when reeving hook blocks on cranes capable of height extension, special care should he
taken to provide sufficient length of hoist rope to accommodate the height in use at the
time, and still leave the statutory two full turns on the drum when the hook is in its lowest
working position. In addition, the rope must be secured to the drum.

• ropes should lay correctly on all winding drums. Uneven winding causes gaps in the
layers, which produce undue wear and tear.

• wherever ropes need to be renewed or replaced, the replacement must be of correct size
and construction.

19.4.6 power supply


It is essential that the electrical power supply is of the correct voltage and phase and
adequate for the requirements of the crane. Electrical services necessary during erection
procedures should be connected by a qualified electrician.

Earthing electrodes, capable of dealing with all contingencies, including electric storms,
should be provided for tower and derrick cranes; where cranes are rail mounted, it will be
sufficient to earth the track.

Operational controls on the crane not required for use during the actual erection procedure,
should be isolated where possible.

19.4.7 overhead electric lines & cables


It is the responsibility of site management to ensure that all personnel on site are familiar
with the location of overhead and underground cables. For specific precautions see section
22. –Overhead and Underground Services

Should a crane contact overhead power cables, the operator should:

• remain inside his cab.

• warn all other personnel to keep away from the crane and not to touch any part of it or
the load.

• try, unaided to travel the machine to a safe position.

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• if the machine is not mobile, remain in the cab until ADWEA Officials can make the area
safe.

• if, due to fire, or any other reasons the crane must be vacated by the operator, he should
jump clear as far from the crane structure as he is able, avoiding touching both crane and
ground simultaneously.

19.5 LOAD RADIUS INDICATORS


There is a specific requirement
that all cranes should have a load
radius indicator, clearly visible to Fig. 9
the driver, which will show the
operating radius and the
corresponding safe working load.

Load radius indicators may be


incorporated into safe load
indicators of the type which display
the safe working load. Fig.14 - Showing Safe Load Indicator fixed to side of
Telescopic Mobile Crane.
Note:

On truck mounted cranes controlled from the truck cab, there will be an indicator on both
sides of the jib. (see Fig.14)

On derricking lattice jib cranes; an indicator comprising a pivoted weight to which a


pointer is fixed is secured to the side of the jib, and a load/radius scale moves relative to the
pointer as the elevation of the jib is altered.
On Tower Cranes; the indicator may be sited in the form of a scale which is activated by a
rope fixed to the jib or to the saddle of a fixed jib crane.
automatic safe load indicators

Where the term SWL is used in the following paragraphs, this refers to the maximum safe
working load of the crane as sited. The automatic safe load indicator (ASLI) is a safety
device provided to warn when the crane is being overloaded and at risk of overturning.
All cranes over one ton capacity are required to have such a device fitted and in proper
working order. They must be inspected each week and a record kept. The indicators are
required to give visual warning to the crane driver of an approach to SWL, and an audible
warning to those in the vicinity of the crane of an overload state. The percentage of SWL or
overload at which these devices operate will vary according to setting and requirements but,
correctly set, the driver receives his visual warning at between 90% and 97.5% SWL and the
site receives audible warning at 102.5% to 110% SWL., therefore, when the bell or hooter is
heard, the crane is overloaded and at risk.

Some types of ASLI incorporate a cut-out which prevents further movement of the load to
danger, after the audible warning has been given.

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PART TWO

19.6 GENERAL OPERATING PRECAUTIONS

19.6.1 considerations prior to lifting


Before commencing work at the start of a shift, or when using a crane for the first time, the
crane driver should be satisfied that the test and thorough examination certificates are
current, and that the weekly inspection register is up to date. He must further ensure that the
cab’s uncluttered with material, visibility is not impaired by dirty windows and that all
controls, safe load indicators and load radius indicators function correctly.

Any defects must be reported in accordance with the company procedures. For a lift that
may require a long period of time to complete, continuous working may be essential and
therefore relief supervisors, crane operators and key personnel should be available and the
following strictly observed.

• no one involved in lifting operations should have taken alcohol.

• written procedure should be available to all involved in a major or special lift.

• the method and procedures for slinging should be to recognised standards.

• any signalling or communication system should be well practiced. (If radios are used,
they should have been previously checked and back up sets should be available).

• manufacturers’ “out of service conditions” must be known and adhered to.

19.6.2 load handling


Loads should only be moved when the
signaller can see both the load and
Fig.7
Fig. 7
communicate with the driver. An additional
signaller must be provided if the load goes
out of sight.

Loads should not be lifted until directed by


the signaller/slinger to avoid fingers being
trapped between the load and the sling. The
load should then be lifted a short way to Fig.15 - showing:-
enable an assessment to be made that the • Load slung correctly with angle of slings at
load is properly slung. When satisfied that 900.
• Tail ropes used to stabalise load
this is the case, shutters, etc. should, where
• All personnel wearing the appropriate PPE,
necessary, be provided with tail ropes in and banks- man wearing high visibility jacket.
windy conditions. (see Fig.15)

• crane must not be operated in winds of a speed greater than those specified.

• loads must be carefully handled to avoid snatching, and slewed and travelled so as to
remain suspended vertically. They must not be pulled or dragged and must not be carried
over any person’s head.

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• care should be taken to allow for the increase in radius when the load is first raised. This
can arise from flexing of the jib, stretching of ropes and compression of hydraulics. It is
particularly important that persons do not stand between the load and any fixed object.

• cranes must never be overloaded and drivers must react immediately to the warnings of
the safe load indicator by either lowering the load, or by reducing the radius of operation.

Loads must never be left suspended from the crane hook when the crane is
unattended.

19.7 INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING

19.7.1 daily inspection


The manufacturer’s manual supplied with the crane normally provides details of the regular
inspection requirements and must be strictly followed. A visual inspection of the entire
machine and any tracks, etc., should be made before the crane is put to work.

The crane should be put through all motions by the driver and any defects reported
immediately. All brakes and clutches should be checked for correct operation.

19.7.2 weekly inspection


A competent person must be appointed to carry out a weekly inspection which should be
recorded on the company's format. This inspection should include the crane structure, and
mechanical components together with any structural ties, track etc. and the correct
functioning of the safe load indicator.

19.7.3 twelve monthly thorough examination


In accordance with Ministerial Order No. (32) Article (20), a thorough examination of the
machine must be carried by a qualified technician approved by the Ministry of Labour, and a
Test Certicate issued indicating full results of the thorough inspection.

19.7.4 maintenance inspections


Apart from the statutory requirements of inspection, testing and thorough examination, a
regular system of maintenance inspection and repair should be instituted in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions.

Before any repairs. adjustments or inspections are carried out, a proper system of granting
permission to work, including isolation of the machine should be properly implemented.

In addition to normal mechanical maintenance, the following points are worth regular
attention:
• an independent inspection should be carried out to ensure that no slowly developing fault
has become accepted, and that no-unauthorised modifications have been carried out and
that safety devices have not been tampered with by an operator for his own convenience.

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• contractors name boards and similar wind resisting items should not be fitted without
reference to the manufacturer’s instructions.
• bolted joints should he inspected for tightness; suspect parts should he replaced to guard
against failure.
• where only part of the working rope is in regular use, the unused length should be run off
the drum at regular intervals to see that it remains undamaged.
• rail tracks, particularly curved sections, should be checked for level, soundness of
construction and maintenance of correct gauge.
• always ensure that the rope is the correct length for the crane as rigged. A minimum of
two full turns must be remaining on any winch, as the rope termination is not designed to
take line pull directly as reverse winding could occur.
• all ropes should be regularly lubricated according to manufacturers’ instructions.
• where ropes are running over plastic sheaves, it is possible that fatigue fractures of
internal wires may be present even though external wear is slight. Additional tests, other
than visual examination of the outer wires, may be necessary on these ropes.

Note: When a crane has been erected in a corrosive atmosphere e.g. sea air, near chemical
works etc., rope anchorages should receive special attention and may need to be cut
off and re-made periodically, to guard against the effects of hidden corrosion.

19.8 HOISTS
Hoists can be categorised as follows:
Goods hoists — used for lifting goods only and must not be used for transporting
passengers.
Passenger hoists — suitable for lifting persons and goods.

19.8.1 erection
• passenger and/or goods hoists should, as a minimum, be provided on any building
project which has four or more storeys and be extended, as the building progresses, to
the topmost floor.
• hoists should only be operated by fully trained and qualified personnel, be thoroughly
examined by a competent person after erection and before being put into service to
ensure that they have been properly erected and are safe to operate.
• the erection, extension and dismantling of hoists is a specialised job and should only be
carried out by competent erectors under the charge of a competent supervisor who will
have planned the work in detail, examined the site and assessed the correct method of
tying-in before work commences. If scaffolders carry out this work they must be suitably
trained and experienced.

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19.8.2 base
A good base is essential. The hoist winch and other devices must be correctly positioned
and anchored to the base to ensure stability and to enable the load on the tower to be
carried. The base units of some passenger carrying hoists weigh several tonnes and
adequate lifting facilities should be available for installation purposes.

19.8.3 ties
It is essential that the freestanding height of the hoist mast is never exceeded, and that it is
tied to the building strictly in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
It is essential that, when tied to a building or scaffold (which itself must be adequately tied to
the structure), the mast is maintained vertical, so that no undue stress becomes imposed on
the tower; with consequent misalignment and interference with the platform.

19.8.4 enclosures and gates


• enclosures and gates must have a minimum height of 2m except when, by virtue of their
position, a lesser height is adequate to secure safety of all personnel. In no case may
the height of gates or fencing be less than 910mm.
• gates must be fitted at all levels where access is required. All gates must be closed
except for loading and unloading. It is good practice to display a notice “Keep Gates
Closed”. It is recommended that gates are interlocked; this is a requirement for
passenger hoists.
• landing gates generally protect only the entrance itself, often leaving access around the
gates where a person may reach in for some purpose and be struck by the cage or
platform. It is necessary to provide fencing to prevent this.
• open platform hoists that do not have a protective fence or cage around the platform
must have the hoistway completely enclosed with suitable steel or wire mesh throughout
their height so that, should any part of the load become accidentally dislodged from the
hoist platform, it is contained with the enclosed tower.

19.8.5 platforms
• hoist platforms should be sound and maintained in good condition. Broken or missing
boards can easily cause a load to tip, or a man to fall when loading.
• gaps between the platform or cage and the landing, and between an open platform and
the hoistway, must be sufficiently small to prevent persons falling down the hoistway
when loading or unloading.
• platform must carry a notice stating the safe working load. On a goods hoist a notice
prohibiting passengers must also be displayed.

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19.8.6 goods hoist


safety devices (see Fig.16)

No’s. Denote:-
1. Over run device
1 2. 2m high landing
4 gate
3. Hoist enclosure
2
4. Hoist mast tied
into building.
5. Hoist arrestor
4
device.

8 6. Hoist operated
2 from one
position only
giving operator
5 unobstructed
4 view.
7. Dead man
handle.
6 3
7 8. S.W.L. marked
2
on hoist
platform.
Fig. 16. - Showing sketch of a cantilever Goods Hoist .
(Wire mesh surround to the hoistway has been ommitted allowing detail
to be shown).

• an over-run device must be fitted just above the highest platform position required, or
near the top of the mast.
• on all types of hoist, the top over-run device must be correctly set in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions, to ensure that there is no danger of headgear being struck by
platform or cage.
• bottom over-run devices must also, where fitted, be properly set. In the case of rack and
pinion hoists, there may be a danger of the platform or cage climbing off the top of the
mast, particularly during erection and dismantling.
• hoists must be fitted with an arrestor device to support the platform or cage, fully loaded,
in the event of failure of the hoist rope or driving gear.

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19.8.7 passenger hoists


safety devices (see Fig.17)

All passenger hoists may be used to carry goods up to the rated SWL. The usual procedure
is for the driver to travel with the goods, and his weight, calculated as a fraction of the
permitted number of persons, should be deducted from the payload (e.g. SWL 1 tonne or 12
men; therefore 1 man = 1/12 tonne; therefore payload = 11/1 2 tonne). When passengers
are carried, the driver is included in the permitted number of passengers.
Enclosures must be at least 2m high at the base and at landing stages, and should be of a
mesh size as laid down in BS 4465.
The gates must be fitted with mechanical or electrical locking devices, so that the gates
cannot be opened except when the cage is at the landing stage and so that the hoist cannot
be operated unless that gate is closed and the lock is in the shut position. ( Where this is
not practicable, it is allowable for the gate to be locked from inside the landing platform
provided the hoist operator is the only one issued with the key).
Cage gates must be mechanically and/or electrically interlocked. Access and egress gates
at working platform level must also be interlocked.
No’s Denote:-
1. Over run
1 device

4 2. 2m high
landing gate
9
3. Hoist
2 enclosure
4. Hoist mast tied
into building.
8 4
5. Hoist arrestor
device.
6 9 6. Hoist
operated from
7 9 one position.
7. Dead man
10 handle.
4
5 8. Cage interlock
on Gates.
9 9. Landing gates
interlock.
2 1
10.S.W.L. on
hoist.
3
Fig. 17 Showing sketch of a Passenger Hoist with
all the safety devices fitted.

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Hoists may only be operated from one position. This normally is from inside the cage. If, for
any reason, the cage stops between landing stages, it should be isolated electrically from
outside to prevent any possibilily of further movement. There is a mechanical device that
keeps the gates locked in such circumstances.

Passengers should remain in the cage until a competent person instructs them on the
correct method of egress, which may be through a roof trapdoor which is kept locked, except
when properly needed. A notice bearing instruction to this effect, or with any variations
peculiar to that specific model of hoist, should be prominently displayed in the cage

The SWL figure and the permitted number of passengers must be marked on the cage.
Drivers have particular responsibility to see that the hoist does not become overloaded.

The distance from the underside of the cage, when at its lowest position, to the ground, is
carefully calculated by the makers to prevent damage to the cage and its occupants if the
cage over-runs the bottom landing level. It is essential that the ground space beneath the
cage is kept completely clear in case such emergency arises, despite any trip mechanisms
incorporated by the manufacturer.
The operation of mechanical safety gear from inside the cage should be expressly forbidden
except in an emergency. For checking purposes, the safety gear should occasionally be
fired with the manual lever, if fitted, to ensure that it is working properly.

19.8.8 beam hoists


Hoists must be erected in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and, if secured to
scaffolding or other temporary support, the structure must be designed accordingly. Normal
safety procedures apply in the operation of beam hoists, but the following are particularly
relevant: (see Fig.18)
main safety requirements

• barriers must be erected and maintained at the loading area to prevent unauthorised
access.
• the load should be in full view of the driver throughout its travel.

• care must be taken to ensure that the


load does not snag or become dislodged
during lifting.

• regular checks should be made on the


security of the winch and its frame.
• the safety and security of the electrical
supply and controls must be checked,
and manufacturer’s maintenance
instructions must be followed.
Fig.18 - Showing type of Beam Hoist

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19.8.9 control systems


• with passenger hoists, the controls are inside the cage. In the case of goods hoists, the
controls are outside the cage or platform and it is essential that the driver is positioned so
that he can see the hoist over its entire run. Where this is not possible, a suitable
signaling system must be introduced.
• marking of the hoist rope in different colours for each landing can also be of assistance.
• hoist operating rope, lever or other controls should be so situated that the hoist can be
operated from only one position.

19.8.10 operation (general)


• operatives should have a clear view and be trained to place barrow handles facing the
offloading exit when loading on the ground, so that any walking on the raised platform at
delivery point is reduced to a minimum, and should also be instructed to close all gates
after use.
• all loads on the platform must be secure and there should be no projections.
• on passenger hoists such loads should be contained within the cage and not leaned
against the cage gates or doors. No attempt should be made to use a passenger
hoist with the cage roof trapdoor left open to permit the protrusion of long loads
(the trapdoor should in any case be interlocked).
• manufacturers may be able to supply a vertical extension to the cage to accommodate
longer loads. The SWL of a hoist is based upon an evenly distributed load. Where
vertical loads are carried there may be a need to derate the SWL of the hoist due to
imposed loads.

19.8.11 wind speeds


On all exposed sites and at heights, hoists can be subjected to wind forces much more
severe than at ground level. Most manufacturers quote wind speed limits at which their
machines will operate safely. These limits ought never to be exceeded.
In wind conditions in excess of the recommended limit, the hoist platform should be lowered
to the ground and the mains supply isolated.

19.8.12 maintenance
Systematic maintenance should be carried out at the manufacturer’s recommended intervals
by persons competent for the purpose.
Regular maintenance of both electrical and mechanical systems, should be carried out by
competent electricians and mechanics, to keep hoists in goad working order.
Hoist electrical work should only be carried out by an electrician trained in the control
systems involved. Drivers should not be permitted to attempt electrical maintenance, but
they can help to avoid breakdowns by observing chafing in the supply cables, or unusual
noise or performance.
rack and pinion hoists
The lubrication of the rack is a job normally carried out by the driver during maintenance but,
in order to have safe access, he must have assistance with the operation of the hoist. The
manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed regarding correct lubricant and

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method.

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swivel hoists

There are additional dangers with the operation of this type of hoist, because the cage must
be swung towards the landing levels for loading/unloading. Either:
• someone may try to open the gate(s) and lean into the hoistway to swing the cage into
position; or
• the cage may swing away from the landing level if it has not been locked into position.

These problems can be overcame by fitting hoist gates split into upper and lower gates and
by checking to make sure that the cage is locked into position at that level, before opening
the lower gate.
A single gate at least 910mm high may be fitted instead of the larger split gate, providing that
no-one can be struck by any moving part of the hoist or falling materials should they lean
into the hoistway.

winch operated hoists

All ties should be kept clear of the hoist rope and power cables and, as far as possible, out
of the way of all building operations, so that there is no temptation for anyone to remove
them. Proper planning can remove the risk of occurrences such as this, and other forms of
dangerous interference. Such planning must be backed by adequate site discipline and
enforcement of all instructions so that alterations may be made only by authorised
personnel.

19.9 APPROVED CRANE SIGNALLING SYSTEM

Clench and
Unclench
Fingers to
Operation Start Stop Emergency signal winch Lower Slew In Direction
Hoist Lower Slowly Indicated
(Follow my Instructions) Stop the load

Jib Up
Jib
Down

Derricking Jib Extend Retract Jib Travel to Me Travel in Direction Indicated OPERATION CEASE
Travel From (Or cease to follow my instructions)
Signal with one Hand -Other on Head Jib Me

NOTE: Signaller should stand in a secure position where he can see the load and can be clearly seen by
the Crane Driver. If at all possible he should face the driver. Each Signal should be precise.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - MOBILE & TOWER CRANES

MOBILE CRANE OPERATIONS


SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR PRODUCING METHOD STATEMENTS
Method statements for mobile crane operations should normally include the following so far as
is relevant in the circumstances

 Name and address of the site to which the method statement relates.

 Indication of whether the operation will be undertaken as a “contract lift” or as a “crane hire”.

 Name and address of the contract lift/crane hire company.

 Name and address of the company arranging for the contract lift/hiring the crane.

 Date and duration of operation.

 Time of crane arrival on site and of first lift.

 Details of the crane(s) concerned and copies of relevant certification.

 Name of the person appointed to have overall control of the lifting operation.

 Name of the appointed safety adviser and arrangements for monitoring the work.

 Confirmation of training standards for crane driver and slinger/signaller and methods of
communication.

TOWER CRANE ERECTION/DISMANTLING


SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR PRODUCING METHOD STATEMENTS
Method statements for tower crane erection/dismantling operations should normally include
the following so far as is relevant in the circumstances

 Name and address of the company carrying out erection/dismantling.

 Name and address of the site to which the method statement relates.

 Names of the supervisor / foreman and appointed safety adviser and arrangements for
monitoring the work.

 Details of the tower crane.

 Date and time of commencement of the operations.

 Details of the mobile crane to be used (see mobile crane method statement checklist) including
copies of relevant certification.

 The sequence of erection / dismantling.

 Details of limiting wind speed and method of checking wind speed.

 Details of where the crane is to be sited.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - MOBILE & TOWER CRANES

 Details of the items to be lifted including weights and dimensions.

 Height(s) of lift(s).

 Details of lifting gear to be used.

 Adequacy of outriggers load spreading pads.

 Means of checking wind speed.

 Provision of warning notices, barriers, cones etc.

 Arrangements for notification to police and highways authority where necessary e.g. for
temporary road closure.

 Provision of parking area for lorries unloading.

 Provision of temporary lighting if required.

Note
This checklist is intended to aid the production and approval of method statements. It is not an
exhaustive list of every possible issue that may need to be addressed for any given task.

The safety precautions to be followed during erection/dismantling including :-

— Confirmation that members of the erection/dismantling team will wear full safety harness at all
times whilst aloft.

— Confirmation that harnesses will be secured as necessary e.g. when bolting up, sledging,
slinging, etc.

— Details of proximity hazards and appropriate precautions.

— Details of road closures, police notifications, etc.

— Details of how the crane testing will be carried out. (in accordance with BS71 21: Part 2 1991)

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SECTION 20

LIFTING GEAR

INTRODUCTION 1
DEFINITION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

20.1 QUALITY OF LIFTING GEAR 2


20.2 SLINGING CONFIGURATION 2
20.3 SLING ATTACHMENTS 3
20.4 STRESSES ON SLINGS AT VARYING ANGLES 3
20.5 TYPES OF LIFTING GEAR 4
20.6 SLING SELECTION 8
20.7 BASIC PRECAUTIONS 8

SECTION 20
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 20

LIFTING GEAR

INTRODUCTION

Lifting must, by its very nature, be regarded as a hazardous operation. The severe usage to which
lifting gear is often subjected, together with the serious consequences to life and property which may
result from any failure, make it important that maximum attention is paid to the correct use and
maintenance of such gear. This can best be achieved by :-

• good design and workmanship.

• careful testing and inspection after manufacture and repair.

• detailed planning and correct and careful use of the gear.

• regular, careful inspection and maintenance during the life of the gear.

It is unfortunate that, whereas considerable importance is generally attached to the selection and
training of crane drivers, comparatively little attention is paid to banks men / slingers who are an
equally important part of any lifting operation. Management should accept that the duty of banks men /
slingers is not one that can be undertaken by untrained persons.

DEFINITION
Any loose equipment used for lifting with a lifting appliance, e.g. rope or chain slings, webbing slings,
hooks, eyes, shackles, eyebolts etc. (does not apply to ropes used for haulage on the level or
lashings).

MAIN APPLICABLE LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article (20)

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20.1 QUALITY OF LIFTING GEAR


It is of the utmost importance to ensure that any lifting gear put to use is of the correct
quality. To that end the equipment must be manufactured in accordance with relevant British
or internationally recognised standards, and where applicable, have current records of test
and examination.

20.2 SLING CONFIGURATIONS


Sling configurations shown in Fig. 1 below are some of the most common sling
configurations in use in the construction Industry:

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Fig.1
1 Single Leg Sling - normally used on loads with a single point of attachment with the sling in a vertical plane.
2 Two Legged Sling - Used when two lifting points are required. The angle between the legs of the sling should not exceed 90o
3 Three Legged Sling - This type of sling not to be used when the angle between any leg and a line vertically below centre
master ring exceeds 450
4 Four Legged Sling - Angle between legs on a four legged sling is measured between diagonally opposite legs and
should not exceed 45o

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20.3 SLING ATTACHMENTS


Attachments of a sling to a load will normally fall into four categories as shown in Fig. 2
below:

(1) 2
Fig. (2) (3) (4)

1. Two single leg slings used in a Basket Hitch. NOTE: Total load that may be lifted – provided that no
included angle exceeds 900 – is 2.1x that marked on the sling.
2. Choke Hitch Double Wrapped. NOTE: Total load that may be lifted is that marked on the sling.
3. Basket Hitch.
NOTE 1: Total load that may be lifted when the included angle does nor exceed 900 is 1.4 x that marked
on the sling.
NOTE 2: A Basket Hitch should only be used when the sling is passed through part of the load – and
the load is balanced on the sling.
4. Simple Choke Hitch. NOTE: Total load that may be lifted is that marked on the sling.

20.4 STRESSES ON SLINGS AT VARYING ANGLES


Chart No.1 –
Chart No. 1
Shows the
different stresses
that are imposed
on slings, chains,
ropes etc. when
included angles
are increased. e.g.
at an included
angle of 1200
stresses on sling
lifting 1 Ton is
exactly 1 Ton.
0
At 171 – stresses
on a sling lifting a
1 Ton Load is
nearly 6 Tons.

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20.5 TYPES OF LIFTING GEAR


20.5.1 alloy steel chains
• welded alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed identification stating size,
grade, rated capacity end sling manufacturer.

• hooks, rings, welded or mechanical coupling links and other attachments when used
with alloy steel chains shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of chain.

• job or shop hooks and links or make shift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods etc. or other
such attachments, shall not be used.

• rated capacity (working load limit) for alloy steel chain slings (single/multileg) shall not
exceed the values given by the manufacturer.

• whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds 10 per cent reduction in diameter,
the chain shall not be used,
20.5.2 wire rope slings
• the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for
various sizes and classifications of wire ropes shall be
followed.
• wire ropes shall not be secured by knots.
Fig. 9
• each wire rope used in hoisting, lowering or in pulling loads
shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.

Fig. 3 - showing broken strands in wire


rope
• wire rope shall not be used if in any length of ten diameters, the total number of visible
broken wires exceeds 5 per cent of total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs
of excessive wear, corrosion or defect. (see Fig. 3)

“soft eyes” type

Formed in this manner, are often used for convenience,


but in use they become flattened around the eye and suffer
considerable wear through friction. They should therefore
be frequently inspected and, at the first sign of damage,
removed.
By far the better method is for the eye to be formed by
bending the rope around a thimble which takes the rub
whilst the sling is in use and which prevents the rope itself
being damaged.
Fig.4 - Showing Ferrule Eyes
Having formed the eye, fixing back the free end is achieved
by using a ferrule or socket.
(see Fig.4)

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20.5.3 natural rope and synthetic fibre


• all splices in rope slings shall be made in accordance with manufacturer’s recommen-
dation,

• spliced fibre rope slings shall not be used unless they have been spliced as per the
manufacturer’s recommendation,

• knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.

• natural and synthetic fibre rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of
the following conditions are present:-
 distortion of hardware in the sling.  broken or cut fibres.
 abnornal wear.  variations in the size or roundness of
strands.
 powdered fibre between strands.
 discolouration or rotting.

20.5.4 synthetic webbing slings


Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width. Fitting shall be of a minimum
breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and free of all sharp edges that could in any way
damage the webbing.

types of webbing Slings: (see Fig.5)

2. Cargo Type webbing Sling


3. Round Type Webbing
1. Endless Type Webbing Sling Sling
Fig.5 - Showing various types of webbing slings

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attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes

Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes.
The thread shall be in an eyes pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop
the full breaking strength of the sling.

environmental conditions

When synthetic web slings are used the following precautions shall be taken:

• nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapours, sprays, mists or liquid of
acids or phenolics are present.

• polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapours, sprays,
mists or liquids of caustics are present.

removal from service

synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following
conditions are present:-
• acid or caustic burns
• broken or worn stitches
• melting or charring of any part of the sling surfaces
• distortion of fittings.
snags, punctures, ~ tears or cuts

Table 1. above shows the working load limit when using 1 webbing sling - Double ply at varying angles and sling
configuration.

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20.5.5 hooks
Every hook used for raising or lowering or as
means of suspension shall either:
• be of such shape as to reduce, as far as
possible. the risk of such displacement.
(see Fig.6) for types of hooks normally
used on building construction work.
or;
• be provided with an efficient device to
prevent the displacement of the sling or Fig. 6 - “C” Type Hook – Fig. 7 -
load from the hook (see Fig 7) sometimes referred Eye Hook with
to as the “Liverpool Safety Catch
“C” Hook

20.5.6 spreader beams


Spreader beams are used to support long or wide
loads during lifts and may be used when headroom
is limited.
They eliminate the hazard of load tipping and those
arising from the use of wide sling angles.
Alternatively they are used when the load will not
sustain the comprehensive force applied by slings
used at angles in excess of 1200. (see Fig.8) Fig. 8 -Showing Selection of Spreader Beams

20.5.7 eyebolts

Eyebolts are made to screw into or


through a load and when installed,
the following are the main points to
consider: (see Fig.9)
• collar must be at right angles to
the hole
(1) (2) (3)
• have full contact with the surface
and properly tightened
Fig. 9
• where hooks will not freely locate
1. Dynamo Eye Bolt. Designed for vertical lifting only
into the eye or link of the eyebolt,
2. Collar Eyebolt. Has a small eye with a large collar. Can be
shackle must be used
used for angular loads in the plane of the eye, but this will
• ensure that metric threads reduce the SWL.
threaded eyebolts are not 3. Collar Eye Bolt with Link. This type takes a higher angular
inserted into imperial thread loading than all the others and allows the pull to be taken in
any direction.
holes.

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20.6 SLING SELECTION


The different types of slings used in the construction industry can be put to use in many
different ways. It is therefore imperative that that slings of the correct type, SWL and length
are selected for use in any particular lifting operation. Each lift should be assessed with due
consideration of the following:-
20.6.1 weight of load to be lifted
The weight of routine pipes, timber, steel etc. can often be established from the
manufacturer or supplier, from delivery tickets or by calculations. Where weights of loads
cannot be determined e.g. pile extraction, they must be estimated by a person of experience
in such matters.

20.6.2 load dimension


The size and shape of the load must be considered together with any lifting points which
may be available. An assessment of the centre of gravity must also be made to ensure the
crane hook is placed above that point.

20.6.3 positioning of the load


Many loads may have to be placed at an angle or have one face resting directly on a surface
which would prohibit removal of the slings if the more traditional “wrap around” method was
used.
20.6.4 headroom
If lifts are to take place in areas of restricted headroom, then spreader beams may be more
appropriate than other types of slinging methods.

20.6.5 method of detachment


It is not uncommon in building and civil engineering, particularly when slinging structural
steel members, that access to the load when it has been lifted into position is extremely
hazardous. Consideration therefore should be given to the use of quick release shackles etc.

20.7 BASIC PRECAUTIONS


20.7.1 lifting gear
• has been tested and examined by a competent person and obtained a certificate signed
by the person specifying the safe working load.

• is of good construction, sound material, adequate strength, suitable quality and free from
patent defects.

• is inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is
safe. Defective equipment shall be removed from service.

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• it is clearly marked with its safe working load and identification number.

• all unused legs of the sling are hooked back to the eye to prevent the hook swinging
where it may strike personnel or get caught up.

• It is free from makeshift devices. i.e. must not be shortened with knots or bolts.

20.7.2 hooks
• are of sufficient size to permit the load to be taken on the bed and not the tip.

• is placed over the centre of gravity of the load to avoid the load swinging.

20.7.3 landing space


• suitability of the landing is established together with the quality of any chocks, battens
etc. on to which it is to be placed.

20.7.4 slinger
• ensures that the slings do not pass directly over sharp edges such that they may be
damaged.

• always wear a safety helmet, safety boots and gloves, and wear high visibility clothing so
that they are easily identifiable.

• give clear signals to the crane driver

20.7.5 load
• is checked to ensure that it is “free” and not trapped in any way and lifted slightly then
checked for stability and angle.

• is never directed over any persons head.

• Is within recommended safe working load of the equipment.

• securely attached to the appliance.

• adequate steps have been taken through the use of suitable packing or otherwise to
prevent the edges of the load from coming into contact with the lifting gear where it is
likely to result in damage.

• hands and fingers not be placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being
tightened around the load.

20.7.6 after use


It is removed from the immediate work area so as not to present a hazard to employees.

Note: Only Competent persons approved by Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs to test
lifting appliances are authorised to test and certify all types of lifting gear.

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SECTION 21

CONFINED SPACES

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

21.1 PLANNING 2
21.2 SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK 2
21.3 PERSONNEL SELECTION 2
21.4 TRAINING 3
21.5 TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERES 5
21.6 ATMOSPHERE MONITORING 5
21.7 PERMIT TO WORK 7
21.8 WORKING PRECAUTIONS 7
21.9 RESCUE 8
21.10 BREATHING APPARATUS 9
21.11 PERSONNEL 11
21.12 SEWERS 12
21.13 BACTERIAL INFECTION & HYGIENE 12
21.14 DETERIORATING ATMOSPHERE 13
21.15 SUBSTANCES WHICH MAY BE ENCOUNTERED 13
IN A CONFINED SPACE

SECTION 21
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 21

CONFINED SPACES

INTRODUCTION
For the purpose of safety the term ‘confined spaces” covers a great variety of workplaces which have
limited access and inadequate ventilation. They are therefore potentially dangerous places in which to
work because they may trap hazardous concentrations of toxic or flammable gases or vapours.
Confined spaces are also liable to become deficient in oxygen due to the build-up of a gas or vapour
which is not itself toxic but which displaces the breathable air.

Very often, the dangerous atmosphere is a result of the work being done for instance welding,
painting, flame cutting and the use of adhesives and solvents.

At some time or another almost any place on a construction site may become a confined space. Some
are quite obviously confined spaces e.g. tanks, ducts, bore-holes, silos, manholes, furnaces,
pipelines, sewers and underground chambers. But serious accidents have occurred in the past in
such places as rooms which were ultimately to become occupied rooms and which were therefore not
regarded as confined spaces when construction work was going on in them.

Everyday operations of the construction industry often involve work in excavations, holes and so on
which may not be recognised as confined spaces, but which nevertheless may present a danger of
toxic, flammable or oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

If there is any doubt whether or not a particular workplace presents the problems of a confined space,
atmospheric testing must be carried out to determine what are the hazards, if any.

If atmospheric problems are found to exist, first considerations should be:

• whether it is practicable to substitute safer materials than those which are producing the dangerous
atmosphere

• whether alternative methods of work could be adopted which would not give rise to hazards.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 – Article. (5), (6), (9) & (13)

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21.1 PLANNING
The special conditions of confined space working make it vital that the work should be
planned in detail and risk assessments made in order to determine appropriate health and
safety measures and emergency arrangements. (see Pt 2 section 19)- Risk Assessments -
Part One Manual

These measures should be incorporated in a safe system of work and included in the health
and safety plan which the principal contractor will have developed.

21.2 SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK


definition
An agreed, set sequence of operations, using
guards, safety devices and protective equipment, Fig.1
so as to complete a job safely and without danger
to health. They can be classified broadly into three
areas: (see Fig.1)

• simple systems covering safety equipment.

• formaI procedures for carrying out work


processes (e.g. entry into confined spaces).

• special applications (lock-off systems).

The following measures are priorities: Fig.1 - Photo showing entry into a sewer
manhole using winch, tripod, safety
• test atmosphere prior to entry. harness etc. and following the
correct safe system of work
• continuous monitoring at the workplace.

• maintain contact between operative and attendant in free air who is trained to carry out
emergency procedures.

21.3 PERSONNEL SELECTION


Persons who will be expected to work in confined spaces must be physically and mentally
suitable. It is no job for the claustrophobic or the foolhardy. It is recommended that
employees taken on for such work are over 18 years and preferably under 55 years of age.

Heavy manual tasks, with the necessity for rescue training and the possible added burden of
working in breathing apparatus may make the job too demanding for older men. Men of 55

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and over who are already employed on work in confined spaces should be medically
examined annually and additionally after any illness.

no one with any of the following disabilities should work in confined spaces:

• a history of fits, blackouts or fainting • asthma, bronchitis or shortness of


attacks. breath on exertion.

• a history of heart disease or heart • deafness.


disorders.
• meniêre’s disease or any illness causing
• high blood pressure giddiness or loss of balance.

• claustrophobia or other nervous or • chronic skin disease.


mental disorder.
• serious defect in eyesight.
• back pain or joint trouble that would limit
• lack of sense of smell.
mobility in a cramped space.

• deformity or disease of the lower limbs


limiting movement.

21.4 TRAINING
Work in confined spaces must only be undertaken by employees who have been properly
trained for the job.

It is the employer’s duty to provide such information, instruction, training and supervision as
is necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of
his employees.

Training must be planned specifically for:

• supervision • persons who will act as attendants

• persons who will be expected to enter • persons appointed to form a rescue team.
confined spaces to work in them

The precise form of the training and instruction must depend on the individual operations,
but in addition to any specialised training for particular tasks, general training for work in
confined spaces should include:

• observance of the safe system of work (permit-to-work).

• restrictions on size imposed by existing manholes or access shafts should be taken into
account when developing safe systems of work.

• training in the procedures for rescue, including the correct use and maintenance of
rescue equipment and resuscitation equipment.

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instruction :-

• on the suitable types of breathing • practice in the correct use of fire


apparatus and practice in their use, care fighting equipment.
and maintenance.
• (where applicable) observance of
• in first aid, treatment of shock, resuscita- personal hygiene rules to avoid health
tion. risks.

• practice in the correct procedures in • (where available and applicable) the


emergencies, especially evacuation. use of mobile radio.

• in the use of atmospheric testing


equipment.

Note: Instruction in the use and maintenance of equipment can often be given by the
Manufacturer.

21.4.1 practice drills


Practice drills are an essential part of
training; theoretical knowledge is not enough
to ensure that the right action will be taken in Fig.2
a real emergency. The use of breathing
apparatus especially should be practised
regularly, also the procedures for
emergency evacuation.

The drill should ensure that employees


acquire a sound working knowledge of the
signal communicating system to be used Fig.2 - Showing a Confined Space Team having a
practice drill entering a 8m deep sludge
between persons working in the confined collecting chamber.
space and those in attendance outside.

They must also learn the correct procedure for summoning medical aid or the emergency
services and the use and maintenance of any recovery winches and/or other methods of
recovery.

It is important that employees should learn to recognise situations requiring the use of
respiratory protective equipment and be able identify the appropriate atmosphere testing
equipment.

Refresher courses should be given as necessary on a regular basis. It is important that a full
and up to date record should be kept of the type of training given to each individual. (see
Fig.2)

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21.5 TOXIC AND FLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERES


In the context of confined space work the term nontoxic can be dangerously misleading. In a
small unventilated space any of the whole range of gases and vapours found in industry in
sufficiently high concentration could create an atmosphere that is not safe to breathe.
Contaminants can arise from:-

• the space itself (e.g. leaded petrol tanks).

• earlier process (e.g. degreasing, in which case a residue of trichlorethylene solvent in the
tank could emit fumes when the sludge is cleaned off).

• previous contents where confined spaces such as tanks have previously contained
flammable, explosive or toxic materials and where the work being done could create
vapour from the remains of the previous contents.

21.5.1 adjoining plant


Gas or vapour may enter the confined space from adjoining plant if it has not been
effectively isolated. To prevent exhaust fumes from entering a confined space and causing a
hazard, vehicles should not he sited near the entrance.

21.5.2 nearby undertakings


Where any deep narrow excavation (e.g. bore-hole) is adjacent to spoil heaps, sewage
works, gas works, old drainage systems, chemical works or refineries there is a danger of
seepage into the confined space. Air testing must be carried out before entry, and thereafter
at intervals for oxygen deficiency and toxic or flammable gases.

An atmosphere which is not fit to breathe may exist at the bottom of a hole from stagnant
water or from the subsoil itself e.g. the passage of water through chalk for instance, can
release carbon dioxide.

21.6 ATMOSPHERE MONITORING


Wherever work is carried out in confined spaces,
adequate ventilation must be provided if there is any 3
risk of the air becoming deficient in oxygen or
contaminated with dangerous or injurious dust, fumes
or gases. It is also requirement that atmospheric
testing must be carried out if the air in any confined
space is suspected of being poisonous or
asphyxiating. (see Figs. 3 & 4 )

No person must be allowed to enter until a


competent person is satisfied that entry is safe.

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An atmosphere which is safe on entry may become Fig.4


unsafe through any of the reasons given above, and
4
continuous monitoring is therefore necessary while
persons are working inside.

The odour of gases is useful in giving an early


indication of possible danger, but it must not be relied
on without the back-up of atmosphere testing
instruments. Figs. 3 & 4
showing two types of
The sense of smell varies greatly from person to portable gas monitors, both
person and is poor in the older age groups. Some capable of detecting up to 4
different gasses e.g.
dangerous gases have no smell (for instance
Low Oxygen
carbon monoxide and methane) and others
Hydrogen Sulphide
paralyse the sense of smell (for example hydrogen Methane Gas
sulphide). Carbon Monoxide

21.6.1 oxygen deficiency


Without any poisonous gas being present the atmosphere may become lethal through
depletion of oxygen. Normal air contains about 21% oxygen, 79% nitrogen. Below 17%
oxygen, a flame will not burn and the atmosphere is not fit to breathe.

The person working in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere may not be aware that he is in


danger. Consequently symptoms such as breathlessness, faintness, lack of physical co-
ordination, should lead to immediate evacuation, since unconsciousness can follow rapidly
and unexpectedly.

Several different situations can lead to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere:

21.6.2 rusting process


Where a steel vessel has been closed for some considerable time, the oxygen in the air may
have become absorbed onto the inner surface of the vessel through the rusting process. The
presence of moisture inside a steel vessel increases the likelihood of this occurring.

21.6.3 contaminated soil


Oxygen deficiency and concentrations of carbon dioxide may be encountered in tunnels or
deep excavations on land contaminated with coal waste or decaying organic matter, Slow
oxidation of buried coal waste and microbiological decay of organic matter takes up the
oxygen of the air in the surrounding soil leaving a nitrogen gas mixture deficient in oxygen
and rich in carbon dioxide. Falling atmospheric pressure would allow this gaseous mixture to
seep into tunnels or deep excavations in the contaminated ground.

21.6.4 decay of organic matter


Oxygen deficiency can result (for example in sewers or excavations in contaminated soil)
from the absorption or biochemical depletion of the available oxygen by organic matter.

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21.6.5 oxygen enrichment


The opposite condition, an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, can be equally dangerous. With an
excess of oxygen in the air some substances containing organic matter become liable to
spontaneous combustion. Grease and oil, for instance, may self-ignite, and also paint,
plastics, textiles, paper and wood.

Oxygen in more than its normal proportions in the air also greatly increases the
combustibility of all other materials. A fire in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere develops with
great speed and ferocity and may be particularly difficult to extinguish.

The atmosphere can accidentally become too rich in oxygen as a result of work which
releases extra oxygen into the air, for instance oxy-propane cutting.

Note: It is dangerous to purge with oxygen instead of air, and in no circumstances should
oxygen be introduced into a confined space to “sweeten” the air or to provide
ventilation. A leak of liquid oxygen or oxygen gas must be treated as a serious matter.

21.7 PERMIT TO WORK (see Pt 2 section 11) – Permit to Work.

21.8 WORKING PRECAUTIONS


Carrying out a job in a confined space often
entails working in cramped conditions, so work
shifts should be broken at intervals by rest
periods which the worker should spend in fresh
air. He must in any case leave the confined
space at the expiry of the time limit on the
permit-to-work.

“No smoking and no naked lights’’ must be


the rule in and near all confined space
operations. Only non-sparking tools must be
Fig.5 - Showing Forced ventilation equipment
used, and no nylon lines or nylon clothing used to provide clean air for workers
allowed because of the danger of generating a cleaning an old sludge holding tank.

spark from static electricity.

All electrical tools and lighting must be of the flameproof or intrinsically safe type. The
British/American Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
defines ‘intrinsically safe’’ as ‘‘Systems comprising apparatus and interconnecting wiring in
which any spark or thermal effect in any part of the system for use in the hazardous area, is
incapable, under prescribed conditions, of causing ignition of a given gas or vapour.

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(BASEEFA Certification Standard SEA 3012). Intrinsically safe is also defined in BS 1259.

Cylinders containing compressed gases, or any lines or equipment connected to cylinders


outside the confined space, should be removed at meal breaks, shift changes or whenever
that space is left unattended.

21.9 RESCUE
The procedure for rescue in an emergency should be set out clearly in the permit-to-work,
with specific jobs allocated to specific persons.

Training should ensure that if a rescue becomes necessary, all persons concerned are
thoroughly familiar with the routine procedures through frequent practice drills.

The communication system must not rely on any method (for instance, blowing whistles)
which becomes impossible when breathing apparatus is being worn. Signals by means of
rope can also be unreliable since if the rope snags communication is lost.

At the same time, a danger alert must not rely on a signal given by the worker inside the
confined space, since if he is overcome suddenly he will be in no condition to give the alarm
and he may be working alone.

If space allows, a minimum of two men should enter a confined space when working out of
sight of the external observer. Communication must be of a fail-safe type. That is to say, if
the worker inside the confined space does NOT take the right action, the alarm is given. For
instance, if a periodic pre-arranged signal is NOT received at the end of the normal interval,
it could result in serious injury, or even death.

The essentials for rescuing someone from a confined space are that:

• the outside observer must have means of knowing immediately that a man is gassed or
has met with an accident.

• the rescue team, alerted by the observer, must get the casualty out into free air speedily.

• the casualty must be given first aid quickly, either at the work location or immediately he
is brought out into free air and the appropriate medical attention as soon thereafter as
possible.

rescue equipment
Rescue equipment should include breathing apparatus, resuscitation apparatus and oxygen.
It should also include:

• full body safety harnesses with • fire fighting apparatus.


adequate length of rope taking account
• emergency escape breathing pack.
of the workplace location.
• audible alarm for summoning help.
• man winch.

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• at least one set of suitable breathing • means of communication with the


apparatus and emergency breathing surface observer.
pack.
• intrinsically safe hand torches or cap
• first aid equipment. lamps.

entry for rescue


Where the casualty has had an accident and is injured in an atmosphere certified on entry
as safe, rescuers can enter without breathing apparatus provided there are no indications
that the atmosphere has become unsafe.

Where, however, the casualty has collapsed and the cause is not known, then rescuers
must wear breathing apparatus.

This applies even if, when the person entered the confined space, it was certified as safe to
enter. The reason for the collapse could be an overall deterioration in the atmosphere since
entry was made, or a deterioration in the particular area where the casualty has been
overcome.

Apart from the paramount necessity of rescuing a worker who has been overcome, if gas is
suspected the emergency procedure must provide for the immediate evacuation of any other
person who may be within the confined space. A system of "audible" evacuate alarms
operated by the observer outside should always be installed if persons have to work out of
the sight of the observer at some distance from the openings.

If fire has broken out, or flammable gas is suspected, a pre-arranged procedure must
provide for the immediate summoning of the Civil Defense.

Emergency plans should be discussed with the local emergency services including fire,
police and ambulance so that the best use can be made of their expertise and facilities. If it
is practicable, there is great advantage in having an emergency practice with all the services
participating.

21.10 BREATHING APPARATUS


Breathing apparatus is used for work in confined spaces when the atmosphere is not safe to
breathe. The equipment consists of a properly fitted helmet or face piece, by means of which
the wearer can breathe uncontaminated air, either drawn from fresh air or supplied by
compressed air. All breathing apparatus supplied alter 30 June 1995 must carry the CE
mark.

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The following are relevant types:

air line breathing apparatus


Supplied with compressed air by air line from a compressor or cylinders, in either case an
attendant must always be on duty at the supply end to monitor the uninterrupted supply of Fig. 6
compressed air. (see Fig.6)

If the air is supplied by a compressor, care


must be taken to see that the compressed
air delivered to the breathing apparatus
wearer is pure and uncontaminated by oil,
exhaust gases or any other pollutants.

Again the advantage is the unlimited supply


of air, the disadvantage is the presence of
the air line.
Fig. 6 – Showing Air Line type Breathing Equipment.

Where access to a confined space is too small for a man to enter wearing self-contained
breathing apparatus with cylinders. or where it is not possible to site a compressor unit
nearby, a mobile breathing apparatus unit (hose reel and trolley set) is useful.

self-contained breathing apparatus


Supplied by compressed air from cylinders
carried on the user’s back. This type is free
from the disadvantage of a trailing air line, and
it allows the man to he supplied with
compressed air or whatever mixture of gases is
suitable in the circumstances, and to move
freely The disadvantages are obvious, e.g.

• entry through a small man hole is not


possible wearing a cylinder pack: working in
a cramped space is impossible.

• the weight of the pack, (13 .18kg), imposes


a considerable extra work cad on the wearer

• the limited duration of the air in the cylinder,


which decreases in heavy work. (see Fig.7)
Fig.7 - Showing Self Contained Breathing
Apparatus.

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escape breathing apparatus


Self-contained breathing apparatus with small
cylinder. Its purpose is simply to provide enough
respirable air in an irrespirable atmosphere to give
the wearer time to escape. (see Fig.8)

The breathing apparatus should be well fitting and


properly worn as accidents have occurred due to the
displacement of a face- or mouth-piece. It is better

When using an air line type of breathing apparatus,


to take filtered air from a supply at such a rate that a Fig.8 - Showing a 15 minute constant
flow type escape set.
positive pressure is maintained inside the face-piece.

All breathing apparatus must be thoroughly examined at least once every month by a
competent person authorised by certificate to carry out such examinations, and inspected,
tested and certified at intervals not exceeding six months.

Where practicable, the types of breathing apparatus used in an organisation should be


standardised. This reduces maintenance and spares problems, and simplifies operator
training.

21.11 PERSONNEL
People who will or may have to use breathing apparatus must be fit and not suffering from
any chronic or acute respiratory ailment. And they must he properly trained in the use of the
equipment.

Training, given by qualified person, should include:

instruction on :-
• the equipment, its mode of operation • how to deal with malfunctions and
and its limitations. failures of equipment during use.
• the care and cleaning of apparatus. • the use of breathing apparatus in
• how to don the equipment, adjust the emergency situations.
face-piece and supply valves where • the functions and limitations of escape
necessary, and to test for leaks around breathing apparatus.
the face-piece (beards and facial hair • the hazards which necessitate the use
may prevent an air tight seal). of breathing apparatus.

Maintenance and servicing of breathing apparatus should be in accordance with the


manufacturers instructions.

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21.12 SEWERS
Additional to the precautions for confined spaces,
work in sewers necessitates safeguards against:
drowning and/or being swept away, 200mm of
water in a fast flowing sewer is difficult to stand
against and 600mm of water is a danger.
Conditions in a sewer can change very quickly,
and workers should be able to recognise
indications of danger such as: (see Fig.9)

• movement of air through the sewer.

• increase in depth or velocity of the stream.

• noise of approaching water.

In any of these conditions, immediate evacuation Fig.9 - Sewerage Operator entering a


must he carried out. 9m deep sewer access
manhole in Abu Dhabi. Note
using life line and Full
Breathing Apparatus.

21.12.1 preliminary precautions during the planning of the work


should include:

• a system whereby a forecast of local weather conditions is obtained periodically.

• establishment of local control procedures in collaboration with sources of large amounts


of industrial effluents.

• collaboration with emergency services so that contingency plans can he established to


enable those in control of sewer operations to be alerted to the possible danger if, for
instance, harmful or flammable substances are released into the drains as a result of a
road accident or other emergency.

• Chains or bars should be fixed downstream of the working place before work starts.

• Wherever necessary for safety, running lines should be fixed for men to clip on to them.

21.13 BACTERIAL INFECTION & HYGIENE


21.13.1 leptospirosis (Weil’s Disease)
Infection can arise (mainly in foul sewers) from rats’ urine (Weil’s disease) from putrefying
solids or in discharges from hospitals and on occasion general discharges during epidemics
of contagious disease.

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A kind of infective jaundice, Weil’s disease or Leptospirosis is usually a mild illness if treated
in the early stages, but it can be a serious illness if it remains unrecognised and therefore
the patient is not given the appropriate treatment. It starts with flu-like symptoms, and to
safeguard against a wrong diagnosis, men who will be working in sewers should be provided
with a card to present to their doctor which informs him of the mans occupation.

The disease is not conveyed from person to person, so that a man’s family is not at risk, and
an attack confers a certain amount of immunity.

It is strongly recommended that anyone whose job brings him into possible contact with
sewage, should be inoculated against tetanus, poliomyelitis and hepatitis "A & B" and to
have the immunity maintained the whole time he is at work. Other precautions against all
these infections consist of good personal hygiene.

All workers should wear appropriate protective clothing (which is thoroughly cleaned after
each work period) and avoid exposing the skin, as infection can enter through abrasions.

Lanolin - based barrier cream should be used before work, and after work the hands, face
and forearms washed with hot water and soap. The nails should be scrubbed, but not the
skin, as this can roughen the skin surface and increase the risk of infection, and even the
smallest scratch should be washed and covered with antiseptic dressing, and every
accident, however trivial, reported to the person in charge of the work.

Eating, drinking and smoking must not be allowed until the personal hygiene rules have
been observed. Routine hygiene is easier to observe if mobile vans contain toilets, proper
hot water washing facilities and first aid on the site.

21.14 DETERIORATING ATMOSPHERE


The gases most commonly found in sewers are hydrogen sulphide (H2S), (flammable and
toxic) and methane (flammable and explosive in air). Both are generated during the
decomposition of organic matter and can be released into the air as workers wade through
the sewer so that a sewer certified as safe to enter may become unsafe as soon as men set
foot in it. Workers should be instructed to walk slowly and cause as little disturbance of
bottom sludge as possible.

The characteristic smell of rotten eggs indicates low concentrations of H2S, but at
concentrations high enough to be dangerous the gas paralyses the sense of smell, so the
absence of detectable smell is no guarantee of safety. H2S is an acute irritant to the eyes
and the respiratory passages massive inhalations can produce death by asphyxia.
Symptoms of exposure can be eye irritation, sickness, dizziness, choking and lack of
muscular control.

Note: Any time that workers experience symptoms such as eye irritation or any feeling of
illness, it should be taken to indicate a potentially dangerous situation and
precautionary measures instituted immediately.

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21.15 SUBSTANCES WHICH MAY BE ENCOUNTERED IN A CONFINED SPACE

HAZARDOUS HAZARD OCCUPATIONAL LOWER PREVENTION IN CASE OF


SUBSTANCES EXPOSURE EXPLOSIVE FIRE
LIMIT(PPM) LIMIT %
(SEE NOTE 1)
Asphyxiant and
Acetylene narcotic. Highly ____ 2.5 Ventilation Dry Powder
Flammable and Control
Explosive Cylinder Care
Asphyxiant and
Butane narcotic LT (OES) 600 1.6 Ventilation Dry Powder
Highly flammable ST (OES) 750 Control
and explosive Cylinder Care

Carbon Dioxide Asphyxiant LT (OES) 5,000 ___ Ventilation ___


ST (OES)15,000 Control

Carbon Toxic, flammable LT (OES) 50 12.5 Ventilation Dry Powder


Monoxide and explosive ST (OES) 4000 Control

Highly toxic and Ventilation


Chlorine corrosive. LT (OES) 0.5 ___ Control. Dry Powder
Flammable by ST (OES) 3.0 Complete AFFF
reaction with protective
other materials suits.

Hydrogen Highly Toxic LT (OES) 10


Sulphide Flammable ST (OES) 15 4.3 Ventilation Dry Powder
Control
Asphyxiant. ___
Methane Highly 4.1 Ventilation Dry Powder
Flammable and Control
Explosive

Nitrogen Highly toxic and LT (OES) 3-25 ___ Ventilation ___


Oxides corrosive ST (OES) 5.35 Control

Petrol Toxic and highly ___ 1.3 Ventilation Dry Powder


flammable Control AFFF

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HAZARDOUS HAZARD OCCUPATIONAL LOWER PREVENTION IN CASE OF


SUBSTANCES EXPOSURE EXPLOSIVE FIRE
LIMIT(PPM) LIMIT %
(SEE NOTE 1)

Propane Asphyxiant. ___ 2.3 Ventilation Dry Powder


Highly Control
Flammable and Cylinder Care
Explosive

Toulene Toxic and LT (OES) 100 1.2 Ventilation Dry Powder


narcotic ST (OES) 150 Control
Highly Impermeable
flammable gloves

Trichlor- Narcotic, may LT (MEL) 100 ___ Ventilation Dry Powder


ethylene emit highly toxic ST (MEL) 150 Control
fumes in Impermeable
presence of hot gloves
work

Welding fumes Depending on LT (OES) 5 ___ Ventilation ___


metal and rods generally control
used. Mixture of (other exposure Filter face
gases,metal and limits may apply) masks
oxide fumes Heat resistant
may contain gloves and
zinc, cadium or overalls
lead Eye protection

White spirit Flammable LT (OES) 100 1.1 Ventilation Dry Powder


ST (OES) 125 Control

Note: LT(MEL) Long - term maximum exposure limit (8 hour TWA)


ST(MEL) Short - term maximum exposure limit (15 minutes TWA)
LT(OES) Recommended long-term occupational exposure standard (8 hour TWA)
ST(OES) Recommended short-term occupational exposure standard (8 hours TWA)
P.P.M. Parts per million
TWA Time Waited Average calculated over 8 hours

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SECTION 22

ROAD WORKS & BRIDGES

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

22.1 PLANNING 2
22.2 PERSONS AT RISK 3
22.3 RISKS AND HAZARDS 4
22.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 6
22.5 TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS 10
22.6 TABLE 1 - positioning of signs and cones 15
22.7 FIGURE 1 - traffic diversion diagram 16
22.8 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION 16

ROADWORKS SAFETY CHECKLIST


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.22/1)

SECTION 22
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 22

ROAD WORKS & BRIDGES

INTRODUCTION

This section is intended to cover safety aspects on all roadworks, as applied to both new highway
construction works and the reconstruction or resurfacing of existing highways

The term "Roadworks" includes the use of road surfacing materials containing cement, such as concrete and
mortars, and those containing bitumen, pitch or tar, such as hot rolled asphalt, cold asphalt, bituminous-
macadam and tar macadam, etc., and also the use of bitumens and tars in cold or hot liquid and spray
form. Various ancillary works and materials are also covered, including the use of waterbound macadam
and epoxy resins, the burning off and planning of existing bituminous road surfaces, the use of fuels such
as diesel oil, petrol and liquefied petroleum gas, as well as the many other maintenance activities such as
patching, surface dressing, drainage works and trench reinstatements, etc., carried out on our highways
every day.

The term "Bituminous Material" used in this section refers to any material containing bitumen, tar or pitch
as a binder and can also be considered to apply to bitumen or tar used in liquid form.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Abu Dhabi Traffic Police Department Regulations
ADM Roads Directorate Traffic Control Devices Manual, Section 7, Roadworks Traffic Control

ADM Roads Directorate - Bridge Design Manual

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22.1 PLANNING
Road works can be a hazardous operation, both to contractors and to users of the public
highway. It is therefore essential to assess the various risks and to establish systems of
work which are both safe to contractors and the public.

22.1.1 generally
• it is essential to ensure road works wherever applicable are included in the pre tender
health and safety plan.

• associated safe systems of work and site rules should be included in the construction
health and safety plan which the main contractor must ensure is sufficiently developed
before the work is carried out.

• consider that pedestrian access and properties requiring vehicular access should at all
times be maintained.

• where work is planned which involves breaking up or opening any street or any
sewer drain or tunnel under it, this should be specified on the Notice of Intent and
approval must be given by all relevant authorities before commencing works.

• any part of the street to be obstructed by plant or materials must be adequately


signed and guarded, paying particular regard to the needs of the disabled.

• works must be supervised by a supervisor having prescribed qualifications and there


must be on site at all times at least one trained operative having prescribed
qualifications.

• it is important that the workforce is given appropriate induction training before


beginning work on site.

• visitors must be given sufficient instruction on relevant hazards before entering the
works area and be accompanied at all times by a trained person.

22.1.2 major roadworks sites


• on major roadworks sites, such as on motorways, designers should ensure that at
least one safe method of construction is identified, covering the workforce, others
involved in the project and members of the public.

• thorough planning is essential to ensure that adequate space and sufficient time is
available to enable the work to be carried out safely and efficiently.

• difficult space limitations should be avoided wherever possible. Sufficient space is


required for lateral and longitudinal safety zones, for the working area, for buffer
zones and for efficient traffic management systems. Although barriers for buffer and
safety zones should normally be of safe type, in certain circumstances, where there is
a high risk to operatives from motorway traffic, the use of concrete barriers may be
required. It is important, however, that these are used only with the agreement of the
police as damage to vehicles is inevitable if a collision occurs.

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Sufficient space must also be provided for:

access for site transport

• where possible, well signed lead-in and lead-out coned off lanes should be provided
for site transport.

access for emergency services

• where possible, a clear traffic lane should be provided between the limits of the
"working space" and the live traffic, for use by the emergency services.

• where a clear lane cannot be provided, the site access lane will need to be used by
emergency services and, in the event of an accident blocking the running lanes, the
police may require the site access lane to be used by general traffic.

• where a site access lane cannot be provided, it will be necessary for an access
through the works area to be available for use in an emergency.

access across traffic lanes

• works personnel may need to get from one side of a traffic lane to the other.

• traffic lanes must never be crossed on foot and safe procedures must be introduced, such
as the provision of temporary bridges, or an approved route for authorised vehicles.

22.2 PERSONS AT RISK


In all safety matters pertaining to highway works, consideration must always be given to
operatives working on the highway and to the general public using the highway.

22.2.1 operatives working on the highway


• all construction workers engaged on highway works could be at risk. In addition, however, if
the highway works are on a road which is open to traffic, the risk is increased.

22.2.2 users of the public highway


• pedestrians and vehicle occupants passing in the vicinity of highway works could be at risk, as
could persons living or working nearby

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22.3 RISKS AND HAZARDS


The risks to operatives and to members of the public can result in injuries caused by the following
hazards:

22.3.1 burns and fire risks


• many bituminous materials are supplied and used in hot form. Bearing in mind that hot rolled
asphalt is supplied at a temperature in the region of 135°C and liquid bitumen for surface
dressing at 150°C, burns can easily occur. There is also danger of burns from machinery and
hand tools used to lay hot bituminous materials or to heat existing road surfaces.

• the overheating of bitumen or tar, the misuse of fuels or the use of fuels in defective plant, can
create a serious fire risk. Heaters or burners used for heating existing road surfaces can,
if not properly operated and controlled, damage or set fire to adjacent property.

• skin contact with LPG can give cold burns, and cement, when wet, in the form of
concrete or mortar can cause serious burns.

22.3.2 carcinogenic nature of pitch, tar and mineral oils


• operatives who use pitch, tar or mineral oils, especially over a long period of time can
develop a skin cancer in the form of cancerous warts. The danger arises where any of these
materials is in frequent contact with the skin. When it occurs it is usually on the face, neck,
hands, arms or scrotum and may be cured by early treatment. Petroleum bitumens are not
considered to be a hazard in this respect.

• a further possible hazard from prolonged and constant contact with these same materials is
the contraction of dermatitis.

22.3.3 vehicle and plant accidents


• whenever vehicles or plant are moving or working alongside pedestrians or pedestrian
operatives on any roadworks site, there is a high accident potential.

Hazards under this heading fall into two general categories:

• the traffic accident type where a pedestrian operative is run over by plant or a vehicle.
Provision of a banksman should help to combat this type of hazard.

• the machinery/operative type of accident where injury is caused by the operation of the
plant or vehicle or the machinery in the plant or vehicle. For example, where an operative is
injured by unguarded machinery in a paving machine.

22.3.4 accidents to the public


• roadworks present an additional hazard to highway users over and above the ever present
traffic accident risk. However well roadworks are signed, the sudden appearance of
roadmen and plant in the road in front of moving traffic can be unexpected.

• the provision of a complete system of advance warning signs is absolutely essential,


together with a suitable traffic control system as detailed in this section.

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22.3.5 eye hazards


• on works where hard surfaces or materials such as concrete, stone, rock or asphalt etc. are
being broken out by hand or machine or being formed with a hand tool such as a cold
chisel or a power driven tool, small chips or pieces of the material can be projected through
the air at high speed. If one or more of these pieces enters the eye, serious injury can result.

• a further danger can be caused by the inadvertent entry into the eye of other foreign
matter such as bitumen, oil, cement or other dusts.

• the use of epoxy resins adds a further hazard. If the curing agent gets into the eye,
permanent damage is likely.

22.3.6 falls
• operatives falling over any object or falling into excavations etc. account for many
accidents on roadworks sites. Falls from moving vehicles or plant are a further hazard.

22.3.7 hearing hazards


• where excessively noisy plant or other equipment is used permanent damage to hearing can
occur. Lower noise-levels, while not perhaps causing damage to hearing can be very
uncomfortable for operatives, causing tiredness, which in itself is another hazard.

• the reduction of noise at source and the provision and use of hearing protection can
remove this hazard. However, it must be appreciated that, if hearing protection is worn
when working close to fast moving traffic, the risk of a traffic accident is increased.

22.3.8 hazards from overhead and underground cables etc.


• the presence of underground electricity cables and other services can be a serious
hazard, particularly on existing highways.

• the location and identification of all underground and overhead mains and cables
must be established before works on site commence. (see Pt 2 Section 6)

22.3.9 back injuries


• back injuries can occur in working with bituminous materials and with concrete, especially
in lifting, raking and tamping.

• the use of correct lifting techniques and assuming correct postures will assist in
eliminating this most common of all hazards. (see Pt 2 section 8).

22.3.10 hazards from dusts, fumes and smoke


• the presence of various dusts is quite common on roadwork sites, the degree of
danger depending on the type of dust and the length of the time of inhalation. Dust
containing pitch can be carcinogenic, whilst cement dust can cause lung scarring, burns
and dermatitis. Silica dust can cause silicosis.

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• fumes and smoke from hot bituminous materials are always present when these
materials are being used and they can cause discomfort and nausea to some operatives.
Careful assessment and monitoring of any dust, fume or smoke conditions is essential.

22.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


The foregoing accident hazards can largely be prevented by careful planning and
exercising simple precautions.

22.4.1 personal hygiene


• transportable washing and toilet facilities should be provided on all sites to enable
operatives to wash off bituminous materials, cement or oils from the skin, especially
before eating or using toilet facilities and even smoking.

• personal hygiene is an absolutely essential step in combating the risk of dermatitis and
cancer.

• provision of adequate welfare facilities can be particularly difficult where work is of


short duration and should be catered for accordingly

• clean overalls are of little use if worn over clothing which is itself impregnated with
cement, oil or tar etc. Therefore, operatives' clothing should be kept reasonably clean
and free from cement, bituminous materials and dirt (see below)

22.4.2 protective clothing and equipment (also see Pt 2 section 12)


All operatives handling bituminous materials or concrete, and all others working on roadworks
sites should at all times wear:

safety helmets

• conspicuously coloured to make the wearer more visible to vehicle and plant operators.
All site personnel must wear a safety helmet at all times.

safety boots with steel toecaps

• with stout heat resisting soles


high visibility clothing

• essential to ensure that operatives are easily visible to all vehicle and plant drivers and
to passing traffic. Must be worn on dual carriageways with a speed limit of 80km/h or
above.

general covering/clothing

• cover exposed parts of the body in order to prevent contamination of the skin with
bituminous materials or concrete or cement.

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• if clothing becomes impregnated with any bituminous material or concrete or cement, it


ceases to protect and may even cause the effects which it is intended to prevent as
oils, bituminous materials and cement work their way through clothing on to the skin.

• therefore, it is essential that all overalls, gloves etc. are regularly cleaned to remove
any contamination. Dry cleaning is probably the only effective method. In bad cases
of saturation with bituminous material or cement, the only remedy is disposal and
replacement.

gloves

• able to protect the wearer against heat, oil, tars, bitumens and concrete etc.

eye protection

• for such operations as cutting out, grinding, spraying bitumens or tar.


hearing protection

• noise from various sources can often be reduced by the provision of baffles or screens.
Noise from internal combustion engines can be reduced by the provision of silencers
or replacement of defective ones.

dust masks and breathing apparatus

• normally with roadworks the site is of an open nature and problems of fumes, smoke
and dusts are the exception rather than the rule.

• the problem may arise especially in confined sites such as a narrow road between tall
buildings or in tunnels or underpasses.

• dusts can generally be controlled by damping down but it may be necessary to provide
forced ventilation, e.g. air movers, and masks or breathing apparatus of a suitable type
for operatives.

• if breathing apparatus is required, proper selection and training is necessary. It is also


very restrictive on heavy manual work. Care must be exercised to ensure that the
protection provided is suitable for the particular problem experienced, be it dust, gas,
fumes or smoke.

22.4.3 overhead and underground services (also see Pt 2 section 6)


• the location of all mains and services must be established before carrying out any works
involving breaking out or excavating etc.

• Particular attention must be paid to electricity cables, both underground and overhead
and also to gas mains. In addition, it is advisable to verify the location of any given main
before commencing other excavation works in the locality.

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22.4.4 plant (also see Pt 2 section 15)


• all plant manufacturers must provide safety recommendations and procedures in
respect of their product.

• it is essential that all users obtain such information and are familiar with and follow the
recommendations. A copy should always be kept with the particular machine.

• plant manufacturers must provide all necessary guards and safety devices for their
plant and if not, the plant must not be operated until a suitable protective guard has
been fitted.

• it is strongly recommended that all mobile plant and vehicles be painted a conspicuous
colour (e.g. bright golden yellow) and be equipped with rotating amber flashing
beacons.

• the operators of all plant and machinery must be properly trained and competent in the
use of the particular machine which they operate.

• it is the duty of all plant owners and operators to ensure that all safety devices such
as guards, brakes, hand-rails, warning lights and flashers etc. are always operating
satisfactorily or are reported immediately they become defective. The continued
use of plant or machines with defective safety devices must be prohibited.

• the misuse, overloading or the unauthorised riding on any plant or vehicle is forbidden

22.4.5 tools (also see Pt 2 Section 16)


• all tools used must be kept in good order and operators must be competent in their
use. Where necessary, training must be given.

22.4.6 fuels
• the fuels generally used on roadworks sites are diesel oil or gas oil, liquefied petroleum
gas and, more rarely, petrol.

• a "No Smoking" rule must be enforced where appropriate.


• any leakage from plant, or spillages, must be quickly remedied.
• a reasonable quantity of oil-absorbent chemical should be kept at all roadworks sites
for use on any spillage.

22.4.7 fire extinguishers


• fire extinguishers must be provided on all sites.
• generally dry powder, foam or CO2 extinguishers only should be used on oil, bitumen
or petrol fires; dry powder extinguishers should be used on LPG fires.

• water extinguishers should never be used on these types of fire.

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22.4.8 pedestrian & warning barriers


• precautions must be taken to prevent persons
or plant from falling into any excavation.
(see Pt 2 section 23)

• particular precautions are required where the


public are involved, which will mean the fixing of
continuous rigid barriers to mark any temporary
footway and to protect pedestrians from traffic,
excavations and plant.

• guard rails should be at least 910mm above ground level and there should be toe boards
or another rail, approximately 150mm above the ground.

The following are examples of temporary barriers used to both protect the public and warn
vehicles.

22.4.9 general safety matters


The following additional general recommendations could all help to avert accidents:

• all vehicles and plant drivers and other occupants should vacate their vehicle by
the kerb side.

• all vehicles and plant should be equipped with two high intensity rear fog lamps that
are automatically switched on when reversing, plus an automatic audible reversing
alarm to warn operatives of the danger from a reversing vehicle. In addition, it is
highly desirable to have all reversing manoeuvres directed by a banksman located
towards the rear of the vehicle but within sight of the driver.

• in order to enable works to proceed smoothly on heavily used roads, consideration


should be given, where possible, to:

 working during light traffic flows only

 working at night

 working at weekends

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• works carried out at night should always be floodlit, taking care not to dazzle or
blind oncoming traffic.

• when works are being carried out on a highway open to traffic, two-way working
of traffic flows should be maintained whenever possible. The minimum widths
recommended are 2.75m for one-way working and 5.5m for two-way working.

• steps should be taken to maintain both site safety and security outside working
hours in order to reduce the risk of accidents to the public, particularly to
inquisitive children. All vehicles and plant should be immobilised when not in use.

22.5 TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS


22.5.1 general requirements
Traffic Diversions must comply with any special requirements of the Police; the advice of
which should be sought where appropriate. In particular:

• it is essential and mandatory for the protection of operatives and the general public that
adequate signs are displayed giving highway users advance warning of road works.

• the sizes and positioning of signs and cones are dependant on the type of the road and
the relevant speed limits. For example, high speed roads require more and larger signs
displayed further in advance of the works, than minor or slower speed roads.

• if it is necessary to hold down signs, cones etc. because of wind problems, only
sandbags should be used. Hard heavy objects should not be used as, if hit by a moving
vehicle, they could become lethal missiles to the danger of persons or other vehicles
nearby.

• warning signs should be set so that their lower edge is at least 300mm clear of the
ground. This prevents any wording at the bottom of the sign from becoming too
dirty, or obscured.

• signs must be clearly visible to approaching drivers by both day and night, and in all
weather conditions.

• if there is not adequate lighting available to sufficiently illuminate the sign at night, then
reflective signs must be used.

22.5.2 works area


• the works area is the excavation, chamber opening, etc at which work will be carried
out.

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22.5.3 working space


• the working space is the space around the works area where tools, excavated
material, equipment and plant, etc will need to be stored. It is also the space needed
to move around in to do the job.

• there must be sufficient working space to ensure that the movement and operation of
plant (e.g. swinging of jibs and excavator arms) is clear of passing traffic and is not
encroaching into the safety zone, or adjacent footway.

22.5.4 safety zones


• on any roadwork site, a space must be provided around the works for the storage of
spoil, tools, plant and equipment and to allow the safe movement and operation of plant.

• a safety zone, delineated by cones and lamps should be provided to protect operatives
from the traffic and to protect traffic from the road works.

• plant must not be allowed to encroach on to the safety zone, nor must operatives be
allowed to enter it other than to maintain the cones or safety signs.

a safety zone comprises:

 a lead-in taper of cones (T), which will vary with the speed limit and width of the
works. (see Table 1)

 a sideways clearance between the working space and moving traffic, which
must be at least 0.5 metres on roads with speeds up to 80 km/h and at least 1.2
metres on roads with speeds of 80 km/h and over.

 an exit taper which is always at 45 o to the kerbside or road edge, and

 a traffic barrier, facing oncoming traffic, positioned within the coned-off area
to show the width of the works site. (This barrier may not be necessary if a
conspicuous vehicle is present).

N.B For roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h or more, an additional traffic barrier is required at
the end of the lead-in taper.

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22.5.5 buffer zones


• on heavily used high-speed roads such as motorways and other principal roads, a
practice has been developed to provide buffer zones, to segregate opposing traffic
flows.

• the width of such buffer zones is preferably a full lane width of 3.65 metres, but should
be at least 1 metre. A full lane width has the added advantage of providing a separate
unused lane for access and emergency vehicles if breakdown or accident occurs.

• barriers should be used to delineate buffer zones. The ideal types in this case are
traffic cones, cats eye bollards or simple red and white coloured plastic pendant
markers, all of which are relatively harmless if hit by a vehicle.

traffic barriers

• traffic barriers should be constructed and should be continuous concrete traffic barriers,
used to indicate the road works and segregate the traffic from the works.

• their design should not cause a further hazard, if hit by a moving vehicle and they
should be of a conspicuous colour (e.g red or yellow stripes) and kept clean.

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22.5.6 signage
advance signs
• Road Works Ahead’ signs shall be placed in advance of the road works and shall be the
first signs to be seen by the driver, as indicated in Table 1 (D).

Signs shown below are typical example of advance signs

ahead signs

• ‘Road Narrows Ahead’ signs shall be placed midway between the ‘Road Works Ahead'
signs and the beginning of the taper of traffic cones.
• ‘Keep Right’ or ‘Keep Left’ signs shall be placed at the beginning and end of the lead in
taper of cones.
• On roads with speed limits of 80km/h or more, all “ahead” signs should have the distance
to the works in meters printed on them as shown in Figure 1.

Signs shown below are typical example of ahead signs:

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22.5.7 cones
• A line of traffic cones shall be positioned at a taper and should guide traffic past the
works, at a distance ahead of the works as indicated in Table 1 & Figure 1 (T).
• The maximum spacing distance of cones in longitudinal lengths of coning shall be no
more than 9 meters, but no less than 2 cones shall be used in any length between
tapers.
• Generally lead in tapers used with traffic control, and all exit tapers, shall be about 45° to
the kerb line with cones spaced 1.2 m apart and more specifically as below:

recommended cone spacing guide

Lead in taper: 1 in 10 or less Centre to centre cone spacing : 2 metres

1 in 20 4 metres

1 in 30 6 metres

Localised minor work area 1-2 metres

22.5.8 lamps
• road danger lamps must be provided for use at night, in poor daytime visibility and in bad
weather

• road danger lamps must not be higher than 1.2 metres above the road

flashing lamps (120 to 150 flashes per minute)


Only to be used if all of the following are satisfied:

• the road speed limit must be under 60 km per hour

• the road danger lamp must be within 50 metres of a street lamp

• the street must be illuminated

steady lamps

can be used on any road with or without street lighting.

22.5.9 pedestrians
• works on footways must leave at least 1.5m unobstructed width for temporary pedestrian
ways and should never be less than 1 m wide. Where this is not obtainable, an
alternative safe route for pedestrians must be provided.

• rigid barriers must be used to mark any temporary footway and to protect
pedestrians from traffic, excavations, plant and materials. Road danger lamps must
be placed at the ends of the barriers at night. Hand rails should be between 1.0
and 1.2m above ground level.

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• if the temporary footway is in the carriageway, signing will be necessary for both
pedestrians and drivers. The provision of kerb ramps or raised footways may also be
necessary to help blind, elderly or disabled persons, or for those with prams or
wheelchairs.

22.6 TABLE 1 - positioning of signs and cones


details of signs and cones shall be as follows:
Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum
siting clear size height
distance visibility of of
to first signs cones Details of lead-in cone tapers
(D)
of first sign (mm) (mm)
sign (metres)
Type of road in
advance
of works
(metres) Width of hazard (metres)

(Note 1) (Note 2)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Length of taper (T) in metres 13 26 39 52 65 78 91


Single carriageway 20
road, restricted to to 60 600 450 Min. No. of cones 4 4 6 7 9 10 12
45
40km/h or less
Min. No. of lamps at night 3 3 5 6 8 9 11

Single carriageway Length of taper (T) in metres 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


45
road, restricted of
to 60 750 450 Min. No. of cones 4 6 8 10 13 15 17
speeds 41km/h to 110
60km/h inclusive Min. No. of lamps at night 3 5 7 9 12 14 16

All-purpose dual Length of taper (T) in metres 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
110
carriageway to 60 750 450 Min. No. of cones 4 7 10 13 15 18 21
road, restricted to 275
40km/h or less Min. No. of lamps at night 3 6 9 12 14 17 20

Length of taper (T) in metres 25 50 75 100 125 150 175


Single carriageway 275
road, with speed limit to 75 750 450 Min. No. of cones 4 7 10 13 15 18 21
450
80km/h or more
Min. No. of lamps at night 3 6 9 12 14 17 20

All-purpose dual Length of taper (T) in metres 32 64 96 128 160 192 224
725
carriageway 105 1200 750
to Min. No. of cones 5 9 12 16 19 23 26
road, with speed limit 1600
80km/h or more Min. No. of lamps at night 4 8 11 15 18 22 25

Note 1: Minimum and normal maximum distance of the first sign (D) is given to allow a
range wherein the sign can be placed in a convenient position, bearing in mind
available space and visibility for drivers.
Note 2 : It may be appropriate to use the next larger size of cone in lead-in tapers (i.e.
750mm cones) in tapers where 450mm cones are indicated and 1 meter high
cones where 750mm cones are shown.

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22.7 FIGURE 1 – example traffic diversion diagram

works on an 80km/h dual carriageway road – left hand lane closed :

22.8 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION


22.8.1 general
• bridge construction activities, have significant health and safety implications. These
can arise from the nature of the processes, materials and chemicals used in
construction.

• this section raises relevant detailing issues and, in particular, those related to access
during bridge construction, operation and maintenance.

• the choice of a particular form of construction should be made with an appreciation of


the construction process and the need for maintenance. Where maintenance will be

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carried out in high-risk areas, such as adjacent to high-speed traffic, the requirement
for such activity should be minimised.

• when working close to high-speed traffic, all relevant safety standards Roadworks as
explained in this chapter should be adhered to and in particular there should be a
safety zone for protection of the workforce in addition to the necessary working space.

• for motorways, this safety zone is a minimum of 12 m wide, so for bridge structures
with narrow verges the nearside lane will need to be closed when maintenance activity
takes place within the verge.

• other published guidance on health and safety issues in Bridge Construction should
be consulted as necessary. Further information can be obtained from:

 ADM Road Directorate - Bridge Design Manual

 ADM “HSE Codes of Practice Manual - Part Two Section 25 Falsework

 CIRIA Report 166, CDM Regulations - work sector guidance for designers which
has sections on bridge construction and bridge maintenance.

22.8.2 construction operations


• hazardous situations can be created where insufficient space is available to
undertake the work safely, eg where rectangular voids with restricted headroom have
been detailed in a deck and the soffit formwork has to be stripped out through a
narrow gap. In such cases, the use of permanent formwork or void formers should be
considered.

• badly detailed and congested reinforcement can also create construction difficulties.
• where ground conditions are unsuitable to support necessary falsework, consideration
should be given to supporting the falsework off the permanent works foundations.

• permanent formwork offers the advantage of protecting the areas beneath the bridge
deck against falling items, and avoids the need to send operatives below the deck to
remove temporary works.

22.8.3 access
general

• design/detailing considerations regarding general access to bridges may be affected


by:

 nature of the crossing (road, railway, river etc)


 adjacent landscaping (steep embankment slopes, large trees etc)
 location of buried services
 height of parapets and pilasters
 verge or pavement widths and surfacing

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 street furniture including lighting columns.


• it is no longer normal practice to provide access manholes in road surfaces, chiefly for
safety reasons. Closing traffic lanes on busy highways creates risks for both drivers
and operatives. Traffic congestion resulting from lane closures creates additional
risks.

• access into box girders should be arranged from the abutments or, where the boxes
are discontinuous, through the soffit. Care must be taken to provide safe access to
locations in the soffit. Size of openings, ease of entry and rescue requirements
including anchor points also need to be considered. Heavy skews may create
particular difficulties, and special measures are needed for arch, cable-stayed and
suspension bridges.

internal access

• the size of openings at entry and between the cells of a structure should be decided
as part of the designer's consideration of hazards and risks.

• any minimum required by any applicable authority should be taken into account. It is
recommended that absolute minima of 460 mm x 410 mm or, if circular, 460 mm
diameter, should be provided unless there are other adequate means of egress.

• access size should allow necessary equipment (eg ventilation or stressing equipment
and/or a loaded stretcher) to be handled safely.

• the spacing of the access points influences this assessment. Platforms should be
provided at access and egress points along with appropriate lifting points.

• designers should avoid details that present hazards or create access problems. Box
girder structures present particular difficulties, as internal inspection is required. The
interior of a box girder must be recognised as a confined space. Associated
requirements include:

 trained personnel

 risk assessments

 emergency procedures

 controlled entry

 approved methods of working

 air monitoring.

• the designer/detailer should therefore consider:

 the means and ease of access


 spacing of manholes
 spacing of ventilation openings

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 frequency of inspections
 methods of internal protection
 frequency of subsequent maintenance.
22.8.4 lighting and walkways
• The frequency of inspections and maintenance visits makes installation of permanent
lighting essential in large box girder bridges.

• they improve both safety and efficiency, thereby justifying the investment. The
infrequency of visits to the interiors of small bridges makes a permanent lighting
installation unnecessary, although the provision of intrinsically safe power-points
protected from misuse is appropriate.

• incorporation of permanent walkways and materials-handling routes can be


considered, but these in turn need to be maintained and require handrails if there is
likely to be a fall greater than 2 m (eg tops of piers).

22.8.5 seepage of water


• water may enter structures through faulty weatherproof seals, leaking road drainage
pipes or condensation.

• as part of their risk assessment, designers should minimise the hazards of slipping
on wet surfaces and of infection from the build-up of fungi in box girders by making
allowance for water to be dispersed.

• water ingress into smaller hollow sections should be considered even when no entry
is envisaged. Problems from deadweight effects have been known to occur.

22.8.6 security
• improved access to all parts of bridges makes security more difficult. The security
risks at each location of a new bridge should be assessed and appropriate measures
taken.

• secure doors/gates to the access routes may be necessary in some locations and
surveillance systems may need to be installed for full security.

• public access to girders over roads and railways etc should be prevented. For
example, permanent access ladders should stop out of reach from the ground, or
locked fold-down ladders should be provided.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - ROAD WORKS

for operatives
 Have you planned how you will sign and guard the works?

 Have all the appropriate authorities been notified?


 Is everyone on the site wearing high-visibility clothing?
 first warning sign?
 What other signs are needed approaching the works?

 What signs are needed at the works?


 What length of coned taper is required?
 How many lamps and cones will be needed?
 What width of carriageway can be kept open and will it be enough for two-way traffic?

 What width of footway can be kept open and will it be enough?


 What form of traffic control needed?
 Have any misleading permanent signs been covered?

when work is in progress


 If circumstances change, have you altered the signs, cones and lamps to suit?
 Are signs, cones and lamps being regularly cleaned, maintained or replaced?
 Has authorisation been obtained to accommodate any changed circumstances?

 When traffic control changes are made at night or weekends, have the warning signs been
changed?
 Are traffic control arrangements reviewed and changed to reduce delays as works change?
 Are the works adequately signed, guarded and lit for the overnight period?

 Have you cleared away any spoil, etc. which may have spread onto the surrounding road or
footway?

when work is complete and before you leave


 Have all signs, cones and lamps been removed?
 Have all permanent signs been restored?
 Have appropriate authorities been notified that work is complete?

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SECTION 23

EXCAVATIONS

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

23.1 HAZARDS 2
23.2 GROUND CONDITIONS 3
23.3 CHOICE OF SUPPORT METHODS 5
23.4 SUPPORT SYSTEMS 6
23.5 MAIN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 10
23.6 MAINTENANCE 13
23.7 INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION 14
23.8 COFFERDAMS & CAISSONS 14
23.9 COFFERDAMS & CAISSONS - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 17

SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EXCAVATION WORKS


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.23/1)

SECTION 23
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 23

EXCAVATIONS

INTRODUCTION
Almost all construction work involves some form of excavation for foundations, drains, sewers, etc.
These can be very deep and very dangerous. Every year, many people are killed, some actually
buried alive, in collapsed tunnels and trenches; many others are injured and there are several
reportable accidents during excavation and tunnelling operations. A relatively small collapse might
involve a cubic meter of soil, but a cubic meter of soil weighs over a ton. A man at the bottom of a
trench buried under this volume of material would be unable to breathe due to the pressure on his
chest and would quickly suffocate and die.

Deep excavations look dangerous - so precautions are usually taken. But most deaths occur in
excavations less than 2.5 meters deep. In fact, most accidents occur in ground conditions with no
visible defects; the trench sides seem clean and self-supporting. Despite appearances however, the
removal of material causes pressure relief - and introduces the conditions which lead to failure.
Rainwater or hot dry weather increase the chances of such failure.

Neither the shallowness of an excavation or the appearance of the ground should be automatically
taken as indications of safety. The evidence suggests that far too often they are.

It is impossible to forecast the behaviour of earth as its condition can change in a very short period of
time, and for this reason several factors, e.g. nature of soil, weather condition, size & method of
excavation and proximity of other structure, etc. need to be considered in the design and planning of
excavation work.

Considering all the above factors, Contractors should adopt the most appropriate method of
stabilising the sides of an excavation, example, battering, poling, sheeting, etc. for the safety of their
personnel.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (15).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (19).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (20).

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23.1 HAZARDS
Excavation can result in serious injury, fatality or property damage due to the following
causes:

• collapse of earthwork due to lack • persons not being provided with, or not using
of, inadequate, or weak shoring. proper tools for the job.
• persons falling into excavations • vehicles or plant too close to the edge, causing
due to lack of barriers or the edge to collapse.
inadequate fencing.
• workers in the excavation being struck by soil
• asphyxiation from exhaust gases or materials falling into the excavation.
that have collected in the bottom of
the excavation. • falls through unsafe means of access into, or
out of the excavation.
• soil from excavations not being
thrown clear of the sides that then • workers being struck by excavating machinery,
become overloaded and collapse. e.g. excavator bucket.

• failure to maintain shoring, • vehicles being driven into the excavation due
particularly after rain and sand to driving errors, inadequate barriers, or the
storm. absence of stop blocks.

• water seepage.

• persons working too close together.

• the striking of services, e.g. electricity/communication cables and oil/gas pipes.

Note: No soil whatever its structure, can be relied upon to support its own weight, and if a
trench or excavation cannot be made safe by slopping or battering the sides, some
form of support will be required.

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PART TWO

23.2 GROUND CONDITIONS


23.2.1 general
Before commencing any excavation, it is important to identify the type of ground in which the
excavation is to be carried out. Detailed information may be available with the contract
documentation, or in the form of bore hole or trial pit logs carried out as part of the site
investigation.

When examining bore holes or trial pit information, particular importance should be paid to
the location of any water table. If the water table is going to be exposed by the excavation,
careful consideration will need to be given as to how it may affect the stability of the
excavation sides. Ground water can greatly affect the stability of any soil and, in particular,
non-cohesive materials. Water can also enter an excavation as surface run-off.

23.2.2 ground water


The presence of ground water is more difficult to deal with than surface water. It may affect
the sides of the excavation to the extent that, even if supported, wash out of material will
occur between the sheeting. In certain soil conditions, the bottom of the excavation can
become unstable and ‘boil’ with the inevitable total collapse of the trench.

If the ground is suitable, one of several ground dewatering techniques may be used. Such
methods involve either shallow well pumping or well-pointing. In either case, the pumping out
of water has the effect of lowering the ground water table to a level below that to which the
excavation is to be taken. (see Fig.1)

Where a water bearing strata overlays an impervious one and the depth of this impervious
strata is not too great, the use of sheet piling may be more effective and economical. The
piling, being substantially watertight, cuts off the water from the excavated area, thus
enabling the excavation to proceed in the dry. (see Fig.2)

(Fig 3) shows sump pumps being used to de-water an excavation.

Header main: Original ground level

1
excavation

2 2
2
Fig. 2

3
Well point New de-Watering
Original water 1. Permable strata. 2. Water. 3 Impermeable strata
Table
table

Fig.1 - Shallow well pointing Fig.2 - Use of sheet piles to “cut off” excavation from
water-logged ground.
.

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PART TWO

Fig.3 - Excavation dewatering using sump pumps.

23.2.3 temporary safe slopes


Battered sides or benches will generally be temporary stable if the slopes are as given in
table 1 below:-

Table 1
Safe temporary slopes
Ground Conditions
(degrees from the horizontal)
Dry Site Wet Site

BOULDERS
35/45 30/40
COBBLES
35/40 30/35
GRAVEL
30/40 10/30
SAND
30/35 10/30
SILT
20/40 5/20
SOFT CLAY
20/30 10/20

FIRM CLAY
30/40 20/25

STIFF CLAY 40/45 25/35

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PART TWO

23.3 CHOICE OF SUPPORT METHOD


Factors such as availability of plant, site conditions and skill (or lack there of) of operatives
will probably determine the support method selected.

The choice lies mainly between:

• sheeting. waling and strutting (‘traditional’),.

• sheeting. waling and strutting (hydraulic struts),

• proprietary support systems,

• soldier pile support

In some soils the vertical excavation sides may stand unsupported for a short period. With
experienced and competent operatives this time may be used to erect the support system.
Excavation is dug to level over a short length and the support system installed without delay,
preferably from outside the trench. If the operatives need to enter the excavation during the
erection of the full support system, a protective cage or other interim support must be used.
The interim support must be quick and easy to erect to minimise risk

Choice of interim support could include:

• skeletal system of struts and walings giving immediate protection and forming part of the
final system of support.

• pinchers or protective cages.

The interim support is only intended to allow safe access for installation of the full support
system which should follow without delay. All other activities e.g. boning in, bottoming up etc.
should be done after the full support system is installed.

The exposed face of the excavation does not necessarily reflect the total ground condition.
An adjacent service trench or old well may contain weak saturated fill which could initiate a
failure. Where there are buried services adjacent to, or crossing the excavation, sides should
not usually be left unsupported, even for a short period.

In unstable ground the sheeting can be pre driven and the waling frames installed as
excavation progresses, or the sheeting can be driven progressively as excavation continues.
Both trench sheeting and proprietary boxes and slide rail systems can be adapted to this
method.

Beware that the excavated face at the end of the excavation does not collapse
inwards particularly under the action of the trenching machine straddling the trench.

The ‘free-standing’ time may be only a few minutes, if so. it is essential to install support as
the excavation progresses.

Where it is necessary to form a ‘stop- end’ to an excavation (e.g. where a trench is


constructed in two halves across a road) the operatives must be given guidance on the
bracing required for proper support to the stop-end sheeting.

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PART TWO

23.4 SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Adequate support depends on the type of excavation, the nature of the ground, and ground
water conditions, generally speaking, timbering or shoring is not required for trenches or
excavations less than 1.2 m deep where there is no danger of any material falling or
collapsing.

For larger excavations, a survey of the soil prior to excavation by a trained and experienced
person will usually provide sufficient information for suitable methods of excavation and
support to be determined, and decided by a specialist engineer.

Adequate supplies of support materials should be available before the excavation


commences and must be sound, free from defects, of adequate strength, good construction ,
properly maintained and:-

• fixed securely to prevent displacement. • temporary framework on supports, or a


protective box or cage may be needed to
• only be erected/altered/dismantled
protect workers while they put in permanent
by competent workmen under
timbering.
supervision.
• a box or cage can be moved forward as
• conventional timber shuttering or
timbering progresses.
steel trench sheets and adjustable
props should be used. • care must be taken to see that excavation
work does not jeopardise the stability of any
• props may be mechanical (jacks or
adjacent structure.
acrow’s) or hydraulic.
• precautions to protect workers and others
• precautions to protect workers and
must be taken before and during any
others taken before and during any
excavation work.
excavation work.

23.4.1 types of support systems


There are many ways by which excavations can be made safe to work in, avoid settlement
to adjacent land and buildings and allow work to proceed with minimum hindrance. There
are, however, only the following four fundamental principles involved:-

battered sides

This is definitely the safest method as accidents from the collapse of properly designed and
executed battered systems are rare. (see Fig. 4)

Almost all soils can be excavated to a safe batter, provided that sufficient space is available
and a safe angle of repose known and adhered to. (See Table 1 on page 4)

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PART TWO

Slope Beware:
Surface water can affect stability of
slopes and benches, endangering
the trench.
Intercept surface water to prevent it
entering trench. For some soils it
will be necessary to protect slopes
and horizontal surfaces adjacent to
trench.

Fig.4 - Battered trench

double sided support

With this method of support, the


force exerted by the earth are
transmitted from one side of the
excavation to the other by walings
and horizontal struts, i.e. the forces
imposed by the earth on the
supporting materials are resisted
by the earth on the opposite side
of the excavation. Hence, if the
support is adequately designed, a
state of equilibrium is maintained
between the two sides.
Fig.5 - Double Sided Support – All forces horizontal
(see Fig. 5)

Out of methods using a form of structural support,


this is the most satisfactory as only horizontal
forces are involved.

The method lends itself to the use of pre-designed


solutions and proprietory systems which are
installed in accordance with manufacturers
instructions. (see Fig.6)

Fig.6 – Example of Double Sided Support

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The following types of proprietary ground support equipment are available:

(a) Hydraulic waling frames (see Fig.7)

comprise two steel or aluminium beams


braced apart by struts containing
integral hydraulic rams. They can be
used for close or open sheeting
applications in trenches and for
supporting close sheeting in deep
excavations for which frames at various
levels may be required.
Fig.7 – Hydraulic Waling Frame

(b) Manhole shores (see Fig.8)

Are four-sided adjustable frames with


integral hydraulic rams and are intended for
supporting excavations for manholes,
foundations, small tanks and pits and similar
structures. Waling frames and manhole
shores should be supplied complete with
chains or other means by which they can be
hung from the sheeting or from other
frames.

Fig.8 – Manhole Shore

(c) Trench boxes (see Fig.9)

These consist of modular side panels


strutted apart by adjustable struts to suit
the width of trench. Their height can be
increased by the addition of extension
panels. The location of the struts is
variable within limits, depending on the
ground clearance required. The lower
edges of the side panels are tapered to
form a cutting edge. Boxes should be
progressively dug in as the excavation
work proceeds, or they can be lowered
Fig.9 – Trench Box
by an excavator or crane into a pre-dug

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trench. Where more than one box is required due to the depth, the boxesshould either
remain connected if lowered into a pre-dug trench or be connected/disconnected at
ground level by progressive excavation/backfilling. Install sufficient boxes so that the
full depth of the excavation is supported before people enter the excavation. If the
excavation is overdug, backfill needs to be placed between the excavation side and
the box to prevent both the risk of people falling into the gap and of rotation of the box
following ground movement. If required, trench sheets should be positioned at the
open ends to prevent material falling inwards. Some configurations of box may be
unstable when standing upright on the surface and should be either laid flat or 'dug in.

(d) Drag boxes (see Fig.10)

These comprise two flat-bottomed


side panels with tapered cutting
edges to their leading ends. They
are braced apart by tubular struts,
the leading strut being specially
strengthened to allow for the
dragging of the box by the
excavator. As the box is dragged
forwards the excavation behind it is
left open.
Fig.10 – Drag Box

single sided with raking support

Only one face of the excavation is involved. Earth pressure from the excavated face is
resisted by transferring the load through the support material via wailings to either raking
shores or ground anchors. In the raking shore approach, an adequate foundation is needed
to transfer the loads involved to the excavated ground. (see Figs. 11 & 12)

Vertical uplift force


Earth pressure
Single sided cantilever support:
Compressive Diagonal tensile
force force in anchor Downward
in struts force

Whatever variation of this principle is

Earth pressure Fig.12 - Use of ground anchors


Fig.11 - Raking support

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single sided cantilever support

Whatever variations of this principle is adopted, it should always be designed by suitably


qualified persons. The method can be used only:-

• in ground conditions which are sufficiently stable to provide the necessary resistance to
balance the overturning forces, or

• where the effect of superimposed loads and their stability is not critical.

All cantilevers will deflect to a degree. Such deflection will create risk to adjoining installations
and structures, roads etc. and their use in these circumstances should be avoided.
(see Figs. 13 & 14)

Earth
Resisting
Overturning pressure
Earth pressure movement
movement

Anchor
block

Penetration to provide
end fixing
Fig.13 - Free cantilever support
Fig.14 - Propped cantilever
support

23.5 MAIN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS


23.5.1 access
• safe means of getting into and climbing out of an excavation must be provided.

• ladders must be securely fixed and properly maintained, and should permit quick and
easy escape in case of flooding or falls of materials.

Note: Using the walings and struts for access and egress purposes must be prohibited.

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23.5.2 barriers around excavations


• a safe means to enter and exit an excavation should be provided. Serious injuries have
occurred when workers have fallen from props that form part of the ground support when
these have been used to climb in and out of the excavation. This practice also carries risk
of disturbance to, and weakening of, the support.

• ladders should be positioned within the excavation at a height:base ratio not flatter than
4:1 and secured by tying at the upper end to prevent slipping. The upper end of the
ladder should project at least 1 m above ground level to ensure sufficient hand hold.
Ladders should be positioned where they will not be damaged by plant or from materials-
handling operations.

• where a person Guard rail

may fall more than


2m, suitable Tied ladder
barriers must be
erected, but it is
sensible to erect
barriers even for
quite shallow
excavations where
anyone falling may
come to harm.
(see Fig.15)

• barriers should
Poling boards
also serve to keep extended to act as
materials, plant toe-boards
and equipment
Exposed services supported
away from the
edges of an
excavation.

• barriers may be removed to permit


access of men, plant and equipment, Fig.15 –
etc., but should be replaced as soon This excavation is supported by timbering and props.
as possible. Poling boards extend above the edge of the
excavation to act as toe boards,and guard rails are
• during darkness, the edges of an
provided to prevent falls into the excavation.
excavation should be marked with
Safe access is provided by a tied ladder.
hazard warning lights, especially
Exposed services are supported.
where they are close to public
thoroughfares.

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• where excavation work is carried out on the roads, Traffic Police approval are necessary
and appropriate barricades and warning notices shall be erected.

recommended fencing and barrier arrangement around excavations in public area:

23.5.3 stop blocks


• where vehicles are used for tipping
materials into an excavation,
safety measures such as well
anchored stop blocks should be
used to prevent the vehicle
overrunning the edge. (see
Fig.16)

• these must be placed at a


sufficient distance from the edge to
avoid the danger of it breaking
away under the weight of vehicles.
Fig.16 - Stop Blocks to prevent vehicles being reversed
into an excavation while tipping.

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23.5.4 site lighting


The workplace must be adequately lit, in particular at access points and openings, and
whenever lifting operations take place.

23.5.5 ventilation
• excavations must be kept clear of suffocating, toxic or explosive gases.

• there may be natural gases like hydrogen sulphide, methane and methane and sulphur
dioxide, or exhaust gases from nearby plant, or leaks from nearby pipes or installations.

• these can seep through the soil and can accumulate at the bottom of an excavation,
below ground level.

• leakage of propane and butane from LPG cylinders is potentially very dangerous; the
gases will sink to the lowest point and form an explosive concentration.

• the most common method of ventilation is to blow clean air into the excavation in
sufficient volume to dissipate any gas accumulation.

23.6 MAINTENANCE
All excavation work requires careful watching, especially when they are first opened and
sides are unsupported , even when support work has been installed, constant vigilance is
essential.

Small movements of earth, resulting in movements in the timbering of no more than 6-12
mm are usually the only sign of the progressive weakening in cohesive soils which can
cause collapse. Such small movements can easily pass unnoticed but they are signs that
something is wrong.

Movements can be detected from slight distortion in timbering, bowing of poling boards and
walings, or signs of local crushing.

Main points to consider are:-


• during bad weather soil heaps tend to
• all timber must be regularly checked, for if it
slump, and loose boulders or masonry
remains in position for any length of time, it
may fall into the excavation.
may dry out, shrink or rot.
• heavy vehicles should not be allowed
• the only positive method of checking the
near the edge of excavations unless
state of timber is to drill small holes with an
the support work has been specially
auger.
designed to permit it.
• ground, too, may dry out and shrink - which • when loads are being moved into or
loosens the timbering. out of the excavation by skip or
bucket, care should be taken to avoid
• the soil face; wedges or telescopic struts
damage to struts or walings.
holding them must always be kept tight.

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• raking or angle, struts should all be regularly examined for signs of having been
dislodged.

• safety helmets and safety boots should be worn at all ties since earth and other material
can slide down or fall.

23.7 INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION


• excavations must be inspected by an experienced and competent person, before work
starts, at least once a day, and before each shift.

• excavations must be thoroughly examined weekly (every seven days) and after
substantial collapse or damage.

23.8 COFFERDAMS AND CAISSONS


23.8.1 introduction
Their function is to provide a space down to foundation level from which water is excluded
sufficiently to permit the descent of workmen, plant, etc. the removal of spoil and the
execution of the permanent work.

23.8.2 choice between cofferdams and caissons


The main difference between a cofferdam and a caisson is that although they are both
enclosures for the purpose of excluding water and soil from a work during construction, a
cofferdam may be generally a temporary structure, part or all of which is removed after
construction, whereas a caisson is primarily a permanent structure or one which is
subsequently incorporated in the permanent work.

The chief factors influencing the type of construction used are ground conditions and the
depth to which the work is to be carried.

Where the work can be safely carried out in free air, cofferdams or open caissons may be
used.

For deep cofferdams it may be preferable not to lower the water below a certain level, the
last stages of excavation, concreting and if necessary strutting being carried out through
water.

23.8.3 cofferdams
introduction

The purpose of a cofferdam is to exclude soil and water from an area in which it is required
to carry out construction to a depth below the surface. Total exclusion of water is often not

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necessary and in some instances is not possible, but the effects of water ingress must be
taken into account.

There are two principal approaches to cofferdam design. Single skin structures are most
common, but for very large or deep excavations and marine works, double wall or cellular
cofferdams may be preferred.

The design of a cofferdam is carried out in the same manner as a retaining wall and
consequently, the same rules apply.

23.8.3 selection of cofferdam


In the selection of a suitable cofferdam type for a given duty the following factors should be
taken into account:

• whether a land cofferdam or water cofferdam is required


• nature of the structure to be built within the cofferdam
• plan dimensions of the working area required inside the cofferdam
• total depth of soil and/or water to be retained
• soil conditions below and above foundation level
• groundwater levels and their fluctuation, and for water cofferdams the tidal, seasonal and
flood levels

• for water cofferdams, the strength of the current, wave action and scour before, during
and after construction

• possible effects of the cofferdam construction on existing buildings or other structures


close to it

• availability of materials
• methods of constructing and dismantling the cofferdam
• time available for construction of the cofferdam
• noise, vibration, fumes and fire risk
• accessibility especially for cofferdams in water
Certain of the types are suitable for both land and water cofferdams, while others are
applicable to one or the other only. The extent of the working area will further limit the
choice. When the depth is great, the soil and water level conditions will be particularly
significant.

Possibilities that can be considered are:

a) combinations of cofferdam types

b) final excavation carried out underwater

c) special dewatering methods

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For extreme depths, depending on the soil conditions, it may be necessary to resort to
monolith or caisson construction.

cofferdam support frames


timber framing steel framing

23.8.4 selection of caissons


Each deep foundation is a special case and no fixed rules can be laid down for guidance in
the choice of the type of structure to be used. Frequently, the factors of time and cost will
govern the choice of type as much as conditions of ground and water.

A caisson in free air or an open caisson may be employed where it is necessary to establish
the foundation at a considerable depth below surface water or ground level, e.g. to depths
which may in exceptional cases exceed 45 m. Excavation will usually be done by grabbing.

Caissons are not commonly employed if the ground contains a large proportion of very stiff
clay, owing to the great weight of the structure required to overcome skin friction in such
ground, but skin friction may be reduced by lubrication with water or clay grouts. Open
caissons are difficult to pass through rock or ground containing large boulders.

Caissons may be used for a wide variety of ground conditions. These include the following:

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a) in water-bearing ground where it is required to inspect the soil at foundation level, and
where alternative means of dewatering are impracticable;

b) where the caisson is to be sunk through water-bearing strata containing rock either as
beds or as large boulders;

c) where the caisson is to be used as a shaft in which an opening is to be made in a


water-bearing zone, for the purpose of driving or receiving a tunnel; (see Pt 2 section
24)-Tunnelling

d) where it is necessary to avoid subsidence of adjacent ground or structures due to


inflow of soil into the caisson, as may happen with open caissons sunk by grabbing.

Reinforced concrete caissons (monoliths) may be preferable to steel caissons during sinking
because of their greater weight.

Steel caissons usually present fewer problems during their construction than reinforced
concrete caissons.

23.9 COFFERDAMS AND CAISSONS - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


The following standards and recommendations for the safety of personnel are particularly
applicable to construction work in cofferdams and caissons.

23.9.1 general public


The contractor will need at all times to ensure that members of the public are protected from
any accident or injury arising from work operations.

23.9.2 site supervision


A competent person, properly qualified and experienced, should be appointed to supervise
the work operations. This person should be capable of recognising and assessing any
potential dangers as they arise,

e.g. unexpected ground conditions that may require a change in construction technique, or
unusual smells which may indicate the presence of noxious or dangerous gases.

23.9.3 PPE (also see Pt 2 section 12) -PPE


helmets

The need for protective helmets is particularly important for those in piling gangs and
persons engaged in working in excavations or in areas with confined headroom.

safety footwear

Should be reinforced by steel not only in the toes but also in the soles, to prevent injury by
sharp objects concealed under the spoil.

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safety harnesses

Should be worn by men required to climb up frames or other equipment

ear defenders

Noise levels during certain operations can be injurious to hearing and so require the wearing
of ear protectors.

23.9.9 chemical grouts


Some chemicals used as additives in grouts are highly toxic although in practice they are
used in such small quantities that there is no risk from the grout itself. However, the additives
themselves are highly toxic and the manufacturer's safe-handling instructions should be
followed. In particular, water soluble acrylamide requires very stringent safety precautions to
avoid skin contact, breathing dust, mist or vapour. It requires clean work clothes every day
which should consist of long-sleeved overalls, head covering, rubber or plastics gloves and
rubber footwear. A respirator and goggles are also required when changing the grout or
cleaning up chemical spills. The manufacturer's instructions should be observed for the full
safety requirements.

23.9.4 ladders
Ladders should be of substantial construction and secured to prevent slipping. They should
not rise more than 9 m without intermediate platforms (see Pt 2 section 29)-Scaffolding

23.9.5 electricity
Supply of electric power for lighting and hand tools should be at a voltage not exceeding 65
V to earth.

Where higher voltages are required for supply to machinery, the supply cable should either
be armoured or enclosed in continuous metal conduit, (see Pt 2 section 7) for electrical
installations

23.9.6 fire
Particular attention should be paid to fire hazard on working platforms. Drip trays should be
provided for oildrums and under machinery; fire extinguishers have to be provided and kept
in working order.

23.9.7 air testing


In deep and confined excavations a continuous routine should be established for testing for
noxious gases and deficiency of oxygen.

23.9.8 excluding water from excavations (pump sumps)


Although a sheet pile wall can prevent the ingress of water into an excavation, it is not
possible to give any guarantee that a cofferdam will be watertight. In order to deal with any

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water which enters the excavation it is often desirable to install a drainage system which can
channel water to a sump from which the water can be pumped away.

As the hydraulic gradient adjacent to the corner of a cofferdam is at its largest, it is advisable
to place any sumps at excavation level as far as possible from any corner and wall.

It should not be forgotten that pumps are able to remove soil as well as water and a suction
hose laid in the bottom of a cofferdam can disturb the base of the excavation with
subsequent movement of the wall if the hose is badly located. Consideration should be given
to forming a sump using a perforated drum into which the hose can be fixed to limit damage.

23.9.11 tide work, work over or adjacent to water (also see Pt 2 section 28.0)
• Taking into account the circumstances, in some cases, especially in flowing water,
lifebelts with lines attached should be provided and be readily available at positions
where they are likely to be needed.

• Buoyed lines will be desirable at a suitable distance from the work to give anyone who
falls in an adequate chance of securing a handhold while awaiting rescue

• Particular attention is drawn to the need for adequate floodlighting at night at least
within the limits of the buoyed lines.

• Adequate guard-rails should be provided to jetties or floating stages.

• In fast flowing waters or tidal waters a safety boat, boatmen and lifebelts at conspicuous
positions should be provided.

• All men working over water should be required to wear a buoyant life-jacket.

23.9.10 land cofferdams


If the sheeting to the cofferdams extends less than 1 m above ground level, guard-rails
should be provided to form a barrier at the edge; toe-boards should also be provided. When
a land cofferdam is located near to a watercourse, historical flood levels should be checked
to ensure that the cofferdam is adequate to withstand exceptional flooding.

23.9.12 concrete, steel and steel sheet piling (also see Pt 2 section 26) -Piling
The safety precautions necessary in handling steel piles and interlocking steel sheet piling
are also applicable to precast concrete piles.

The pile topman who guides the pile into the interlock of a pile should be provided with a
fenced platform which can often be built onto the temporary timber trestle used for pitching
the piles in panels or provided with a safety harness attached to permanent static line. If a
man-riding skip used for access is suspended from a crane, then the hoisting mechanism of
the crane has to be provided with automatic braking facilities.

Only skilled and experienced men with adequate and safe equipment should be required to
carry out the potentially hazardous operation of interlocking steel sheet piles.

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The extraction of steel sheet piles should be carried out with an extractor of adequate size,
so that the performance is not mainly dependent on the pull of the crane and there is no
danger of overloading or overturning the crane.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - EXCAVATION WORK

SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EXCAVATION WORKS

Final planning checks


 excavator adequate for lifting requirements

 spoil to be retained on site or disposed of

 storage areas provided for spoil, trench supports materials, plant and permanent work
materials

 materials ordered for trench support

 imported backfill and materials ordered (compactors, compressors, generators, lighting, traffic
lights and signs etc.)

 materials ordered for access to works and for guarding works

 special plant ordered (dewatering equipment, pumps etc.) special plant ordered (dewatering
equipment, pumps etc.)

 details of buried services received from appropriate authorities

 surveys of adjacent structures complete

 requirements of the Noise at Work section complied with

Final design checks


 is there any new information? For example, on ground conditions

 is designed based on latest specification?

 Is the sketch for the foremen or ganger complete, clear and unambigous?

 If there is a detailed drawing for the Temporary Works Co - Ordinator and does it show
everything?

 have the temporary works quantities been taken off for the site engineer?

 are the design assumptions shown on drawings and calculation sheets correct?

 Is the designers name given on drawings and calculation sheets?

 will the necessary plant be available?

 have site variation been covered? For example, access roads?

 does design allow sufficient working room?

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - EXCAVATION WORK

Checks during construction (at least daily)


 hard hats being worn  competent operators

 Wedges tight  stop for dumber

 tipping area clear of men  struts square to wailing

 experienced supervisors  ground as assumed

 crossing services supported  signs and warning lights

 wailings supported  no excessive deflection

 safe extraction of sheeting  water table as assumed

 exhaust clear of trench  safe support during compaction

 clear of spoil for 1.5m  proper slinging arrangements

 fences adequate  foot bridge safe

 trench sides clear of hazard  visibility adequate

 timber not damaged  crossing services located and marked


ahead of excavator
 stable spoil heaps  wailings correctly sized and spaced

 ground not deteriorating

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SECTION 24

TUNNELLING & SHAFT SINKING

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

24.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2


24.2 WORK PROCEDURES 2
24.3 NOISE 6
24.4 VENTILATION 6
24.5 DUST 8
24.6 ILLUMINATION 9
24.7 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS 11
24.8 LIFTING EQUIPMENT 12
24.9 SHAFTS 13
24.10 SMALL HEADINGS AND SMALL TUNNELS 16
24.11 GROUND SUPPORT 17

SECTION 24
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
H&S Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 24

TUNNELLING & SHAFT SINKING

INTRODUCTION
This section makes recommendations for and gives guidance on Health & Safety practices in shaft
sinking and tunnelling.

The standards and guidelines also include health & safety recommendations that are particularly
relevant to the type of shaft sinking and tunnelling that is carried in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


None applicable specifically for Tunnel and Shaft Sinking Operations

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24.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

24.1.1 workers
All persons employed should have a high standard of physical fitness. It is desirable that
all persons working underground and all plant operators and banksmen be not less than
18 years old.

24.1.2 training
All employees involved in underground construction must be trained to recognise and
respond to hazards associated with this type of work. Training should be tailored to the
specific requirements of the jobsite and include any unique issues or requirements.

The following subjects should be part of employee induction training program :


• Likely hazards and risks
• Site rules and prohibited activities
• Devised safe methods of working
• Air monitoring and ventilation
• Illumination
• Communications
• Flood control
• Personal protective equipment
• Emergency procedures, including evacuation
• Check-in/check-out procedures
• Fire prevention and protection
• Mechanical equipment

24.1.3 personal protective equipment


In tunnelling construction works, the wearing of some personal protective equipment is
inevitable. After residual risks have been identified, PPE should be selected by
considering standards and requirements in (see Pt 2 section 12) - specific for persons
involved.

24.2 WORK PROCEDURES

24.2.1 communication
above ground person

• Any time an employee is working underground, the employer must maintain at least one
designated person on duty above ground.

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• Designated person must maintain a check-in/check-out procedure for keeping an


accurate count of persons underground and to prevent unauthorized persons from
gaining access to the site.

• Designated person is responsible, calling for immediate assistance and summoning


emergency aid if needed.

audible signals

• Audible signals by bell, whistle, or other device can be used for routine operations
such as hoisting and lowering in a shaft. Signals should be distinctive and sufficiently
loud to avoid confusion with any incidental or accidental noises.

The recommended code is:

 stop: one signal

 lower: two signals

 hoist: three signals

 hoist personnel: four signals

 emergency: continuous

• If natural unassisted voice communication is ineffective at any time, a power-assisted


means must be used to ensure communication between the work face, the bottom of
the shaft, and above ground.

visual signals

• signals to machine operators should normally be given only by banksmen.


• all persons involved in the operations should be made familiar with the code through
induction training and/or other means such as toolbox talks.

lone working

• an individual employee working underground, not able to be observed by other


employees, is only permissible if he is in range of voice communication. In this case the
employer must provide an effective means of obtaining assistance in the event of an
emergency.

24.2.2 reporting hazards and risks


Any hazardous conditions or occurrences that might affect workers safety must be recorded
and employer must notify all oncoming shifts of occurrences or conditions e.g equipment
failures, movement/collapse, flooding, fires, or release of gas, any abnormal ground levels,
tidal levels and rainfall.

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24.2.3 control of access and egress


The employer must maintain safe access to and egress from all workstations at the
construction site to protect employees from potential hazards, such as being struck by
excavators or other moving equipment.

To help control access, all unused openings must be tightly covered, bulk headed,
barricaded, or fenced off, and posted with warning signs that read, "Keep Out" or similar.

24.2.4 heat stress and exhaustion


Mechanization, ventilation and job rotation should be arranged to reduce the risk of heat
stress and exhaustion. Adequate supplies of cold potable water should be made
available.

24.2.5 first aid (also see Pt 1 section 6)


first aider

It is essential that persons trained in first aid and capable of responding rapidly to any
incident be available on each shift during working hours.

emergency response

All personnel should be told that, in the event of serious injury, a casualty should be
moved only by a trained first-aider, unless there is the immediate risk of further injury.

first aid facilities

Sufficient first aid boxes should be provided, designed to protect the contents as far as
possible from damp and dirt. They should be clearly identified and be readily accessible
to working areas and should be in the charge of designated first-aiders on each shift.

stretchers

Stretchers (and blankets) suitable for the confined space of a tunnel should be provided
and maintained. They should be readily accessible for use in working areas in an
emergency, and should be protected against dirt and damp. In particular, where access
to a tunnel is by a shaft, stretchers should, where practicable, be stored at tunnel level.
Appropriate means of transporting an injured person to the surface should be provided.
Lifting arrangements in shafts should take this into account.

24.2.6 evacuation
Good communications are essential between the working areas and the surface. A clear
plan of action should be formulated for the rapid transfer of any injured persons from
working areas and to ensure that ambulances can reach shaft tops or other access
points quickly. Clear instructions should be given to all persons on the procedures to be
adopted for evacuating tunnels in an emergency.

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standards

Every employer must ensure that all employees:

• working in the tunnel have a portable hand lamp or cap lamp unless natural light or an
emergency lighting system provides adequate illumination.

• be provided with an escape type breathing apparatus and approved gas monitor if the
area they are working in areas which may present a gas or smoke hazard.

• If 25 or more employees work underground at any one time, the employer must provide a
fully equipped and trained rescue team together with appropriate vehicle to transport an
injured person to the nearest hospital.

• If less than 25 employees work underground, there must be a direct means of


communication with the local emergency services.

• If a shaft is used as the means of egress, the employer must arrange for a readily
available lifting capability unless the regular lifting means will function in the event of a
power failure.

24.2.7 fire prevention and control


general

• Open flames and fires are prohibited in underground construction areas except as
permitted for welding, cutting, or other hot work operations.

• Smoking is prohibited at all times and notices to this effect should be prominently
displayed.

• Fire extinguishers or equivalent extinguishing means must be available at the head and
work areas.

• All underground structures and those within 30 m of an opening to the underground must
be constructed of materials with a fire resistance rating of at least one hour. Also, non
flammable or combustible material may not be stored above ground within 30 m of any
access point to an underground operation.

• Petrol may not be underground at any time for any purpose and internal combustion
engines (except diesel-powered engines on mobile equipment) are prohibited
underground.

• Oil, grease, and diesel fuel stored underground must be kept in tightly sealed containers
in fire-resistant areas away from passage ways.

hot works

• Acetylene and liquefied petroleum gas may be used underground for welding, cutting,
and other hot work if all requirements/standards pertaining to such activities are met.
(see Pt 2 section 27 )-welding

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• Only enough fuel gas and oxygen cylinders for welding, cutting, or hot work during a 24-
hour period are allowed underground.

• Non combustible barriers must be installed below such activities if they are performed in
or over a shaft or rise.

use of diesel fuel

Specific requirements apply to the use of diesel fuel in underground construction


operations, as follows:

• A surface level tank holding diesel fuel to be pumped to an underground storage site
must have a maximum capacity no greater than the amount of fuel required to supply
underground equipment for 24 hours.

• A surface level tank must be connected to the underground fueling station by an


acceptable pipe or hose system controlled at the surface by a valve and at the bottom
by a hose nozzle.

• The transfer pipe must remain empty at all times except when transferring diesel fuel.
• All hoisting operations in the shaft must be suspended during refueling operations if
the supply piping in the shaft is not protected from potential damage.

24.3 NOISE
24.3.1 general
The effects of noise are intensified in tunnels because the confined space increases the
reverberant sound field that can be developed by noisy plant and equipment, tools or
processes. This is especially problematic if persons have to work close to, or use, noisy
tools, e.g. pneumatic picks producing a sound pressure level of 110dB(A) to 115dB(A).

• Since there is insufficient space to reduce the level of noise emission by confinement
and/or containment retrospectively, all machines and tools should be selected on the
basis of risk assessment to be designed to eliminate or reduce the noise at
source with minimum operator exposure.

• Thereafter a management system should be established to :


a) confirm the adequacy of the noise and vibration controls

b) continually identify significant residual noise sources; and

c)ensure regular maintenance checks and replacement or repair

Pt 2 section 3 gives guidance on how noise arising from worksites affects site personnel
and others. It contains information on noise emission from tools, plant and equipment

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that could be useful at the planning stage in reducing noise and recommendations for the
control of noise.

24.4 VENTILATION
24.4.1 general
• polluted air must be removed from tunnel continually.

• if natural ventilation does not provide the necessary air quality through sufficient air
volume and air flow, the employer must provide mechanical ventilation to ensure that
each employee working underground has at least 200 cubic feet (5.7m3) of fresh air per
minute.

• the inlet to the ventilation system must be positioned away from petrol and diesel
engines, hazardous materials and dust fumes.

• the outlet from ventilation system should be positioned such that it would free to
disperse any harmful substances away from the work area.

24.4.2 cooling
• the volume of fresh air required for cooling purposes should be examined carefully
to ensure a sufficient flow of air to keep the working temperature within acceptable
limits.

24.4.3 selection
• The methods of ventilation adopted should be in accordance with the hazards
presented by each tunnelling situation. Factors that should be considered include:

 the numbers of face workers

 the work locations

 the length, size and gradient of drive

 the presence of water, dust or fumes

 the presence of methane

 whether drilling and firing will be taking place

 the amount of waste heat generated by mechanised tunneling operations.

• In a tunnel advancing as a single face, fresh air supply to face workers is likely to be
the primary consideration; but where there are many areas of work the requirements
for the supply of fresh air and ventilation will vary.

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• Conventional forcing, exhausting or overlap systems are employed in most tunnels,


and the particular machinery and environmental conditions should determine which is
the most suitable.

• Where dust is a major problem, the system should be designed to control dust and
should incorporate filters to clean the dusty air before readmission to the general body
of airflow.

• The effect of heat added to the air from installed machinery, and the increase in
humidity, can be reduced by using forcing systems having high local air velocities and
by carefully controlling the amount of water used for dust suppression.

24.4.4 ventilation systems


The ventilation system should be simple and designed to be moved forward or extended
with the progress of tunneling.

Ventilation systems can include one or more of the following:

a) a forced supply of fresh air, exhaust being through the tunnel and access ways

b) extraction of polluted air from the tunnels, fresh air being drawn into the tunnel due to
the reduction in pressure caused by the exhaust ventilation

c) alternation of forced supply and extraction.

d) air movers to assist locally and to eliminate stagnant pockets. If air movers are used
locally, care should be taken to ensure that these will not cause recirculation.

24.4.5 siting of fans


Air intake and exhaust fans on the surface should be sited well away from sources of
contamination

24.4.6 earthing
The movement of dust and gases through a ventilation system can cause a dangerous
build-up of static electricity. All ducts, fan bodies, casings and support structures should
be properly bonded to each other and to an adequate earth. Air movers and venturi
devices should also be earthed.

methane

Where an extraction ventilation system is in use and there is a risk of methane being
encountered, the design and construction of the system should take into account the
hazard of methane passing through fans and fan motors. The methane concentration in
the ducts should be continuously monitored.

• If methane is likely, the fans should be explosion-protected. It should be noted that


methane concentration in the tunnel is likely to increase when the ventilation system

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is shut down. Explosion protection of the extraction system in many cases involves
the use of bifurcated fans with non-incendive impeller rings.

dust

• To prevent dust particles migrating back against the main body of airflow, the air
velocity in any section of tunnel should be not less than 0.5 m/s. Ventilation
calculations should use this as a minimum value. The efficiency of the ventilation
system should be tested periodically and any deterioration in performance should
be remedied.

Note:This guidance in should be followed where extraction ventilation is necessary to


control dust emissions and also applies where methane could be present.

24.5 DUST
24.5.1 general
Dust generated from tunneling works should be suppressed at source as far as is
practicable. Its spread should be controlled by methods such as water spraying, water
infusion and extraction ventilation.

24.5.2 effects of dust


One direct physical effect of dust is reduced visibility, which increases the risk of
accidents related to moving machinery and equipment.

The exposure of persons to various kinds of mineral dust can produce a variety of lung
conditions. Among the more serious conditions is pneumoconiosis.

24.5.3 control and removal of dust


High-pressure water jets at the source are the most effective and positive means of
dust suppression.

Respirable dust that has become airborne cannot be controlled by water sprays. However,
these can be used whilst handling spoil to suppress dust by preventing it from becoming
airborne.

In dusty conditions, extraction ventilation and possibly filtration is essential. Dusty air is
likely to be very erosive, and fans and ducts should be designed accordingly and be
properly maintained.

when drilling rock or concrete, dust control measures such as wet drilling, vacuum collectors,
and water mix spray systems must be used to maintain dust levels within limits set for gases,
vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

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24.6 ILLUMINATION (also see Pt 2 section 7)


24.6.1 general
• General lighting levels should be such that any hazards can readily be seen. Higher lighting
levels should be provided locally, particularly near machinery and in working areas.

• A risk assessment should be carried out to help determine whether or not fixed electric
lighting is required and, in the exceptional case where it is not, hand lamps or cap lamps
should be provided.

• Where potentially explosive atmospheres could exist, all lighting should be


explosion-protected.

• The lighting scheme should be designed to minimize glare. Fluorescent and


incandescent luminaires produce less glare than floodlights.

• Where colour recognition is an important factor, the type of light source should be
carefully considered. For example, sodium lighting can present problems in colour
discrimination.

24.6.2 level of lighting


In a tunnel, the lighting level is subject to the dimensions of the tunnel, the light absorbency of the
surrounding surfaces and also tunnel atmospheric conditions. Light absorption is less in tunnels
that have light-coloured smooth walls than in similar tunnels having dark irregular surfaces.

Lighting levels can be measured with a lightmeter and should be as high as is practicable, taking
into account the work to be undertaken in the area. The table below sets out the recommended
mean lighting levels.

24.6.3 mean lighting levels

Area Lighting level

Walkways 10 lux at walkway level


General working areas 100 lux at working surfaces
Tunnel face
Excavation areas 100 lux illuminated from at least two widely
separated sources to avoid shadows
Crane lifting points

The presence of dust or mist in the atmosphere can also have a very significant effect on lighting
levels and should be a consideration to meet the values in the above table.

Regular maintenance, including cleaning, is essential and should therefore be as easily


accessible as possible.

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24.6.4 type of lighting


• floodlights - should be located at a suitable height to light areas from above and
should not be directed horizontally. They should be arranged so that their fields
overlap and sited to minimize shadows cast on walkways or workplaces by
obstructions or plant etc.

• temporary fixed lighting - considered for longer-term works.


• portable lighting – used where no other form of lighting exists for pedestrian access
to worksites

• hand lamps or cap lamps – if used it is essential that management procedures be put
in place and facilities provided for their proper storage, charging, distribution, use, and
maintenance.

24.6.5 emergency lighting


• Because tunneling is wholly dependent on artificial light, lighting systems should be
made as secure as possible and should be provided with adequate emergency
resources and power supplies.

• Battery-powered emergency lighting can be used to provide standby lighting. The


capacity of the batteries should be sufficient to maintain the lights for enough time to
allow persons in the area to take appropriate action without danger.

• Emergency lighting should be installed along the tunnels intervals of not more than
50 m to allow safe egress from the tunnel, and should be installed at the following
locations:

 fire and first aid points

 escape routes

 emergency exits

 tunnel access points

 control and communication points

 locations where particular hazards exist

• Alternative mains supplies or standby generation can also be used to provide


emergency lighting. Where the emergency lighting is dependent on an alternative
supply or standby generator supply, the wiring should be adequately protected i.e.
resistance to fire (A), resistance to fire with water (W), and for resistance to fire with
mechanical shock (Z). It should also be protected against mechanical damage.

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24.7 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS (see Pt 2 section 21 for further information)


24.7.1 general
• monitor and control atmospheric conditions within pits and tunnels at all times by
qualified staff.

• approved atmospheric monitoring devices to be used whilst labour working in or around


pit tunnel area.

• staff to be trained in the use of atmospheric monitoring devices, device maintenance,


and understanding of gases and other atmospheric conditions that can alter air
conditions.

• quality of air shall be to the following standard :

∗ 21.00% Oxygen

∗ 79.00% Nitrogen (includes 0.94% argon)

∗ 0.03% carbon dioxide

∗ Other gas amount to less than 0.1%

∗ a minimum of 19% oxygen is acceptable for tunnelling

∗ pollutant levels should not exceed their occupational exposure limits and should
be reduced as low as reasonably practicable.

24.7.2 confined spaces


• workforce to be trained in confined space procedures

• emergency rescue B.A. sets to be on hand and personnel trained in use.

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24.8 LIFTING EQUIPMENT


24.8.1 general
The cranes most commonly utilized for tunnel access shafts are crawlers,, mobile,
gantry and tower cranes. These are more suitable for shallow rather than for deep
shafts because of the progressive difficulty of control. Special hoists can be required in
deeper shafts (generally considered to be 50 m or deeper).

In the vicinity of any shaft, special precautions should be taken to prepare a suitable base
for siting a crane to minimize settlement and to spread crane loads as widely as possible,
and also to avoid excessive lateral thrust from the ground against the shaft lining. A
reinforced concrete raft, or beams, spanning any sensitive area should be designed
and provided if the ground resistance is locally inadequate.

With mobile cranes that are not restricted to predetermined locations, particular care
should be taken to check that loadings imposed upon the ground are kept within safe
limits, i.e. that they are no greater than the bearing capacity of the ground.

24.8.2 clearances
Where adequate personnel clearance around a crane (500 mm) cannot be provided,
access to areas of restricted clearance should be prohibited while the crane is
operating.

24.8.3 long or difficult loads


When long loads need to be slung vertically because of restricted space, the slinging
arrangements should be devised to prevent the load from slipping. This should be done
by providing properly designed lifting points. The load under suspension should be
balanced and the lifting speed controlled to prevent the load from swinging out of
control. If any difficult loads are to be lifted, the shaft should be cleared of persons other
than any essential to the hoisting operation while the lift is in progress and these
persons should be safely positioned.

24.8.4 special requirements for using hoists underground


Hoists used in underground construction must be equipped with a limit switch to prevent
over travel at the top and bottom of the hoist way.

The limit switch should only be used when operational controls malfunction. Hoist controls
must be arranged so the operator can reach all controls and the emergency power cutoff
without reaching beyond his normal operating position.

Other aspects of hoist safety that apply to underground construction include:

• Employees may not ride on top of any cage, skip, or bucket unless inspecting or
maintaining the system and wearing a safety belt or harness.

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• Personnel and materials must be hoisted separately (except small tools and supplies
secured in a non hazardous manner).

See Pt 2 Section19 for more detailed information re safe use of hoists.

24.9 SHAFTS
24.9.1 shaft sinking
general

The shaft sinking operation is likely to have an impact on the general public, and can
affect adjacent structures. Particular care should be taken in designing and locating
shafts to minimize disturbance outside the site. Both safety and environmental factors
should be considered.

shafts under construction

• Where mechanical means of excavation are used, it is essential that measures be


taken to ensure the safety of personnel.

• If grabs are to be used, personnel should be either protected within the shaft, or
removed from the shaft before grabbing commences.

• The number of persons in the shaft bottom area should be kept to a minimum whilst
operations are in progress

• Procedures should be set up to avoid persons being underneath suspended loads


wherever possible.

• In small diameter shafts, particular care should be taken due to the limited scope
for refuge, and persons should be alerted to any loads being sent down.

• All skips used in shafts should have positive fixings so that they cannot tip while
being hoisted. Other potential hazards, such as material falling off the top due to
overfilling, or loose material becoming stuck to the bottom, should be assessed and
minimized.

• Larger shafts are often excavated by a 360° hydraulic excavator working within the
shaft. Measures should be taken to minimize the risk of persons being struck or
trapped by moving plant.

• When handling loads with a crane or hoist, precautions should be taken to ensure
that:

• the load or skip does not swing or twist causing it to strike the lining of the shaft or
other structure;

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• the load or skip does not catch a ledge, either in lowering or in hoisting, causing it to
tip over and spill out its contents (whether persons or materials);

• the rope does not become slack when the load is resting on the bottom or on a stage
and catch in some part of the shaft structure, with resultant damage when
tightened.

• All plant regularly transferred down the shaft should be designed for hoisting and be
tested and certificated for such work.

• As a standard procedure in lifting, the load should be lifted a short distance then
stopped, steadied and inspected before hoisting continues.

24.9.2 disused shafts

permanently disused

When a shaft is to be decked over on completion of its use, the decking used should be
specifically designed for that purpose and should be installed for its intended use. If a
void is left, it should be ventilated. Traceable records should be kept of all disused shafts
or access tunnels giving details of the shaft or tunnel, and the method of capping or filling.

temporarily disused

When a shaft is temporarily disused following sinking, it should be securely covered to


prevent unauthorized access, e.g. by children. However, it can be advisable to maintain a
lockable opening in the cover, to enable escape or to allow access for inspection purposes.
The cover should be vented.

tunnel eye

A shaft through which any opening is to be formed should be designed to facilitate the
safe construction and use of that opening.

When a tunnel eye is to be provided near the shaft bottom through which the tunnel or
heading is to be formed, the shaft structure should be supported as for a tunnel
opening.

The actual operation of breaking out should be carried out with the utmost care
because the ground is inevitably disturbed by the sinking of the shaft, and it is probable
that water has followed down the side of the shaft however carefully grouting has been
done. Immediate close support of all ground is therefore often essential.

In bad ground, it can be advisable to fix the first setting of a heading, or build the first
ring of iron or concrete, within the shaft. Alternatively, a small heading can be driven out
of the shaft, from which a break-up for the full size access tunnel is constructed at a safe
distance in undisturbed ground, the heading or tunnel being subsequently enlarged back
to the shaft.

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shaft top layout

The layout and detail at the top of the shaft should be designed to prevent the accidental
fall of persons, plant, spoil or material into the shaft.

The area immediately around each shaft should be level, clear of obstructions and
properly drained; it should generally provide a safe working area, and should be
adequately lit.

Stacking and storage of materials should be arranged at a distance from the shaft top
so that excessive ground pressures are not imposed on the shaft.

The shaft should be guarded using, for example, additional segmental rings or
substantial steelwork and/or solid bariers and mesh, which should reach a height of at
least 1.2 m above adjacent ground level.

Surface water should be excluded from the shaft by the provision of barriers and by
drainage and pumping if necessary. Special precautions should be taken against
inundation.

Mobile plant poses a particular hazard. Either it should be physically prevented from
working near a shaft, or barriers should be erected that are robust enough to prevent the
equipment from falling into the shaft.

personnel access

Personnel access in shafts should be by fixed access equipment such as a mast climbing
hoist or man-riding crane where it is reasonably practicable to provide such equipment

In all cases where the normal means of access is by mechanical means (hoist or crane),
there should be a secondary means of egress to cover plant breakdown.

Fixed access should be provided in every shaft as early as possible, and in any case on
completion, except where an alternative route provides safe pedestrian access to the
base of the shaft.

Fixed access includes stairways, ladderways or vertical ladders with protective hoops.

Stairways should be used whenever possible as the preferred option, as these allow
persons to carry hand tools and similar equipment.

Every ladder should be securely fixed at its base and at the upper landing. It should
extend at least 1.1m above the upper landing unless other adequate handhold is
provided.

Vertical ladders fixed to shaft walls should be made of steel (rather than light alloy or
timber). Vertical ladders should have protective hoops and straps fixed above a height of
2.5 m from a landing.

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The foothold at every rung on all ladders should be unobstructed. Landings should be at
intervals not exceeding 9 m. They should be solidly constructed with hand rails, guard
rails and toe boards. Openings for ladders should be as small as is practicable and sited
clear of the foot of the upper ladder. Every landing should be adequately lit.

Stair bays and ladder bays in shafts should be protected by substantial barriers against
swinging loads being handled in the shaft.

All means of access including hoists should be inspected weekly, and maintenance
carried out where necessary.

24.10 SMALL HEADINGS AND SMALL TUNNELS


Because of the very confined space in small tunnels, some hazards are intensified. As
such, projects are often very limited in space, time and resources. It is therefore
essential that those working in such tunnels be made familiar with the hazards, and that
a risk assessment be made to establish appropriate methodology before work
commences.

general

• For tunnels under construction, the internal size for man-entry should be not less
than 1.2 m high by 0.9 m wide, in order to facilitate rescue. Tunnels smaller than
this should be constructed by methods that do not involve man-entry.

• The risk of collapse or excessive settlement is greater with small timbered headings
than with other forms of tunnel construction. Only the highest standards of
workmanship in initial timbering and subsequent back filling should be used.

• Any temporary support should be capable of lasting for as long as the heading
remains open and be capable of securing the surrounding ground against
settlement and collapse.

rescue and escape

• In small tunnels, persons cannot walk upright and can pass one another only with difficulty.
It is normal practice for a single person to excavate the face, although a second should
always be present.

• Arrangements should be defined for the rescue and escape of the face workers in the event
of accident, injury, illness, collapse of the tunnel face, immobilization of a locomotive,
derailment or fire etc.

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ventilation

• Ventilation can be a particularly difficult problem. There will be little or no natural circulation, and
shallow tunnels through variable ground will frequently pass through or near ground with
organic content or with other contamination that could pollute the tunnel atmosphere. Where
contamination could occur, a forced ventilation system should be used to limit the ingress of
contaminants, and a supply of fresh air to the face is therefore essential. Low-volume, high-
pressure ventilation systems may be appropriate owing to the lack of space.

pipe jacking
• the high thrusts necessary to propel the pipe forward should be resisted by a properly
designed and constructed abutment or thrust wall at the working pit.

• hydraulic rams and any load-spreading rings, spacing blocks or packers should be carefully
secured, with all loaded surfaces precisely aligned perpendicular to the thrust.

• as far as possible, persons should be protected from and withdrawn from the vicinity of
highly stressed equipment during thrusting.

• hydraulic pipes and, in particular, flexible


hoses, should be properly protected from
crushing and impact damage.

• the use of lubricant injected through the


pipes on to the sliding surfaces can assist
in reducing thrusts. If lubricants are
injected at high pressures, eye protection
should be provided.

• when jacking pipes through loose or


water-bearing soils, a slurry machine or
an earth-pressure balance machine
should preferably be used to contain the
face safely

• if using an open shield, precautions


should be taken against a run of loose
material into the face of the shield, which
could lead to the collapse of the overlying Typical pipe jacking/tunnelling drive pit
ground.

• when jacking pipes into firm or stiff clays, the techniques adopted should take into account
any displacement of the soil caused by entry of the pipes, and possible heave of the ground
surface.

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• jacking pipes are installed via a working shaft and joined using hydraulic jacks. It is essential
that all persons seek shelter or protection within the part-completed pipeline or elsewhere
whilst pipes are lowered.

24.11 GROUND SUPPORT


24.11.1 ground support of portal and subsidence areas
Portal openings and access areas must be guarded by shoring, fencing, head walls or
equivalent protection to ensure that employees and equipment have a safe means to
access these areas.

Subsidence areas must be similarly guarded by shoring, filling in, or placing barricades and
warning signs to prevent entry.

Adjacent areas must be scaled or secured to prevent loose soil, rock, or fractured
materials from endangering portal, subsidence, and access areas.

24.11.2 ground support of underground areas


A competent person must inspect the roof, face, and walls of the work areas at the
beginning of each shift and as often as necessary, the ground conditions along all access
ways to ensure safe passage, also any loose ground considered to be hazardous to
employees must be scaled, supported, or taken down.

A competent person must determine how often rock bolts need to be tested to ensure that
they meet the necessary torque, taking into consideration ground conditions, distance from
vibration sources, and the specific bolt system in use. Only torque wrenches should be
used when torsion-dependent bolts are used for ground support.

Employees involved in installing ground support systems must be adequately protected


from the hazards of loose ground.

The bottoms of any support sets installed must have sufficient anchorage to prevent
ground pressures from dislodging the support base.

Lateral bracing (including collar bracing, tie rods, or spreaders) must be provided between
immediately adjacent sets to increase stability.

Any dislodged or damaged ground supports that create a hazardous condition must be
promptly repaired or replaced. The new supports must be installed before removing the
damaged supports. Some type of support, such as a shield, must be used to maintain a
safe travel way for employees working in dead-end areas ahead of any support
replacement operations.

24.11.3 ground support of shafts


Shafts and wells more than 5 feet in depth (1.53 m) entered by employees must be
supported by steel casing, concrete pipe, timber, solid rock, or other suitable material. The
full depth of the shaft must be supported except where it penetrates into solid rock that will

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not change as a result of exposure. Where the potential for shear exists, where the shaft
passes through earth into solid rock in either direction, or where the shaft ends in solid
rock, the casing or bracing must extend at least 5 feet (1.53 m) into the solid rock.'

The casing or bracing must also extend 42 (± 3) inches above ground level unless a
standard railing is installed, the adjacent ground slopes away from the shaft collar, and
barriers exist to prevent mobile equipment operating near the shaft from jumping over the
bracing. If these conditions are met, the casing or bracing may be reduced to 12 inches
above ground.

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SECTION 25

FALSEWORK

DEFINITION 1
INTRODUCTION
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

25.1 MAIN RISKS 2


25.2 STANDARD SOLUTIONS 2
25.3 RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES 2
25.4 DESIGN PHASE 4
25.5 ERECTION AND CONSTRUCTION 6
25.6 POINTS OF LOAD TRANSFER 9
25.7 LACING AND BRACING 10
25.8 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES WITH
PERMANENT FALSEWORK 12

FALSEWORK SAFETY CHECKLIST


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.25/1)

SECTION 25
Municipalities & Agricultural Department
HSE Construction Codes of Practice
PART TWO

SECTION 25

FALSEWORK

INTRODUCTION
Since collapses of falsework cause loss of life and serious injuries, the objective of this section is to
ensure that all persons involved with are well informed of safe procedures and of proper application of
these in order to set the risk of failures to minimum.

The check list at the end of this section also includes guidance on related matters in concrete
construction: falsework, steel fixing and concrete operations.

DEFINITION
Falsework is defined as any temporary structure used to support a permanent structure during its
erection and until it becomes self – supporting.

This definition also applies not only to in-situ concrete construction, but also precast concrete
structures, structural steel, steel erection, and even such items as brick arches, etc. indeed, any
construction method where the permanent structure may have a period of instability, requiring support
is the erection process.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

Ministerial Order No. (32) Year 1982 - Article 7, 19 & 20

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25.1 MAIN RISKS

• people falling during steel fixing and erection of • being struck by a concrete skip
falsework • silica dust from scrabbling
• collapse of falsework operations
• materials falling whilst striking falsework • arm and back strain for steel
• manual handling of shutters reinforcing bars etc fixers
• cement burns from wet concrete

25.2 STANDARD SOLUTIONS

Falsework covers a wide range of temporary support methods and BS 5975 recognises that,
in simpler and more commonplace situations, e.g. support of floors and beams involving light
loadings and low height support (within the range of standard props) etc., standard solutions
can most likely be used instead of individual design,

Standard solutions are given in section 8 of BS 5975. However, unless the job falls within the
limitations of the particular standard solution, further design will be required.

With standard solution designs, the set of information released would include the following:

• materials and equipment details to be used in falsework.

• drawings showing dimensional data and ranges of allowable tolerances.

• allowable loadings they can carry.

• necessary limitations such as possible types of foundations.

25.3 RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES


In any safe procedure for erecting falsework, the responsibilities for the different phases
should be clearly identified.

These phases are as follows:

• design brief
• concept of the scheme
• design drawings and specifications

• checking of design, specification and control of the following in-situ activities:


∗ erection of falsework on site
∗ monitoring of falsework during permanent structure construction
∗ dismantling and maintenance of falsework

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All the above phases and responsibilities have to be co-ordinated, distributed, and overall
checked by the Falsework Co-ordinator whose responsibilities and duties are defined
below:

Falsework Co-ordinator
• co-ordinate all falsework activities;

• ensure that the various responsibilities have been allocated and accepted;

• ensure that a design brief has been established with full consultation, is adequate,
and is in accordance with the actual situation on site;

• ensure that a satisfactory falsework design is carried out;

• ensure that the design is independently checked for:

a) concept

b) structural adequacy

c) compliance with the brief;

• where appropriate, ensure that the design is made available to other interested
parties, e.g. the structural designer;

• register or record the drawings, calculations and other documents relevant to the final
design;

• ensure that those responsible for on-site supervision receive full details of the
design, including any limitations associated with it;

• ensure that checks are made at appropriate stages covering the more critical
factors

• ensure that any proposed changes in materials or construction are checked


against the original design and appropriate action taken;

• ensure that any agreed changes, or corrections of faults, are correctly carried out on
site;

• ensure that, during use, all appropriate maintenance is carried out

• after final check, issue formal permission to load if this check proves satisfactory;

• when it has been confirmed that the permanent structure has attained adequate strength,
issue formal permission to dismantle the falsework.

Of particular note in the above list of duties is the concept of issuing a formal permit to
load before any concreting takes place - followed, at the appropriate time, by a permit
to dismantle.

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Whilst contractors will need to make individual decisions as to how the


recommendations of BS 5975 are best implemented, the basic principle - someone
made responsible for ensuring that all parties are adequately informed and co-
ordinated and that all checks have been carried out - is to be unreservedly
recommended.

25.4 DESIGN PHASE


25.4.1 design brief
Whether the falsework design is provided by standard or by individual designs, the
parameters on which the design is to be based need to be clearly established, in this
respect. It must be recognised that the loads imposed on falsework do not only arise from
the permanent structure, many will occur as a result of method and plant decisions.

The design brief should be prepared in both cases of standard and individual solution
design and all design parameters should be precisely determined and stated clearly in the
design brief.

25.4.2 conceptual scheme


At this step, it is decided whether the selected design method for falsework will be of
standard solution type or of individual solution type, basic loading calculations are done and
the type of material to be used for falsework is decided upon.

The basic items to be considered at this stage, but not limited to, are the following:

25.4.2.1 estimation of loads to be supported by Falsework

Not only the weight of the permanent structure, but also other factors are to be included in
the calculation of loads to be applied to falsework
Factors to be accounted for are as follows:

• weight of permanent structure: (this should be based on actual unit weight of materials
used in permanent structure).

recommended values for common types are:

• unit weight of precast concrete units: 2,700 kg/m3.

• unit weight of in-situ concrete: 2,500 kg/m3.

• weights of masonry or brickwork to be obtained from the supplier or calculated by


weighing samples.
• unit weights of structural steel to be obtained for standard sections from the
manufacturer’s tables.

• weights for all the attachments and bolts should be included in weight calculation of
steelwork.

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loading sequence

To prevent the build-up of stresses in individual members of the support structure, and to
eliminate the possibility of moment reversal and uplift on supports, designer of falsework
must be aware of:

• sequence of pouring

• method of pouring ( continuous or in bays placed on different days)

• type of applied vibration method (external or internal), magnitude of final


permanent deflections in relation to progressive construction above the first supported
member

• method and sequence of designed and specified post-tensioning

Additional loads arising from plant and method of erection are imposed on the
falsework, most common causes being:-

• weight of materials initially stored on falsework

• weight of labour performing work on falsework during erection

causes for arising dynamic loads

• dumping concrete on falsework from • vibration duration and method


skips
• moving loads like placing plant,
• shock loads resulting from steel or dumpers, and erection cranes
precast elements supported on falsework .

• surge loads reaching to falsework from • openings in falsework to allow for


concrete pump pipelines below passage of plant and traffic and
others

recommended unit loads values for in-situ concrete casting:

• falsework materials stored on falsework : 50kg/m2

• limited concrete heaps in addition to impact, weights of labour and plant involved in
spreading, compacting and levelling concrete : 150kg/m2

25.4.2.2 modification of loading programme

Any modification of the loading programme after designing falsework should only be carried
out after consultation with of falsework designer. It is the responsibility of the site team to
notify the designer of any changes.

25.4.3 design drawings and specifications


At this stage, final calculations, drawings and specifications, including those related to the
materials prepared and appropriately shown in detail on the drawings.

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25.4.4 checking of design and specifications independently


At this stage the falsework co-ordinator ensures that design calculations, drawings and
specifications are checked by an independent designer.

25.5 ERECTION AND CONSTRUCTION


This phase includes all the steps related to the construction of falsework and checking its
proper performance. These steps shall include the following:

25.5.1 distribution of responsibilities and necessary information.


• all persons involved in site erection and supervision of falsework should be made aware
of their responsibilities in this respect.

• to ensure proper performance, all persons in charge for erecting, inspection and checking
activities should receive copies of the following:

∗ all design drawings and specifications

∗ required standard details

∗ check lists, to ensure that all stages are executed properly.

25.5.2 materials and equipment


general

There should be no start in the erection of falsework unless all necessary materials and
equipment are already made available on site, otherwise, assurances that materials and
equipment delivery to site are to be made whenever their incorporation in the structure is
required. Whether new, second hand or fabricated equipment and materials are to be
incorporated into the erection, they should be checked for their compliance with the design.

timber

any timber to be used should comply with the following:

• type, grade, and size in accordance with the drawings and specifications.

• no presence of (defects, shakes, splits, winds, loose or large knots, and crushed or
damaged areas) is allowed.

• no protruding nails or fixings from previous use are allowed.

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structural steel scaffolding


the following items are to be checked: the following are main requirements:

• correct type of steel is used. • tube materials should be as specified

• fabricated sections are in compliance • straight and no dents


with dimensions and tolerances shown
• no excessive pitting
on drawings.
• ends square and free from splits
• specified web stiffeners are provided.
• fittings undamaged
• quality of materials to be used. If the
material is already used in previous • threads and nuts should be free from
projects, certified experts are to check obstructive materials including rust
the suitability of the materials for re-use • all threads should be undamaged
despite some aspects like holes, welds
and cut-outs that may show on it.

• that provided fixings and fittings are in


compliance with relevant specifications.

fabricated equipment

Fabricated equipment should be checked using a semi-visual check. Checking of fabricated


equipment should always be performed with the following applicable restrictions:

• no unofficial repair is to be undertaken before the inspection check is made.

• no substitution for critical items (like high tensile pins in props) is allowed. These items
should be provided as new.

25.5.3 foundations
It is of great importance that foundations of falsework be properly erected and thoroughly
checked.

Foundations are the basis on which the integrity of the structure as a whole depends,
therefore you should ensure that:-

• encountered soil in excavation is similar to that reported in soil report.

• no modifications were made to the latest loading programme followed in the final
falsework design.

• execution of the falsework is in conformance with pertaining drawings and standard


details.

• where serious decision has to be made, the designer is to be involved.

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Equally, foundations require protection from the effects of weather so that the ground
conditions as excavated are not altered (see Figs.1 & 2). Failure in this respect may result
in collapse or, at best, settlement.

Ponded Water
Flowing water:

Water penetration or
Wash Out Zone Absorption

Fig.1 - INADEQUATE DRAINAGE: Fig.2 - INADEQUATE DRAINING: ( WATER PONDS):


Washout danger in storm conditions. Character of cohesive soils change
Answer: dramatically.
Provide cut off drains and Blind Answer:
surface Provide surface blinding.

cohesive soils

Provide surface blinding to prevent ponding of water which alters appreciably the
characteristics of cohesive soil.

cohesionless soils

• provide cut-off drains and surface blinding to prevent the wash-out of non-cohesive soils
due to flowing water, especially in storm conditions.

• when it is recommended by the designer that full bedding of the sole plates be
performed, execution should be undertaken as such:

∗ use lean concrete to fully anchor timbers to ground.

∗ use grout or dry pack to fully anchor steel members into foundations.

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PART TWO

25.6 POINTS OF LOAD TRANSFERNCE


Defined as those areas in the
Permanent Structure
falsework structure where:

• loads from the permanent


structure are collected and
transferred to the main vertical
or inclined supports
• where loads from vertical or
Fig. 3 Load Transfer Areas
inclined supports are resisted
by foundations specially
provided or by parts of the
structure already completed.
(Fig. 3 ) illustrates the
definition.

Fig.3 - Showing Points of Load Transference Areas

These are critical points in the structure and both those who design falsework and those who
erect it, must be aware of good practice. (See Check List at end of section).

25.6.1 load transfer areas bearers


Local Crushing

Bearer must be fixed to prop


and joist. Vibration of concrete
will move bearer if unfixed. Loose wedges
fall out
Bearer should be secured Prop or support not plumb
centrally by nailed wedges.
Vibration loosens un-nailed Fig.5 - above showing what can happen when
wedges, bearer moves and wedges are not secured properly and prop or
eccentric loading results support is not plumb.
Fig.4 - above showing Load Transfer areas
Bearers correctly and securely
positioned.

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25.6.2 load transfer areas – adjustable jacks

Diagonal as
close as
possible to
node

Fig.6 - showing examples of over extension


(exceeding 300mm) of adjustable fork
heads or base jacks without bracing which
can cause the supporting structure to
collapse.

Lateral movement creates eccentricity


and reduction of bearing area in timber.

Connecting tube on
25.7 LACING AND BRACING every row of
Secondary Timber
standards
Ensure that:

• all specified members are in place.


• all diagonal Bracing are connected to
the correct lacing by a right angle
structural coupler.
• coupling of bracing and lacing should
be made as close as possible to the
node points (connection of horizontal
and vertical members of falsework
structure).
• the distance between the coupling
points and the node points should not
exceed 15cm.
• couplers and connections are tightened
satisfactorily.
• base and head jacks extended more
than 30 cm every row of jacks is
stabilised at top with a bracing tube at
Tube brace
right angle to the main timber
will stabilise
falsework. (see Fig.7 ) up to 6 jacks.
• every 6 jacks of same row are
stabilised by a diagonal bracing tube. Fig.7 - above showing part elevation as viewed in
direction of arrow of jack head bracing.

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the following items are to be checked for proper installation of end bearers

• full contact is achieved between end bearers and its underlying ground or plates.

• proper restraint is made to ensure the stability of end bearers in their position.

• spacing between centres of plates is to be conserved as shown on drawings.

25.7.1 jack head bracing

Main Timber

“a”

When dimension “a” exceed 300mm.


Every row of jacks is joined at top with
a tube at right angles to the main
timbers – and every 6th jack of every
Every 6th jack in row is diagonally braced in both
both directions. directions.

Fig.8 - above showing the correct method of using Jack Head Bracing

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25.8 SPECIAL PRECAUTION MEASURES FOR PERMANENT FALSEWORK


Permanent falsework is employed to permanently support structural element like in-situ
slabs. It is designed to take the load of the supported structural element and its own weight
in addition to other loads arising from wind and normal casting operations.

25.8 1 with pre cast elements


• top and bottom surfaces must be marked properly for identification.

• the lifting system must be arranged in a way to avoid collision and consequential
breaking of pre cast elements.

• lateral supports should be provided before releasing pre cast elements from the sling,
especially in the case of beams with a width to depth ratio exceeding 1 - 3.

25.8.2 with steel panels


• steel panels should be properly positioned in accordance with drawings.

• hand-lines should be fixed to these panels to make handling more convenient and safer,
especially in presence of high wind.

• fixing of the panels is made by studs, bolts, or welding to prevent lateral movement,
excessive deflection and displacements arising from wind action.

25.8.3 with glass reinforced plastics (GRP) panels


• during the cutting and grinding of panels, dust masks, eye protection and suitable
protective clothing should be worn.

• panels can be affected by heat, therefore, heat generating sources should not be brought
close to these panels.

25.8.4 with glass reinforced cement (GRC) panels


• safe handling requires gloves to be worn by involved workers.

• during the cutting of panels, dust masks and eye protection should be worn.

• to ensure stability, panels should be stacked in an organized way.

• when lifting panels by crane, a spreader beam should be used.

Note: Anchoring of decking panels and use of clamps or weights whenever required is a must to
prevent uplift forces from moving the panels.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - FALSEWORK

Since errors in falsework erection are not always remediable, checking for the correctness of
falsework erection should be scheduled far enough ahead of erection time for the permanent
structure. Items to be checked for the correctness of falsework erection are the following:

General
 adequate anchorage, levelling and correct positioning of sole plates and grillages are achieved.

 base plates and grillages should be located to the centre of underlying sole plates.

 vertical supports checked.

 vertical alignment should be plumbed within deviation in accordance with specified tolerance.

 spacing for these members is to be executed in conformance with drawings and standard
details.

 all members, couplers, fittings, wedges of the falsework and others are installed properly,
secured, tightened and at correct positions. If these precautions are not taken into account,
loose and non-nailed wedges may fall-out in presence of any vibration arising from activities
such as concrete placing and consolidation.

At points of Load Transfer


 correct details applied as per fig.3.

 base and head jacks are not over extended unless detailed with adequate special bracing (see
figs. 4 & 5)

 that steel section web stiffeners are provided as detailed.

 there is positional accuracy of all members.

 there are no eccentricities in excess of allowances specified.

Lacings and Bracings


 all specified members are in place.

 all bracings and lacings are coupled as close to node points and never more than 150mm away.

 all bracings and lacings are connected to correct members e.g. diagonals to lacings to allow
right angle structural couplers to be used.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - FALSEWORK

required precautions during erection and use of falsework


 during the construction of large items, suspended slabs with proper guarded edges and suitable
access ladders shall be used.

 no storage should be placed on falsework since it is not designed to carry additional heavy
loads for other purposes.

 falsework should be designed to allow safe lifting and handling from points designed for this
purpose.

 persons not involved in the construction process, dismantling or inspection of falsework should
be denied access.

 loose materials and plant should be fixed against any movement including lateral movement
induced by high winds.

 whenever it is possible that workers can fall from slab falsework by more than 2metres, suitable
edge guards shall be installed.

 whenever workers are erecting falsework elements higher than 2 metres over previously
erected slabs, guarded work platforms with access ways should be provided. These access
ways should be also guarded and wide enough to allow for workers to carry materials (see Pt 2
section 29 - Scaffolding & Working Platforms)

 proprietary falsework systems should be erected and used in accordance with manufacturers’
instructions.

required precautions during dismantling of falsework


 it must be determined ahead whether back-propping before complete release of the falsework
or re-propping after release of the falsework is the method to be employed.
 for the safety and convenience of workers carrying out the dismantling activity, proper
temporary platforms must be provided.
 proper tarpaulins or nets should be placed to decrease the danger of any falling material.
 all dismantled and removed materials shall be immediately stored and properly handled to allow
for its use in the future.

dismantling steps should be carried out in the following sequence:


 removal of loose fittings and materials

 removal of projecting nails and sticking elements (in the case of concrete) as work proceeds.

 before removal of safety guardrails making part of the falsework, replacement safety guardrails
are to be installed and connected to the edges of concrete.

 after removal, falsework should be supported safely during repair, oiling and other maintenance
works needed before reuse.

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SAFETY CHECKLIST - STEELFIXING

Precautionary measures to be taken with steel fixing include the following:


 steel bundles should never be carried or lifted by the binding wire. Proper slings should be
used.

 steel fixers should work at safe places or shops provided on site. Persons not involved in steel
shop work should be denied access.

 during the cutting of reinforcement, protective gloves and eye protection must be worn by
persons performing work.
 only recommended types of blades should be fitted to disc cutters to prevent any accident
arising from the breaking of a blade.

 only trained workers are to be authorized to use the disc cutters.

 torches shall not be used in cutting steel of types adversely affected by heat.

 the short end of the cut bar should not be left to fly off and endanger life of persons.

 projecting steel bars should be capped to reduce their risk potential.

 proper walkways should be installed over the fixed steel cages to secure the safety of persons
crossing over to access their destination.

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PILING

INTRODUCTION 1
MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION

26.1 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 2


26.2 MATERIAL HANDLING 3
26.3 TYPES OF PILING OPERATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS 3

CHECKLIST FOR PILING METHOD STATEMENTS


(ADM/H&S/CL/2.26/1)
SECTION 26

PILING

INTRODUCTION.

Piling operations can give rise to different hazards dependent upon the type of piling being
undertaken. Certain hazards are, however, generally common on all types of piling, and this section
gives both the general precautions to be taken and the special precautions relating to the different
types of piling.

MAIN APPLICABLE U.A.E. LEGISLATION


Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (1).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (7).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (10).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (15).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (19).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (20).

Ministerial Order No.32 Year 1982 - Article (24).


26.1 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
26.1.1 method statement
Piling contractors should be requested to provide an appropriate written method statement. A
general checklist for the production and checking of such method statements is provided at
the end of this section. It is essential that induction training and information specific to the
method statement is provided to piling operatives.

26.1.2 underground services


Prior to piling, all underground services in the area should be located and rendered safe. It is
important to consult the appropriate Utilities for the area on these matters. A check should
also be carried out to ensure that there are no cellars, underground watercourses or ground
conditions, etc., which could create hazards during the operation. (see Pt 2 section 6 for
further information on Underground/Overhead services)

26.1.3 cranes and lifting gear


• cranes must be selected and used in accordance with the requirements of Pt 2 section
19-Cranes and Hoists

• if a rig with a SWL of more than one ton is used for general lifting operations, such as the
loading and transport of materials on site, it must be fitted with an “automatic safe load
indicator” ASLI.

• a firm level base of adequate bearing value must be provided, or crane mats used.

• as there is a risk of the cores of


pendant/bridle ropes fracturing due to shock
loading, these ropes should be opened up
and the cores carefully examined at 3 monthly
intervals.

• any crane used for raising or lowering men


must be fitted with a dead man’s handle and
the descent effectively controlled; the latter is
currently achieved by power lowering.

• properly constructed man carrying cages,


which are unable to spin or tip, must be used.
The cages should be regularly and carefully
Fig.1 - Properly constructed and
inspected. (see Fig.1) tested man riding safety
cage
• records of thorough examination must be held for all lifting appliances and gear, which
must be adequate for the job, paying particular attention to the risk of damage to gear by
sharp edges.

• piling machine operators must be at least 18 years of age, trained, competent, medically
fit and authorised by site management to operate the machine.

• cranes which have been employed on piling duties should be subjected to a thorough
examination before being returned to general lifting operations

26.1.4 personal protective equipment (PPE)


• all persons working on piling operations must wear safety helmets (suitable helmets, with
chinstraps and smaller peaks are now available), Ear and eye protection must be
provided and worn where necessary. (see Pt 2 section 12)-PPE.

• when piling from a pontoon or adjacent to water, personnel should wear life lackets.
Rescue equipment (e.g. a safety boat and Iifebuoys with lifelines attached) must be kept
ready for immediate use and enough men must know how to use it. (see Pt 2 section 28)
-Working over or Adjacent to Water.

26.2 MATERIALS HANDLING


• when splitting bundles of sheet piles, chocks should be used. If large quantities of piles
are handled, the use of purpose-made strops and grips is advised.

• piles should not be stacked too high or in a cantilever position. Spacers and chocks
should be used where necessary. Tubular piles should not be stacked more than four
high and should be properly chocked.

• when lifting piles or piling hammers, hand lines should be used to control the load. It is
important that due consideration is given to wind speed during these operations.

26.3 TYPES OF PILING OPERATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS


26.3.1 driven sheet piling
The assessment of risk must consider the following simple factors in connection with the
sheet piling process:
• how the piles are held in position during driving,
• how the piles are to be threaded,
• how the first pile is secured whilst the second is threaded,
• the overall scheme to devise a system to prevent the falls of persons and materials.

Piles can either be held in position during driving using a special leader arrangement
attached to the crane or piling plant or, alternatively, a gate system may be used as
described below.

26.3.2 gate systems


A supporting system should be chosen which is appropriate for the operation, e.g. where
short runs of sheet piling are required and accuracy is not the main criteria, then a single
gate system may be used.

A single gate system is made up of a simple frame of either timber or steel gates supported
by blocks a suitable distance above ground level. A shallow guide trench is normally dug to
assist with the location of the sheet piles.
Sheet Piles pitched – not driven
Toeboard Guardrails Sheet piles pitched
and part driven

Walkway top
gates with Hanger Brackets
gap covered

Bottom Gate

Wooden Tirfor Tension


Wedges

Bolts
Anchor Block with lifting eye
Kelly Block cast into block

Fig.2 - TWO GATE SYSTEM – Showing piling, the use of hanger brackets and the provision of a safety walkway

“Gate support system” See Fig.2 shown above is a two gate system, made up from timber
H-frames, set in concrete Kelly Blocks. These H-frames are then spanned by RSJ’s (gates).

If the gates are over 2m high, or over any potentially dangerous area, they must not be used
as working platforms unless fitted with toe boards which rise at least 150mm, and main
guardrails at least 910mm above the walkway. Additionally, intermediate guardrails, or other
rigid barriers must be fitted so that there is not an unprotected gap of more than 470mm in
height in the means of protection against a fall (as in the illustrated in Fig.2).

Where such protection cannot be provided, access to slinging points must be gained by
ladder and NOT by means of the gates.
• permanent ladder access must be secure and extend above the gates sufficiently to
provide a safe handhold. (A distance of 1 .05m is recommended).

• when constructing Kelly Blocks, reinforcement should be placed in the concrete base.
Vertical RSJ’s should have a good “key”. Vertical timber should not be cast into the block
but should be wedged and bolted.

• where doubt exists over the stability of Kelly Blocks, guy lines should be used.

• lifting eyes should be cast into the blocks.

26.3.3 pitching piles


• if shackle holes have to be burned in the pile, sharp burrs should be removed to prevent
damage to shackle pins.

• remote release shackles (see Pt 2 section 30)- Erection of Structures , should be used
where possible and the sheet pile must not be lifted vertically without first checking that
the pin is properly engaged through the sheet. The length of the operating rope must be
less than the length of the pile, and the rope should be secured around the pile to prevent
snagging or being caught in the wind and becoming inaccessible.

• if piles are too heavy for a remote release shackle and work cannot safely be carried out
from a ladder, a lifting cage should be provided to gain access for unscrewing the
shackle. (see Fig.1)

• if a special lifting eye is to be welded to the pile for angled pitching, the weld should have
a factor of safety of at least 2.

• long sheet piles should be pitched with a pile threader following the manufacturer’s
guidance for use. Where this is not possible, a pile pitching cage should be used. The
cage should hang from an adjacent pile with the operatives wearing safety harnesses
hooked to the adjacent pile before the crane hook is removed from the cage.

• when sheet piles are being pitched, it is essential to take particular care to ensure the
stability of the first few piles, but especially the first pile. This may be achieved by fixing
the pile to the gate at two points so that it cannot move within the plane of the gate. This
action will also ensure that the pile is stable if an effective toe-in is not achieved due to
hard/stony ground conditions.

• when feeding sheet piles through top and bottom gates, use wood blocks or a bent bar.
Never use a straight pinch bar, as fingers can easily be trapped.
When working off ladders during pitching piles operation, the following additional precautions
is required:-

clutching

• ladder must be placed in the valley of a previously placed pile; the ladder must be footed
and, when at the top of the ladder and both hands are required For clutching, a safety
harness must be worn and secured to the pile using a girder grip. (see Pt 2 section 29) -
Scaffolding/Working Platforms.

wedging

• ladder must be placed against the RSJ and footed; wedges should be pre-positioned on
the RSJ a 41b lump hammer should be used as this can be swung with one hand. If two
hands are required, a safety harness must be worn, with the lanyard wrapped around the
RSJ or connected to a girder grip.

• work method must not be changed without the approval of the senior site representative
or the contractor responsible for the piling operation.

• if windy conditions make the handling of the sheet piles difficult, work must stop until the
responsible person has been consulted and a safe method of continuing the work has
been devised.

26.3.4 hammers
• hammers, and in particular all clamping bolts, should be inspected daily.

• use guide rope when positioning a hammer.

• stand clear when starting and operating.

• ALL personnel should be at ground level during piling operations.

• should the piston of a hammer jam, the trip-lever should be pulled to the open position
before removing the hammer from the pile.

• damaged high pressure airlines or high voltage cables, feeding the hammer, can present
a serious hazard to persons working in the vicinity of the operation. Therefore it is
important to keep supply lines/cables under constant observation to avoid damage by
trapping or from sharp objects.

double acting air hammers

• all hose couplings should be properly manufactured and matched. The joining of rubber
pipes to brass spigots should be by clamp and not hose clips.

• ensure that the oil bottle/filter lid is secure.


internal drop hammers

• always place a swivel between the hammer and hoist rope.

• attachment of a hoist rope should always be done using a properly matched anchor and
pear; the dead end of the rope should be secured using a bulldog clip or other approved
means.

• intermediate linking shackle pins should be secured.

• check hoist ropes daily during operations.

26.3.5 helmets and inserts


Pile helmets or crowns must be well constructed, strong enough and free from defect.
Should packing or spacers be needed, they should be drilled, tapped and screwed to secure
in place, and then welded.
Remember that any welds to a solid cast helmet will eventually crack.

26.3.6 pile extraction


• where pile extraction is necessary, due allowance should
be made for the frictional forces occurring between the
pile and ground, in order to determine the correct size of
crane and extractor. (see Fig.3)

• it is good practice to use a tag line between hook and


adjacent pile to prevent the extractor swinging out of
control should the pile snap.

• care should be taken when lowering extracted piles to


Fig.3 - Showing typical quick
ensure that the load on the crane hook is kept vertical. release type of pile
extractor
26.3.7 bored piling
• spoil from boreholes should be kept clear of access to the borehole which, after
completion, should be fitted with a cover or other suitable protection. As an alternative to
a cover, it is common practice to back fill or to leave the auger in the borehole.

• persons are not permitted to enter any borehole less than 750 mm in diameter.

• where it is necessary for any person to enter a borehole, special precautions must be
taken. It must be ensured that no toxic or flammable substance/gas is present in the
borehole and that the air is fit to breathe. Where necessary, a proper ventilation system or
suitable breathing apparatus must be provided. No person should remain in the hole for
more than one hour at a time.
accessing pile shaft

Descent by any person into any pile shaft, or bore hole, from here on referred to as a shaft,
should only be carried out in compliance with the following conditions:-
(see Fig.4)

• shaft must be lined with a steel sleeve from


ground level.

• top of the capsule used by the person to


descend the shaft must never descend lower
Steel Sleeve
than one metre above the bottom of the
shaft support sleeve.

• capsule must be totally enclosed, with


windows to enable the person carried in it to
see the unsupported section below the
support sleeve, or the excavated under
reamed section at the base of the shaft.

• under no circumstances should the


person leave the capsule whilst it is Minimum one metre
below the supported section of the shaft.
Clay Level
• capsule must have fresh air and
Communication line
telecommunication supplies from ground and nominal 20mm
level at all times whilst it is below ground. diameter steel air
supply pipe with
diffuser to reduce
• metal steps must be provided inside the noise
capsule from the bottom to the top.
Step irons for
• top of the capsule must have opening flaps emergency escape
to enable the person to be rescued in the
event of the capsule being trapped below
ground. Capsule doors with
windows
• crane used to raise and lower the capsule
must have powered lowering which is in
Floor doors opening
correct working order. upwards

• capsule must have low voltage lighting


inside it. Fig.4. - Showing Access to Shaft and
Boreholes and illustrating
• an appropriate gas monitor must be kept in some of the points listed
the capsule at all times whilst it is below above.
ground.
• all operatives having to descend a pile shaft in a capsule, must be given adequate
instruction and training on procedures to be followed, and the risks involved.

• it is preferable for mechanical means to be provided and used for inspection and
sampling the sides of the shafts, instead of having to send a person down to carry out the
work.

• banks man must be in attendance at all times when any person is lowered into a bore
hole. He should be in such a position that he can observe the man in the borehole, and If
necessary, should wear a safety harness and line.

• operatives engaged in this work should be trained and competent in rescue from deep
bore holes.

• emergency rescue drills supervised by a competent person should be carried out at the
start of operations and at regular intervals thereafter. A set of printed rescue drill
instructions should be issued and displayed at each site.

• all rescue equipment should be tested regularly to ensure that it is in good working order
and capable of reaching to the maximum depth of the borehole.

• supervisors should be trained in methods of gas detection, respiratory resuscitation, first


aid and the use and maintenance of breathing apparatus.

26.3.8 piling augers


• all machinery should be in good condition and no
lifting apparatus should be used unless there are in
existence current records of test and thorough
examination. (see Fig.5)

• all control levers on the piling rig should be clearly


marked to indicate their purpose and mode of
operation.

• persons must stand well clear of the auger both


when drilling and when discharging spoil.

• if the secondary rope is used as a crane (i.e. to lift Fig.5 - Type of Piling Auger
commonly used on
casings into place) then there must be an approved
Building/Construction Sites.
automatic safe load indicator fitted to the system.

• when ropes are subject to heavy wear, they must be frequently inspected and changed as
necessary.
26.3.9 tripods
(see Fig.6)

• no tripod should be used unless the rig is tested and the legs marked. The numbers on
the items must coincide with the numbers on the test and examination records

• ropes should be secured with suitable Fastenings, e.g. bulldog clips.

• where appropriate, properly constructed saddles or hard eyes should be used.

Note: knots must not be tied in any rope used for lifting.

• base plates should be adequate and secured to


prevent any accidental movement of the rig.

• tripod legs must not be overspread or overloaded.

• only the correct pins should be used in the


sheerlegs.

• the safe working load must be clearly marked on


the winch, and records kept of test and thorough
examination.

• all parts of the winch should be effectively guarded.


Fig.6 - Showing a typical type of
• constant attention must be paid to the condition of Tripod used for Bore
Piling.
rope, which should be changed as soon as it
becomes necessary.

• when a rope/chain block is being used to extract the casings, the capacity of the block
must not exceed the capacity of the rig.

• under no circumstances must there be less than 2 full turns of the rope on the winch
drum at any time
SAFETY CHECKLIST - PILING OPERATIONS

CHECKLIST FOR PILING METHOD STATEMENTS

Piling method statements should normally include the following so far as is relevant in the
circumstances:

 Name and address of the piling contractor.

 Name and address of the site to which the method statement relates.

 Names of the supervisor/foreman and appointed safety adviser and arrangements for
monitoring the work.

 Descriptions of the work to be carried out including the number, type and size of piles and the
method of placing.

 Duration of the work.

 Hours of work.

 Nature of the soil including details of any contamination present and the precautions to be
taken.

 Details of the methods of locating and avoiding any existing underground services, whether or
not their presence if known.

 Details of the personnel to be used and their training/ experience.

 Assessment of any work at height and arrangements for the provision of a safe place of work
and safe access/ egress.

 Details of plant and equipment to be used together with confirmation that all necessary records
will be provided on site.

 Details of auger cleaning device used and auger or drill guarding provided.

 Confirmation that man access will not be permitted to under reamed pile shafts.

 Assessment of exposure of operatives to noise and the precautions to be taken.

 Assessment of environmental noise and the steps to minimise disturbance.

 Details of the PPE to be provided to personnel.

 Arrangements for protecting openings.

 Arrangements for the storage / stockpiling of materials.

Note
This checklist is intended to aid the production and approval of method statements. It is not an
exhaustive list of every possible issue that may need to be addressed for any given task.

Document No. Rev Date Title Checklist

ADM/H&S/CL/2.26/1 01 March 2005 SAFETY CHECKLIST - PILING OPERATIONS 1