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Geraline Mae Z.

Ramones GOVERNA A52
11028467 Professor Vicor An!res Man"i
CONTEMPORARY PHILIPPINE SOCIETY: Socio-Political Cultural Issues and
Challenges to o!ernance
#isoricall$ s%ea&in'( "e Re%)*lic of "e P"ili%%ines +as name! Filipinas as a si'n of
res%ec an! "onor o ,in' P"ili% -- of .%ain. /"e P"ili%%ines is an arc"i%ela'o +i" 7(107 islan!s
an! %osiione! on "e Pacific Rim of Pacific Asia or 0)s a*o1e "e e2)aor in ins)lar .o)"eas
Asia. 3)4on( Visa$as an! Min!anao are "e "ree *i''es islan!s in "e P"ili%%ines5 "o+e1er( no
all "ese islan!s are %o%)lae!. 3)4on( amon' all "e islan!s( is in"a*ie! *$ ma0ori$ of "e
%o%)laion. 6)rrenl$( "e P"ili%%ines alrea!$ "as almos 78 million 8ili%inos an! sill co)nin'.
P"ili%%ines is re'ar!e! o *e one of "e mos !i1erse re'ions all o1er "e 'lo*e. /"is "i'"
*io!i1ersi$ refers o 1arie$ in %remises of c)l)re( ecos$sems an! reso)rces. -n a!!iion( since
"e re'ions in "e P"ili%%ines is f)r"er !i1i!e! ino comm)niies( "is se%araion le! o "e
emer'ence of assormens of !ialecs( e"niciies an! lan')a'es. /"e P"ili%%ines "a! *een
coloni4e! *$ forei'n naions s)c" as "e .%ain( America an! 9a%an. - is +i" "is coloni4aion
%rocess "a "e P"ili%%ines +as inro!)ce! o "e c)l)re an! ra!iions of "e coloni4ers( ")s
"e P"ili%%ines "a! *een a!o%in' all "e "in's +e 'aine! from "ese coloni4ers )% o no+. -
can *e ar')e! "a +i" "e %rocess of coloni4aion( "e P"ili%%ines "as los is i!eni$ an! "e
onl$ +a$ o re'ain "e los P"ili%%ine i!eni$ is "ro)'" "e !ecoloni4aion %rocess. -n "is %ar(
allo+ me o ac&le ma0or maers a*o) "e P"ili%%ines. 8irs( "ere is a 1arie$ of reli'ion an!
*eliefs. .econ!( *efore +omen )se! o "ol! "i'" %osiions in "e co)nr$( "o+e1er( as ime
%asses *$( onl$ fe+ +omen "a1e "e +ill o occ)%$ %osiions. /"ir!( P"ili%%ine %oliics is
o*sc)rel$ %ersonal meanin' "e &e$ o %oliical s)ccess is "ro)'" economic re+ar!s an!
alliances. 3asl$( "e P"ili%%ines "a! *een o%en o inernaional ra!e +i" o"er co)nries an! is
relaions +i" o"er naions are sill +i!enin' )% o no+.
/"e P"ili%%ines is consi!ere! as "e firs !emocraic naion an! "a se1eral co)nries
follo+e! "e &in! of re1ol)ion +"ic" allo+e! for o%%lin' !o+n of Marcos: !icaors"i% ;
Peo%le Po+er Re1ol)ion or E<.A -. - +as "e Americans +"o *)il an! esa*lis"e! !emocrac$
in "e P"ili%%ines an! "e !emocraic %rocesses an! insi)ions. /"e si)aion of "e P"ili%%ines
is no "a oo !i1er'en from o"er naions. /"e P"ili%%ines is c"allen'e! *$ a lis of socio=
%oliical c)l)ral c"allen'es an! is also confrone! *$ %ro1ocaions from 'o1ernance.
No so lon' a'o( "e P"ili%%ines is consi!ere! as one of "e mos %ro%iio)s an! one of
"e *es naions all o1er "e 'lo*e. /"e P"ili%%ines "as *een a!mire! an! loo& )%on *$ "e +"ole
+orl! !)e o "e Peo%le Po+er Re1ol)ions an! )%risin's5 *) as of no+( "e P"ili%%ines "a!
*een a la)'"in' maer *$ "e +"ole +orl!. /"e P"ili%%ines( coine! as a corr)% naion an! a
*anana re%)*lic( is lea!in' alrea!$ o a f))re f)ll of !es%airs an! !eerioraions. As of no+( "e
P"ili%%ines "a! alrea!$ come o "e loc)s +"erein +e "a1e so lile "a +e can *e %ro)! of an! a
c"eris"e! lile "a +e can "o%e for. /"e rene+al of "e P"ili%%ines ma$ a%%ear o *e com%le>
an! m)li=!imensional. /"e P"ili%%ines( as a naion( is face! +i" "e !is%)e of "o%eless 'ro+".
?e "a1e *een confrone! an! s)rro)n!e! *$ "ese com%ellin' an! similar iss)es "a "a! *een in
e>isence for !eca!es alrea!$. Man$ a!minisraions "a come an! 'o "a! %romise! for "e
alle1iaion an! eliminaion of "ese iss)es an! %ro*lems *$ +"ere !i! "ese %romises 'o@ /"ese
%romises a%%eare! o *e em%$ an! *arren. No one else co)l! *e *lame! for +"a is "a%%enin' o
"e P"ili%%ines *) is %eo%le ; "e 8ili%inos. /"e 8ili%inos are "e ones +"o r)n an! consi)e
"e s$sems an! sr)c)res in "e P"ili%%ines. -f onl$ 8ili%inos %ossess com%eence( e>%erise an!
ine'ri$( "e P"ili%%ine socie$ ma$ *e *eer off. ?e are o)r o+n +ors enem$= +e al+a$s
%res)me "a "e com%licaion or !ilemma is o) "ere *) as a maer of fac( "e *asic %ro*lem
is insi!e )s. 3e me %) i "is +a$5 "ere is corr)%ion( %o1er$ an! rela%se +i"in "e socie$
*eca)se +i"in )s( +i"in o)rsel1es( ma0ori$ of )s( allo+e! "e !ea" an! remo1al of o)r i!eals
an! "e iner%la$ of 0)sice( free!om an! fair %la$. - "a! *een alrea!$ a lon' ime "a +e( "e
8ili%inos( as a naion en!)re! all "ese s)fferin's an! "ar!s"i%s inflice! o )s5 *) "a1e +e !one
an$"in' o a leas some"o+ alle1iae o)r con!iion@ ?"a ma0ori$ of )s !o is o 0)s "o%e "a
some!a$ o)r "ar!s"i%s +ill 'o a+a$ silenl$. ?e ofen criici4e an! com%lain "o+ %oor an!
+ors o)r co)nr$ is $e +e !o no e1en lif a fin'er o )nleas" "e %oenialiies "a "e
P"ili%%ines %ossesses. Ne1er"eless( as "e clic"A 'oes it’s never too late, for what it’s worth. -f
8ili%inos +an o ma&e "e P"ili%%ines a *eer %lace( +e can s)ccess an! *e one of "e *es
Basicall$( "e P"ili%%ines is consi!ere! o *e one of "e co)nries +"o 1al)e "e mos
famil$. 8ili%inos are &no+n o *e famil$=oriene! or famil$=cenere!. - is %osii1e in a sense "a
+e ma&e s)re "a +e are al+a$s in o)c" or connece! o eac" o"er an! "a +e +ill ne1er fail
o con1erse or comfor +i" eac" o"er. 6onse2)enl$( "is famil$ ies also %ose a ne'ai1e effec.
8or insance( a famil$ mem*er +or&in' in a cerain office "en "is or "er relai1e nee!s 0o*( "a
famil$ mem*er +ill ma&e s)re "a "is or "er relai1e +ill also 'e a 0o* in "e same office as "e
or s"e is in( e1en "o)'" "e 0o* !oes no fi "is or "er relai1e. Ano"er is "a +"en a famil$
mem*er commis a crime( "e famil$ +ill !o is *es "a "e %aric)lar mem*er +ill *e no %) o
0ail an! +ill !o an$"in' o %roec an! a1oi! "e arnis"in' of "e famil$:s re%)aion. Ano"er(
in or!er o %reser1e an! mainain "e famil$:s %osiion( +eal" an! infl)ence( ne%oism an!
%oliical !$nasies %er%e)aes in "e co)nr$. -n a!!iion( "e P"ili%%ine *)rea)crac$ is
inimael$ %ersonalisic an! i is *ase! on %oliical an! *)rea)craic %arona'e insea! of meris.
Asi!e from "e e>isence of ne%oism an! %arona'e( conce%s s)c" as "e padrino s$sem(
fa1oriism( familialism( utang na loob an! pakikisama. Moreo1er( "ere are imes +"ene1er
%oliicians ma&e !ecisions or %ass %olicies an! r)les for "e *enefis of "eir o+n families.
8)r"ermore( 8ili%inos are &no+n o *e fesi1al lo1ers +"ic" mean "a +e lo1e
'a"erin's an! cele*raions an! "ese( conse2)enl$( enail +asef)l s%en!in'. ?e "a1e "e
en!enc$ o *e la1is" an! s%en! so m)c". A "e same ime( +e are a+are "a "e P"ili%%ines "as
a "i'" rae of %o1er$ inci!ence *) +e conin)e o s%en! more "an +"a +e "a1e an! "en
afer+ar!s *e %ro*lemaic +i" "e fac "a no one +ill %a$ "e *ill ")s ma&in' )s in!e*e!.
Accor!in' o CN<P for is #)man <e1elo%men Re%or 2011( "e P"ili%%ines: #)man
<e1elo%men -n!e> D#<-E "a! increase!. - can "en *e im%lie! "a "e san!ar! of li1in' in "e
co)nr$ a%%eare! o *e *eer com%are! "e %as $ears. #o+e1er( for "e M)li!imensional
Po1er$ -n!e> DMP-E for 2011( "ere is sill a 5.7F of "e %o%)laion "a is in se1ere %o1er$ an!
22.6F of "e %o%)laion *elo+ income %o1er$ line. ?i" "is( i can *e ar')e! "a %o1er$ "a!
is roos !)rin' "e .%anis" era s)c" "a 8ili%inos +ere !e%ri1e! of "eir o+n reso)rces
%aric)larl$ of "eir o+n lan!s an! )% o no+( "e 'o1ernmen fails o %ro1i!e financial s)%%or
o %oor %eo%le.
8ili%inos also allo+s "e %ersisence of *)rea)craic am*i')i$. /"is refers o man$ la+s(
or!inances( e>ec)i1e or!ers( r)les an! "e li&es( %asse! "o+e1er in conra!icor$ o eac" o"er.
- a%%ears "a "e aforemenione! "in's are no clear=c) an! com%re"ensi*le for "e cii4enr$
an! mos ofen( consanl$ c"an'es. /"is creaes a scene of a %oliical 0)n'le. -n relaion +i"
"is( since "in's are )nclear an! no srai'"for+ar!( "e 1al)es of accommo!aion an!
pakikisama %ersiss s)c" "a man$ a%%ear o *e *lin!e! !es%ie of "e misa&es commie! *$
o"er %eo%le meanin' !isre'ar!in' "e s"orcomin's of o"ers for "e maer of fac "a "ere is
no clear r)les "a +ill ')i!e "e socie$.
- is also noicea*le "a reamen an! *e"a1ior o+ar!s o"er %eo%le !e%en!s on social
classes. - is 1er$ ine1ia*le in o)r co)nr$ "a "e !iscre%anc$ or 'a% *e+een "e elies an! "e
or!inar$ %eo%le is 1er$ +i!e. -n line +i" "is saemen( - +an o %oin o) "a 8ili%inos "a1e
"e en!enc$ o *e more a%%roac"a*le an! +elcomin' o "e elies or o "ose +"o "a1e o%
%osiions es%eciall$ +"en "e$ nee! some"in' in "e 'o1ernmen s)c" as 'ein' !oc)mens or
e1en +"en a ric" %erson commis a crime( "a cerain ric" %erson "as a 'rea %ossi*ili$ of
esca%in' "e crime "e "as commie! *eca)se of "is or "er +eal" an! connecion. On "e o"er
"an!( "e 'o1ernmen res%on!s real slo+ o "e common %eo%le since "ese common %eo%le are
"el%less( "o%eless an! %o+erless5 "ese common %eo%le "a! o en!)re "e lon' lines in
'o1ernmen a'encies +"ene1er "e$ nee! some"in'. /"is !)alism in e>isence is no onl$ in "e
'o1ernmen or *)rea)crac$ *) as +ell +i" inceni1es( re+ar!s an! sancions.
?"a:s more is "e %er%e)aion of *)rea)craic me!iocri$ in "e P"ili%%ine socie$.
?i" "is - mean "a "ere are a%%ro%riae re+ar!s an! sancions 'i1en o 'o1ernmen
em%lo$ees "o+e1er "ese re+ar!s an! sancions !o no e2)ae o "e ma>imi4aion of "e
em%lo$ees: %oenialiies an! e>cellence in "e 'o1ernmen. 8or "e re+ar!s or inceni1es( "ese
s"o)l! a%%ear o *e "e mec"anism "a +ill allo+ e1er$ 'o1ernmen %ersonnel o 'i1e "eir *es
effors o aain 'reaer %erformance. 8or "e sancions an! %)nis"mens( "ese m)s ma!e
'o1ernmen %ersonnel o a&e serio)sl$ "eir 0o*s an! o*li'aions5 *) no all "e ime "a "ese
sancions an! %)nis"mens enail reali4aion for "e s"orcomin' "e$ "a1e commie! "a is
+"$ mos of "e ime misa&es an! s"orcomin's rec)r an! "a%%en a'ain. ?i" "is me!iocri$(
+e "a1e "e en!enc$ o %i$( s"o+ merc$ an! !is%la$ *ene1olence. /"ese 1al)es are 'oo! one
*) in imes +"en %eo%le s"o)l! learn from "eir +ron'!oin's( "ese 1al)es s"o)l! no a%%ear
*) if +e +ill conin)e o %i$ "e +ron'!oer( "a %erson +ill no reali4e "a +"a "e or s"e !i!
+as +ron'. /")s( i is 1er$ necessar$ o re)rn *ac& o %eo%le +"a "e$ !eser1e( if "e$ !i!
'oo! an! e>ere! *es effors( %ro1i!e "em inceni1es an! re+ar!s an! if "e$ commie!
+ron'!oin's an! crimes( %)nis" an! 'i1e "em sancions.
8inall$( "e iss)e of 'raf an! corr)%ion +"ic" "a1e *een in e>isence for man$ !eca!es
alrea!$ an! )nil no+ %ersiss an! +orsens. Graf an! corr)%ion "a! alrea!$ *een a norm( a
c)l)re in o)r socie$. - %ersonall$ "in& "a 'raf an! corr)%ion are ine1ia*le *) are
mana'ea*le. - is no ne+ o an$*o!$ "a i +as !)rin' "e a!minisraions of former Presi!ens
Esra!a an! Arro$o "a 'raf an! corr)%ion are 1er$ ram%an an! 1er$ +ors. An! "e c)rren
A2)ino:s a!minisraion is r$in' is *es o slo+l$ alle1iae 'raf an! corr)%ion in or!er o
ac"ie1e 'oo! 'o1ernance. -n or!er o !ri1e a'ains 'raf an! corr)%ion( acco)na*ili$(
rans%arenc$( res%onsi1eness( o%enness an! "e li&es m)s %ersis.
/"e c)l)re of familialism( %ersonalism( %o%)lism an! %aric)larism "a! *een a ne1er=
en!in' c$cle in "e P"ili%%ines. - ma$ a%%ear o *e alrea!$ a norm an! %arcel of "e P"ili%%ine
socie$( *) +e m)s !iminis" an! eliminae "is &in! of rais an! norms onl$ *eca)se i ma&es
"e P"ili%%ines !i'ress insea! of aainin' %ro'ress an! 'ro+". Ra"er( reforms are +"a "e
P"ili%%ines nee! in or!er o aain s)ccess in "e ransformaion of "e naion. /"ere are as%ecs
o consi!er in aainin' "e c"an'e "a +e +an o "a%%en o ma&e o)r co)nr$ a *eer naion.
8irs off( "e !efiniion an! concenraion of "e mission of c"an'in' for "e *eer an! *e one of
"e *es naions a'ain. /"en( form)laion of com%re"ensi1e 'oals. Afer( "e selecion of o%
%rioriies an! "e crieria o *e )se! o e1al)ae ac"ie1emen. 3asl$( "e )se of fee!*ac&s an!
arran'emen of "e en!=res)ls.
-n "e aricle( Moving Higher Ground: Reforming Politics and lectoral Finance in the
Philippines( i +as ar')e! "a %oliics s"o)l! *e "e mec"anism an! a%%ear o *e a caal$s )se!
o ransform "in's for "e *eer. Also( "a P"ili%%ine !emocrac$ m)s *e recifie! an!
amen!e! *$ reformin' cam%ai'n finance( sren'"enin' an! ransformin' %oliical %aries.
<emocrai4in' %oliical %aries an! enco)ra'in' ci1il socie$. /"e reforms s)c" as "e ones
aforemenione! m)s allo+ for "e %ersisence of lo$al$ an! !isci%line. P"ili%%ine %oliics
s"o)l! *e ransforme! ino a G%oliics of 1ision( i!eals an! i!eas s"o)l! *e insi)e! +"ere
%oliics %aries are or'ani4e! aro)n! a clear %ro'ram of 'o1ernmen an! %oliical %"iloso%"$ an!
no merel$ on "e %ersonaliies "a lea! an! finance "em5 a %oliics of a)onom$ an!
in!e%en!ence s"o)l! *e %romoe! +"ere %olic$=ma&in' an! 'o1ernance is free from "e
infl)ence of 1ese! ineress5 an! %oliics of !ialo')e( consens)s an! colla*oraion +"ere
%oliical lea!ers an! %aries *ecome a1en)es for coo%eraion in form)lain' an! e>ec)in' %)*lic
%olic$ an! "e im%lemenaion of %)*lic %ro'ramsH DMan"i( 2010E. Asi!e from "e %ro*lem
%ose! *$ "e %oliical arena( ine2)ali$ !oes e>is in "e socie$. /"e ?orl! Ban& an! "e Asian
<e1elo%men Ban& *o" recommen!s "a "e P"ili%%ine 'o1ernmen m)s consi!er "e %ro%er
allocaion an! !isri*)ion of reso)rces an! if %ossi*le o 'i1e more o re'ions or %ro1inces "a
nee! "ese reso)rces *a!l$. /"ere s"o)l! *e "e im%lemenaion an! enforcemen of %o1er$
re!)cion. -n "e aricle !he "hallenge that is #ne$ualit%: &ome Propositions for Philippine
'evelopment DMan"i( 2011E( a lis of %ro%osiions +as lai! !o+n an! as follo+sI
• 6C3/CRE O8 JCA3-/K 6-/-ZEN 6ARE
o 6ii4en o 'o1ernmen Dc2'E
ransacion flo+c"ars s"o)l! *e
%rominenl$ !is%la$e! an!
%)*lis"e! o ')i!e cii4ens an! ")s
eliminae "e nee! for Gfi>ersH.
o /"e 'o1ernmen can also faciliae
access o fronline ser1ices "ro)'"
"e iss)ance of a Gcommon access
• ./RENG/#EN-NG 3O6A3
o Promoe s"if from reso)rce
!e%en!enc$ o reso)rce s)fficienc$
in local 'o1ernmens.
o Promoe %arners"i% amon'
a'encies of 'o1ernmens "ro)'" an
assessmen of "e %erformance of
.%ecial 3ocal Bo!ies.
o 8aciliae ca%aci$=*)il!in'.
• ?OR, /O?AR<. 8CR/#ER
o .e=)% informaion an! fee!*ac&
mec"anisms in all 'o1ernmen
o <e1elo% an! %romoe "e )se of
%erformance in!icaors o sren'"en
o <ramaicall$ reali'n *)!'e
e>%en!i)res o %riorii4e "e
!eli1er$ of *asic social ser1ices
+i" s%ecial foc)s on e!)caion(
"eal" care( foo! an! "o)sin'.
o Mo!if$ "e srae'$ an! im%ro1e "e
im%lemenaion of O<A %ro0ecs in
or!er o increase "e reso)rces
a1aila*le o "e co)nr$ for naional
• RE/#-N,-NG AGR-6C3/CRA3
o -n1es more in researc" an!
!e1elo%men DRL<E in *asic foo!
'rains an! fee!s.
o More RL< in1esmens for cro%s
+i" 'oo! e>%or %oenial.
o Allocae a leas 20F of "e %)*lic
e>%en!i)re for a'ric)l)re.
o <e1elo% srae'ic ra!in' an!
fis"in' %ors an! )%'ra!e e>isin'
%ors naion+i!e o "el% faciliae
foo! rans%oraion o +i!er
o <e1elo% more farmer=frien!l$
im%oraion an! ra!e reform
%olicies on rice( corn( s)'ar an!
o Mainain conin)i$ in a'ric)l)ral
%ro'rams *$ a%%oinin' %eo%le +i"
lon'er en)re an! %rofessionali4in'
"e <e%armen of A'ric)l)re D<AE
o ?i!en access of small farmers o
social sec)ri$ %ro'rams.
o <irec 'o1ernmen financial
insi)ions o se=)% inno1ai1e
cre!i faciliies for "e %oor.
EM-./-NG 9OB.
o /)rnin' "e co)nr$ ino ser1ices
%o+er"o)se of AsiaI 'ran fiscal
inceni1es for com%anies "a +o)l!
locall$ !e1elo% *)sinesses "a
mar&e 8ili%ino ser1ices locall$ an!
%ro1i!e meas)res "a +o)l! %a1e
"e +a$ for P"ili%%ines o *ecome
"e B)siness Process O)so)rce
DBPOE #)* of Asia.
o Ens)re 0o* sec)ri$ as a &e$ social
safe$ neI %ro1i!e non=+a'e
*enefis s)c" as rice an! foo!
s)*si!ies o "el% +or&ers co%e +i"
risin' coss an! increase "eir a&e
"ome %a$5 %ro1ision of me!ical
ins)rance o %roec +or&ers:
families from financial !e*iliaion
in "e e1en of !iseases5 an! con!)c
!ialo')es +i" ma0or em%lo$ers an!
la*or 'ro)%s.
o .a1in' o)r .c"oolsI eac"ers m)s
*e moi1ae! o +or& more
effeci1el$5 increase *)!'ear$
allocaions for eac"er rainin' an!
!e1elo%men5 +i%e o) lo'isical
*ac&lo's an! creae a *eer leanin'
en1ironmen *$ esa*lis"in' a one=
ime .%ecial Basic E!)caion 8)n!
o finance s"ora'es5 inno1ae in
%)*lic e!)caion )sin' -nformaion
an! 6omm)nicaion /ec"nolo'$
D-6/E o reac" remoe areas of "e
co)nr$5 %romoe %)*lic=%ri1ae
secion %arners"i% "ro)'" a
re1iali4e! A!o%=a=.c"ool
Pro'ram5 an! %romoe "e
im%lemenaion of A!)l 3ierac$
Pro'rams an! Alernai1e 3eanin'
.$sems for o)=of=sc"ool $o)".
o Affor!a*le an! Accessi*le #eal"
6areI im%ro1e access o 2)ali$ an!
meanin'f)l "eal" ser1ices5 %romoe
"e ine'raion of ra!iional or
alernai1e "eal"care an!
mainsream %rimar$ "eal"care5
craf le'islaion man!ain' "e
<e%armen of #eal" D<O#E o
come o) +i" a %re1eni1e an!
%ersonal "eal" %lan for all c"il!ren
5 $ears ol! an! *elo+5 ens)re lo+=
%rices 2)ali$ me!icine5 an! ens)re
"a emer'enc$ an! s%eciali4e!
me!ical ser1ices are a1aila*le o
• A<EJCA/E .#E3/ER 8OR /#E
o <e1elo% more %arners"i%s +i"
non='o1ernmen a'encies an! creae
s%ecial "o)sin' loan +in!o+s for
"e %oor.
o Re%licae e>isin' *es %racices in
*o" renal "o)sin' an! mass or
sociali4e! "o)sin'.
o <ecenrali4e "o)sin' !eli1er$
o .ricl$ im%lemen "e GBalance!
#o)sin' Pro'ramH )n!er "e Cr*an
<e1elo%men #o)sin' Ac.
Basicall$( +e can sill aler an! s"if "e f))re of "is naion "a is !eclinin' an! f)ll of
!es%air. /"e c"allen'e o P"ili%%ine 'o1ernance is o o1er"a)l an! aler is $%e of 'o1ernance.
Go1ernance( - *elie1e( is a 1ial elemen for an$ co)nr$. /"e firs se% "a "e P"ili%%ines m)s
)n!era&e is "e %a" o ri'" 'o1ernance. Ri'" 'o1ernance( in m$ %ers%eci1e( is "e &in! of
'o1ernance +"ere "ere is f)ll res%ec of ")man ri'"s( effeci1e an! efficien r)le of la+( aci1e
%arici%aion of "e cii4enr$( %arners"i%s amon' 1ario)s secors +i"in "e co)nr$(
rans%arenc$( acco)na*ili$( le'iimac$( em%o+ermen of all( s)saina*ili$ an! 1al)es "a
allo+ for "e %er%e)aion of e2)i$( soli!ari$( res%onsi*ili$ an! alr)ism. Go1ernance reform
can *e consi!ere! as a facor for 'ro+" an! %ro'ress. Once ri'" 'o1ernance "as *een a!o%e!
an! im%lemene! accor!in'l$( lile *$ lile +e can co%e )% an! resol1e "ese com%le> an! man$
%ro*lems. -n a!!iion( "e 8ili%inos s"o)l! also no *e !i1i!e! *) m)s come as one s)c" "a
"ere +ill *e )ni$ in "e e>en)aion of corr)% %oliicians an! 'o1ernmen officials. - "in& "a
"ere is sill a "i'" %ossi*ili$ "a "e P"ili%%ines +ill *e a*le o +al& "ro)'" "e ri'" ro)e or
%a" "a lea!s o %ro'ress an! 'ro+". - can *e seen "a me!ia is foc)se! on s"o+in' "e
'eneral %)*lic a*o) "e +ors "in's "a officials !o an! *o" "e sic&enin' an! 'oo!
!e1elo%mens in "e co)nr$. Also( man$ 8ili%inos "a! *een "onore! inernaionall$ *eca)se of
"eir e>%erise in 1ario)s fiel!s. - also "in& "a "ere are 8ili%inos +"o are silenl$ %arici%ain'
in aci1iies an! %ro'rams "a recreae "e P"ili%%ines o *e a *eer na)re an! "a1e a 'reaer
f))re. None"eless( e>cellence in mo*ili4in' %eo%le o ref)r*is" "e P"ili%%ines 'real$ maers.
/"e P"ili%%ines can *e seen o *e !efeae! an! conin)o)sl$ !eclinin' an! "o%eless( *) once
8ili%inos )nleas" "e %o+er o ransform "e co)nr$( "is %o+er "a can res)rrec an! re1i1e "e
co)nr$( i +ill e2)ae o 1icor$. /"e P"ili%%ines as a *eer naion can *e ma!e a reali$.
Balisacan( A.( L #il( #. DE!s.E. D200NE. !he Philippine conom%: 'evelopment, Policies and
"hallenges D6"a%er 2E. J)e4on 6i$I Aeneo !e Manila Cni1ersi$ Press.
#)c"crof( P. D2007E. Freedom in the (orld) Philippines *+,,-.. ?as"in'on <.6.( C..I
8ree!om #o)se.
#)c"crof( P. D2012E. Freedom in the (orld +,/+: !he 0rab 1prisings and their Global
Repercussions *&elected 'ata from Freedom House2s 0nnual &urve% of Political Rights and
"ivil 3iberties. ?as"in'on <.6.( C...AI 8ree!om #o)se.
,as)$a( K. D2007E. Presidential 4andwagon: Parties and Part% &%stem in the
Philippines D6"a%ers 2( 4 an! 5E. Manila( P"ili%%inesI An1il P)*lis"in' -nc.
,as)$a( K.( L J)im%o( N. DE!s.E. D2010E. !he Politics of "hange in the Philippines. Manila(
P"ili%%ineI An1il P)*lis"in' -nc.
Man"i( V. D2010E. &park: Moving to Higher Ground: Reforming Politics and lectoral Finance
in the Philippines. Ma&ai( P"ili%%inesI .ra*ase Researc" -nsi)e.
Man"i( V. D2011E. &park: !he "hallenge that is #ne$ualit%: &ome Propositions for Philippine
'evelopment. Ma&ai( P"ili%%inesI .ra*ase Researc" -nsi)e.
/rans%arenc$ -nernaional. D2007E. Global "orruption 4arometer: 0ppendi5 0: 0bout the
&urve%. Berlin( German$I /rans%arenc$ -nernaional
CN<P. D2011E. Human 'evelopment Report +,//: &ustainabilit% and $uait%: 0 4etter Future
for 0ll *5planator% note on +,// H'R "omposite #ndices. Ne+ Kor&( C...AI CN<P.
?orl! Ban& -nsi)e. D2011E. (orld(ide Governance #ndicators. ?as"in'on <.6.( C...AI
?orl! Ban& -nsi)e.

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