CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
EXPERIMENTS OF BOLTED COVER PLATE
CONNECTIONS WITH SLOTTED HOLES
FRANTIŠEK WALD, VRATISLAV MAZURA
MATTHIEU MOAL, ZDEN!K SOKOL
Key words: Steel structures, Bolted connections, Slotted holes, Cover plate connections,
Experimental observations, Bolt bearing resistance, Bolt shear resistance, Eurocodes.
The work describes the tests of the bolted connections with slotted holes perpendicular
to the acting force. Two sets of tests simulating behaviour of components of cover plate
connections were carried out in laboratory of Czech Technical University. This paper
summarises these tests with components and results of the tests of TU Nottingham and of
CRIF laboratory, Liege. The results of preliminary statistical calculations made with
Annex Z procedure are presented. The obtained reduction factors applicable to the bearing
resistance of bolted connections are ready to be incorporated into the European design rules.
1. Introduction
The slotted holes are used in bolted connections of steel structures to compensate the
tolerances during the erection. Since the first application of highstrength friction bolts in
1947, the oversize bolt holes 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter have been used for assembly
[Kulak et al, 1987]. Restricting the nominal hole diameter to 2 mm in excess of the nominal
bolt diameter can impose rigid alignment conditions between structural members, particularly
in large joints. The erection problems occur when the holes in the material do not line up
properly. Occasionally, steel fabricators have to preassemble structures to ensure that the
joint will align properly during the erection. With a larger hole size, it is possible to eliminate
the preassembly process and save both time and money. An oversize hole provides the same
clearance in all directions to meet tolerances during erection. However, if an adjustment is
needed in a particular direction, slotted holes are used, as shown in Figure 1. Slotted holes are
identified by their parallel or transverse alignment with respect to the direction of the applied
load. The application of NC cutting machines and the digitalisation of the geometry of
elements bring rather lower tolerances into the production of the structural elements [Kersten,
1997]. This allows use of long slotted holes and slots in inclination at the primary beams and
columns for connection to different endplates of particular crosssections of connected beams.
Deformation of the connection in direction of the slot is prevented by preloading of the bolts.
Smooth tightening of the nonpreloaded bolts reach up to 20% of the tensile resistance of the
bolt and together with the corrosion pretends structural use of the slip in the joint [Bickford,
1995].
The design requirements limit the bolt end and pitch distances. For regular slotted
holes for M16 and M24 bolts, short slotted holes may not be greater than (d + 2) mm by
(d + 6) mm, where d is the nominal bolt diameter in mm. Long slotted holes may not be
greater than: (d + 2) mm by 2,5 d. Extra large slots according to British rules may not be
greater than (d + 2) mm by 3,5 d.
Drilling, punching, or cutting form the holes. Punching of the holes in steelwork is
faster than drilling but cracks may appear in the material. Therefore, the holes are not
punched to full size but 2 mm less in diameter and then reamed. New punching machines,
79
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
which operate at high speeds, induce less distortion in the material, and it is expected that
punching will be used extensively in the future. The punching is approved for material up to
25 mm in thickness provided that the hole diameter is not less than thickness of the material, if
there is no other specification. The burrs should be removed from the holes before the
assembly. It can be omitted when the holes are drilled in one operation through parts clamped
together which would not be separated after drilling. The gas and plasma cutting may also
form the holes. In this case, similarly to fast drilling/punching, influence on material
properties has to be studied experimentally.
Limited knowledge is available about the design of connections with slotted and
oversize holes. Resistance of bolted connections loaded by shear force in plane of the plates
is limited by failure of bolts in shear and in bearing. The same design limits at service limit
state may be applied when high strength friction bolts are preloaded and slip is allowed in
ultimate limit state. When the high strength friction bolts are used and no slip is allowed,
bearing resistance needs to be checked at ultimate limit state to eliminate the end shear
failure. The bearing resistance represents the resistance of internal and external bolts in most
design procedures. Based on experimental evidence, shear and bending type of failure may
be recognised on the bearing failure. The bearing resistance is reduced in case of the slotted
holes. The reduction factor is based on the best engineering practice and few unpublished
tests only. In the European design rules [ENV 199318, 2001], the slotted holes are taken
into consideration by calculation of the slip resistance of preloaded bolts only.
e
4
! 1,5 d
e
3
! 1,5 d
d
0,5 d
0
0
0
0
Figure 1 : Geometry of the slotted hole and the requirements for the end distances
a) b)
Figure 2 : Test arrangements a) and points of measurement b) [Mazura, 2002]
80
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
a) b)
Figure 3 : Bolt bearing failure of component tests [Mazura, 2002], a) shear failure,
b) bending failure
2. Tests with Components
2.1 Main Tasks
Three kinds of tests were carried out in view to determine the bearing resistance, the
deformation stiffness and the ductility. At CRIF, Liege the assemblage with more bolts has
been tested [Piraprez, 2000]. The plates were connected with bolts in each hole of the plate
made by different technology. At University of Nottingham the experiments were carried out
in order to investigate the behaviour of the very long slots in the plate [Tizani, 1999]. At the
Czech Technical University of Prague it was planned to study the plate bearing capacity by
the component method [Wald F., Sokol 1999] and [Mazura et al, 2001]. Thus double cover
plates were used with only one bolt in an internal/external position. The design prediction
model of stiffness and resistance including gap and using component method is under
preparation at Czech Technical University with cooperation of Université B. PASCAL –
Clermont, laboratory LERMESCUST.
The available tests are shown in Tables A1.1, A1.3 and A1.5. The original name of test
specimens is kept in order to refer to the original paper. The bolt diameter, the number of
bolts and the slot length follow the original name to describe the major parameters of tests.
Additional information is included: the bolt presence in the holes, the thickness of the cover
plates t, the slot length and the hole in the internal plate, the joint geometry (e
1
; e
2
; p
1)
, the
method of production of the holes and the threaded or unthreaded part of the bolt in the shear
plane. The measured values are summarized in Tables A1.2, A1.4 and A1.6: the reached
deformation "
exp;ult.
the maximal measured setup resistance, the ratio to the predicted value
with circular hole and the failure mode.
81
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
82
2.2 Test SetUp
3A, 3B, 3C 1A, 1B, 1C
Test 3A161 3d Test 5B1612,5d Test 1A161d+2
5A, 5B, 5C
Tests with the bolts in the external holes were the major tests [Mazura, 2002] and tests
with the bolts in the internal holes complete the observations [Moal, 2001]. The test
arrangements and the points of measurement can be seen at Figure 2. Test machine FPZ 300
with load capacity 300 kN was used for the tests. The geometry is summarized at Figure 4
and Table A1.3, which also include the measured values. The characteristic values are shown
in Figure 4. The bolt bearing failure of the component tests [Mazura, 2002] is described
according to the type of the bearing failure as bending or shear failure [Bijlaard D02, 1989]. It
was observed, that the slotted holes tends to fail in bending failure of the plate, see Figure 3.
Figure 4 : Geometry of the test setup
test 3A1613d, 5B1612,5d and 1A161d+2 [Mazura, 2002]
3B)
3C)
Figure 5 : Bending failure of component test 3B1613 and 3C1613 [Mazura, 2002]
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Displacement, mm
Force, kN
slotted holes,
circular holes,
180
(test 1C  161d+2)
(test 5C  1612,5d)
Figure 6 : Examples of force  displacement diagrams of test with circular holes
(test 1C  161d+2) and slotted holes (test 5C  1612,5d)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 2A  1612,5d
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 2B  1612,5d
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, mm
Force, kN Test 4C  1612,5d
2A, 2B, 4C
dimensions in mm,
slots 2,5 d
Figure 7 : Force  displacement diagram of the tests with repeated loading,
test 2A  1612,5d, 2B  1612,5d, and 4C  1612,5d, [Mazura, 2002]
83
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
2.3 Repeated loading
Three tests specimens were loaded by repeated loading to study the unloading branch
of the forcedisplacement diagram and deformation capacity of the connection. The results
are shown in Figure 7 and Table A1.2. The tests with repeated loading were not included in
the statistical evaluation.
2.4 Material tests
The standard coupon test [EN 10002] were provided for material of the plates. Five
cylinder specimens were prepared from the central plate. The results and the statistical
evaluation are shown in Table A21. The material of the plates has average strength of
424 MPa. Ten cylinder specimens were made from the cover plates, see Table A22, five
specimens located parallel (C1 to C5) and five specimens perpendicular (C6C10) to the
applied force. The average strength of 452 MPa of material of the cover plates was found.
2.6 Stress distribution
The thermal emission measurements are based on temperature changes due to elastic
deformations during one loading cycle. Generally, the temperature change caused by elastic
plastic load cycle is composed of a thermoplastic component, which oscillates during the
loading, and of a component, which is irreversible and cumulative. This component causes
the temperature to rise. The change for uniaxial loading is proportional to hysteresis loop.
The Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission (SPATE) technique utilise measurements of
surface temperature changes during the repeated loading. The SPATE based on this principle
determines linear sum of principal elastic stresses on the surface of the structure. The applied
equipment SPATE – OMETRON, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, with sensitivity of 0,001°K allows to digitalise,
store and process the signal obtained by CCD image sensor with the sensitivity below
0,4 MPa for steel [Drdácký, 2000]. Figure 8 illustrates surface bulk stress distribution in the
cover plate loaded by force 35 kN and was prepared the for comparison to FE simulation.
a) b)
Figure 8 : a) Test setup for measurement of principal stresses on surface by SPATE,
b) surface bulk stress distribution around the hole under loading of 35 kN [Drdácký, 2000]
84
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
3. Evaluation of Resistance
3.1 Test Interpretation
The transfer of the forces by friction may be observed in the first stage of the force 
displacement diagrams, see Figure 9 (first stage) [Kulak et al, 1987]. The friction on surface
of the plates was minimised by lubricant (MoS
2
in oil) and a low level of tightening (torque
10 Nm). In the second stage, the load exceeds the frictional resistance and the joint slips into
bearing. In the third stage, the fasteners and plates deform elastically, and consequently the
load versus deformation relationship remains linear. In the fourth stage, yielding of the
plates, fasteners, or both, occur and results in plate fracture or complete shearing of the bolts.
In most of the tests, these stages may be clearly recognised.
Stage 3
Stage 1
Stage 4
Stage 2
Applied load
Overall alongation
Figure 9 – Typical force  displacement diagram of symmetrical connection
Three basic concepts of evaluation of the resistance may be applied for the tests of
bolted connections. The traditional research work for most codes based on allowable limit
states (British Standards as example) clearly states that for bolts with threads in bearing the
design bearing stresses results in a maximum deformation of 1,5 mm at working load. This
deflection limit for resistance F
exp;1,5
is given in the data, see Tables A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6 in
Appendix A2. In the test specimens the deflection limits correspond to the displacement of
3 mm because of measuring the total deformation.
The ultimate limit of resistance F
exp;ult
represents the maximum force that is transferred
by the connection. The bearing capacity is the limiting design criterion for most of the test
specimens. However, during the tests, most specimens displayed other forms of failure. The
application of ultimate resistance in limit state concept needs to be accompanied by
serviceability limit, which leads to more complex design procedure and therefore a difficult
applicability.
F
Initial stiffness
Initial stiffness / 10
exp
"
exp, ult
F
exp, conv
F
exp; 1,5
F
Figure 10 : Limits of the resistance of joint, deflection limit F
exp;1,5
, ultimate limit F
exp;ult
,
conventional limit F
exp;conv
85
The conventional (elastic) limit of resistance F
exp;conv
is defined as the intersection of
a straight line passing through the origin and having the slope equal to the initial stiffness and
of straight a line having the slope equal to stiffness divided by ten, which is tangent to the
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
plastic yielding part of the curve, see Figure 10. The conventional resistance depends more
on the stiffness of the joint than on the type of failure. The conventional resistance is more
sensitive to the stiffness of the joint than to the type of failure.
Resistance of the connection based on these limits is shown on Figure 11 and is
summarised in Appendix A1, where the failure modes are also included.
0
50
100
150
200
0 5 10 15 20
Displacement, mm
Force, kN
3 mm
exp, ult
F
exp, conv
F
exp; !,5
F
Figure 11 : Determination of the resistance – Test I 13 (16  1  2,5d) [Piraprez, 2000]
3.2 Design model
The bearing resistance is predicted by the simple model [Eurocode 3, 1992] as
Mb
u
Rd . b
t d f 5 , 2
F
#
$
% & , [1]
where " is the smallest of
0 , 1 or
f
f
;
4
1
d 3
p
;
d 3
e
u
ub
o
1
o
1
' . [2]
The partial safety factor #
Mb
is taken equal to 1,00 in order to compare the resistance F
b.Rd
with the tests results. A reduction coefficient for slotted holes is calculated as
Rd . b test
F / F & % [3]
The results of the calculations are given in Annex A2. The comparison between the ultimate
resistances is limited due to different failure modes. The deflection limit 1,5 mm corresponds
to a small deformation at assembly of slotted boltholes. The results confirm the trend that the
longer the slot length, the lower the bearing resistance of the assembly.
For the specimens with short slotted (d+ 6 mm) only two different sets are available.
Their bearing resistance is almost the same as for the normal clearance hole.
The specimens with long slot (2 d and 2,5 d) include holes from d + 6 mm to 2,5 d.
When end and edge distances are respected it appears that a reduction of 30 % is sufficient for
a safe design. The edge distance e
2
(e
4
for slotted hole) influences the bearing resistance of
the plate. This is not taken into consideration in the simple design formulation.
The specimens with very long slot (3,125 d and 3,5 d) have been realised with length
up to 3,5 d. In this case a reduction of 40% of the bearing capacity defined for normal
clearance hole is required.
86
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
4. Statistical evaluation
The Annex Z, see [Bijlaard D02, 1989] and [Eurocode 3/A2, 1998], brings a standard
procedure for determining partial safety factors from the results of tests. The number of test
with slotted holes available is limited to 70. It is a limited number compare to the number of
tests in background documents [Snijder 6.02, 1988], [Snijder 6.04, 1988]. The Annex Z
model allows comparing values of different tests. The variation in the prediction of the
design model is determined from the tests (in term d). This variation is combined with
variations of the other variables in the resistance function, with the variation in material
strength and stiffness and variation in geometrical properties. Not all the variations in
geometrical properties and in strength were available and assumptions have to be made for the
error term. The calculation of the error term is using the data available ([Mazura, 2002] and
[Moal, 2001]) and is extended to all tests.
Two sets of tests made in CRIF with 27 mm bolt diameter were not taken into
consideration. In these experiments, the bolts failed in shear before it was expected. The tests
with repeated loading were also not taken into statistical calculation.
The theoretical resistance r
t.i
= F
b.Rd
was compared to the experimental value r
ei
from the
tests. The points representing pairs of corresponding values (r
ti
, r
ei
) are plotted on Figure 12.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
e
r , kN
t r ,kN
Figure 12 : r
e
– r
t
diagram for a full set of test
The mean value of the correction factor b was estimated as 0,90 & ) r ( b . The coefficient of
variation V
"
of the error in term of " was found at the observed case V . The
compatibility of the test population was analysed for subsets according to the slot length as
shown in Figure 13. Three different assemblies were separated: the specimens with short
slotted (d+ 6 mm) and normal clearance holes, specimens with long slot (between 2 and 2,5d)
and specimens with very long slot (between 3,125 and 3,5 d). The coefficients of variation
V
04 , 0
2
&
"
Xi
of the basic variable were studied for the bearing capacity using three parameters of the
test specimens available in Prague [Mazura et al, 2001]. The same variation was applied to
the other sets. For the thickness t was taken as V
t
= 0,005 ( 0,00, for the ultimate resistance
as V
fu
= 0,02 based on the tensile tests and for the factor $, as V
$
= 0,02.
The characteristic value r
k
of the resistance was predicted with and
for the present sets as
30 n )
64 , 1 u u
, k n , k
& &
*
[4]
2
210 , 0 5 , 0 208 , 0 991 , 0 64 , 1 028 , 0 134 , 0 64 , 1
tm k
e r 9 , 0 r
+ ' + + ' + + '
&
[5]
tm k
r 626 , 0 r &
The design value r
d
for the resistance was obtained from the present set of tests as
. The initial estimation of the partial safety factor is
tm d
r 467 , 0 r & 34 , 1
R
& # . The corrected
partial factor to be used with the nominal resistance function may be obtained from
87
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
14 , 2
r
r
k
d
n
R c
*
R
& & & # # [6]
For the partial safety factor for a plate in bearing 25 , 1
Mb
& # is the coefficient of reduction
58 , 0
14 , 2
25 , 1
*
R
Mb
& & &
#
#
% [7]
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4
r
e
r
t
Bolt size / bolt diametr
Figure 13 : Influence of the slot length in the plate failure
The subsets were analysed using the same standard procedure with limited number of
tests. The results are summarised in Table 1. The coefficient 0,93 for normal clearance and
short slotted holes belong to the accuracy of the method and the small number of tests. This
coefficient is influenced by the determination of the resistance.
The % coefficient for the full set is below the % coefficient for very long slot due to
small variation. The factor introduces higher errors, which are responsible for this low
variation of the reduction factor %. The variation underlines the importance of division of the
set into three subsets in order to predict more accurate results.
Table 1 – Application of Annex Z on different subsets
Normal and
Set All test specimens
short slotted holes
Long slotted holes Very long slotted holes
From d + 2 mm d + 2 mm 2 d 3,125 d
To 3,5 d d + 6 mm 2,5 d 3,5 d
Number of test 61 15 39 7
#
R
* 2,14 1,34 1,76 2,05
% 0,58 0,93 0,71 0,61
Conclusions
Two set of tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of bolted joints with
slotted holes loaded perpendicular to the slot. These tests were prepared for application of the
component method to predict the resistance, stiffness and deformation capacity of connection
with more bolt rows.
The results highlight the limits of information concerning the bolts into regular
circular holes. The material quality and its variation, the technology of holes production and
88
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
numerical management of the production tools is different compared to the older tests
available as background of today’s design rules and structural recommendations.
Three sets of tests were analysed by statistical calculation made according to Annex Z
procedure [Eurocode 3/A2, 1998]. The findings are limited due to the small number of the
tests results available. The presented tests show small (reduction factor % = 0,9) reduction in
prediction of the bearing resistance of the short slotted holes (length up to d + 6 mm) compare
to the circular holes. The reduction of 30% (reduction factor % = 0,7) is recommended for
slotted holes with length up to 2,5 d and 40% (reduction factor % = 0,6) up to 3,5 d.
It is recommended to incorporate the edge distance e
2
into the design model to
improve the prediction accuracy.
Further set of tests and analytical prediction models by the component method will
bring better understanding of the influence of the tolerances in the cover plate joints.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank colleagues Mr. E. Piraprez, CRIF Liege and Mr. W. Tizani,
TU Nottingham for help and cooperation. This research has been supported by grant
COST C12 and by grant J0198:210000004 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.
References
[Bickford, 1995] Bickford J.H. (1995) An introduction to the design and behaviour of bolted
joints, third edition, Marcel Decker Inc., New York, ISBN 0824792971.
[Bijlaard D02, 1989] Bijlaard F.S.K., Sedlacek G., Stark J.W.B. (1989) Statistical evaluations
of the results bolted connections, Background documentation, D.02, Delft.
[Bijlaard, 1989] Bijlaard F.S.K., Sedlacek G., Stark J.W.B. (1988) Procedure for the
determination of design resistance from tests, Background report to Eurocode 3, BI
87112, Delft.
[Eurocode 3, 1992] ENV  199311 (1992) Design of Steel Structures  General rules and
roles for buildings, European Prenorm, CEN, Brussels.
[Eurocode 3/A2, 1998] ENV  199311/A2 (1998) Design of Steel Structures  General rules
and roles for buildings, Annex Z, CEN, Brussels.
[EN 10002] EN 100021 (1990) Metallic materials, Tensile testing. Part 1: Method of testing
(at ambient temperature), CEN, Brussels.
[Drdácký, 2000] Drdácký M. (2000) Problems of Experimental research of Semirigid Joints
and Structures, in Semirigid Joints in Metal and Composite Structures, ed. Gizejovski
M.A., Warsaw, pp. 2748, ISBN 8390808315.
[Jaspart J.P., 1997] Jaspart J.P. (1997) Recent advances in the field of steel joints – Column
bases and further configurations for Beamto Column Joints and Beam Splices, Thesis,
Université de Liège.
[Kersten, 1997] Kersten O. (1997) Zum LastVerschiebungsVerhalten geschraubter Scher
Lochleibungs (SL) Verbindungen im Stahlbau unter statischer Belastung.
Dissertation, TU HamburgNamburg, Hamburg, p. 111.
[Kulak et al, 1987] Kulak G., Fisher J.W., Struik J.H.A. (1987) Guide to Design Criteria for
Bolted and Riveted Joints, Second Edition, Wiley, New York.
[Kulak et al, 1980] Kulak G., Wens G.W., Hargreaves, A.C. (1980) Bearing Stresses in
Connections using Grade 8.8 Bolts – Stage 2, Imperial College, Report BC6.
89
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
[Mazura et al, 2001] Mazura V., Wald F., Sokol Z (2001) Slotted Holes in Structural Bolted
Connections, CTU Reports, CVUT, Praha, pp. 880 – 881, ISBN 8001023354.
[Mazura, 2002] Mazura V. (2002) Slotted Holes in Structural Bolted Connections, PhD.
thesis, CVUT, Praha, p. 165.
[Moal, 2001] Moal M. (2001) Assemblages avec trous oblongs et boulons nonprecontraints,
Diploma theses, CUST, Départment Génie Civil, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont
Ferrand, p. 101.
[Piraprez, 2000] Piraprez E. (2000) Behavior of plates with slotted holes – CRIF Belgium,
Proceeding of International Conference on Steel Structures of the 2000’s, IABCE,
Istanbul.
[Snijder 6.02, 1988] Snijder H. H., Ungerman D., Stark J.W.B., Sedlacek G., Bijlaard F.S.K.,
HemmertHalswick A. (1988) Evaluation of test results on bolted connections in order
to obtain strength functions and suitable model factors, Part B: Evaluation,
Background documentation, 6.02, BI88087, Delft.
[Snijder 6.04, 1988] Snijder H. H., Bijlaard F.S.K., Stark J.W.B. (1988) Comparison of bolt
strength according to Eurocode 3 with bolt strength according to national codes, Part
A Results, Background documentation, 6.04, BI89152, Delft.
[Tizani, 1999] Tizani W. (1999) The bearing capacity of plates made with longslotted bolt
holes, Internal copy, University of Nottingham.
[Wald, Sokol, 1999] Wald F., Sokol Z. (1999) Connection design, in Czech, Navrhování
Sty#ník$, %VUT, Praha.
LIST OF SYMBOLS
The Eurocode [1] system of symbols is applied in the work:
b
mean value due to the correction factor
d, d
exp
bolt diameter, nominal and measured value (average of two measurements)
d
o
, d
0.exp
bolt hole diameter, characteristic and measured value
e
1
, e
1.exp
end distance, characteristic and measured value
e
2
, e
2.exp
edge distance, characteristic and measured value
f
u
ultimate strength of the structural steel
f
ub
ultimate strength of the bolt material
F
v,Rd
design bearing resistance
p
1
spacing between centres of fasteners in the direction of load
p
2
spacing between row of fasteners measured perpendicular to the direction of load
r
e
experimental resistance
r
t
theoretical resistance
t, t
exp
thickness of plate, characteristic and measured value
A crosssection of the shank of a bolt
A
s
net crosssection of a bolt
V
"
coefficient of variation
$ reduction factor for the bolt in shear
% reduction factor due to the slotted hole
#
Mb
partial safety factor for bolted connections
#
M
*
modified model factor
, variance of the term 
,

2
standard deviation
90
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
APPENDIX A1
TESTS RESULTS
Table A1.1 : Description of tests with long slots, [Tizani, 1999]
Test d  n bolt Bolt presence t Slot length Int. hole e
1
e
2
p
1
Holes Bolts
 hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm
S11
S12 201d+2
S13
single hole 10 22 (d+2) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S21
S22 201d+6
S23
single hole 10 26 (d+6) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S31
S32 2012,5d
S33
single hole 10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S41
S42 2013,5d
S43
single hole 10 70 (3,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 27,5 N dr th
S111
S112 201d+2
S113
single hole 10 22 (d+2) 22 (d+2) 31 40 N dr th
S121
S122 2012,5d
S123
single hole 10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 40 N dr th
S5b1
S5b2 202d+6
S5b3
all holes
with bolts
10 26 (d+6) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S6b1
S6b2 2022,5d
S6b3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S7b1
S7b2 2023,5d
S7b3
all holes
with bolts
10 70 (3,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 50 dr th
S9b1
S9b2 2022,5d
S9b3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 31 66 70 dr th
S10b1
S10b2 2022,5d
S10b3
all holes
with bolts
10 50 (2,5d) 22 (d+2) 40 66 70 dr th
Notes: Holes: dr– drilling,
Bolts: th – threaded part
91
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
Table A1.2 : Results of tests with long slots, [Tizani, 1999]
Test d  n bolt "
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5mm
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
 hole size mm kN kN kN mode
S11 7,61 141 1,33 68 0,65 119 1,13 bolt shear
S12 201d+2 5,64 142 1,34 1,34 85 0,80 0,69 124 1,17 1,16 bolt shear
S13 7,30 143 1,35 64 0,61 124 1,17 bolt shear
S21 7,52 138 1,31 52 0,49 125 1,18 bolt shear
S22 201d+6 5,69 139 1,32 1,30 48 0,45 0,45 134 1,27 1,22 bolt shear
S23 6,06 134 1,26 44 0,42 129 1,22 bearing
S31 6,51 99 0,94 43 0,41 90 0,85 bearing
S32 2012,5d 5,49 95 0,90 0,92 41 0,39 0,40 89 0,84 0,85 bearing
S33 5,98 98 0,92 44 0,42 90 0,85 bearing
S41 5,27 76 0,72 42 0,40 69 0,65 bearing
S42 2013,5d 5,24 76 0,72 0,72 44 0,42 0,40 68 0,65 0,65 bearing
S43 5,71 78 0,73 41 0,38 70 0,66 bolt shear
S111 6,52 145 1,37 72 0,68 127 1,20 bolt shear
S112 201d+2 5,35 145 1,37 1,38 73 0,69 0,67 131 1,24 1,23 bolt shear
S113 6,25 147 1,39 67 0,63 132 1,25 bearing
S121 4,55 93 0,88 44 0,41 88 0,83 bearing
S122 2012,5d 8,75 121 1,14 0,98 36 0,34 0,37 111 1,05 0,92 bearing
S123 5,95 99 0,93 38 0,36 92 0,87 bearing
S5b1 5,89 260 1,21 97 0,45 239 1,11 bearing
S5b2 202d+6 6,11 271 1,28 1,25 99 0,47 0,46 252 1,19 1,17 bearing
S5b3 5,47 264 1,25 95 0,45 253 1,20 end bolt shear
S6b1 5,60 220 1,02 70 0,33 212 0,99 end bolt shear
S6b2 2022,5d 6,02 225 1,07 1,05 71 0,34 0,33 217 1,02 1,01 end bolt shear
S6b3 5,41 223 1,06 68 0,32 218 1,03 inner bolt shear
S7b1 4,71 194 0,90 73 0,34 187 0,87 inner bolt shear
S7b2 2023,5d 5,89 205 0,97 0,93 65 0,31 0,32 196 0,92 0,89 inner bolt shear
S7b3 5,33 191 0,91 66 0,31 184 0,87 inner bolt shear
S9b1 4,23 220 1,02 88 0,41 221 1,03 inner bolt shear
S9b2 2022,5d 5,96 247 1,15 1,08 79 0,38 0,40 238 1,12 1,07 inner bolt shear
S9b3 4,29 227 1,06 88 0,42 223 1,06 inner bolt shear
S10b1 6,29 235 0,85 84 0,30 223 0,81 inner bolt shear
S10b2 2022,5d 6,74 250 0,90 0,88 77 0,28 0,29 238 0,87 0,84 inner bolt shear
S10b3 6,27 243 0,88 77 0,28 233 0,85 inner bolt shear
92
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
Table A1.3 : Description of component tests, [Mazura, 2002], [Moal, 2001]
Test d  n bolt Bolt position t
k
t
exp
Slot length d
exp
d
0.exp
e
1.k
e
1.exp
e
2.k
e
2.exp
p
1.k
p
1.exp
H B
hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
1A 8,01 15,78 18,04 25,01 40,01 50,01
1B 161d+2 8,03 15,75 18,07 25,01 39,98 50,01
1C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
18 (d+2)
15,76 18,05
25
25,01
40
40,02
50
49,99
dr th
3A 8,02 15,75 18,09 25,01 34,05 50,01
3B 1613d 8,01 15,75 18,04 24,95 34,02 50,01
3C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
50 (3,125d)
15,76 18,08
25
24,95
34
34,02
50
49,97
dr th
5A 8,02 15,77 18,09 25,01 29,00 50,01
5B 1612,5d 8,01 15,75 18,09 24,95 29,01 49,99
5C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,02
40 (2,5d)
15,76 18,09
25
24,95
29
28,99
50
49,98
dr th
I11 8,01 15,76 18,03 25,01 29,01 49,99
I12 1612,5d 8,01 15,75 18,04 24,95 29,01 50,01
I13
internal
(external hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
40 (2,5d)
15,76 18,08
25
25,01
29
29,02
50
50,01
dr th
I21 1613d 8 8,05 50 (3,125d) 15,75 18,02 25 24,95 34 33,97 50 50,01 dr th
2A 8,01 15,75 18,01 25,01 29,01 50,01
2B 1612,5d 8,00 15,76 18,05 24,98 29,02 49,99
4C
external
(internal hole
without bolt)
8
8,01
40 (2,5d)
15,75 18,05
25
25,01
29
29,00
50
50,00
dr th
Notes: H holes: dr – drilling,
B bolts: th – threaded part
Table A1.4 : Results of component tests, [Mazura, 2002], [Moal, 2001]
93
Test
Int. bolt
hole
"
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5mm
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
mm mm kN kN kN mode
1A 12,66 170 1,27 106 0,79 137 1,02 plate shear
1B 18 (d+2) 12,31 175 1,31 1,31 113 0,84 0,83 130 0,97 0,99 plate shear
1C 14,42 180 1,34 114 0,85 130 0,97 plate shear
3A 36,64 138 1,03 55 0,41 89 0,66 plate bend.
3B 18 (d+2) 37,17 125 0,93 0,96 56 0,42 0,41 80 0,60 0,63 plate bend.
3C 33,93 124 0,93 54 0,40 83 0,62 plate bend.
5A 32,82 148 1,10 60 0,45 98 0,73 plate bend.
5B 18 (d+2) 32,39 151 1,13 1,12 60 0,45 0,45 99 0,74 0,74 plate bend.
5C 34,79 150 1,12 59 0,44 101 0,75 plate bend.
I11 16,00 185 0,94 66 0,34 146 0,74 bolt shear
I12 18 (d+2) 12,92 187 0,96 0,95 85 0,43 0,42 145 0,74 0,74 bolt shear
I13 15,36 185 0,94 95 0,49 143 0,73 bolt shear
I21 18 (d+2) 17,42 180 0,92 0,92 99 0,51 0,51 122 0,63 0,63 bolt shear
2A 37,06 150 1,11 52 0,39 105 0,78 plate bend.
2B 18 (d+2) 28,88 148 1,10 1,08 53 0,39 0,38 99 0,74 0,74 plate bend.
4C 31,49 140 1,04 49 0,36 96 0,71 plate bend.
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
Table A1.5 : Description of component tests, [Piraprez, 2000]
Test d  n bolt Position t
Slot
length
Int. bolt
hole
e
1
e
2
p
1
Holes Bolts
 hole size mm mm mm mm mm mm
25
26 1622d
27
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 N dr fb
28
29 2722d
30
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 N dr fb
31
32 1662d
33
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 40 dr fb
34
35 2762d
36
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 70 dr fb
37
38 1622d
39
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 N gc fb
40
41 2722d
42
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 N gc fb
43
44 1662d
45
all with bolts 30 32 (2d) 18 (d+2) 32 (2d) 93 40 gc fb
46
47 2762d
48
all with bolts 30 54 (2d) 30 (d+3) 54 (2d) 73,5 70 gc fb
Notes: Holes: gc – gas cutting,
Bolts: fb – full body
94
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
Table A1.6 : Results of assembly tests, [Piraprez, 2000]
Test d  n bolt "
exp;ult
F
exp;ult
%
ult
F
exp;1,5
%
1,5
F
exp;conv
%
conv
Failure
 hole size mm kN kN kN mode
25  612 1,15 320 0,60 440 0,83
26 1622d 52,88 642 1,11 1,13 211 0,36 0,42 417 0,72 0,79 bearing
27 54,44 649 1,12 165 0,29 475 0,82
28 70,91 1319 1,44 240 0,26 911 1,00
29 2722d 66,82 1309 1,32 1,35 248 0,25 0,25 917 0,92 0,94 bearing
30 61,37 1268 1,28 244 0,25 906 0,91
31 43,12 1626 1,23 500 0,38 1119 0,84
32 1662d 41,09 1625 1,13 1,15 490 0,34 0,35 1144 0,79 0,80 bearing
33 36,88 1595 1,11 500 0,35 1117 0,77
34 97,06 2124 0,88 580 0,24 1533 0,63
35 2762d 79,31 2026 0,77 0,84 610 0,23 0,24 1511 0,57 0,60 bolt shear
36 91,86 2305 0,88    
37 42,96 530 1,00 160 0,30 389 0,73 bearing
38 1622d 42,15 532 0,92 0,94 150 0,26 0,25 389 0,67 0,73
39  529 0,91 118 0,20 449 0,78
40 55,06 966 1,06 186 0,20 750 0,82
41 2722d 68,11 1002 1,01 1,03 182 0,18 0,20 736 0,74 0,78 bearing
42 56,09 1002 1,01 198 0,20 777 0,78
43 26,97 1430 1,08 270 0,20 1306 0,98
44 1662d 29,31 1466 1,02 1,04 260 0,18 0,19 1353 0,94 0,94 bearing
45 34,25 1497 1,04 285 0,20 1308 0,91
46 75,59 2180 0,90 300 0,12 1622 0,67
47 2762d 120,87 2480 0,94 0,92 320 0,12 0,12 1600 0,61 0,64 bolt shear
48 113,11 2441 0,93 300 0,11 1690 0,64
95
¨
CTU Reports, Vol. 6, 2/2002 Praha, ISBN 8001025268
APPENDIX A2
TESTS RESULTS OF MATERIAL
The standard coupon test results are summarized in Tables A2.1 and A2.2 below. The relative
elongation was calculated as
A = [(L
u
 L
0
) / L
0
]*100 % , (A2.1)
where L
u
is the coupon final length and L
0
is the coupon initial length. The contraction was
evaluated based on expression
Z = [(A
u
 A
0
) / A
0
]*100 % , (A2.2)
where A
u
is the coupon final crosssection area and A
0
is the coupon initial area. Evaluation of
the characteristic values of the stress – strain diagram was based on Tdistribution of the
values under 5% quantile for a small number of data as
x = .
i
(f
ui
) / n , (A2.3)
R = max [f
ui
]  min[f
ui
] , (A2.4)
f
k
= x  !
t
R(i) , (A2.5)
where n is number of tests, f
ui
is the measured value of resistance,
!
t
is the probability factor
for the T distribution, (for three tests !
t5
= 0,328, !
t10
= 0,315).
Table A2.1 : Coupon test of the central plate
No. d
0
L
0
A
0
d
u
L
u
A
u
F
eH
F
m
R
eH
R
m
A
Z
mm mm mm
2
mm mm mm
2
kN kN MPa MPa % %
M1 6,05 30,00 28,75 3,80 41,80 11,34 6,85 12,00 238 417 39,33 60,55
M2 5,85 30,00 26,88 3,60 40,10 10,18 6,52 11,41 243 424 33,67 62,13
M3 5,95 30,00 27,81 3,70 39,40 10,75 6,83 12,08 246 434 31,33 61,34
M4 5,75 30,00 25,97 3,45 40,50 9,35 6,37 11,12 245 428 35,00 64,00
M5 5,90 30,00 27,34 3,65 40,10 10,46 6,50 11,34 238 415 33,67 61,73
x 242 424 35 62
R 8 19
f
k
239 417
Table A2.2 : Coupon test of the cover plate
No.
d
0
L
0
A
0
d
u
L
u
A
u
F
eH
F
m
R
eH
R
m
A
Z
mm mm mm
2
mm mm mm
2
kN kN MPa MPa % %
C1 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,80 5,11 4,18 5,65 333 449 34,00 59,37
C2 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,70 26,30 5,73 3,90 5,85 310 465 31,50 54,45
C3 3,80 20,00 11,34 2,70 * 5,73 3,45 5,12 304 451 * 49,51
C4 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,60 26,40 5,31 3,65 5,37 314 461 32,00 54,39
C5 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,50 5,11 4,12 5,64 328 449 32,50 59,37
C6 3,95 20,00 12,25 2,60 25,80 5,31 3,65 5,45 298 445 29,00 56,66
C7 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 27,10 5,11 3,98 5,70 317 453 35,50 59,37
C8 4,00 20,00 12,57 2,55 26,30 5,11 3,95 5,45 314 434 31,50 59,37
C9 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,60 25,60 5,31 3,45 5,37 296 461 28,00 54,39
C10 3,85 20,00 11,64 2,55 25,50 5,11 3,50 5,27 301 453 27,50 56,12
x 312 452 33 58
R 37 31
f
k
300 442
* outside of the measured reference length
96