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# SYSTEMS OF FORCES

FORCES
Statics is the study of rigid bodies that are stationary. To be stationary, a rigid body must
be in equilibrium. In the language of statics, a stationary rigid body has no unbalanced
forces acting on it.
Force is a push or a pull that one body exerts on another, including gravitational,
electrostatic magnetic and constant influences. Force is a vector quantity, having a
magnitude, direction, and point of application.
Strictly speaking, actions of other bodies on a rigid body are known as external forces. If
unbalanced, an external force will cause motion of the body. Internal forces are the
forces that hold together parts of a rigid body. lthough internal forces can cause
deformation of a body, motion is never caused by internal forces.
Forces are frequently represented in terms of unit vectors and force components. unit
vector is a vector of unit length directed along a coordinate axis. !nit vectors are used in
vector equations to indicate direction without affecting magnitude. In the rectangular
coordinate system, there are three unit vectors, i, ", and k.
In two dimensions,
j F i F F
y x
+ =
#Two\$dimensional%

Resultant
The resultant, or sum, of n two\$dimensional forces is equal to the sum of the components.

+

=
= =
n
i
i y
n
i
i x
F j F i F
&
,
&
,
#two\$dimensional%
The magnitude of the resultant is
( ) ( )
'
&
,
'
&
,

+

=
= =
n
i
i y
n
i
i x
F F R
The direction of the resultant is

=
=
= −
n
i
i x
n
i
i y
F
F
&
,
&
,
&
tan θ
Resolution of a Force
The components of a two\$ or three\$dimensional force can be found from its direction
cosines, the cosines of the true angles made by the force vector with the x\$, y\$, and (\$
axes.
x x
F F θ cos =
y y
F F θ cos =

z z
F F θ cos =

Moments
Moment is the name given to the tendency of a force to rotate, turn or twist a rigid body
about an actual or assumed pivot point.
)owever rotation is not required for the moment to exist. *hen a restrained body is acted
upon by a moment, there is no rotation.
+oments have primary dimensions of length
×
force.
Typical units are foot\$pounds, inch\$pounds, and ,ewton\$meters.
+oments are vectors. The moment vector, +o, for a force about a point - is the cross
product of the force, F, and the vector from point - to the point of application of the
force, known as the position vector, r. The scalar product
θ sin r
is known as the moment
arm, d.
F r M
O
× =
F d F r M M
O O
= = = θ sin % &./ #

≤ θ
Righthand rule0 1lace the position and force vectors tail to tail. 2lose your right hand
and position over the pivot point. 3otate the position vector into the force vector and
position your hand such that your fingers curl in the same direction as the position vector
rotates. 4our extended thumb will coincide with the direction of the moment.
The direction cosines of a force can be used to determine the components of the moment
about the coordinate axes.
x x
M M θ cos =
y y
M M θ cos =
z z
M M θ cos =
lternately, the following three equations can be used to determine the components of the
moment from the component of a force applied at point 5x, y, (6 referenced to an origin at
5/,/,/6.
y z x
zF yF M − =
7&.&7
z x y
xF zF M − =
7&.&8
x y z
yF xF M − =
7&.&9
The resultant moment magnitude can be reconstituted from its components.

' ' '
z y x
M M M M + + =
7&.&:
Couples
ny point of equal opposite, and parallel forces constitute a couple. couple is
equivalent to a single moment vector. Since the two forces are opposite in sign, the x\$, y\$,
(\$components of the forces cancel out. Therefore, a body is induced to rotate without
translation. couple can be counteracted only by another couple. couple can be moved
to any location without affecting the equilibrium requirements. 5Such a moment is known
as a free moment! moment of a couple! or coupling moment."
In Fig. 7&.7, the equal but opposite forces produce a moment vector O
M
of magnitude d
F
.
The two forces can be replaced by this moment vector that can be moved to any location
on a body.
d O
F rF M = = θ sin '
The combination of the moved force and the couple is known as a forcecouple system.
lternately, a force\$couple system can be replaced by a single force located a distance
F M d ; =
away.
SYSTEMS OF FORCES
ny collection of forces and moments in three\$dimensional space is statically equivalent
to a single resultant force vector plus a single resultant moment vector. 5<ither or both of
these resultants can be (ero.6
The x\$, y\$, and (\$components of the resultant force are the sums of the x\$, y\$, and (\$
components of the individual forces, respectively.
∑ =
n
F R
∑ ∑
+

+ =
= = =
n
i
i z
n
i
i y
n
i
i x
F # F j F i
&
,
&
,
&
,
#Three\$dimensional%
The resultant moment vector is more complex. It includes the moments of all system
forces around the references axes plus the components of all system moments.
∑ =
n
M M
( ) ∑ ∑ + − =
i i
x y x x
i M i zF yF M θ cos 6 5
( ) ∑ ∑ + − =
i i
y z x y
i M i xF zF M θ cos 6 5
( ) ∑ ∑ + − =
i i
z x y z
i M i yF xF M θ cos 6 5
Equilibrium Requirements
n ob"ect is static when it is stationary. To be stationary, all of the forces on the ob"ect
must be in equilibrium. For an ob"ect to be in equilibrium, the resultant force and moment
vectors must be both be (ero.
3=/
/
' ' '
= + + =
z y x
R R R R
+=/
/
' ' '
= + + =
z y x
M M M M
7&.':
Since the square of any non\$(ero quantity is positive, <qs. 7&.'> through 7&.7' follow
directly from <qs. 7&.'7 through 7&.':.
/ =
x
R
/ =
y
R
/ =
z
R
/ =
x
M
/ =
y
M
/ =
z
M
Concurrent Forces
concurrent force system is a category of force systems wherein all of the forces act at
the same point.
If the forces on a body are all concurrent forces, then only force equilibrium is necessary
to ensure complete equilibrium. In two dimensions,
/ = ∑
x
F
/ = ∑
y
F
In three dimensions,
/ = ∑
x
F
/ = ∑
y
F
/ = ∑
z
F

PROBLEMS-SOLV!" #PPRO#C\$ES
%eterminac&
*hen the equations of equilibrium are independent, a rigid body force system is said to
be statically determinate. statically determinate system can be solved for all unknowns,
which are usually reactions supporting the body. <xamples of determinate beam types are
illustrated in Fig 7&.8.
Free-Bo'& %ia(rams
freebody diagram is a representation of a body in equilibrium, showing all applied
forces, moment, and reactions.
Reactions
The first step in solving most statics problems, after drawing the free\$body diagram, is to
determine the reaction forces 5i.e.! the reactions6 supporting the body.

1rocedure for determining the forces0
The procedure for finding determinate reactions in two\$dimensional problems is
straightforward. ?eterminate structures will have either a roller support and pinned
support or two roller supports.
Step &0 <stablish a convenient set of coordinate axes. 5To simplify the analysis, one of the
coordinate directions should coincide with the direction of the forces and reactions.6
Step '0 ?raw the free\$body diagram.
Step 70 3esolve the reaction at the pinned support 5if any6 into components normal and
parallel to the coordinate axes
Step 80 <stablish a positive direction of rotation 5e.g., clockwise6 for purposes of taking
the moments.
Step 90 *rite the equilibrium equation for moments about the pinned connection.
Step :0 write the equilibrium equation for the forces in the vertical direction. !sually, this
<quation will have two unknown vertical reactions.
Step >0 Substitute the known vertical reaction from step9 into the equilibrium equation
from step:. This will determine the second vertical reaction.
Step .0 *rite the equilibrium equation for the forces at the hori(ontal direction.
Step @0 If necessary, combine the vertical and hori(ontal force components at the pinned
connection into a resultant reaction.
TR)SSES
ST#TC#LLY %ETERM!#TE TR)SSES
truss or frame is a set of pin\$connected axial members \$i.e.! t%oforce members".
structural cell consists of all members in a closed loop of members. For the truss to be
stable 5i.e., to be a rigid truss6, all of the structural cells must be triangular.
&russ loads are considered to act only in the plane of a truss. Therefore, trusses are
analy(ed as two\$dimensional structures. Forces in truss members hold the various truss
parts together and are known as internal forces. The internal forces are found by drawing
free\$body diagrams.
lthough free\$body diagrams of truss members can be drawn, this is not usually done.
Instead, free\$body diagrams of the pins. 5i.e., the "oints6 are drawn. pin in compression
will be shown with force arrows pointing toward the pin, away from the member.
Similarly a pin in tension will be shown with force arrows pointing away from the pin,
toward the member.
*ith typical bridge trusses supported at the ends and loaded downward at the "oints, the
upper chords are almost always in compression, and the end panels and lower chords are
almost always in tension.
Since truss members are axial members, the forces on the truss "oints are concurrent
forces. Therefore, only force equilibrium needs to be enforced at each pin0 the sum of the
forces in each of the coordinate directions equals to (ero.
Forces in truss members can sometimes be determined by inspection. -ne of these cases
is a zeroforce member. third member framing into a "oint already connecting two
collinear members carries no internal force unless there is a load applied at that "oint.
Similarly, both members forming an apex of the truss are (ero\$force members unless
there is a load applied at the apex.
If the left\$hand side of <q. 7'.& is greater than the right hand side 5i.e., there are
redundant members6, the truss is statically indeterminate. If the left\$hand side is less than
the right\$hand side, the truss is unstable and will collapse under certain types of loading.
Met*o's of +oints
The method of joints is one of the methods that can be used to find the internal forces in
each truss member. This method is useful when most or all of the truss member forces are
to be calculated. Aecause this method advances from "oint to ad"acent "oint. It is
inconvenient when a single isolated member force is to be calculated.
Met*o' of Sections
The method of sections is a direct approach to finding forces in any truss member. This
method is convenient when only a few truss member forces are unknown.
s with previous method, the first step is to find the support reactions. Then a cut is made
through the truss, passing through the unknown member. 5Bnowing where to cut the truss
is the key part of this method. Such knowledge is developed only by repeated practice.6
Finally, all three conditions of equilibrium are applied as needed to the remaining truss
portion. Since there are three equilibrium equations, the cut cannot pass through more
than three members in which the forces are unknown.

P)LLEYS, C#BLES, #!% FRCTO!
P)LLEYS
pulley 5also known as a sheave6 is used to change the direction of an applied tensile
force. series of pulleys working together 5known as a bloc# and tac#le6 can also
If the pulley is attached by a bracket to a fixed location, it is said to be a fixed pulley. If
the pulley is attached to a load, or if the pulley is free to move, it is known as a free
pulley.
+ost simple problems disregard friction and assume that all ropes 5fiber ropes, wire
ropes, chains, belts, etc.6 are parallel. In such cases, the pulley advantage is equal to the
number of ropes coming to and going from the load\$carrying pulley. The diameters of the
pulleys are not factors in calculating the pulley advantage.
C#BLES
n ideal cable is assumed to be completely flexible, massless, and incapable of
elongationC therefore, it acts as an axial tension member between points of concentrated
loading. In fact, the term tension or tensile force is commonly used in place of member
force in dealing with cables.
FRCTO!
Friction is a force that always resists motion or impending motion. It always acts parallel
to the contacting surfaces. The friction force, F, exerted on a stationary body is known as
static friction! coulomb friction! and fluid friction. If the body is moving, the friction is
known as dynamic friction and is less than the static friction.
The actual magnitude of the frictional force depends on the normal force, ,, and the
coefficient of friction,
µ
, between the body and the surface.
' F µ =
For a body resting on a hori(ontal surface, the normal force is the weight of the body.

mg ' =
#SI%
c
g
mg
' =
#!.S%
If the body rests on a plane inclined at an angle
φ
from the hori(ontal, the normal force is

φ cos mg ' =
#SI%
c
g
mg
'
φ cos
=
#!.S%
Belt Friction
Friction between a belt, rope or band wrapped around a pulley or sheave is responsible
for the transfer of torque. <xcept when stationary, one step of the belt 5the tight side6 will
have a higher tension than the other 5the slack side6. The basic relationship between the
belt tensions and the coefficient of friction neglects the centrifugal effects and is given by
<q. 77.8. &
F
is the tension on the tight side 5direction of movement60 '
F
is the tension on
the other side. The angle of %rap
θ
must be expressed in radians.
µθ
e F F
' &
=
77.8
The net transmitted torque is

r F F & 6 5
' &
− =
77.9
The power transmitted to a belt running at tangential velocity t
(
is
t
( F F ) 6 5
' &
− =
77.:
-. Centroi's an' Moments of nertia
CE!TRO%
2entroids of continuous functions can be found by the methods of integral calculus. For
most <ngineering applications, though, the functions to be integrated are regular shapes,
such as the rectangular, circular, or composite rectangular shapes of beams.
First Moment
The quantity ∫
xd*
is known as the first moment of the area or first area moment with respect
to the y\$axis. Similarly, ∫
yd*
is known as the first moment of the area with respect to the x\$
axis. For regular shapes with areas n
*
,
∫ ∑ = =
n n c y
* x xd* M
,
∫ ∑ = =
n n c x
* y yd* M
,
The two primary applications of the first moment are determining centroidal locations
and shear stress distributions. In the latter application, the first moment of the area is
known as the statical moment.
Centroi' of a Line
The location of the centroid of a line is defined by <qs. Aelow0
For a composite line
of total length

=
n
+ +
,
+
+ x
+
xd+
x
n n
c

=

=

+
+ x
+
xd+
x
n n
c

=

=
Centroi' of an #rea
The centroid of an area is often described as the point at which a thin homogeneous plate
would balance. This definition, however, combines the definitions of centroid and center
of gravity is required to identify the centroid, which is not true. ,onetheless, this
definition provides some intuitive understanding of the centroid.
The location of the centroid of an area depends only on the geometry of the area, and it is
identified by the coordinates
( )
c c
y x ,
. For a composite area with total area given by

=
n
* *
,
*
M
*
* x
*
xd*
x
x n n c
c
=

=

=
,
+
+ y
+
yd+
y
n n
c

=

=
*
M
*
* y
*
yd*
y
y n n c
c
=

=

=
,
*
M
*
* z
*
zd*
z
z n n c
c
=

=

=
,
Centroi' of a Volume
The location of the centroid of a volume is defined by <qs. below,
which are analogous to the equations used for centroids of areas and
lines. For a composite volume of total
volume

=
n
( (
(
( x
(
xd(
x
n n
c

=

=
(
( y
*
yd*
y
n n
c

=

=
(
( z
(
zd(
z
n n
c

=

=
solid body will have both a canter of gravity and a centroid but, the locations of these
two points will not necessarily coincide. The earthDs attractive force, which is called
%eight, can be assumed to act through the center of gravity 5also known as the center of
mass6. -nly when the body is homogeneous will the centroid of the volume coincide
with the center of gravity.
MOME!T OF !ERT#
The moment of inertia, I, of an area is needed in mechanics of
materials problems. It is convenient to think of a moment of inertia of a beamDs cross
sectional area as a measure of the
beamDs ability to resist bending. Thus, given equal loads, a beam with a small moment of
inertia will bend more than a beam with a large moment of inertia.
The symbol x
I
is used to represent a moment of inertia with respect to the x\$axis,
similarly
y
I
Is the moment of inertia with respect to the y\$axis. x
I
and
y
I
do not combine
and are not
components of some resultant moment of inertia.
ny axis can be chosen as the reference axis, and the value of the moment of inertia will
depend on the reference selected. The moment of inertia taken with respect to an axis
passing through
the area of centroid is known as the centroidal moment of inertia,
x c
I
,
or
y c
I
,
. The
centroidal moment of inertia is the smallest possible moment of inertia for the area.
Integration can be used to calculate the moment of inertia of a function that is bounded by
the x\$and the y\$axes and a curve y=f5x6. From the <qs., 78.&' and 78.&7, it is apparent
why the
moment of inertia is also known as the second moment of the area or second area
moment.
d* x I
y

=
'
d* y I
x

=
'
+oments of inertia of the basic shapes are listed in Tables
Polar Moment of nertia
The polar moment of inertia, E or z
I
, is required in torsional shear stress calculations. It
can be thought of as a measure of an areaDs resistance to torsion 5twisting6. The definition
of a polar
moment of inertia of a two\$dimensional area requires three dimensions because the
reference axis for a polar moment of inertia of a plane area is perpendicular to the plane
area.
The polar moment of inertia can be derived from
( )d* y x I ,
z

+ = =
' '
It is often easier to use the perpendicular axis theorem to quickly calculate the polar
moment of Inertia.
• )erpendicular axis theorem0
The moment of inertia of a plane area about an axis normal to the plane is equal to
the sum of the moments of inertia about any two mutually perpendicular axes lying
in the plane and passing through the given axis.

y x
I I , + =
Since the two perpendicular axes can be chosen arbitrarily, it is most convenient to use
the centroidal moments of inertia.
y c x c c
I I ,
, ,
+ =
Parallel #/is T*eorem
If the moment of inertia is known with respect to one axis, the
moment of inertia with respect to another, parallel axis can be
calculated from the parallel axis theorem, also known as the
transfer axis theorem. This theorem is used to evaluate the
moment of inertia of areas that are composed of two or more
distance between the centroidal axis and the second parallel axis.

'
*d I I
c parallel
+ =
The second term in the above <q., 78.&> is often much larger than the first term. reas
close to the centroidal axis do not affect the moment of inertia considerably. This
principle is exploited in design of structural steel shapes that derive bending resistance
from flanges located far from the centroidal axis. The web does not contribute
significantly to the moment of inertia.
Ra'ius Of "&ration
<very nontrivial area has a centroidal moment of inertia. !sually, some portions of the
area are close to the centroidal axis, and other portions are farther away. The radius of
gyration, r, Is an imaginary distance from a centroidal axis at which the entire area can be
assumed to exist without changing the moment of inertia. ?espite the name FradiusG the
radius of gyration is not limited to circular shapes or polar axes.
The method of calculating the radius of gyration is based on the parallel axis theorem. If
all of the area is located a distance r from the original centroidal axis, there will be no c
I
term. -nly the
'
*d
will contribute to the moment of inertia.
* r I
'
=

*
I
r
x
x
=

*
I
r
y
y
=
The analogous quantity in the polar system is

*
,
r r
z p
= =
Eust as the polar moment of inertia, E, can be calculated from the two rectangular
moments of inertia, the polar radius of gyration can be calculated from the two
rectangular radii of gyration.

' ' '
y x p
r r r + =
Pro'uct Of nertia
The product of inertia,
xy
I
, of a two\$dimensional area is found by multiplying each
differential element of area by its x\$, y\$coordinates and then summing over the entire
area.
d* xy I
xy ∫
=
d* xz I
xz

=
d* yz I
yz

=
The product of inertia is (ero when either axis is an axis of symmetry. Since the axes can
be chosen arbitrarily, the area may be in one of the negative quadrants, and the product of
inertia may be negative.
The transfer theorem for products of inertia is given by <q. below, 5Aoth axes are
allowed to move to new positions.6 x
d
and
y
d
are the distances to the centroid in the new
coordinate system., and c c
y x
I
is centroidal product of inertia in the old system.
* d d I I
y x y x y x c c
+ =
H H