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FORCES

Statics is the study of rigid bodies that are stationary. To be stationary, a rigid body must

be in equilibrium. In the language of statics, a stationary rigid body has no unbalanced

forces acting on it.

Force is a push or a pull that one body exerts on another, including gravitational,

electrostatic magnetic and constant influences. Force is a vector quantity, having a

magnitude, direction, and point of application.

Strictly speaking, actions of other bodies on a rigid body are known as external forces. If

unbalanced, an external force will cause motion of the body. Internal forces are the

forces that hold together parts of a rigid body. lthough internal forces can cause

deformation of a body, motion is never caused by internal forces.

Forces are frequently represented in terms of unit vectors and force components. unit

vector is a vector of unit length directed along a coordinate axis. !nit vectors are used in

vector equations to indicate direction without affecting magnitude. In the rectangular

coordinate system, there are three unit vectors, i, ", and k.

In two dimensions,

j F i F F

y x

+ =

#Two$dimensional%

Resultant

The resultant, or sum, of n two$dimensional forces is equal to the sum of the components.

∑

+

∑

=

= =

n

i

i y

n

i

i x

F j F i F

&

,

&

,

#two$dimensional%

The magnitude of the resultant is

( ) ( )

'

&

,

'

&

,

∑

+

∑

=

= =

n

i

i y

n

i

i x

F F R

The direction of the resultant is

∑

∑

=

=

= −

n

i

i x

n

i

i y

F

F

&

,

&

,

&

tan θ

Resolution of a Force

The components of a two$ or three$dimensional force can be found from its direction

cosines, the cosines of the true angles made by the force vector with the x$, y$, and ($

axes.

x x

F F θ cos =

y y

F F θ cos =

z z

F F θ cos =

Moments

Moment is the name given to the tendency of a force to rotate, turn or twist a rigid body

about an actual or assumed pivot point.

)owever rotation is not required for the moment to exist. *hen a restrained body is acted

upon by a moment, there is no rotation.

+oments have primary dimensions of length

×

force.

Typical units are foot$pounds, inch$pounds, and ,ewton$meters.

+oments are vectors. The moment vector, +o, for a force about a point - is the cross

product of the force, F, and the vector from point - to the point of application of the

force, known as the position vector, r. The scalar product

θ sin r

is known as the moment

arm, d.

F r M

O

× =

F d F r M M

O O

= = = θ sin % &./ #

≤ θ

Righthand rule0 1lace the position and force vectors tail to tail. 2lose your right hand

and position over the pivot point. 3otate the position vector into the force vector and

position your hand such that your fingers curl in the same direction as the position vector

rotates. 4our extended thumb will coincide with the direction of the moment.

The direction cosines of a force can be used to determine the components of the moment

about the coordinate axes.

x x

M M θ cos =

y y

M M θ cos =

z z

M M θ cos =

lternately, the following three equations can be used to determine the components of the

moment from the component of a force applied at point 5x, y, (6 referenced to an origin at

5/,/,/6.

y z x

zF yF M − =

7&.&7

z x y

xF zF M − =

7&.&8

x y z

yF xF M − =

7&.&9

The resultant moment magnitude can be reconstituted from its components.

' ' '

z y x

M M M M + + =

7&.&:

Couples

ny point of equal opposite, and parallel forces constitute a couple. couple is

equivalent to a single moment vector. Since the two forces are opposite in sign, the x$, y$,

($components of the forces cancel out. Therefore, a body is induced to rotate without

translation. couple can be counteracted only by another couple. couple can be moved

to any location without affecting the equilibrium requirements. 5Such a moment is known

as a free moment! moment of a couple! or coupling moment."

In Fig. 7&.7, the equal but opposite forces produce a moment vector O

M

of magnitude d

F

.

The two forces can be replaced by this moment vector that can be moved to any location

on a body.

d O

F rF M = = θ sin '

The combination of the moved force and the couple is known as a forcecouple system.

lternately, a force$couple system can be replaced by a single force located a distance

F M d ; =

away.

SYSTEMS OF FORCES

ny collection of forces and moments in three$dimensional space is statically equivalent

to a single resultant force vector plus a single resultant moment vector. 5<ither or both of

these resultants can be (ero.6

The x$, y$, and ($components of the resultant force are the sums of the x$, y$, and ($

components of the individual forces, respectively.

∑ =

n

F R

∑ ∑

+

∑

+ =

= = =

n

i

i z

n

i

i y

n

i

i x

F # F j F i

&

,

&

,

&

,

#Three$dimensional%

The resultant moment vector is more complex. It includes the moments of all system

forces around the references axes plus the components of all system moments.

∑ =

n

M M

( ) ∑ ∑ + − =

i i

x y x x

i M i zF yF M θ cos 6 5

( ) ∑ ∑ + − =

i i

y z x y

i M i xF zF M θ cos 6 5

( ) ∑ ∑ + − =

i i

z x y z

i M i yF xF M θ cos 6 5

Equilibrium Requirements

n ob"ect is static when it is stationary. To be stationary, all of the forces on the ob"ect

must be in equilibrium. For an ob"ect to be in equilibrium, the resultant force and moment

vectors must be both be (ero.

3=/

/

' ' '

= + + =

z y x

R R R R

+=/

/

' ' '

= + + =

z y x

M M M M

7&.':

Since the square of any non$(ero quantity is positive, <qs. 7&.'> through 7&.7' follow

directly from <qs. 7&.'7 through 7&.':.

/ =

x

R

/ =

y

R

/ =

z

R

/ =

x

M

/ =

y

M

/ =

z

M

Concurrent Forces

concurrent force system is a category of force systems wherein all of the forces act at

the same point.

If the forces on a body are all concurrent forces, then only force equilibrium is necessary

to ensure complete equilibrium. In two dimensions,

/ = ∑

x

F

/ = ∑

y

F

In three dimensions,

/ = ∑

x

F

/ = ∑

y

F

/ = ∑

z

F

PROBLEMS-SOLV!" #PPRO#C$ES

%eterminac&

*hen the equations of equilibrium are independent, a rigid body force system is said to

be statically determinate. statically determinate system can be solved for all unknowns,

which are usually reactions supporting the body. <xamples of determinate beam types are

illustrated in Fig 7&.8.

Free-Bo'& %ia(rams

freebody diagram is a representation of a body in equilibrium, showing all applied

forces, moment, and reactions.

Reactions

The first step in solving most statics problems, after drawing the free$body diagram, is to

determine the reaction forces 5i.e.! the reactions6 supporting the body.

1rocedure for determining the forces0

The procedure for finding determinate reactions in two$dimensional problems is

straightforward. ?eterminate structures will have either a roller support and pinned

support or two roller supports.

Step &0 <stablish a convenient set of coordinate axes. 5To simplify the analysis, one of the

coordinate directions should coincide with the direction of the forces and reactions.6

Step '0 ?raw the free$body diagram.

Step 70 3esolve the reaction at the pinned support 5if any6 into components normal and

parallel to the coordinate axes

Step 80 <stablish a positive direction of rotation 5e.g., clockwise6 for purposes of taking

the moments.

Step 90 *rite the equilibrium equation for moments about the pinned connection.

Step :0 write the equilibrium equation for the forces in the vertical direction. !sually, this

<quation will have two unknown vertical reactions.

Step >0 Substitute the known vertical reaction from step9 into the equilibrium equation

from step:. This will determine the second vertical reaction.

Step .0 *rite the equilibrium equation for the forces at the hori(ontal direction.

Step @0 If necessary, combine the vertical and hori(ontal force components at the pinned

connection into a resultant reaction.

TR)SSES

ST#TC#LLY %ETERM!#TE TR)SSES

truss or frame is a set of pin$connected axial members $i.e.! t%oforce members".

structural cell consists of all members in a closed loop of members. For the truss to be

stable 5i.e., to be a rigid truss6, all of the structural cells must be triangular.

&russ loads are considered to act only in the plane of a truss. Therefore, trusses are

analy(ed as two$dimensional structures. Forces in truss members hold the various truss

parts together and are known as internal forces. The internal forces are found by drawing

free$body diagrams.

lthough free$body diagrams of truss members can be drawn, this is not usually done.

Instead, free$body diagrams of the pins. 5i.e., the "oints6 are drawn. pin in compression

will be shown with force arrows pointing toward the pin, away from the member.

Similarly a pin in tension will be shown with force arrows pointing away from the pin,

toward the member.

*ith typical bridge trusses supported at the ends and loaded downward at the "oints, the

upper chords are almost always in compression, and the end panels and lower chords are

almost always in tension.

Since truss members are axial members, the forces on the truss "oints are concurrent

forces. Therefore, only force equilibrium needs to be enforced at each pin0 the sum of the

forces in each of the coordinate directions equals to (ero.

Forces in truss members can sometimes be determined by inspection. -ne of these cases

is a zeroforce member. third member framing into a "oint already connecting two

collinear members carries no internal force unless there is a load applied at that "oint.

Similarly, both members forming an apex of the truss are (ero$force members unless

there is a load applied at the apex.

If the left$hand side of <q. 7'.& is greater than the right hand side 5i.e., there are

redundant members6, the truss is statically indeterminate. If the left$hand side is less than

the right$hand side, the truss is unstable and will collapse under certain types of loading.

Met*o's of +oints

The method of joints is one of the methods that can be used to find the internal forces in

each truss member. This method is useful when most or all of the truss member forces are

to be calculated. Aecause this method advances from "oint to ad"acent "oint. It is

inconvenient when a single isolated member force is to be calculated.

Met*o' of Sections

The method of sections is a direct approach to finding forces in any truss member. This

method is convenient when only a few truss member forces are unknown.

s with previous method, the first step is to find the support reactions. Then a cut is made

through the truss, passing through the unknown member. 5Bnowing where to cut the truss

is the key part of this method. Such knowledge is developed only by repeated practice.6

Finally, all three conditions of equilibrium are applied as needed to the remaining truss

portion. Since there are three equilibrium equations, the cut cannot pass through more

than three members in which the forces are unknown.

P)LLEYS, C#BLES, #!% FRCTO!

P)LLEYS

pulley 5also known as a sheave6 is used to change the direction of an applied tensile

force. series of pulleys working together 5known as a bloc# and tac#le6 can also

provide pulley advantage 5i.e., mechanical advantage6.

If the pulley is attached by a bracket to a fixed location, it is said to be a fixed pulley. If

the pulley is attached to a load, or if the pulley is free to move, it is known as a free

pulley.

+ost simple problems disregard friction and assume that all ropes 5fiber ropes, wire

ropes, chains, belts, etc.6 are parallel. In such cases, the pulley advantage is equal to the

number of ropes coming to and going from the load$carrying pulley. The diameters of the

pulleys are not factors in calculating the pulley advantage.

C#BLES

n ideal cable is assumed to be completely flexible, massless, and incapable of

elongationC therefore, it acts as an axial tension member between points of concentrated

loading. In fact, the term tension or tensile force is commonly used in place of member

force in dealing with cables.

FRCTO!

Friction is a force that always resists motion or impending motion. It always acts parallel

to the contacting surfaces. The friction force, F, exerted on a stationary body is known as

static friction! coulomb friction! and fluid friction. If the body is moving, the friction is

known as dynamic friction and is less than the static friction.

The actual magnitude of the frictional force depends on the normal force, ,, and the

coefficient of friction,

µ

, between the body and the surface.

' F µ =

For a body resting on a hori(ontal surface, the normal force is the weight of the body.

mg ' =

#SI%

c

g

mg

' =

#!.S%

If the body rests on a plane inclined at an angle

φ

from the hori(ontal, the normal force is

φ cos mg ' =

#SI%

c

g

mg

'

φ cos

=

#!.S%

Belt Friction

Friction between a belt, rope or band wrapped around a pulley or sheave is responsible

for the transfer of torque. <xcept when stationary, one step of the belt 5the tight side6 will

have a higher tension than the other 5the slack side6. The basic relationship between the

belt tensions and the coefficient of friction neglects the centrifugal effects and is given by

<q. 77.8. &

F

is the tension on the tight side 5direction of movement60 '

F

is the tension on

the other side. The angle of %rap

θ

must be expressed in radians.

µθ

e F F

' &

=

77.8

The net transmitted torque is

r F F & 6 5

' &

− =

77.9

The power transmitted to a belt running at tangential velocity t

(

is

t

( F F ) 6 5

' &

− =

77.:

-. Centroi's an' Moments of nertia

CE!TRO%

2entroids of continuous functions can be found by the methods of integral calculus. For

most <ngineering applications, though, the functions to be integrated are regular shapes,

such as the rectangular, circular, or composite rectangular shapes of beams.

First Moment

The quantity ∫

xd*

is known as the first moment of the area or first area moment with respect

to the y$axis. Similarly, ∫

yd*

is known as the first moment of the area with respect to the x$

axis. For regular shapes with areas n

*

,

∫ ∑ = =

n n c y

* x xd* M

,

∫ ∑ = =

n n c x

* y yd* M

,

The two primary applications of the first moment are determining centroidal locations

and shear stress distributions. In the latter application, the first moment of the area is

known as the statical moment.

Centroi' of a Line

The location of the centroid of a line is defined by <qs. Aelow0

For a composite line

of total length

∑

=

n

+ +

,

+

+ x

+

xd+

x

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

+

+ x

+

xd+

x

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

Centroi' of an #rea

The centroid of an area is often described as the point at which a thin homogeneous plate

would balance. This definition, however, combines the definitions of centroid and center

of gravity is required to identify the centroid, which is not true. ,onetheless, this

definition provides some intuitive understanding of the centroid.

The location of the centroid of an area depends only on the geometry of the area, and it is

identified by the coordinates

( )

c c

y x ,

. For a composite area with total area given by

∑

=

n

* *

,

*

M

*

* x

*

xd*

x

x n n c

c

=

∑

=

∫

=

,

+

+ y

+

yd+

y

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

*

M

*

* y

*

yd*

y

y n n c

c

=

∑

=

∫

=

,

*

M

*

* z

*

zd*

z

z n n c

c

=

∑

=

∫

=

,

Centroi' of a Volume

The location of the centroid of a volume is defined by <qs. below,

which are analogous to the equations used for centroids of areas and

lines. For a composite volume of total

volume

∑

=

n

( (

(

( x

(

xd(

x

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

(

( y

*

yd*

y

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

(

( z

(

zd(

z

n n

c

∑

=

∫

=

solid body will have both a canter of gravity and a centroid but, the locations of these

two points will not necessarily coincide. The earthDs attractive force, which is called

%eight, can be assumed to act through the center of gravity 5also known as the center of

mass6. -nly when the body is homogeneous will the centroid of the volume coincide

with the center of gravity.

MOME!T OF !ERT#

The moment of inertia, I, of an area is needed in mechanics of

materials problems. It is convenient to think of a moment of inertia of a beamDs cross

sectional area as a measure of the

beamDs ability to resist bending. Thus, given equal loads, a beam with a small moment of

inertia will bend more than a beam with a large moment of inertia.

The symbol x

I

is used to represent a moment of inertia with respect to the x$axis,

similarly

y

I

Is the moment of inertia with respect to the y$axis. x

I

and

y

I

do not combine

and are not

components of some resultant moment of inertia.

ny axis can be chosen as the reference axis, and the value of the moment of inertia will

depend on the reference selected. The moment of inertia taken with respect to an axis

passing through

the area of centroid is known as the centroidal moment of inertia,

x c

I

,

or

y c

I

,

. The

centroidal moment of inertia is the smallest possible moment of inertia for the area.

Integration can be used to calculate the moment of inertia of a function that is bounded by

the x$and the y$axes and a curve y=f5x6. From the <qs., 78.&' and 78.&7, it is apparent

why the

moment of inertia is also known as the second moment of the area or second area

moment.

d* x I

y

∫

=

'

d* y I

x

∫

=

'

+oments of inertia of the basic shapes are listed in Tables

Polar Moment of nertia

The polar moment of inertia, E or z

I

, is required in torsional shear stress calculations. It

can be thought of as a measure of an areaDs resistance to torsion 5twisting6. The definition

of a polar

moment of inertia of a two$dimensional area requires three dimensions because the

reference axis for a polar moment of inertia of a plane area is perpendicular to the plane

area.

The polar moment of inertia can be derived from

( )d* y x I ,

z

∫

+ = =

' '

It is often easier to use the perpendicular axis theorem to quickly calculate the polar

moment of Inertia.

• )erpendicular axis theorem0

The moment of inertia of a plane area about an axis normal to the plane is equal to

the sum of the moments of inertia about any two mutually perpendicular axes lying

in the plane and passing through the given axis.

y x

I I , + =

Since the two perpendicular axes can be chosen arbitrarily, it is most convenient to use

the centroidal moments of inertia.

y c x c c

I I ,

, ,

+ =

Parallel #/is T*eorem

If the moment of inertia is known with respect to one axis, the

moment of inertia with respect to another, parallel axis can be

calculated from the parallel axis theorem, also known as the

transfer axis theorem. This theorem is used to evaluate the

moment of inertia of areas that are composed of two or more

distance between the centroidal axis and the second parallel axis.

'

*d I I

c parallel

+ =

The second term in the above <q., 78.&> is often much larger than the first term. reas

close to the centroidal axis do not affect the moment of inertia considerably. This

principle is exploited in design of structural steel shapes that derive bending resistance

from flanges located far from the centroidal axis. The web does not contribute

significantly to the moment of inertia.

Ra'ius Of "&ration

<very nontrivial area has a centroidal moment of inertia. !sually, some portions of the

area are close to the centroidal axis, and other portions are farther away. The radius of

gyration, r, Is an imaginary distance from a centroidal axis at which the entire area can be

assumed to exist without changing the moment of inertia. ?espite the name FradiusG the

radius of gyration is not limited to circular shapes or polar axes.

The method of calculating the radius of gyration is based on the parallel axis theorem. If

all of the area is located a distance r from the original centroidal axis, there will be no c

I

term. -nly the

'

*d

will contribute to the moment of inertia.

* r I

'

=

*

I

r

x

x

=

*

I

r

y

y

=

The analogous quantity in the polar system is

*

,

r r

z p

= =

Eust as the polar moment of inertia, E, can be calculated from the two rectangular

moments of inertia, the polar radius of gyration can be calculated from the two

rectangular radii of gyration.

' ' '

y x p

r r r + =

Pro'uct Of nertia

The product of inertia,

xy

I

, of a two$dimensional area is found by multiplying each

differential element of area by its x$, y$coordinates and then summing over the entire

area.

d* xy I

xy ∫

=

d* xz I

xz

∫

=

d* yz I

yz

∫

=

The product of inertia is (ero when either axis is an axis of symmetry. Since the axes can

be chosen arbitrarily, the area may be in one of the negative quadrants, and the product of

inertia may be negative.

The transfer theorem for products of inertia is given by <q. below, 5Aoth axes are

allowed to move to new positions.6 x

d

and

y

d

are the distances to the centroid in the new

coordinate system., and c c

y x

I

is centroidal product of inertia in the old system.

* d d I I

y x y x y x c c

+ =

H H

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