You are on page 1of 30

TNG HP MT S VN MI HAY KH TRONG CC THI TH H 2014

NGUYN B LINH THPT TRN HNG O THANH XUN.


I. DAO NG C
Cu 1: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L1) Mt con lc l xo gm vt nh khi lng m =0,1 kg v l xo c
cng k =100 N/m. T v tr l xo khng bin dng, ko vt n v tr l xo gin 5 cm ri th nh cho
vt dao ng. H s ma st trt gia vt v mt phng ngang l . 05 , 0 = Coi vt dao ng tt dn chm.
Tc ca vt khi n i c 12 cm k t lc th l
A. 1,39 m/s. B. 1,53 m/s. C. 1,26 m/s. D. 1,06 m/s.
Hng dn :




Cu 2: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 Ln 3) Mt con lc l xo t nm ngang gm vt M =100g v l xo
c cng k = 10N/m ang dao ng iu ha xung quanh v tr cn bng vi bin A =10cm. Khi M
i qua v tr c li x =6cm ngi ta th nh vt m =300g ln M (m dnh cht ngay vo M). Sau h m
v M dao ng vi bin xp x
A. 6,3 cm. B. 5,7 cm. C. 7,2 cm. D. 8,1 cm.
Hng dn :

Cu 3: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1



Hng dn :

Cu 4: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1

Hng dn :

Cu 5: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1




Cu 6: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) Con lc l xo treo thng ng, gm l xo c cng k v vt
nh c khi lng m =400 g. Bit rng trong mt chu k, thi gian lc n hi ca l xo thc hin cng
m bng 0,2 s. k c gi tr bng
A. 256 N/m. B. 98,7 N/m. C. 225 N/m. D. 395 N/m.
Hng dn : Trong mt chu k thi gian lc n hi l xo thc hin cng m l T/2 =0,2s =>T =0,4s =>
=5 rad/s =>k =m
2
=100N/m.
Cu 7: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) Mt con lc l xo dao ng dc theo trc thng ng ca n vi
phng trnh x =4,5cos(20.t/3) cm, t tnh bng s. Trong mt chu k, khong thi gian m lc ko v ngc
hng vi lc n hi tc dng vo vt l
A. 0,1 s. B. 0,05 s. C. 0,15 s. D. 0,2 s.
Hng dn : Chn trc Ox hng xung. Ta c lc ko v: F = -kx.
Lc n hi l xo: F
h
=-k(l
0
+x). F v F
h
ngc hng nhau: F.F
h
<
0 => x(l
0
+x) <0 =>-l
0
<x <0.
l
0
= g/
2
=0,0225m =2,25cm; T =0,3s.
Khong thi gian trong mt chu k m F v F
h
ngc hng nhau: t =
T/6 =0,05s.


Cu 8: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) Mt vt tham gia ng thi hai dao ng iu ho cng
phng, cng tn s v c dng phng trnh x
1
= 3cos(4t +
1
) cm, x
2
=2cos(4t +
2
) cm vi 0 s
1

2
s t. Bit phng trnh dao ng tng hp x =cos(4t +t/6) cm. Gi tr
1
l
A. 2t/3. B. t/6. C. t/6. D. 2t/3.
Hng dn : Ta c
1 2 2 1
1 3 4 2 3.2.cos 5 5 = + + A A = / 6 = = / 6 .
M:
1 2
1 1 1 1
1 2
3sin 2sin 1 5 5
tan tan 3sin 2 3sin 3cos 2cos
6 6 6
3cos 2cos 3



+
| | | |
= = = + = +
| |
+ \ . \ .
.

1
1 1
1
sin 2
tan 3
cos 3

= = = .
Cch 2 : Th p n.
Ta c :
( )
2 1
1 3 4 2. 3.2.cos = + + ; thay ln lt cc p n ng vi
1
vo, p n no tha
mn iu kin bi th ly nghim .
Cu 9: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 4
4,5
x -4,5
-2,25
O

T/12
T/12



Hng dn : Chn D.
max
max
5 A 3 5
A si n .
4 si n 30
si n si n
4 12 4
3
A
4 2 4
A 10
| | t
= =
|
| | | | t t t
\ .
t
| |
\ . \ .
t t t
= =
=


* Khi A =A
max
/2 =5(cm) ta c :
0
5 A 5
105
3 3
si n si n si n
6 4 4
= = =
t | | | | t t

| |
\ . \ .

Khi
( )
2
2
A 5
A 5 3
si n 30 si n 105 15
= =
+

Cu 10: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 1) Cho hai con lc l xo ging ht nhau. Kch thch cho hai con lc
dao ng iu ha vi bin ln lt l 2A v A dao ng cng pha. Chn gc th nng ti v tr cn
bng ca hai con lc. Khi ng nng ca con lc th nht l 0,6J th th nng ca con lc th hai l 0,05 J .
Hi khi th nng ca con lc th nht l 0,4 J th ng nng ca con lc th hai l bao nhiu?
A. 0,1 J . B. 0,4 J . C. 0,6 J . D. 0,2 J .
Hng dn : Chn A

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
t1 t 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 2 2 t 2
t1
t 1 t 2 2 2 t 2
x 2A cos t x A cos t
W 4W x 2x
;
v 2v W 4W v .2A si n t v .A si n t
Khi W 0, 6J W 0,15 J W W W 0,15 0, 05 0, 2 J
W
Khi W 0, 4 J W 0,1 J W W W 0,1 J
2

= e + = e + = =



= = = e e + = e e +


= = = + = + =
= = = = =

Cu 11: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 Ln 4) Mt con lc n c khi lng vt nng l m, si dy mnh c
chiu di l. T v tr cn bng ko vt sao cho dy treo hp vi phng thng ng gc
0
=60
0
ri th
nh. Ly g =10m/s
2
, b qua mi lc cn. Trong qu trinh chuyn ng th ln gia tc ca con lc c
gi tr nh nht bng:
A.
2
10
3
(m/s
2
). B.
( )
2
10 5
m / s
3
C. 0. D.
( )
2
3
10 m / s
2
.
Hng dn :

( )
( )
2
2 2
t n t n 0
2
2
2
mi n mi n
v
a a a a gsi n ; a 2g cos cos
1
a gsi n 2g cos g 3cos 4 cos 2
2
b 4 2 4 2 2
a cos a g 3. 4. 2 g
2a 6 3 9 3 3
= + = o = = o
( | |
= o + o = o o +
( |
\ .
o = = = = + =
l

5
/4
/12

A
2
A


Cu 12: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 4) Cho mt con lc n c vt nng 100g, tch in 0,5mC, dao ng
ti ni c gia tc g =10 m/s
2
. t con lc trong in trng u c vc t in trng nm ngang, ln
2000 / 3 (V/m). a con lc v v tr thp nht ri th nh. Tm lc cng dy treo khi gia tc ca vt
nng cc tiu.
A. 2,19 (N) B. 1,46 (N). C. 2 (N). D. 1,5 (N).
Hng dn :

( )
0
2
0
0
qE
* VTCB khi coi en trng : tan = 3 60
mg
g
* Gi a toc trong trng hi eu dung g' = 20 m / s
cos
* a vat ti vtr thap nhat roi thacho dao ong 60
* Gi a toc cua vat khi dao o
o = o =
=
o
o =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
0
2
mi n
0
ng trong trong trng bi eu ki en :
a = g' si n 2g' cos cos
2
a 3cos 4 cos 2 a khi vachkhi cos =
3
* Lc cang day khi o: T = mg' 3cos 2 cos 2 N
( o + o o

= o o + o
o o =

Cu 13: (Chuyn L Khit 2014) Mt con lc n gm mt si dy mnh, khng dn v c chiu di l,
vt nh c khi lng m. T v tr cn bng, ko vt nh sao cho dy treo hp vi phng thng ng mt
gc 45
0
ri th nh. Gia tc trng trng l g, mc th nng ti v tr cn bng, b qua sc cn khng kh.
ln cc tiu ca gia tc vt nh trong qu trnh dao ng l :
A. g. B.
1
g
3
. C.
2
g
3
. D. 0.
Hng dn : Xt vt v tr m dy treo lch so vi phng thng ng gc .
ng nng ca vt bng gim th nng ca n nn c :

( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
t n
2
mi n mi n
mi n
mv v 2
mgl cos cos 2g cos
2 l 2
2
a a a gsi n 2g cos g 3cos 4 2 cos 3
2
4 2 2 2 3
a khi 3cos 4 2 cos 3 cos a g
2.3 3 3
| |
= | o = | |
|
\ .
( | |
( = + = | + | = | | + |
|
(
\ .
| | + | = = =

Cu 14: (Chuyn L Li 2014 - Qung Tr) Dng c o khi lng trong mt con tu v tr c cu to
gm mt chic gh c khi lng m c gn vo u ca mt chic l xo c cng k = 480 N/m. o
khi lng ca nh du hnh th nh du hnh phi ngi vo gh ri cho chic gh dao ng. Ngi ta o
c chu k dao ng ca gh khi khng c ngi l T
0
=1 s cn khi c nh du hnh l T =2,5 s. Khi
lng nh du hnh l
A. 80 kg. B. 63 kg. C. 75 kg. D. 70 kg.
Hng dn gii:
- Nhn xt: Chic gh c cu to ging nh mt con lc l xo treo thng ng, gh pha trn, l xo pha
di. Gi khi lng ca gh l m (kg), ca ngi l m
0
(kg).


- Khi cha c ngi ngi vo gh:
0
2 1
m
T
k
= = (1).
- Khi c ngi ngi vo gh:
0
2 2,5
m m
T
k

+
= = (2).
- T (1) v (2), ta c:
0
2 2
2 0
0
2 2, 5
2, 5 1
63 ( 10)
2 2
2 1
m m
m
k
m kg
k
m
k

+
=
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .


Cu 15: (Chuyn SP1 2014 - Ln 1) Mt con lc n chiu di dy treo =50cm, c treo trn trn mt
toa xe. Toa xe c th trt khng ma st trn mt phng nghing gc =30
0
so vi phng ngang. Ly
g=9,8m/s
2
. Chu k dao ng vi bin nh ca con lc khi toa xe trt t do trn mt phng nghing l
A. 1,53 s. B. 1,42 s. C. 0,96 s. D. 1,27 s.
Hng dn :

( )
( )
2
2 2 0
Gi a toc toa xe trt khong ma sat tren doc : a=gsi n =4,9 m / s
l l
Chu k dao ong khi o: T'=2 2 1, 53 s
g'
g a 2gacos120
o
t = t =
+ +

Cu 16: *Mt dao ng iu ha vi bin 13 cm. Lc t =0 vt ang bin dng. Sau khong thi gian t
(k t lc ban u chuyn ng) th vt cch O mt on 12 cm. Vy sau khong thi gian 2t (k t lc
ban u chuyn ng) vt cch O mt on bao nhiu?
A. 9,15 cm B. 5 cm C. 6 cm D. 2 cm
HD:
1
2
2
2 2
0 13cos
: 12 13cos
12
2 : 13cos2 13 2cos 1 13 2 1 9,15
13
V t vat angbi endngnen x t
Vtr cuavat tai thi i emt cachVTCBoan x t
Vtr tai t cachVTCBoan x t t cm


= =

= =

(
= = = =
(



Cu 17: Chuyn H Vinh 2013 ln 4

Hng dn : Chn B.
Cch 1
- Hai l xo mc ni tip L xo tng ng c cng k = k
1
/3.
- Khi th vt t bin, thi im ln u vt c ng nng bng th nng nn
A
x 6 2
2
= = .
- Khi gi cht im ni hai l xo, ch cn l xo 2 hot ng, nhng c mt phn nng lng b nht
trong l xo 1.
- L xo l tng nn dn u trn tng vng. Do k
1
= 2k
2
nn khi l xo 1 dn x
1
th l xo 2 dn 2x
1
.
- Lc vt x = 62 cm tc dn x
1
+ 2x
1
= 62 x
1
= 22 cm.(l xo 1 dn x
1
)


- Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng :
( )
2 2 2
2 1 1 1
1
k A k x kA
A 4 5 cm
2 2 2
= + =
Cch 2 Cch ny ngn gn v d hiu hn
- k
nt
= 2k
2
/3 ;
2
t t nt
A 1
Khi W W x 6 2 & W W k .x
2
2
= = = = =
- Gi c nh im ni hai l xo : Ch cn l xo 2.
- Lc vt v tr ng nng bng th nng :
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
x x 6 2
x 2 2 cm & x 4 2 cm
k 2k 2x x

+ =
= =
`
= =

)

- p dng LBT c nng ta c :
( )
2 2 2
t nt 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
W W k x k x k A A 4 5 cm
2 2 2
+ = + = =


II. SNG C
Cu 18: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L3) Hin tng giao thoa sng trn mt nc vi hai ngun
2 1
S , S cng
bin , ngc pha, . cm 13 S S
2 1
= Tia y S
1
trn mt nc, ban u tia y S
1
cha . S S
2 1
im C lun trn tia
y S
1
v . cm 5 C S
1
= Cho y S
1
quay quanh
1
S n v tr sao cho C S
1
l trung bnh nhn gia hnh chiu ca
chnh n ln
2 1
S S vi . S S
2 1
Lc ny C trn vn cc i giao thoa th 4. S vn giao thoa cc tiu quan st
c l
A. 13. B. 10. C. 11. D. 9.
Hng dn : * c l trung bnh nhn ca a v b th c a.b =
- Hai ngun ngc pha, C thuc cc i th 4 ng vi k =- 4 hoc k =3.

Cu 19: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) Ti im O trong mi trng ng hng, khng hp th m,
c mt ngun m im vi cng sut pht m khng i. Hai im M, N trong mi trng sao cho OM
vung gc vi ON. Mc cng m ti M v N ln lt l L
M
=50 dB, L
N
=30 dB. Mc cng m
ti trung im ca MN l
A. 40 dB. B. 35 dB. C. 36 dB. D. 29 dB.


Hng dn:

( )
2 2
20 20lg 10
101
2 2
, , ;

= = =
+
= =
`

e = =
)
M N
ON
L L dB ON OM
OM ON
OM OP OM
M N O P PO OP PM PN


101
20lg 20lg 14 36
2
M P P
OP
L L dB L dB
OM
= = = =

Cu 20: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) mt cht lng c hai ngun sng A, B cch nhau 19 cm, dao
ng theo phng thng ng vi phng trnh l u
A
=u
B
=acos(20t.t) (vi t tnh bng s). Tc truyn
sng trn mt cht lng l 40 cm/s. Gi M l im mt cht lng gn A nht sao cho phn t cht lng
ti M dao ng vi bin cc i v cng pha vi ngun A. Khong cch AM l
A. 4 cm. B. 3 cm. C. 2 cm. D. 5 cm.
Hng dn :
Cch 1 M dao ng cc i :
2 1 1
d d k = , =4cm.
S ng cc i :
1
4,75 4,75 AB k AB k > > > > .
Gn A nht th k
1
=4
2 1
16 d d = (1).

Phng trnh sng ti M:
( )
1 2
2 cos 20
M
d d
u a t

+ | |
=
|
\ .
.
M cng pha vi hai ngun:
( )
1 2
2 1 2 2 2
2 2 8
d d
k d d k k

+
= + = = (2).
T (1) v (2) suy ra: d
1
=4k
2
8. M gn A nht =>k
2
=3 =>d
1
=4cm.
Cch 2

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
M 1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2 1
1 1 2
1 2 2
2
* v.T 40. 4 cm .
20
* Phngtrnhsongti M :
u 2acos d d .cos 20 t d d
cos d d 1
* i eu ki enM daoongccai vacungphavi nguon :
d d 2k
d d 2k
d 2k 2k
2 d d 2k
t
= = =
t
| | t t
= t +
|

\ .
t
=

+ = t


=

= + =

+ =

( )
1mi n mi n 1mi n
k ' .
2
Dethay k ' chan d k ' 2 d 2. 4 cm
2

= = =

Cu 21: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - ln 4

Hng dn : Chn D
Cch 1.

A B B A
B M
r r r r
OM OB MB r r
2 2
+
= = =

A O
M B
A B
M
O
M
N
P



( )
( ) ( )
2
0,3 0,3 M B A
A M M A B A
A
2
B
A B B B
A
r r r
L L 10 l g r 10 r r 2.10 1 r
r 2
r
L L 10 l g 50 L 13, 96 dB L 36 dB
r
| |
= = = = +
|
\ .
| |
= = ~
|
\ .

Cch 2
+ Cng m ti im cch ngun m khong R l I =
2
4 R
P

; Vi P l cng sut ca ngun



M
A
I
I
=
2
2
A
M
R
R
; L
A
L
M
=10lg
M
A
I
I
= 10lg
2
2
A
M
R
R
= 6
2
2
A
M
R
R
=10
0,6



A
M
R
R
=10
0,3
+ M l trung im ca AB, nm hai pha ca gc O nn: R
M
=OM =
2
A B
R R

R
B
=R
A
+2R
M
=(1+2.10
0,3
)R
A
----->
2
2
A
B
R
R
= (1+2.10
0,3
)
2

B
A
I
I
=
2
2
A
B
R
R
; L
A
- L
B
=10lg
B
A
I
I
= 10lg
2
2
A
B
R
R
= 20 lg(1+2.10
0,3
) =20. 0,698 =13,963 dB
L
B
= L
A
13,963 = 36,037 dB 36 dB
Cu 22: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 1) Hai ngun m ging nhau c t ti hai im A, B cch nhau
mt khong AB =L =2m, pht cng mt m n, cng tn s 1500Hz. Vn tc truyn m trong khng
kh l v = 340m/s. I l trung im ca AB, im O trn ng trung trc AB sao cho d =OI =50m. T O
v ng Ox song song vi AB. Xc nh khong cch ca hai im gn nhau nht trn Ox m nghe thy
m nh nht. Gi thit << L; L << d.
A. 11,33 m. B. 7,83 m. C. 2,83m. D. 5,67m.
Hng dn : Chn D
Bi ny phng php lm tng t giao thoa nh sng :

( )
mi n
340 v
.50 .OI
D
1500 f
x k m 1. 5, 67 m
a L 2

= = = =
Cu 23: Chuyn KHTN 2014 Ln 1

Hng dn : Chn
Cch 1 : Khi ct nc cao 30 cm tc ct khng
kh cao 70 cm. m nghe to nht ng vi bng
sng, mt nc l nt sng.

*
v v 2380
l m. m 0, 7 m v
4 4f 4.850 m

= = = =
m =1, 3, 5, 7, 9
*
( )
2380
300 350 6,8 m 7, 9 m 7
m
v 340 m / s
s s s s =
=

Cch 2
( ) ( )
v 1190
h k 0, 5 k 0, 5 300 v 350
2 2f k 0,5
m
2, 9 k 3, 4 k 3 v 340
s
1
Trong cot khong kh co3 bosong va bosong
2
Khi onc secon 3 l an nghe thay am to nhat

= + = + s = s
+
| |
s s = =
|
\ .




* Khi tip tc nc vo ng, ct khng kh
gim dn :

v m' m'
l ' m' 0, 7 m' 7 m' 1,3,5
4f 10 10
= = < < =

Nh vy, cn 3 gi tr cho m to nht.
Cu 24: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 4) Mt m thoa c tn s dao ng ring 850Hz c t st mt
ming ng nghim hnh tr y kn t thng ng cao 80cm. dn nc vo ng nghim n cao
30cm th thy m c khch i ln rt mnh. Bit tc truyn m trong khng kh c gi tr nm trong
khong t 300m/s n 350m/s. Hi khi tip tc nc thm vo ng th c thm my v tr ca mc
nc cho m c khch i rt mnh?
A. 2. B. 3. C. 1. D. 4.
Hng dn :
- Khi dn nc vo ng nghim n cao 30cm th thy m c khuch i rt mnh, c ngha l
khi hin tng sng dng xy ra, m nghe c to nht do ti y ng thnh mt nt sng, ming ng
hnh thnh mt bng sng. Mt khc nc cao 30cm th ct khng kh cao 50cm.
- Khi :

( )
( )
1 1 0, 5
0, 5 k v k v
4 2 4f 2f 1 1
k
4f 2f
0, 5
300 v 350 1, 93 k 2, 33 k 2 v 340 m / s
1 1
k
4f 2f
40 cm
| |
= + = + =
|
| |
\ .
+
|
\ .
s = s s s = =
| |
+
|
\ .
=

- Khi tip tc nc vo, chiu di ct khng kh gim dn :
0 k 0, 5 0, 5 k 2 k 0,1
4 2

< + < < < =
Vy khi thm nc vo th c thm 2 v tr lm cho m khuych i rt mnh.
Cu 25: (Chuyn L Khit 2014) Trn mt nc c hai ngun pht sng A v B cch nhau 24 cm,
phng trnh sng ln lt l 5
A
u cos(20 t + ) (mm) = t t v 5
B
u cos(20 t) (mm). = t Sng truyn trn mt
nc n nh vi vn tc 40 cm/s v khng b mi trng hp th. Xt ng trn (C) tm I bn knh R =
4 cm vi I l im cch u A, B mt on 13 cm. im M nm trn (C) xa A nht dao ng vi bin
gn bng gi tr no nht ?
A. 10 mm. B. 9,44 mm. C. 6,67 mm. D. 5 mm.
Hng dn : Gi O l trung im AB


( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1 2
M
I O 13 12 5 cm
M l ai em xa A nhat nen M l agi ao i em cua AI va I; R 4cm AM 13 4 17 cm
MB 10, 572 cm
d d 17 10, 572
Bi en odao ong tai M: A 2A. cos 2.5. cos 9, 44 mm
2 4
= =
= = + =
=
| | | |
t t
t
| | = = + =
| |
\ . \ .

Cu 26: (Chuyn Nguyn Hu 2014 - Ln 2) Hai ngun kt hp A v B dao ng theo phng vung
gc vi b mt cht lng vi phng trnh cos .
A B
x A x t = = V trn b mt cht lng mt elip nhn A v
B l tiu im. Hai im M v N nm trn elip v nm trn hai ng dao ng cc i lin tip. So snh
pha dao ng ti M v N, ta c
A. M v N lch pha .
4

B. M v N ngc pha. C. M v N cng pha. D. M v N lch pha .


2


Hng dn :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
M 2 1 1 2
1M 2M 1N 2N
1M 2M 1N 2N
Phng trnh song tai M thuoc mi en gi ao thoa:
u 2A cos d d cos t d d
* M,N thuoc mot el i p d d d d 2a hang so
cos t d d cos t d d
* M, N thuoc hai
| | | | t t
= e +
| |

\ . \ .
+ = + = =
| | | | t t
e + = e +
| |

\ . \ .
( )
( ) ( )
2M 1M
2M 1M 2N 1N
2N 1N
d d k
cc ai l i en ke: cos d d cos d d
d d k 1
Do o: M vaN ngc pha!
=
| | | | t t
=

| |
=
\ . \ .


Cu 27: Ngun m S
1
cch bc tng mt khong SH = 1m. My thu
S
2
cch tng mt khong S
2
I =9m; HI =5m. Tnh tn s cc tiu
m ghi c l cc i? Vn tc truyn m trong khng kh l 340 (m/s).
A. 194,3 Hz. B. 97,2 Hz.
C. 105,7 Hz. D. 86,34 Hz.

Hng dn :
m phn x ln tng nh nh sng phn x ln gng, nhng khng
mt na bc sng do y l sng dc. m phn x giao thoa vi m
truyn thng t S
1
n S
2
.
im phn x l J chia HI theo t l 9:1 (tam gic ng dng) AB v J B
gn song song nn c th giao thoa.
AJ +J B AB =1,75m.
Cc i nu :
340
k k. 1, 75 vi k = 1 f = 194,3 Hz
f
= =

Cu 28: Hai ngun kt hp S
1
, S
2
cch nhau khong S
1
S
2
=2d c tn
s 50Hz gy ra sng trn mt nc trong mt chu ln. Ngi ta t
mt ci a nha trn bn knh r =1,2 cm ln y nm ngang ca
chu, tm a l S
2
. Vn tc ca sng ch nc su l v
1
=0,4 m/s;



ch nc nng hn v c a, vn tc l v
2
<v
1
. Tm gi tr ln nht
ca v
2
, bit ng trung trc ca S
1
S
2
l mt ng nt (bin dao
ng cc tiu) v r <d.

A. 0,2 m/s. B. 0,1 m/s. C. 0,3m/s. D. 0,15m/s.
Hng dn : T =0,02 s.
Sng i t S
1
n A mt thi gian t
1
=d/v
1

Sng i t S
2
n A mt thi gian : t
2
=r/v
2
+(d r)/v
1

t =t
2
t
1
=0,012/v
2
0,03. Trung im ca S
1
S
2
l cc tiu giao thoa nu hai sng ti ngc pha nhau.
( ) ( ) ( )
k 0
2 2 max
2 T 0,6
t t 2k 1 t 2k 1 v v 0,3 m / s
T 2 k 2
=
t
A = eA = A = + t A = + = =
+

Cu 29: Trn mt h nc yn lng, ti hai im A v B cch nhau 3,0m c hai ngun ng b ging
nhau dao ng theo phng vung gc vi mt nc vi chu k l 1,00 s. Cc sng sinh ra truyn trn mt
nc vi tc 1,2m/s. O l trung im ca on AB. Gi P l mt im rt xa so vi khong cch l =AB
v to gc POx u = vi Ox l trung trc ca AB. Khi P nm trn ng cc tiu gn trung trc ca AB
nht, gc c ln:
A. 11,53
0
. B. 23,58
0
. C. 61,64
0
. D. 0,4
0
.
Hng dn : =1,2m
P rt xa ngun, da vo hnh v ta thy :
d
2
d
1
=d = AB.sin
P thuc cc tiu giao thoa :
d
2
d
1
=d = AB.sin =(k +0,5)
Theo bi k = 0 sin =0,2 =11,53
0
.


III. IN XOAY CHIU.
Cu 30: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 - Ln 1) Trong qu trnh truyn ti in nng i xa, in nng ni
tiu th khng i. Coi cng dng in trong qu trnh truyn ti lun cng pha vi in p. Ban u
gim in p trn dy bng n ln in p ni truyn i. Sau , ngi ta mun gim cng sut hao ph
trn ng dy i m ln th phi tng in p ni truyn i ln bao nhiu ln?
A. . m n / ] n m [ + B. . m / ] n ) n 1 ( m [ + C. . m / )] n 1 ( n m [ + D.
. m n / ] 1 ) n 1 ( mn [ +
Hng dn :




Cu 31: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L1) t in p ft 2 cos 2 U u t = (trong U khng i, f thay i
c) vo hai u on mch gm R v C mc ni tip. Khi tn s l
1
f hoc
1 2
f 3 f = th h s cng sut
tng ng ca on mch l
1
cos v
2
cos vi . cos 2 cos
1 2
= Khi tn s l 2 / f f
1 3
= h s cng sut
ca on mch
3
cos bng
A. . 4 / 7 B. . 5 / 7 C. . 4 / 5 D. . 5 / 5

Cu 32: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L3) t mt hiu in th xoay chiu ) V ( t 100 cos 2 120 u t = vo hai
u mt mch in xoay chiu ni tip gm
1
R v cun dy thun cm L th u lch pha so vi i l , 4 t
ng thi . A 2 5 , 1 I = Sau , ni tip thm vo mch trn in tr
2
R v t C th cng sut ta nhit trn
2
R l . W 90 Gi tr ca
2
R v C phi l
A. ). F ( 10 v 40
4
t O

B. ). F ( 10 v 50
4
t O

C. ). F ( 10 . 5 , 2 v 40
4
t O

D.
). F ( 10 . 5 , 2 v 50
4
t O


Hng dn :
Cch 1 : Cch gii ny c v "t o"

Cch 2 :
* Mch R
1
L c
( )
1 L
Z U
R Z 40
2 2.I
= = = = O
* Mch R
1
LR
2
C

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
R2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 L C 2 C
2 2 2
2
2 C 2 2 C
C
120 R U
P I R .R 90
R R Z Z 40 R 40 Z
40 R 0
3 40 R 3 40 Z 480R 40 R 3. 40 Z 0
40 Z 0
= = =
+ + + +
=

+ + = + =

=


Cu 33: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 ln 3) t hiu in th xoay chiu ) V ( ) t 100 cos( U u
0
+ t = hai u
on mch ni tip theo th t gm
2 1
R , R v cun thun cm c t cm L thay i c. Bit
. 3 200 R 2 R
2 1
O = = iu chnh L cho n khi hiu in th tc thi gia hai u on mch cha
2
R v L
lch pha cc i so vi hiu in th hai u on mch. Gi tr ca t cm lc l
A. ). H ( / 2 L t = B. ). H ( / 3 L t = C. ). H ( / 4 L t = D. ). H ( / 1 L t =
Hng dn:


Cu 34: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 ln 3) C ba dng c gm in tr thun , 30 R O = cun cm thun L
v t in C. t in p xoay chiu ) V ( ) t cos( U u
0
+ e = ln lt vo hai u on mch ni tip gm
RL v RC khi cng dng in trong mch ) A ( ) 7 t cos( 6 i
1
t + e = v ). A ( ) 21 10 t cos( 6 i
2
t + e = t
in p trn vo hai u on mch RLC mc ni tip th cng sut mch in lc bng
A. . W 960 B. . W 720 C. . W 480 D. . W 240
Hng dn :

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
01 02 RL RC
2 2
1 2 1 2 L C
RL RC
i1 i 2 2 1
2 2
RL L 1 RL
2
L C max
I I Z Z
R R R
cos ; cos Z Z 10 3
Z Z 2 6
3
3
* Z R Z 20 3 U I .Z 60 6 V
U
* Mach RLC Cong hng do Z Z P 720 W
R

= =

t
= = = = = = = = O
`

t
= =

)
= + = O = =
= = =

Cu 35: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 ln 3) Mt my pht in xoay chiu mt pha c cng sut P =4932
kW cung cp in thp sng bnh thng 66 bng n dy tc cng loi W 60 V 220 mc song song
vi nhau ti mt ni kh xa my pht. Coi in tr cc on dy ni cc bng vi hai dy ti l rt nh
v u cng pha i. Hiu in th hiu dng hai cc ca my pht bng
A. 274 V. B. 254 V. C. 296 V. D. 300 V.
Hng dn :

Cu 36: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1)

Hng dn :



Cu 37: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1

Hng dn :

Cu 38: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) in p u =U
0
cos(100.t) (t tnh bng s) c t vo hai u
on mch gm cun dy v t in mc ni tip. Cun dy c t cm L =0,15/ (H) v in tr r =
5 3 , t in c in dung C =10
-3
/ (F). Ti thi im t
1
(s) in p tc thi hai u cun dy c gi
tr 15 V, n thi im t
2
=t
1
+1/75 (s) th in p tc thi hai u t in cng bng 15 V. Gi tr ca U
0

bng
A. 15 V. B. 30 V. C. 15 3 V. D. 10 3 V.
Hng dn:
Cch 1



( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
L
d d AB AB
0AM 1 d t
AB C C 0C
0C 1 0C 1 C t
C t
Z 1
tan 3 tan
r 3 6
3
u 15 U cos 100 t 1
6
2 2
* u nhanh pha hn u goc u U cos 100 t
3 3
1 2 2
u 15 U cos 100 t U cos 100 t
75 3 3
* Dethay u
t t
= = = = =
| | t
= = t +
|
\ .
| | t t
= t
|
\ .
( | | | | t t
= = t + = t +
( | |
\ . \ .
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 1 2
0C 0 0d 0
2 2
0 d t d t C t
0d 0C
U U ; U 3U
vau vuong pha nhau U 10 3 V u u
1
U U

= =

= | | | |

| | + =

| |

\ . \ .

Cch 2
Z
L
=15, Z
C
=10

d
Z 10 3 = O; Z =10.
Ta c U
0d
= 3U
0C
; U
0

=U
0C
; u
d
nhanh pha hn
u
C
mt gc 5/6.
M
1
biu din trng thi u
d

ti thi im t
1
; N
1
, N
2

biu din trng thi u
C
ti
thi im t
1
v t
2
.

Gc quay t thi im t
1
n t
2
l =4/3. Ta c =4/3 5/6 =/2. Ta c:
2 2 2 2
0 0
0 0 0 0
15 15 15 15
1 1 10 3
3
C
C d C C
U V U
U U U U
| | | | | | | |
+ = + = = = | | | |
|
\ . \ . \ .
\ .

Cu 39: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) on mch xoay chiu gm in tr R
0
mc ni tip vi mt
hp kn X. Khi t vo hai u mch mt in p xoay chiu c gi tr hiu dung U th in p hiu dng
hai u R
0
v hp X ln lt l 0,8U v 0,5U. H s cng sut ca mch chnh bng
A. 0,87. B. 0,67. C. 0,50. D. 0,71.
Hng dn :
2 2 2 2 2
0
0
1 0,8 0,5
cos 0,87
2 . 2.1.0,8
R X
R
U U U
UU

+ +
= = = .
Cu 40: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) Mt trm h p cp in cho mt nng tri thp sng cc
bng n si t cng loi c in p nh mc 220 V. Nu dng 500 bng th chng hot ng ng nh
mc, nu dng 1500 bng th chng ch t 83,4% cng sut nh mc. Coi in tr ca bng n khng
i. in p ra cun th cp ca my h p l
A. 310 V. B. 250 V. C. 271 V. D. 231 V.
I
U
R0
U

U
X


I
/3
5/
6
U
d
U
C 4/
3
15
u
U
0d
U
0C
5/
6

M
1
N
1
N
2
O



Hng dn: - Gi in p ni pht l U
1
; in p ni tiu th
l U
2
. in tr cc n ni tiu th l R
tt
; in tr ng dy
l R.
- Th nghim 1 : Mc 500 n song song, cc n sng
bnh thng:


( )
( )
2 2
2
tt 2
1
2 1 1
tt 1 2 2
1
1 2
2 1
2 1
tt

U 220 V
I U
P R R
R U N N R
R U I R U R U 1
N R
U U R
U .N
R U N
I
R

=
| | | |


= =
| |


\ . \ .
= = + = +


=


- Th nghim 2: Mc 1500 n song song, hiu sut 83,4%

2
2 2
2 tt 2
tt 1
2 2
2 2
tt

U '
R I ' U'
R' P' I R R R
N N R
U ' .N
I '
R

| | | |

= = = =
| |
\ . \ .


- bi :
( )
2
2
1 2 2
2 2 2
1 2 2
P' R U ' U '
. 0,834 U ' 0,834U 2
P R U U
| |
= = = =
|
\ .

- Khi :
( )
2 2
1 tt 2 2

U ' N
U I ' R U ' .R U ' 3
R
= + = +
- Thay R/R


v (2) vo (3) ta c phng trnh :

( )
1 2 1
1 2 2 1 FX 570ES
2 1
U U U 220
U 0,834U N . 1 0,834.220 1500. 1 U 230, 97 V
U N 220.500
| | | |
= + = + ~
| |
\ . \ .

- ny cn b sung thm cc bng trong nng tri phi mc song song
Cu 41: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) t in p xoay chiu u (c gi tr hiu dng U v tn s f thay
i c) vo hai u on mch RLC mc ni tip. Cho R/L =100 rad/s. Nu f =50 Hz th in p u
R

hai u in tr R c gi tr hiu dng bng U. u
R
tr pha /4 so vi u th ta phi iu chnh f n gi tr
f
0
. f
0
gn nht vi gi tr no sau y ?
A. 80 Hz. B. 65 Hz. C. 50 Hz. D. 25 Hz.
Hng dn : Khi f =50Hz th U
R
=U =>Z
L0
=Z
C0

0
1
100 / rad s
LC
= =
.
M R/L =100 rad/s =>R =Z
L0
=100
Khi u
R
chm pha hn u mt gc /4
=>
2 2
2 2 2
100
100 100 0
L C
L
Z Z R L L

= = 100 = .

Cu 42: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) Ni hai cc ca my pht in xoay chiu mt pha vo hai u
mt on mch RLC mc ni tip. Khi rto quay vi tc 17 vng/s hoc 31 vng/s th cng dng
in hiu dng trong mch c cng gi tr. cng dng in hiu dng trong mch t gi tr cc i
th rto phi quay vi tc
A. 21 vng/s. B. 35 vng/s. C. 23 vng/s. D. 24 vng/s.
Hng dn: Ta c U~n, Z
L
~n, Z
C
~1/n. Ta c:
I
U
d
U
/3
U
L
U
C
R R
tt
pht
U1 U2


( )
2 2
2
4 2
1
~
2
= =

+
| |
+ +
+
|
\ .
L C
U n
I
c a bc
R Z Z c
b
a bn
n n
n
.
Biu thc trong cn di mu c dng:
2 2
, 1/ y Ax Bx C x n = + + = .
I
max
khi y
min
khi
( )
2
0
1/ / 2 x n B A = = . M theo Viet:
2 2
1 2 1 2
1/ 1/ / x x n n B A + = + = .
Vy:
( )
0 2 2 2
0 1 2
1 1 1 1
21 v ng
2
n
n n n
| |
= + =
|
\ .
.
Cu 43: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 2) Cho mch in nh hnh v.
C l t xoay cn L l cun dy thun cm. V
1
v V
2
l cc vn k l
tng. iu chnh gi tr ca C s ch ca V
1
cc i l U
1
, khi s
ch ca V
2
l 0,5U
1
. Hi khi
s ch ca V
2
cc i l U
2
, th s ch caV
1
lc l bao nhiu ? in p
xoay chiu hai u A B c gi n nh.

A. 0,7U
2
. B. 0,6U
2
. C. 0,4U
2
. D. 0,5U
2
.
Hng dn: Khi V
1
cc i th Z
C1
=Z
L
=>U
C1
=U
L
=0,5U
1
; U =U
R
=U
1
=>U
R
=2U
L
=>R =2Z
L
.
Khi V
2
cc i:
2 2
2
5
L
C L
L
R Z
Z Z
Z
+
= =
;
2 2
2 2
5
2
L
C
R Z
U U U U
R
+
= = =
.
Li c:
( )
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
5
5 2 5 0
2 2
R
R L C R R R
U
U U U U U U U U U U
| |
= + = + + =
|
|
\ .
.
2
2 2 2
1 2 2
5 2 5 1 0 5 0,4
5 5 5
R R R
R R
U U U
U U U U U U
U U U
| |
+ = = = = = =
|
\ .
.
Cu 44: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 4

Hng dn : Chn A

( )
( )
( ) ( )
R R R D
L D
D D R D
2 1 2 1
C L R R
1 2 1 1
C
L
2
C
C L L
U U ' U ' U '
* V trong 2 trng hp R vaZ khong oi nen : cos 3
U U ' U U
* 90 cos si n
Z Z U U '
* cos & cos si n tan 3 1
U U R
Z
Z
1
3
* Tng ttan 2
3 R
Z
T1 2 Z Z 9 Z
3
= = = =
= =

= = = = =

= =
=
( )
( )
C
L
d
2 2 2
2
L
C L
Z 5R
Z 2R
U U 30 U
* TH1 U 30 2 V
R 5 R 10 R Z
R Z Z
= | |

|
=
\ .
= = =
+
+

Cu 45: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 1) t in p xoay chiu vo hai u on mch RLC ni tip,
cun dy thun cm. Khi ni tt t C th in p hiu dng gia hai u in tr R tng 3 ln v dng in
trong hai trng hp vung pha vi nhau. H s cng sut lc sau bng:
C
A B
R
r,L
V2 V1


2 1 1 3
A. B. C. D.
5 10 5 10

Hng dn : Chn D
Cch 1
( )
( )
2
2R 1R 1 2 1
1 2
1 2 1 2 2 1
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
cos R R
U 3U Z 3Z cos 1
Z 3z 3
i i si n cos 2
2
cos
cos si n 1 cos 1
3
3
cos 0, 949
10

= = = = =
t
+ = =
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .
= =

Cch 2
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1R
1
1 2R 1R
2 2R
2
2 1 1 2
2 2
U 3U
U
Ban au : cos
cos 1
U
1
cos 3 U
Luc sau : cos
U
Theo ebai : cos si n 2
2
1 3
1 2 tan cos
3
10
=

=
`

=

)
t
+ = =
= =

Cu 46: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 4) Cho mch in xoay chiu RLC c CR
2
< 2L. t vo hai u
on mch mt in p xoay chiu c biu thc u =U. 2cos(et) , trong U khng i, e bin thin.
iu chnh gi tr ca e in p hiu dng gia hai bn t t cc i. Khi U
L
=0,1U
R
. Tnh h s
cng sut ca mch khi .
A.
1
17
B.
1
26
C.
2
13
D.
3
7

Hng dn:
Cch 1:

( ) L C
1 2 2
R
FX 570ES
2 2
U
1
tan . tan . tan
U 2
1
tan 5 cos 0,196
26
o o = o =
o = o = =



Cch 2

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
C C
C max
C
L R C
2
2 2 2 2
C C C
C
2 2
2
2
C
C
L R
X L R
C 2
L 1
U
L L C 2
U L
U
U 0,1U 0,1. .R L 0,1R 2
Z Z
L R 1
Thay 2 vao 1 .L L 1 50 51 L 5,1R
C 2 C
R R 1
cos
26
R 0,1R 5,1R 1
R L
C

e = = e =

= = e =

= e + = e + = e =
e
= = =
| | +
+ e
|
|
e
\ .

Cu 47: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 Ln 4) on mch AB gm hai hp en X, Y mc ni tip, trong mi
hp ch cha mt linh kin thuc loi in tr thun, cun dy hoc t in. t vo hai u on mch
Z
C(C)
- Z
L(C)
2

1


Z
L(C)
R
O
Z


AB mt in p
( )
u 100 2cos2 f t V = t vi f thay i c. Khi iu chnh tn s n gi tr f
0
th in p
hiu dng gia hai u hp X v Y ln lt l U
X
=200(V) v
( )
Y
U 100 3 V = . Sau bt u tng f th
cng sut ca mch tng. H s cng sut ca on mch AB lc tn s c gi tr f
0
l:
A. 0,5. B.
1
2
. C. 1. D.
3
2
.
Hng dn :

2
0 2 2
L
* Mach ti eu thucong suat nen bat buoc phai coR.
U .R
* Neu mach khong coC, khi tang f tgi atrf th Z tang nen P = segi am. Trai vi e
R Z
Mach bat buoc phai coC.
+

( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
X Y R C X Y
* X l aC Y l ag?
* U U U Y khong thechcha R v neu chcoR, mach RC l uon coU U U U U
Y phai l acuon day.

= + = + = +


* GVT
D dng tnh c :
100 3 3
cos
200 2
= =


Cu 48: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 - Ln 4) Mch in xoay chiu gm bin tr, cun dy khng thun cm
v t in ghp ni tip. t vo hai u on mch in p c biu thc l
( )
u U 2 si n t V = e . Trong
U v khng i. Khi bin tr R =75 th cng sut tiu th trn bin tr t gi tr ln nht. Xc nh
in tr thun ca cun dy v tng tr ca mch AB; bit rng chng u c gi tr nguyn.
A. r =15 v Z =100. B. r =35 v Z =105.
C. r =21 v Z =120. D. r =12 v Z =157.
Hng dn:

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
L C L C
R
max
2 2
L C
2 2
2
R r Z Z R r Z Z
P
r R 75
* Z R r Z Z 2R R r 150 75 r 5 6 75 r
* Do r vaZ nguyen nen 75 + r = 6k r 6k 75
* Vi 0 < r = 6k 75 75 3, 53 k 5 k 4 r 21 Z 120

= + =


< = O

= + + = + = + = +
=
< < < = = O = O

U
X
=200
Y
U 100 3 =
U=100



Cu 49: (Chuyn khtn 2014 - Ln 4) Ti mt im M c mt my pht in xoay chiu mt pha c cng
sut pht in v hiu in th hiu dng hai cc ca my pht u khng i. Ni hai cc ca my pht
vi mt trm tng p c h s tng p l k t ti . T my tng p in nng c a ln dy ti cung
cp cho mt xng c kh cch xa im M. Xng c kh c cc my tin cng loi, cng sut khi hot
ng l nh nhau. Khi h s k =2 th xng c kh c ti a l 120 my tin cng hot ng. Khi h s k
=3 th xng c kh c ti a 130 my tin cng hot ng. Do xy ra s c trm tng p, ngi ta phi
ni trc tip dy ti in vo hai cc ca my pht in. Khi xng c kh c th cho ti a bao nhiu
my tin cng hot ng. Coi rng ch c hao ph trn dy ti in lng k. in p v dng in trn
dy ti in lun cng pha.
A. 120 B. 84. C. 93. D. 66.
Hng dn :
- Khng dng tng p :
( ) ( )
P P kx 1 k l a somay, x l acong suat ti eu thumot may = A +
- Tng p vi h s 2 (hao ph gim 4 ln) : P =P/4 + 120.x (2)
- Tng p vi h s 3 (hao ph gim 9 ln) : P =P/4 + 130x (3)
- T (2) v (3) 5P = 690x x =P/138 ; P = 12P/23 (4). Thay vo (1) c k =66
Cu 50: Chuyn Nguyn Hu 2014 - Ln 2 on mch AB gm hai on mch AM v MB mc ni
tip. on mch AM c in tr
1
20 R = O mc ni tip vi t in C, on mch MB c in tr
2
R mc
vi cun dy thun cm c t cm L. t vo hai u on mch AB in p xoay chiu c gi tr hiu
dng v tn s khng i th cng dng in tc thi sm pha
12

so vi in p ca hai u on
mch. in p gia hai u on mch AM v MB lch pha
2

v gi tr hiu dng ca in p gia hai


im A, M gp 3 ln gi tr hiu dng ca in p gia hai im M, B. Gi tr ca
2
R l
A. 30O B. 20O C. 20 3O D.
20
3
O
V gin :
t Uab=U (Hiu dng). Tam gic AMB vung ti M
nn
1
2
2 2
1 2
1 1
2.
3
tan / / 6
2
.cos
4 2 2
3 1 20
2 2 3 3
AM R
AM
R MB
R
R
R
U U
MB AM U U
U
U U
U R
U U R
U R

= = =

= =

= = = = O

Cu 51: (Chuyn Nguyn Hu 2014 - Ln 3) on mch AB gm hai on mch AM v MB mc ni
tip. on mch AM gm in tr
1
R mc ni tip vi t C c in dung
3
10
2
F

, on mch MB l cun
A
M
B
N
1 R
U
2 R
U

/12
H


dy c in tr
2
R v t cm L. t gia hai u on mch AB in p xoay chiu
2cos10 0 0 6 V u t = th in p hiu dng gia hai im A v M l 24 5V , nu ni tt hai u t C
bng dy dn c in tr khng ng k th in p hiu dng ca hai on AM v MB ln lt l
20 2V v 20 5 . V H s cng sut trn mch AB khi cha ni tt l
A. 0,86 B. 0,81 C. 0,95 D. 0,92
Zc=200O. Khi ni tt C. nh l hm s cos tam
gic AMB
2 2 2
2 ' 1 2
' 2
1 1
cos cos
2. . 10 10
' .cos 10 2 2
' .sin 30 2 3
AM BM
AM BM
R M B
L M B L
U U U
U U
U U V R R
U U V Z R

+
= = =
= = =
= = =

Ban u:


( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2 2
2
1 2
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
1
2
5
9 3
.
4 2
5 5 18 4 12 13 12 0
100
200 300 tan os 0,95
300
C C
AM
L C
C
C C C C C
C L
R Z R Z
U
U
R R Z Z
R R Z
R Z R Z R Z R R Z Z
R Z Z c
+ +
= = =
+ +
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .
+ = + =
= = O = O = =

Cu 52: t in p xoay chiu

u=200 2cos(t+ )V
6
vi bin thin vo hai on mch RLC ni tip
vi cun dy thun cm. Thay i e n khi t s
9
41
L
C
Z
Z
= th in p hiu dng hai u t in cc i.
Gi tr cc i l
A. 200 V. B. 200 2 V. C. 205 V. D. 250 V.
Thay i C sao cho Ucmax khi
max
2
1
C
C
L
U
U
f
f
=
| |

|
\ .
Trong
2
1
2
C
L R
L C
= l tn s khi in th trn
t t gi tr cc i.
2
1 1
2
L
C
L R
C
=

l tn s khi hiu in th trn cun dy t cc i. =>


2
1
.
L C o
LC
= = Vi
0
tn s khi trong mch xy ra hin tng cng hng.
Vy:
2 2
1
2 2
C
L
f C L R R C
f L C L
| |
= =
|
\ .
Vi
A
M
B
N
1 R
U
2 R
U

M


B


( )
2 2 2 2 2
2
64 64 32 32
2
9 9 2 9 41
L
L C L
Z L R C LC
R Z Z Z
L

= = = = =
Vy
max
2 2
200
205
9
1
1
41
C
C
L
U
U V
f
f
= = =
| | | |

|
|
\ .
\ .



IV. DAO NG IN T
Cu 53: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1)

Hng dn :

Cu 54: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) Cho mch dao ngLC ang c dao ng in t t do, in
tch cc i trn mt bn t l Q
0
. Dy dn ni mch dao ng c tit din S, lm bng kim loi c mt
lectron t do l n. Gi v l tc trung bnh ca cc lectron i qua mt tit din thng ca dy cng
mt thi im. Gi tr cc i ca v l
A. v
max
= .
e.n.S
LC Q
0
B. v
max
= .
LC Q
e.n.S
0
C. v
max
= .
Q
LC e.n.S
0
D. v
max
= .
LC e.n.S
Q
0

Hng dn :
0
0 0
Q
I Q
LC
= = .
0
0 max max
Q dq
i enSv I enSv v
dt
enS LC
= = = = .
Cch 2 Ta c:
0 0
max max 0 0 max
Q Q
I neS.v v khi I I Q v
neS
neS LC
e
= = = e = =
Cu 55: (Chuyn KHTN 2014 Ln 4) Cho mch in nh hnh v,
ngun c sut in ng E = 12V, in tr trong r = 1, t in c in
dung C =100F, cun dy c h s t cm L = 0,2(H) v in tr l R
0
=
5; in tr R = 18. Ban u K ng, khi trng thi trong mch n
nh ngi ta ngt kha K. Tnh nhit lng ta ra trn in tr R trong
thi gian t khi ngt K n khi dao ng trong mch ngt hon ton (b
qua mt mt nng lng do bc x in t)

A. 28,45mJ. B. 5,175mJ . C. 25mJ. D. 24,74mJ .
Hng dn :
- Khi ng kha K, ngun in cung cp dng in cho cun dy v np in cho t.
- Nng lng ca mch dao ng khi l :
2 2
ttrng i en trng 0
1 1
W W W LI CU
2 2
= + = +

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
6
0
0
E
I 0, 5 A
1 1
R R r
W .0, 2. 0, 5 .100.10 . 11, 5 31, 61 mJ
2 2
U E I r 12 0, 5.1 11, 5 V

+ = =

+ +
= + =
`

+ = = =
)

- Nhit lng ta ra trn R :
( )
R R0
R R
0
R0 0
Q W Q Q
R
Q .Q 24, 74 mJ Q R
R R
Q R
= = +

= =
`
= +

)

E,r
C
R0, L
k
R


Cu 56: (Chuyn Nguyn Hu 2014 - Ln 2) Mt mch dao ng l tng gm cun cm thun c t
cm L khng i v t in c in dung C thay i c. Khi in dung ca t l
1
C th tn s dao ng
ring ca mch l 30 MHz. T gi tr
1
C nu iu chnh tng thm in dung ca t mt lng C A th tn
s dao ng ring ca mch l f. Nu iu chnh gim t im ca t mt lng 2 C A th tn s dao ng
ring ca mch l 2f. T gi tr
1
C nu iu chnh tng thm in dung ca t mt lng 9 C A th chu k
dao ng ring ca mch l
A.
8
40
.10
3
s

B.
8
4
.10
3
s

C.
8
20
.10
3
s

D.
8
2
.10
3
s


Hng dn :
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
6
0
1
1
1 2 1
1
1 1
6 8 0
1 1
1
f 30.10
2 LC
C C 1 1
f f ; f 2f 2 C 3 C 1
C 2 C
2 L C C 2 L C 2 C
f 1 1 20
f ' 2 f ' 15.10 T ' .10 s
f ' 3
2 L.4C 2 L C 9 C

= =
t
+ A
= = = = = = A
A
t + A t A
= = = = =
t t + A

Cu 57: Chuyn H Vinh 2013 ln 4

Hng dn : Chn A.

2 2
01 02
1 2
2 2
1 2 01 02
1 2
1 2
CU CU
W 4W 4 NL mach1gap4l anNL mach2.
2 2
i 2i LI LI
* Doi l uoncung phai va 4
2 2 u 2u
= = =
| | =

= |

|
=

\ .


( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 1 1 1 1
1 2 1
2
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 1 t 2
2
2 2 t 2 2 2
1
W 120 Li W 40 Li 1 1 1
t t Li . 20 Li 80 2
2 2 4 2 W 30
W W 20
L i ' L i '
W W ' 20 20 4. 20 W ' 5
t t
2 2
W W ' W ' 30 W ' 5 W ' 25

= = +

= = = =

=


= +

= + = = =
=

= + = + =





V. SNG NH SNG
Cu 58: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L1) Trong th nghim Y-ng giao thoa nh sng n sc vi D khng
i, a c th thay i c. Ban u ti im M trn mn quan st l vn sng bc 6. Nu ln lt tng
hoc gim khong cch gia hai khe mt lng a A th ti M l vn sng bc 3k hoc k; by gi nu tng
khong cch gia hai khe thm mt lng a/3 (ngun S lun cch u hai khe) th ti M l vn sng bc
A. 9. B. 7. C. 8. D. 10.
Hng dn :



Cu 59: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1

Hng dn :

Cu 60: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) Trong th nghim Y-ng v giao thoa nh sng, nh sng trng
chiu vo khe S c bc sng t 415 nm n 760 nm. M l mt im trn mn giao thoa, c ng 3
bc x cho vn sng v mt trong ba bc x l bc x mu vng c bc sng 580 nm. M l vn
sng bc my ca bc x mu vng ni trn ?
A. 5. B. 6. C. 3. D. 4.
Hng dn : V tr 3 bc x cho vn sng, vn vng c bc l k
v
.
Ta c: 580
v v v
v v
D k k D
x k k
a a k k

= = = = . M 415 63 1,397
v v
k k k s s 760 0, 7 s s .
k
v
=3: 2,3 k 4,2 => k = 3, 4 (khng tha mn).
k
v
=4: 3,1 k 5,6 => k = 4, 5 (khng tha mn).
k
v
=5: 3,8 k 6,99 => k = 4, 5, 6 (tha mn).
k
v
=6: 4,6 k 8,4 => k = 5, 6, 7, 8 (khng tha mn).
Cu 61: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 4



Hng dn : Chn B
( )
a L D
7, 63 %
a L D
A A A A
o = = + + =


(Xem cng thc SGK bi thc hnh o bc sng nh sng bng hin tng giao thoa)




VI. LNG T NH SNG
Cu 62: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 Ln 3) lectron trong nguyn t Hidr chuyn t qu o dng c
mc nng lng ln v qu o dng c mc nng lng nh hn th vn tc lectron tng ln 2,5 ln.
lectron chuyn t qu o
A. O v L. B. O v K. C. N v K. D. N v L.
Hng dn :

2
0
0
kq
2 2 2 2 at v
mr
2 0
2 2
0
2
5
v v q kq kq
Khi el ectron chuyen ong tren quyao : m k v v
r mr n r m.n .r
v
2, 5 Chuyen tO L
v
=
= = = =
=

Cu 63: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 1

Hng dn :





VII. VT L HT NHN
Cu 64: (Chuyn H Vinh 2014 L3) K hiu c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng. Mt ht vi m,
c nng lng ngh E
0
v c vn tc bng 12c/13 th theo thuyt tng i hp, nng lng ton phn ca
n bng
A. . 12 / E 13
0
B. . E 4 , 2
0
C. . E 6 , 2
0
D. . 13 / E 25
0

Hng dn :
0 0 0 0
2
1
E W E 1 E E 2, 6E
v
1
c
| |
|
|
= + = + =
|
|
| |

|
|
|
\ .
\ .

Cu 65: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) i vi nhng ht c tc ln, nu tnh ng nng theo c hc
c in W

=m
0
v
2
/2 th s c sai s ng k. Nu mt ht c sai s ni trn l 5% th ht c nng lng ton
phn gp bao nhiu ln nng lng ngh ?
A. 1,035. B. 1,065. C. 1,084. D. 1,104.
Hng dn : ng nng tng i tnh:
2
0
2 2
1
1
1 /
K m c
v c
| |
=
|
\ .
. ng nng c in:
2
0
1
W
2
d
m v = .
* ng nng tng i tnh ng trong mi trng hp, ng nng c in c sai s l 5% tc l
tnh chnh xc ca n l 95% so vi ng nng tng i tnh:

2
2 2
0 0 2
2 2
2
0 0
W 1 1 1 1
0,95% 0,95 1 0,95 1 0,0663
2 2 1
1 /
1
1,035
1
| |
| |
= = = = =
|
|
\ . \ .
= = =

d
v
m v m c x x
K c x
v c
E m
E m
x
.
Cu 66: (Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 3) Cho phn ng ht nhn . MeV 8 , 23 He X D
4
2
2
1
+ + Nc trong
thin nhin cha 0,003% khi lng ng v D
2
1
(c trong nc nng D
2
O). Hi nu dng ton b teri
c trong 1 tn nuc thin nhin lm nhin liu cho phn ng trn th nng lng thu c l bao nhiu ?
Ly khi lng nguyn t teri l 2u.
A. 6,89.10
13
J . B. 1,72.10
13
J. C. 5,17.10
13
J . D. 3,44.10
13
J .
Hng dn :
2 2
23 24
30
30 2 . 2. .6,023.10 4,5.10
4
D D D A
m g N n N = = = = .
Phn ng:
2 2 4
1 1 2
23,8 . D D He MeV + + Mi phn ng cn 2 ht nhn D.
Nng lng ta ra t 1 tn nc:
24 13 13
1
W .4,5.10 .23,8.1,6.10 1,72.10
2
J

= = .
Cu 67: Chuyn H Tnh 2014 - Ln 4

Hng dn : Chn

( ) ( )
( )
2
D p n
20
p n
E m m m c 2, 2356 MeV
Gay ra phan ng hat nhan tren
NL cua ti a can cung cap e
+ Cung cap cho hai hat san pham mot ong nang ban au
hf E W W f 6, 46.10 Hz

A = =
+

= A + + =