*
fluid of Mass
fluid a of Volume
volume Specific
Thus specific volume is the reciprocal of mass density. It is e%pressed as m
3
/&g. It is commonly
applied to gases.
'.!Specific (ravity# Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight density of a fluid to the
weight density of a standard fluid.
water of density Weight
liquid of density Weight
gravity Specific
"IS)*SIT+#
"iscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the movement of
one layer of fluid over ad,acent layer of the fluid. hen two layers of a fluid. a distance /dy0 apart.
move one over the other at different velocities. say u and u1du as shown in figure. The viscosity
together with relative velocity causes a shear stress acting $etween the fluid layers.
The top layer causes a shear stress on the ad,acent lower layer while the lower layer causes a
shear stress on the ad,acent top layer. This shear stress is proportional to the rate of change of
velocity with respect to y.
dy
du
dy
du
where 2 is the constant of proportionality and is &nown as the co3efficient of dynamic viscosity or
only viscosity.
dy
du
represents the rate of shear strain or rate of shear deformation or velocity
gradient.
,
_
dy
du
Thus the viscosity is also defined as the shear stress re4uired to produce unit rate of shear strain.
/'M%&())#0#!#T1:
/omressibility is the recirocal of the bulk modulus of elasticity, 2
which is defined as the ratio of comressive stress to volumetric strain.
/onsider a cylinder fitted with a iston as shown in figure.
!et 34 3olume of a gas enclosed in the cylinder
%4 %ressure of gas when volume is 3
!et the ressure is increased to 5d, the volume of gas decreases from 3 to 36d3.
Then increase in ressure 4d kgf+m
.
$ecrease in volume4 d3
3olumetric )train 4
V
dV
/omressibility is given by 4
K
*
&elationshi between 2 and ressure () for a 7as:
The relationshi between bulk modulus of elasticity (2) and ressure for a gas for two
different rocesses of comarison are as:
(i) For #sothermal %rocess: The relationshi between ressure () and density (5)
of a gas as
p
6 )onstant
V
6 )onstant
7ifferentiating this e4uation. we get 8p and " are varia$les!
9d" 1"dp 6 or pd"6 3 "dp or p6
dV
Vdp
Su$stituting this value : 6p
8ii! ;or adia$atic process. ;or adia$atic process
p
)onstant or p"
&
6 )onstant
S<=;>)? T?NSI*N#
Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of a li4uid in contact with
a gas or on the surface $etween two two immisci$le li4uids such that the contact surface $ehaves
li&e a mem$rane under tension.
/aillarity:
/aillarity is defined as a henomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small
tube relative to the ad8acent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the
liquid. The rise of liquid surface is known as caillary rise while the fall of the liquid
surface is known as caillary deression. #t is e9ressed in terms of cm or mm of liquid.
#ts value deends uon the secific weight of the liquid, diameter of the tube and surface
tension of the liquid.
T1%() 'F F!"#$ F!'::
*.) )teady and "nsteady Flows: )teady flow is defined as that tye of flow in which the
fluid characteristics like velocity, ressure, density etc. at a oint do not change with
time. Thus for steady flow, mathematically, we have

t
3
  o
; , y , 9
,
_
,

t
  
; , y , 9
,
_
,

t
  
; , y , 9
,
_
where (9

, y

, ;

) is a fi9ed oint in a fluid field.
"nsteady flow is tye of flow, in which the velocity, ressure, density at a oint
changes with resect to time. Thus, mathematically, for unsteady flow
, 
t
3
  
; , y , 9
,
_

t
  
; , y , 9
,
_
etc.
.. "niform and <on6uniform flows: "niform flow is defined as that tye of flow in
which the velocity at any given time does not change with resect to sace (i.e., length of
direction of flow). Mathematically, for uniform flow

s
3
t tan cons t
,
_
3 /hange of velocity
s !ength of flow in the direction ).
<on6 uniform flow is that tye of flow in which the velocity at any given time
changes with resect to sace. Thus, mathematically, for non6uniform flow,

s
3
t tan cons t
,
_
,. !aminar and Turbulent Flow: !aminar Flow is defined as that tye of flow in which
the fluid articles move along well6defined aths or stream6lines and all the streamlines
are straight and arallel. Thus the articles move in laminas or layers gliding smoothly
over the ad8acent layer. This tye of flow is also called stream6line flow or viscous flow.
Turbulent flow is that tye of flow in which the fluid articles move in a ;ig6;ag way.
$ue to the movement of the fluid articles in a ;ig6;ag way, the eddies formation takes
lace which are resonsible for high energy loss. For a ie flow, the tye of flow is
determined by a non6dimensional number
3$
called the &eynold number.
:here $4 $iameter of ie
34 Mean velocity of flow in ie
.
&?T( 'F F!': '& $#)/A?&7( (B):
#t is defined as the quantity of a fluid flowing er second through a section of a ie
or a channel. For an incomressible fluid (or liquid) the rate of flow or discharge is
e9ressed as the volume of fluid flowing across the section er second. For comressible
fluids, the rate of flow is usually e9ressed as the weight of fluid flowing across the
section. Thus
(i) For liquids the units of B are m
,
+s or liters+s
(ii)For gases the units of B are kgf+s or <ewton+s
/onsider a fluid flowing flowing through a ie in which
?4 /ross6sectional area of ie.
34 ?verage area of fluid across the section
Then discharge B4? v
/'<T#<"#T1 (B"?T#'<:
The equation based on the rincile of conservation of mass is called continuity
equation. Thus for a fluid flowing through the ie at all the cross6section, the quantity of
fluid er second is constant. /onsider two cross6sections of a ie as shown in figure.
!et 3
*
4?verage velocity at cross6section at *6*
*
4$ensity at section *6*
?
*
4?rea of ie at section *6*
?nd 3
.
, 5
.
, ?
.
are corresonding values at section .6.
Then rate of flow at section *6* 4 3
*
*
?
*
&ate of flow at section .6. 4 3
.
.
?
.
?ccording to law of conservation of mass
&ate of flow at section *6* 4 &ate of flow at section .6.
*
?
*
3
*
4
.
?
.
3
. CCCCCCC..
(*)
The above equation is alicable to the comressible as well as incomressible
fluids is called /ontinuity (quation. #f the fluid is incomressible, then
*
4
.
and
continuity equation (*) reduces to
?
*
3
*
4 ?
.
3
.
The diameters of a ie at the sections * and . are *cm and *>cm resectively.
Find the discharge through the ie if the velocity of water flowing through the ie at
section * is >m+s. $etermine the velocity at section ..
ENERGY EQUATION:
This is equation of motion in which the forces due to gravity and ressure are taken
into consideration. This is derived by considering the motion of a fluid element along a
stream6line as:
/onsider a stream6line in which flow is taking lace in )6direction as shown in figure.
/onsider a cylindrical element of cross6section d? and length d). The forces acting on
the cylindrical element are:
*.%ressure force d? in the direction of flow.
..%ressure force
d? ds
s
,
_
+
oosite to the direction of flow.
,.:eight of element
. gd?ds
!et @ is the angle between the direction of flow and the line of action of the weight of
element.
The resultant force on the fluid element in the direction of ) must be equal to the mass
of fluid element 9 acceleration in the ) direction.
s
a 9 d?d) cos gd?d) d? ds
s
d?
,
_
+
6666666666666(*)
where a
s
is the acceleration in the direction of ).
<ow a
s
4
dt
dv
, where v is a function of s and t.
t
v
s
v v
t
v
dt
ds
s
v
{ } v
dt
ds
s
v v
a
s
$ividing by
, dsd?
s
v v
cos g
s

s
v v
cos g
s
+ +
0ut from the figure
ds
d;
cos
 vdv gd;
or 
s
v v
ds
d;
g
s
*
+ +
+ +
 vdv gd;
+ +
66666666666666666(.)
The above equation is known as (ulerDs equation of motion.
0ernoulliDs equation is obtained by integrating the above (ulerDs equation of motion.
t tan cons vdv gd;
+ +
#f the flow is incomressible, 5 is a constant and
t tan cons
.
v
g;
.
+ +
t tan cons
g .
v
;
g
.
+ +
t tan cons ;
g .
v
g
.
+ +
666666666666(,)
The above equation is known as 0ernoulliDs equation.
g .
v
.
kinetic energy er unit weight or kinetic Aead
;4 otential energy er unit weight or otential Aead
?))"M%T#'<):
The following are the assumtions made in the derivation of 0ernoulliDs equation:
(i)The fluid is ideal, i.e. viscosity is ;ero (ii)The flow is steady
(iii)The flow is incomressible (iv)The flow is irrotational
Statement of Bernoullis Theorem:
#t states in a steady, ideal flow of an incomressible fluid, the total energy at any
oint of the fluid is constant. The total energy consists of ressure energy, kinetic energy
and otential energy or datum energy. These energies er unit weight of the fluid are:
%ressure energy
g
2inetic energy
g .
v
.
$atum energy ;
Thus mathematically, 0ernoulliDs theorem is written as
t tan cons ;
g .
v
w
.
+ +
!=T3 33 %(?, T+2?!5+ C32C!(A2 C?="!3T$
;A* *; "IS)*<S ;A<I7 TB=*<(B )I=)<A>= 9I9?#
;or the flow of viscous fluid through circular pipe. the velocity distri$ution across a section. the
ratio of ma%imum velocity to average velocity. the shear stress distri$ution and drop of pressure for
a given length is to $e determined. The flow through circular pipe will $e viscous or laminar. if the
=eynold0s num$er is less than C. The e%pression for =eynold0s num$er is given $y
vd
&
e
where 56 7ensity of fluid flowing through pipe.
" 6 >verage velocity of fluid.
7 6 7iameter of pipe and.
D 6 "iscosity of fluid
)onsider a horiEontal pipe of radius =. The viscous fluid is flowing from left to right in the pipe as
shown in figure. )onsider a fluid element of radius r. sliding in a cylindrical fluid element of radius
8r1dr!. Aet the length of fluid element $e . 9 If /p0 is the intensity of pressure on the face >F. then
the intensity of pressure on the face )7 will $e
. 9
9
,
_
+
The the forces acting on the fluid
element are#
1. The pressure force. p %
.
r on face >F
C. The pressure force
. 9
9
,
_
+
.
r on face )7
3. The shear force.
9 r .
on the surface of fluid element. >s there is no acceleration.
hence the summation of all forces in the direction of flow must $e Eero.
p
.
r 3
. 9
9
,
_
+
.
r 3
9 r .
6
.
r 9
9
3
9 r .
6
 . r
9
.
r
9
333333333333333333381!
The shear stress
is su$stituted in e4uation 81!
Fut in the relation
y
u
. y is measured from the pipe wall. Bence
y 6 = G r and dy 6 3 dr
dr
du
r
u
su$stituting this value in e4uation 81!
.
r
9
dr
du
r
9
.
*
dr
du
=
*
u
.
+
33333333333338C!
where ) is the constant of integration and its value is o$tained from the $oundary condition that
at r6=. u6
/ &
9
=
*

.
+
.
r
9
=
*
/
Su$stituting this value of ) in e4uation 8C!. we get
. .
&
9
=
*
r
9
=
*
u
[ ]
. .
r &
9
=
*
u
3333333333333333333333383!
In e4uation 83! values of
.
9
=
*
"
33333333333333333338'!
The average velocity. u . is o$tained $y dividing the discharge of the fluid across the section
$y the area of the pipe ( )
.
& . The discharge 8I! across the section is o$tained $y considering
the through a ring element of radius r and thic&ness the as shown in fig8$!. The fluid flowing per
second through the elementary ring
dI6 velocity at a radius r % area of ring element
6u % rdr .
6
[ ] rdr . r &
9
=
*
. .
I6
&

&
o
dB [ ] rdr . r &
9
=
*
. .
6
( )rdr r & .
9
=
*
&

. .
,
_
6
( )dr r r & .
9
=
*
&

, .
,
_
6
1
]
1
,
_
=
r
.
r &
.
9
=
*
= . .
6
1
]
1
,
_
=
&
.
&
.
9
=
*
= =
6
1
]
1
,
_
=
&
.
9
=
*
=
6
=
& .
9
E
,
_
>verage velocity. u 6
?rea
B
.
=
&
&
9
,
_
u 6
.
&
9
E
*
,
_
3333333333333338J!
7ividing e4uation 8'! $y e4uation 8J!
 . .
&
9
E
*
&
9
=
*
u
"
.
.
ma9
,
_
E
*
,
_
or
.
&
u E
9
,
_
Integrating the a$ove e4uation w.r.t . %. we get
d9
&
u E
d
*
.
*
.
.
[ ]
. *
[ ]
* *
.
9 9
&
u E
[ ]
. *
[ ]
* .
.
9 9
&
u E
!
&
u E
.
K=6
.
$
L
[ ]
. *
,
$
u! ,.
.
g
. *
6 hf
.
g$
u! ,.
3333333333333333333338M!
?4uation 8M! is called Bagen 9oiseuille ;ormula.
F*<N7>=+ A>+?= ;A*#
hen a real fluid flows past a solid $ody or a solid wall. the fluid particles adhere to the
$oundary and condition of no slip occurs. This means that the velocity of fluid close to the
$oundary will $e same as that of the $oundary. If the $oundary is stationary. the velocity of fluid at
the $oundary will $e Eero. ;arther away from the $oundary. the velocity will $e higher and as a
result of this variation of velocity. the velocity gradient
dy
du
will e%it. The velocity of fluid increases
from Eero velocity on the stationary $oundary to free stream velocity 8<! of the fluid in the direction
normal to the $oundary. This variation of velocity from Eero to free stream velocity in the direction
normal to the $oundary ta&es place in a narrow region in the vicinity of solid $oundary. This narrow
region of the fluid is called $oundary layer. The theory dealing with $oundary layer flows is called
$oundary layer theory.
>ccording to $oundary layer theory. the flow of fluid in the neigh$orhood of the solid $oundary
may $e divided into two regions as shown in figure.
1. > very thin layer of the fluid. called the $oundary layer. in the immediate neigh$ourhood of the
solid $oundary. where the variation of velocity from Eero at the solid $oundary to free stream
velocity in the direction normal to the $oundary ta&es place. In this region. the velocity gradient
dt
du
e%ists and hence the fluid e%erts a shear stress on the wall in the direction of motion. The
value of shear stress is given $y
dy
du
C. The remaining fluid. which is outside the $oundary layer. The velocity outside the $oundary
layer is constant and e4ual to free3stream velocity. >s there is no variation of velocity in this region.
the velocity gradient
dt
du
$ecomes Eero. >s a result of this shear stress is Eero.
Aaminar Foundary Aayer# ;or defining the $oundary layer 8i.e.. laminar $oundary layer or
tur$ulent $oundary layer! consider the flow of a fluid. having a free3stream velocity 8<!. over a
smooth thin plate which is flat and parallel to the direction for free stream of fluid as shown in
figure. Aet us consider the flow with Eero pressure gradient on one side of the plate. which is
stationary.
The velocity of fluid on the surface of the plate should $e e4ual to the velocity of the plate. Fut
plate is stationary and hence velocity of fluid on the surface of the plate is Eero. Fut at a distance
away from the plate. the fluid is having certain velocity. Thus a velocity gradient is set up in the fluid
near the surface of the plate. This velocity gradient develops shear resistance. which retards the
fluid. Thus the fluid with a uniform free stream velocity 8<! is retarded in the vicinity of the solid
surface of the plate and the $oundary layer region $egins at the sharp leading edge. >t su$se4uent
points downstream the leading edge. the $oundary layer region increases $ecause the retarded
fluid is further retarded. This is also referred as the growth of $oundary layer. Near the leading
edge of the surface of the plate. where the thic&ness is small. the flow in the $oundary layer is
laminar though the main flow is tur$ulent. This layer of fluid is said to $e laminar $oundary layer.
This is shown $y >? in figure. The length of the plate from the leading edge. upto which laminar
$oundary layer e%ists. is called laminar Eone. This is shown $y distance >F. The distance of F from
leading edge is o$tained from =eynold num$er e4ual to J % 1
J
for a plate. Fecause upto this
=eynold num$er the $oundary layer is laminar.
The =eynold num$er is given $y ( )
9 "
&
9 e
where %6 7istance from leading edge
<6 ;ree3stream velocity of fluid
6 :inematic viscosity of fluid
Bence. for laminar $oundary layer. we have
9 "
* >
>
333333333333381!
If the values of < and are &nown. % or the distance from the leading edge upto which laminar
$oundary layer e%ists can $e calculated.
Tur$ulent Foundary Aayer# If the length of the plate is more than the distance %. calculated from
e4uation 81!. the thic&ness of $oundary layer will go on increasing in the down3stream direction.
Then the laminar $oundary layer $ecomes unsta$le and motion of fluid within it. is distur$ed and
irregular which leads to a transition from laminar to tur$ulent $oundary layer. This short length over
which the $oundary layer flow changes from laminar to tur$ulent is called transition Eone. This is
shown $y distance F) in figure. ;urther downstream the transition Eone. the $oundary layer is
tur$ulent and continuous to grow in thic&ness. This layer of $oundary is called tur$ulent $oundary
layer. which is shown $y the portion ;( in figure.
3.Aaminar Su$3layer# This is the region in the tur$ulent $oundary layer $oundary layer Eone.
ad,acent to the solid surface of the plate as shown in figure. In this Eone. the velocity variation is
influenced only $y viscous effects. Though the velocity distri$ution would $e a para$olic curve in
the laminar su$3layer Eone. $ut in view of the very small thic&ness we can reasona$ly assume that
velocity variation is linear and so the velocity gradient can $e considered constant. Therefore. the
shear stress in the laminar su$3layer would $e constant and e4ual to the $oundary shear stress
.

,
_
L
Foundary Aayer Thic&ness8 !# It is defined as the distance from $oundary of the solid $ody
measured in y3direction to the point. where the velocity of the fluid is appro%imately e4ual to .99
times the free stream 8<! velocity of the fluid. It is denoted $y the sym$ol . ;or laminar and
tur$ulent Eone it is denoted as#
1.
lam6 Thic&ness of laminar $oundary layer.
C.
tur6Thic&ness of tur$ulent $oundary layer. and
3. 06 Thic&ness of laminar su$3layer.
7isplacement thic&ness 8 N!#It is defined as the distance. perpendicular to the $oundary of the
solid $ody. $y which the $oundary should $e displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate
on account of $oundary layer formation. It is denoted $y the sym$ol N. It is also defined as#
The distance. perpendicular to the $oundary. $y which the free stream is displaced due to the
formation of $oundary layer.
dy
"
u
*

F
,
_
Homentum thic&ness 8@!#It is defined as the distance. measured perpendicular to the
$oundary of the solid $ody. $y which the $oundary should $e displaced to compensate for the
reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of $oundary layer formation. It is denoted $y
the sym$ol @.
dy
"
u
*
"
u

,
_
?nergy thic&ness 8 NN!#It is defined as the distance. perpendicular to the $oundary of the solid
$ody. $y which the $oundary should $e displaced to compensate for the reduction in &inetic energy
of the flowing fluid on account of $oundary layer formation. It is denoted $y the sym$ol NN.
dy
"
u
*
"
u
 .
.
F F
,
_
?%pression for loss of head due to ;riction in pipes 87arcy weis$ach0s ?4uation!#
g . d
3 . ! . f =
d
!3
g .
f . =
h
. .
f
The above equation is known as 7arcy3 weis$ach0s e4uation. This is commonly used for
finding loss of head due to friction in pipes.
(quation (>) is written as
g . d
3 . ! . f
h
.
f
Then f is known as friction factor.
A1$&?"!#/ 7&?$#(<T ?<$ T'T?! (<(&71 !#<(:
This concet of hydraulic gradient line and total energy line is very useful in the study
of flow of fluids through ies. They are defined as
*.Aydraulic 7radient !ine: #t is defined as the line which gives the sum of ressure
head (+w) and datum head (;) of a flowing fluid in a ie with resect to some reference
line or it is the line which is obtained by 8oining the to of all vertical ordinates, showing
the ressure head (+w) of a flowing fluid in a ie from the centre of the ie. #t is
briefly written as A.7.! (Aydraulic 7radient !ine).
..Total (nergy !ine: #t is defined as the line which gives the sum of ressure head,
datum head and kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a ie with resect to some reference
line. #t is also defined as the line which is obtained by 8oining the tos of all vertical
ordinates showing the sum of ressure head and kinetic head from the centre of the ie.
#t is briefly written as T.(.! (Total (nergy !ine).
F!': TA&'"7A %#%() #< )(&#() '& F!': TA&'"7A /'M%'"<$ %#%():
A
g . d
3 f! =
*
.
* *
5
g . d
3 f! =
.
.
. .
5
g . d
3 f! =
,
.
, ,
4
1
1
]
1
+ +
,
.
, ,
.
.
. .
*
.
* *
d
3 !
d
3 !
d
3 !
g .
f =
F!': TA&'"7A %?&?!!(! %#%():
!oss of head for branch ie *4 !oss of head for branch ie .
or
g . d
3 ! f =
*
.
* * *
4
g . d
3 ! f =
.
.
. . .
#f f
*
4f
.
, then
g . d
3 !
*
.
* *
4
g . d
3 !
.
.
. .
$imension of &.A.) 4
gA .
4 ! 9
T
!
.
4
.
.
T
!
4
*
!T
T
!
(quation
gh . v
is dimensionally homogeneous.
"ETHODS O# DI"ENSIONA$ ANA$YSIS:
#f the number of variables involved in a hysical henomenon are known, then the
relation among the variables can be determined by the following two methods.
*.&ayleighDs method, and
.. 0uckinghamDs O theorem
*.&ayleighDs method:
This method is used for determining the e9ression for a variable which deends
uon ma9imum three or four variables only. #f the number of indeendent variables
becomes more than four then it is very difficult to find the e9ression for the deendent
variable.
!et G is a variable, which deends on G
*
, G
.
and G
,
variables. Then according to
&ayleighDs method, G is function of G
*
, G
.
and G
,
and mathematically it is written as
G4 f HG
*
, G
.
, G
,
I
This can also be written as G 4 2 G
*
a
. G
.
b
. G
,
c
:here 2 is constant and a, b and c are arbitrary owers.
The values of a, b and c are obtained by comaring the owers of the fundamental
dimension on both sides. Thus the e9ression is obtained for deendent variable.
..0uckinghamDs O theorem:
#f there are n variables (indeendent and deendent variables) in a hysical
henomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, !, T), then the
variables are arranged into (n6m) dimensionless numbers. (ach term is called O term.
Aet G
*
, G
.
, G
,
,CCC G
n
are the variables involved in a hysical roblem. !et G
*
be
the deendent variable and G
.
, G
,
,CCC G
n
are the indeendent variables on which G
*
deends. Then G
*
is a function of G
.
, G
,
,CCC G
n
and mathematically it is e9ressed
as
G
*
4 f (G
.
, G
,
,CCC G
n
) 66666666666666666666(*)
The above equation can also be written as
f
*
(G
*
, G
.
, G
,
,CCC G
n
)4 6666666666666666666(.)
The above (.) is a dimensionally homogeneous equation. #t contains n variables. #f
there are m fundamental dimensions then according to 0uckinghamDs O theorem,
equation (.) can be written on terms of dimensionless grous or O3 terms is e4ual to 8n3m!.
Bence e4uation 8C! $ecomes as
f
*
(O
*
, O
.
, O
,
,CCC O
n6m
)4. 6666666666666(,)
(ach O3 term is dimensionless and is independent of the system. 7ivision or multiplication $y a
constant does not change the character of the O3 term. ?ach O3 term contains m11 varia$les.
where m is the num$er of fundamental dimensions and is also called repeating varia$les. Aet in the
a$ove case G
.
, G
,
, and G
n
are reeating variables if the fundamental dimension m
(M, !,T)4,. Then each O3 term is written as
O
*
4 G
.
a*
.G
,
b*
.G
=
c*
.G
*
O
.
4 G
.
a.
.G
,
b.
.G
=
c.
.G
>
.
.
.
O
n6 m
4 G
.
an6 m
.G
,
b n6 m
.G
=
cm
.G
n
6666666666666666666666(=)
(ach equation is solved by the rincile of dimensional homogeneity and values of a
*
,
b
*
, c
*
etc. are obtained. These values are substituted in equation (=) and values of O
*
, O
.
,
O
,
,CCC O
n6 m
are obtained. These values of O0s are su$stituted in e4uation 83!. The final
e4uation for the phenomenon is o$tained $y e%pressing any one of the O3 terms as a function of
others as
O
*
4 PHO
.
, O
,
,CCC O
n6m
Q
O
.
4 PHO
*
, O
,
,CCC O
n6m
Q 3333333333333333333338J!
Method of selecting Repeating variables: The num$er of repeating varia$les are e4ual to the
num$er of fundamental dimensions of the pro$lem. The choice of repeating varia$les if governed
$y the following considerations.
1. >s far as possi$le. the dependent varia$le should not $e selected as repeating varia$le.
C. The repeating varia$les should $e choosen in such a way that one varia$le contains
geometric property. other varia$le contains flow property and third varia$le contains fluid
property.
"aria$les with geometric property are 8i! Aength. l 8ii! d 8iii! Beight B etc.
"aria$les with flow property are 8i! "elocity. " 8ii! >cceleration etc.
"aria$les with fluid property are 8i! 2 8ii! 5 8iii! w etc.
3. The repeating varia$les selected should not form a dimensionless group.
'. The repeating varia$les together must have the same num$er of fundamental dimensions.
J. No two repeating varia$les should have the same dimensions.
In most of fluid mechanics pro$lems. the choice of repeating varia$les may $e 8i! d. v. 5
8ii! I. v. 5 or 8iii! I. v. 2 or 8iv! d. v. 2.
For redicting the erformance of the hydraulic structures (such as dams, sill ways
etc.) or hydraulic machines (such as turbines, ums etc.), before actually constructing or
manufacturing, models of the structures or machines are made and tests are erformed on
them to obtain the desired information.
The model is the small scale relica of the actual structure or machine. The actual
structure or machine is called rototye. #t is not necessary that the models should be
smaller than the rototyes (though in most of cases it is), they may be larger than the
rototye. The study of models of actual machines is called model analysis. Model
analysis is actually an e9erimental method of finding solutions of comle9 flow
roblems. The followings are the advantages of the dimensional and model analysis.
*.The erformance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily
redicted, in advance, from its model.
.. :ith the hel of dimensional analysis, a relationshi between the variables
influencing a flow roblem in terms of dimensionless arameters is obtained. This
relationshi hels in conducting tests on the model.
,. The merits of alternative designs can be redicted with the hel of model testing. The
most economical and safe design may be, finally, adoted.
=.The tests erformed on the models can be utili;ed for obtaining, in advance, useful
information about the erformance of the rototyes only if a comlete similarity e9ists
between the model and the rototye.
S"I$ITUDE %TY&ES O# SI"I$ARITIES:
)imilitude is defined as the similarity between the model and its rototye in every
resect, which means that the model and rototye are comletely similar. Three tyes of
similarities must e9it between the model and rototye. They are
*. 7eometric )imilarity .. 2inematic )imilarity ,. $ynamic )imilarity
*.7eometric )imilarity:
The geometric similarity is said to e9ist between the model and the rototye if the
ratio of all corresonding linear dimension in the model and rototye are equal.
!
m
4 !ength of model , b
m
4 0readth of model
$
m
4 $ismeter of model ?
m
4 area of model
3
m
4 3olume of model
and !
, 0
, $
, ?
, 3
4/orresonding values of the rototye.
For geometric similarity between model and rototye, we must have the relation,
r
m
!
$
$
b
b
!
!
!
r
is called the scale ratio.
For areaDs ratio and volumeDs ratio the relation should be as given below.
.
r r r
m m
m
! ! !
b !
b !
?
?
,
m
,
m
,
m
$
$
b
b
!
!
3
3
,
_
,
_
,
_
.. 2inematic )imilarity :
2inematic similarity means the similarity of motion between model and
rototye. Thus kinematic similarity is said to e9ist between the model and the rototye
if the ratios of the velocity and acceleration at the corresonding oints in the model and
at the corresonding oints in the rototye are the same. )ince the velocity and
acceleration are vector quantities, hence not only the ratio of magnitude of velocity and
acceleration at the corresonding oints in the model and rototye should be same, but
the directions of velocity and accelerations at the corresonding oints in the model and
rototye also should be arallel.
3
*
4 velocity of fluid at oint * in rototye,
3
.
4 velocity of fluid at oint . in rototye,
a
*
4 ?cceleration of fluid at oint * in rototye,
a
.
4 ?cceleration of fluid at oint . in rototye,
3
m*
, 3
m.
, a
m*
, a
m.
4 /orresonding values at the corresonding oints of fluid
velocity and acceleration in the model.
For kinematic similarity, we have
r
. m
.
* m
*
3
3
3
3
3
where 3
r
is the velocity ratio.
For acceleration, we have
r
. m
.
* m
*
a
a
a
a
a
where a
r
is the acceleration ratio.
?lso the directions of the velocities in the model and rototye should be same.
,. $ynamic )imilarity:
$ynamic similarity means the similarity of forces between the model and rototye.
Thus dynamic similarity is said to e9ist between the model and rototye if the ratios of
the corresonding forces acting at the corresonding oints are equal. ?lso the directions
of the corresonding forces at the corresonding oints should be same.
(F
i
)
, (F
v
)
, (F
g
)
4 /orresonding values of forces at the corresonding oint in model.
Then for dynamic similarity, we have
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
r
m
g
g
m v
v
m i
i
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
where F
r
is the force ratio.
?lso the directions of the corresonding forces at the corresonding oints in the model
and rototye should be same.
DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS:
7imensionless num$ers are those num$ers which are o$tained $y dividing the inertia force
$y viscous force or pressure force or surface tension force or elastic force. >s this is a ratio of one
force to the other force. it will $e a dimensionless num$er. These dimensionless num$ers are also
called non3dimensional parameters. The following are the important dimensionless num$ers#
1. =eynold0s num$er C. ;roud0s num$er
3. ?uler0s num$er '. e$er0s num$er
J. Hach0s num$er
1.!=eynold0s num$er# It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the
viscous force of the fluid. The e%pression for =eynold0s num$er is o$tained as
3d
or
d 3
&
e
C.;roud0s Num$er 8;e! # The ;roud0s Num$er is defined as the s4uare root of the ratio of inertia
force of a flowing fluid to the gravitational force. Hathematically. it is e%pressed as
g
i
e
F
F
F
!g
3
!g
3
?!g
?3
. .
3. ?uler0s num$er 8?u!# It is defined as the s4uare root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing
fluid to the surface tension force. Hathematically. it is e%pressed as
?uler0s num$er
i
u
F
F
(
'. e$er0s num$er 8e!# It is defined as the s4uare root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing
fluid to the surface tension force. Hathematically. it is e%pressed as
e$er0s num$er
g
i
e
F
F
:
J. Hach num$er 8H!# Hach num$er is defined as the s4uare root of the ratio of inertia force of a
flowing fluid to the elastic force. Hathematically. it is e%pressed as
Hach num$er
e
i
F
F
force (lastic
force #nertia
M
.
/
3
M
MODEL LAS OR SIMILARI!" LAS:
1. =eynold0s model law C. ;roud0s model law
3. ?uler0s model law '. e$er0s model law
J. Hach0s model law
#$Re%nold&s 'odel la(: =eynold0s model law is the law in which models are $ased on
=eynold0s num$er. Hodel $ased on =eynold0s num$er includes#
6
r r r
V A
r r r
V L
.
;roude Hodel law# ;roude Hodel law is the law in which the models are $ased on ;roude num$er
which means for dynamic similarity $etween the model and prototype. the ;roude num$er for $oth
of them should $e e4ual. ;roude Hodel law is applica$le when the gravity force is only
predominant force which controls the flow in addition to the force of inertia.
r r
m
! 3
3
3
3. e$er0s Hodel law# e$er0s Hodel law is the law in which models are $ased on e$er0s
num$er which is the ratio of the s4uare root of inertia force to surface tension force. Bence where
surface tension effects predominant in addition to inertia force. the dynamic similarity $etween the
model and prototype is o$tained $y e4uating the e$er num$er of the model and its prototype.
Bence according to this law#
8e!model 6 8e!prototype where e is e$er num$er 6
L
V
J.Hach Hodel law# Hach Hodel law is the law in which models are $ased on Hach num$er
which is the ratio of the s4uare root of inertia force to elastic force of a fluid. Bence where force
due to elastic compression predominant in addition to inertia force. the dynamic similarity $etween
the model and prototype is o$tained $y e4uating the e$er num$er of the model and its
prototype.
Bence according to this law#
8H!model 6 8H!prototype
!=3T 30 2?T? "@=AM3C MAC+3=/$
Bydraulic Hachines are defined as those machines which convert either hydraulic energy
8energy possessed $y water! into mechanical energy 8which is further converted into electrical
energy! or mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The hydraulic machines. which convert the
hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. are called tur$ines.
Tur$ines are defined as the hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical
energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is directly coupled to
the shaft of the tur$ine. Thus the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. The
electric power which is o$tained from the hydraulic energy 8energy of water! is &nown as Bydro3
electro power.
S9?)I;I) S9??7 8Ns!#
It is defined as the speed of a tur$ine which is identical in shape. geometrical dimensions.
$lade angles. gate opening etc.. with the actual tur$ine $ut of such a siEe that will develop unit
power when wor&ing under unit head.
= + >
! "
"
s
)B>=>)T?=ISTI) )<="?S *; B+7=><AI) T<=FIN?#
1.Hain )haracteristic )urves or )onstant Bead )urve
C.*perating )haracteristic )urves or )onstant Speed )urve
3.Huschel )urves or )onstant ?fficiency )urve
)lassification Bydraulic Tur$ines#
1.>ccording to the type of energy at inlet#
8a!Impulse tur$ine. and 8$!=eaction tur$ine
C.>ccording to the direction of flow through runner#
8a! Tangential flow tur$ine 8$! =adial flow tur$ine
8c!>%ial flow tur$ine 8d! Hi%ed flow tur$ine
3.>ccording to the head at inlet of tur$ine#
8a! Bigh head tur$ine 8$! Hedium head tur$ine and 8c! Aow head tur$ine
'.>ccording to the specific speed of tur$ine#
8a! Aow specific speed tur$ine 8$! Hedium specific speed tur$ine and
8a! Bigh specific speed tur$ine
9?AT*N B??A# 8Tangential flow impulse tur$ine!
Hain 9arts#
1.NoEEle and flow regulating arrangement 8Spear! C.=unner and Fuc&ets
3.)asing and '.Frea&ing ,et.
[ ]
[ ] u V V
g g aV
u V V aV
done Wor#
w w
w w
+
. *
*
. * *
*
( )
.
cos *
h
fficiency $ydraulice
=>7I>A ;A* =?>)TI*N T<=FIN?S#
=adial flow tur$ines are those tur$ines in which the water flows in the radial direction. The
water may radially from outwards to inwards 8i.e.. towards the a%is of rotation! or from inwards to
outwards. If the water flows from outwards to inwards through the runner. the tur$ine is &nown as
inward radial flow tur$ine. >nd if the water flows from inwards to outwards through the runner. the
tur$ine is &nown as outward radial flow tur$ine.
Hain 9arts#
1.)asing C.(uide Hechanism 3.=unner and '.7raft tu$e.
Inward radial flow tur$ine#
[ ]
. . * *
*
sec sec u V u V
g
ond per water of weight unit per ond per done Wor#
w w
t
( )
g$
u V u V
efficiency $ydraulic
w w . . * *
t
;rancis Tur$ine# The inward flow reaction tur$ine having radial discharge at outlet is &nown as
;rancis tur$ine.
>RI>A ;A* =?>)TI*N T<=FIN?#
If the water flows parallel to the a%is of the rotation of the shaft. the tur$ine is &nown as a%ial
flow tur$ine. >nd if the head at the inlet of the tur$ine is the sum of pressure energy and &inetic
energy and during the flow of water through runner a part of pressure energy is converted into
&inetic energy. the tur$ine is &nown as reaction tur$ine.
;or a%ial flow reaction tur$ine. the shaft of the tur$ine is vertical. The lower end of the shaft is
made larger which is &nown as /hu$0 or /$oss0. The vanes are fi%ed on the hu$ and hence hu$ acts
as a runner for a%ial flow reaction tur$ine. The following are the important type of a%ial flow reaction
tur$ine.
1.9ropeller tur$ine# hen the vanes are fi%ed to the hu$ and they are not ad,usta$le. the
tur$ine is &nown as propeller tur$ine.
C. :aplan tur$ine# hen the vanes on the hu$ are ad,usta$le. the tur$ine is &nown as :aplan
tur$ine.
The main parts of a :aplan tur$ine are#
1.Scroll casing C.(uide vanes mechanism 3.Bu$ with vanes or runner of the tur$ine and
'.7raft tu$e.
7=>;T T<F?#
The pressure at the e%it of the runner of a reaction tur$ine is generally less than atmospheric
pressure. Thus the water at the e%it of the runner cannot $e directly discharged to the tail race. >
pipe o gradually increasing area is used for discharging water form the e%it of the tur$ine to the tail
race. This pipe of gradually increasing area is called a draft tu$e.
)?NT=I;<(>A 9<H9S#
If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy $y means of centrifugal force acting
on the fluid. the hydraulic machine is called centrifugal pump. The centrifugal pump acts as a
reversed of an inward radial flow reaction tur$ine.
The following are the main parts of a centrifugal pump#
1. Impeller C. )asing 3. Suction pipe with a foot valve and a strainer '.7elivery valve
. .
. sec u V
g
W
ond per water on impeller %y done Wor#
w
. . . * * * f f
V & D V & D water of Volume
here F1 and FC are width of impeller at inlet and outlet and "f1 and "fC are velocities of flow at
inlet and outlet
H<ATIST>(? )?NT=I;<(>A 9<H9S#
If a centrifugal pump consists of two or more impellers. the pump is called a multistage centrifugal
pump. The impellers may $e mounted on the sane shaft or on different shafts. > multistage pump
is having the following two important functions#
1. To produce a high head and C.To discharge a large 4uantity of li4uid
S9?)I;I) S9??7 *; > )?NT=I;<(>A 9<H9 8Ns!#
The specific speed of a centrifugal pump is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar pump
which would deliver one cu$ic meter of li4uid per second against a head of one meter.
= + ,
m
s
$
"
" speed Specific
9riming of a )entrifugal 9ump#
9riming of a )entrifugal 9ump is defined as the operation in which the suction pipe. casing of
the pump and a portion of the delivery pipe up to the delivery valve is completely filled up from
outside source with the li4uid to $e raised $y the pump $efore starting the pump. Thus the air from
these parts of the pump is removed and these parts are filled with the li4uid to $e pumped.
)B>=>)T?=ISTI) )<="?S *; )?NT=I;<(>A 9<H9#
1.Hain )haracteristic )urves
C.*perating )haracteristic )urves. and
3. )onstant ?fficiency or Huschel )urves.
UNIT ' &OSITI'E DIS&$A(E"ENT "A(HINES
=?)I9=*)>TIN( 9<H9S#
If the mechanical energy is converted into hydraulic energy 8or pressure energy! $y suc&ing
the li4uid into a cylinder in which a piston is reciprocating 8moving $ac&wards and forwards!. which
e%erts the thrust on the li4uid and increases its hydraulic energy 8pressure energy!. the pump is
&nown as reciprocating pump.
Hain ports of a reciprocating pump#
1. > cylinder with a piston. piston rod. connecting rod and a cran&. C. Suction pipe
3. 7elivery pipe. '. Suction valve and J.7elivery valve.
@
sec arg
"
L A ond per pump of e Disch
@
sec
gAL"
ond per delivered water of Weight
( )
d s
h h
AL" g
ond per done Wor# +
@
sec
( )
#W
h h AL" g
pump the drive to required !ower
d s
 , @
+
( )
@ = =
sec arg
. . .
"
L d D D ond per pump of e Disch
1
]
1
+
( )
#W
h h AL" g
pump ing reciprocat acting dou%le %y required !ower
d s
 , @
. +
Slip of =eciprocating 9ump#
Slip of a reciprocating pump is defined as the difference $etween the theoretical discharge and
the actual discharge of the pump.
act th
Slip
*
th
act th
slip percentage
)B>=>)T?=ISTI) )<="?S *; =?)I9=*)>T=IN( 9<H9S#
1.>ccording to the water $eing on contact with one side or $oth sides of the piston
8i.! Single acting pump 8ii.! 7ou$le3acting pump
C. >ccording to the num$er of cylinders provided.
8i.! Single acting pump 8ii.! 7ou$le3acting pump 8iii.! Triple3acting pump