You are on page 1of 5



To cover the basic theory and algorithms used in image processing and to develop critical thinking
about issues that are specific to image processing systems.

UNIT I Fundamentals of Image Processing: 12 PERIODS

Digital image fundamentals Elements of visual perception Image model - sampling and
Quantization matrix Vector representation of discrete images Fourier transform and its
properties Discrete Fourier transform Discrete cosine transform Karhunen Leove (KL)
transform Wavelet transform Digital Video Sampled Video Video transmission
Multiframe image restoration.

UNIT II : Image Enhancement: 12 PERIODS

Point operations Contrast stretching Histogram modification techniques Image
smoothening Image sharpening Pseudo and colour processing Image restoration
model Least mean square filter Interactive restoration Restoration in spatial domain
Binary image processing image morphology Non linear filtering with applications.

UNIT III : Image Compression Standards: 12 PERIODS

Image data compression models Error free compression Fundamental coding theorems
Error free coding Pixel coding Predictive techniques Transform coding Threshold
coding Image compression standards Joint Picture Expert Group (JPEG) and Motion
Picture Expert Group (MPEG) DWT FWT.

UNIT IV: Segmentation: 12 PERIODS

Image segmentation Detection of discontinuities Thresholding Motion in segmentation
Image reconstruction from projections Tomography Fan Beam reconstruction
Applications in medical imaging Cardic image processing mammography.

UNIT V: Applications: 12 PERIODS

Elements of image analysis Region and scene analysis Classification techniques
Image understanding systems Pattern recognition by pattern classes Neural Networks in
image processing Remote sensing using image processing Image processing
applications SAR Probabilistic, View based and Modular models for Recognition.

Reference Books :

1. Bernd Jahne Digital Image Processing, Springer, 5
edition, 2003.
2. R.C. Gonzalez and R.E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3/e Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 2002.
3. William K.Pratt Digital Image Processing, Third edition, John Wiley & sons, 2001.
4. Anil K. Jain Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing Pearson Education

Learning Outcome:

Unit 1 Learner will have a thorough understanding of the basic concepts of two
dimensional signal acquisition, sampling, quantization; human visual system
and image transform use in frequency domain filtering.

Unit II Learner will be familiar with the image enhancement techniques and
restoration techniques and be able to select suitable techniques for practical
Unit III Learners will be able to understand the developments from basic to the
advanced in the field of image compression.
Unit IV Learner get the idea about the choice of suitable segmentation algorithm for
the real time application.

Unit V The students will be able to identify the applications in which it will be
possible to apply the different image processing algorithm approaches.

To provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in multirate system, filter bank and
statistical signal processing methods

UNIT I Multirate Signal Processing: 12 PERIODS
Introduction Decimation by a factor D Interpolation by a factor I Sampling rate
conversion by a rational factor I/D Filter design and implementation of sampling rate
conversion - Multistage implementation of sampling-rate conversion Sampling-rate
conversion of band pass signals Sampling-rate conversion by an arbitrary factor.

UNIT II Applications of Multirate Signal Processing: 12 PERIODS
Design of phase shifters Interfacing of digital systems with different sampling rates
Implementation of narrowband low pass filters Implementation of digital filter banks
Subband coding of speech signals Quadrature mirror filters Transmultiplexers
Oversampling A/D and D/A conversion.
Filter design and implementation for sampling-rate conversion: Direct-form FIR filter
structures Polyphase filter structures Time variant filter structures.

UNIT III Linear Prediction and Optimum Linear Filters: 12 PERIODS
Forward and backward linear prediction - Relationship of an AR process to linear prediction
Solution of the normal equations The Levinson Durbin algorithm The Schur algorithm
Properties of the linear prediction Error filters Autoregressive (AR) lattice and
Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) lattice Ladder filters Wiener filters for filtering
and prediction FIR Wiener filters Orthogonality Principle in LMS estimation IIR Wiener
filter Noncausal Wiener filter.

UNIT IV Power Spectrum Estimation: 12 PERIODS
Parametric methods for power spectrum estimation The Yule-Walker and Burg methods
for the autoregressive (AR) model parameters Selection of AR model order Moving
Average (MA) and autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model for power spectrum
estimation Minimum variance spectral estimation Eigen analysis algorithms for spectrum
estimation: The Pisarenko harmonic decomposition method Eigen decomposition of the
autocorrelation Matrix for sinusoids in white noise Multiple signal classification (MUSIC)
Algorithm Application of power spectral techniques to beam forming.

UNIT V Adaptive Signal Processing: 12 PERIODS
Mean-square error (MSE) and MSE surface Method of steepest descent as optimization
criteria Convergence properties and mean-square error propagation. Least -mean-square
(LMS)algorithms Applications of LMS algorithms Echo cancellation Adaptive waveform
coding Adaptive spectrum analysis.

Learning outcomes
Unit I Learner will have a thorough understanding of basic concepts in multirate
signal processing
Unit II Learners will have an understanding of the link between design of filter
banks and construction of discrete and continuous-time bases for efficient
signal analysis in various applications
Unit III Learners will have an understanding of optimal filter design for the
estimation and detection of signals
Unit IV The learner will be able to apply various methods of spectrum estimation
by knowing the significance of each method and to decide which is a good
estimator for the given specifications
Unit V The learner will be able to design, implement and apply various
adaptive filtering algorithms for real time applications

Reference Books:

1. John G. Proakis and Dimitris G. Manolakis Digital Signal Processing Principles,
Algorithms and Applications PHI, 3
ed., 2006.
2. N.Kesavamurthy and S.Narayana Iyer Digital Signal Processing- Jaico publishing,
3. Sanjit K. Mitra DSP, A Computer Based Approach McGraw Hill, 3
edition 2006.
4. S.V.Narasimhan and S.Veena Signal Processing principles and implementation -
Narosa publishing house, 2005
5. Filese N.J. Multi rate DSP John Wiley and Sons, 1999.
6. J.S. Lim and A.V. Oppenheim Advanced Topics in Signal Processing Pearson
Education Ltd,. 1996.
7. Simon Haykin Adaptive Filter Theory 3
ed., Pearson Education Ltd, 1996.
8. P.P.Vaidyanathan Multirate Systems and filter banks, PHI, 1993.