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SSC-334

INFLUENCE OF
POROSITY ON THE
WELD
INTEGRITY
OF MARINE STRUCTURES
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forpublic Ieleweandsalqits
distritnltilm isunlimited
SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE
1990
SHIP STRUCTURE COMMllTEE
THE SHIP STRUCTURE COMMllTEE is constituted to prosecute a research program to improve the hull structure of
ships and other marine structures by an extension of knowledge pertaining to design, materials and methods of construction
RADM J. D. Si es, USCG, (Chairman)
r~ Chief, Office o Marine Sate
Security and Environments Protection
U. S. Coast Guard
Mr. Alexander Malakhoff
Director, Structural lntagrly
Subgroup (SEA 55~
Naval Sea Systems Command
Dr. Donald Liu
Senior Vice President
American Bureau of Shipping
Mr. H. T. Hailer
Associate Administrator for Ship-
building and Ship Operations
Maritime Administration
Mr. Thomas W. Allen
Engineering Officer (N7)
Military Sealift Command
CDR Michael K. Parmelee, USCG,
Secretary, Ship Structure Committee
U. S. Coast Guard
CONTRACTING OFFICER TECHNICAL REPRESENTATIVES
Mr. Wllliarn J. Siekierka Mr. Greg D, Woods
SEA55Y3 SEA55Y3
Naval Sea Systems Command Naval Sea Systems Command
SHIP STRUCTURE SUf3COMMllTEE
THE SHIP STRUCTURE SUBCOMMllTEE acts for the Ship Struclure Committee on technical matters by providing
technical coordinating for the determination of goals and objectives of the program, and by evaluating and interpreting
the results in lerms of structural design, construction and operation,
U.S. COAST GUARD
Dr. John S. Spencer (Chairman)
CAPT T. E. Thompson
Mr. David L. Motherway
CDR Mark E. Nell
NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND
Mr. Robert A. Sielski
Mr. Charles L. Null
Mr. W. Thomas Packard
Mr. Allen H. Engle
MI LITARY$EALIFTCOM MAND
Mr. Glenn M. Ashe
Mr. Michael W. Touma
Mr. Albert J. Attermeyer
Mr. Jeffery E. Beach
AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING
Mr. John F. ConIon
Mr. Stephen G. Arntson
Mr, William M, Hanzalek
Mr. Philip G. Rynn
MARITIMFAD JvllNISTRATIOM
Mr. Frederick Seibold
Mr. Norman O. Hammer
Mr. Chao H, Lin
Dr. Walter M. Maclean
SHIP STRUCTURE SUBCOMMllTEE LIAISON MEMBERS
u,s,coAST GUARD ACADEMY
LT Bruce Mustain
U.S. MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY
Dr. C. B. Kim
U. S, NAVAL ACADEMY
Dr. RemswaJ Bhattacharyya
STATF UNP/ERSllYOF NEWYORK
MARITIME COLLEGE
Dr. W. R. Porter
WELDING RESEARCH COUNCIL
Dr. Glen W. Oyler
NATIONALA CADEMYOF SCIEN~~~
MARINE BOARD
Mr. Alexander B. Stavovy
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
COMMllTF F ON MARINE STRUCTURF~
Mr. Stanley G. Stiansen
SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND
MARINE ENGINEERS-
ODYNAMiCSCOMMl~FF
Dr. Wtlliam Sandberg
AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE
Mr. Alexander D, Wilson
MemberAgenci es:
United States Coast Guard
Naval Sea Systems Command
Maritime Administration
American Bureau of Shipping
Mi l i taty Seai i f l Command
*
Ship
Structure
Committee
AnI nteragency Advi sory Commi ttee
Dedi cated totheI mprovement ofMari neStructures
August 2, 1990
Address Correspondence to:
Secretary, Shi pStructure Commi ttee
U. S.CoastGuard(G- MTH)
2100SecondStreet S. W.
Washi ngton, D. C.20593- 0001
PH: (2o2) 267- 0003
FAX (202) 267- 0025
SSC- 334
SR-1305
INFLUENCE OF WELD POROSITY ON THE
INTEGRITY OF MARINE STRUCTURES
In the marine industry,
we are concerned with the quality of
weldments and the effect of weld defects on the strength and
integrity of marine structures.
This report is intended to
provide a better understanding of the influence of weld metal
porosity on the integrity of marine structures by examining the
effects of porosity on fatigue resistance of ship steel
weldments.
?Y!%s
Rem?r Admiral, U. S. Coast. Guard
Chanman, Ship, Struc~ure Committee
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Repom No. 2 Government Accession No. 3. Recipients Catalog No.
SSC- 334
Title and 5ubtitle 5. Repofl Date
STUDY TO DETERMI NE THE I NFLUENCE OF WELD
POROSI TY ON THE I NTEGRI TYOF MARI NE STRUCTURES
February, 1989
6. Performing Organlzamon Code
Author(s)
Wi l l i amJ . Wal sh, Bri an N. Lei s, and J . Y. Yung
SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE
8. PerformingOrganlzatlon Report No.
SR-1305
PerformmgOrganlzatlon NarneandAddress
Battel l e
10. Work Unit No. (TRA15)
505 Ki ng Avenue
Col umbus, Ohi o 43201- 2693
11. ContramorGrant No.
DTCG23- 85- C- 20077
2. Sponsoring AgencyNameandAddresz 13. TypeofRepomand PerlodCovered
Shi p Structure Commi ttee
U. S. Coast Guard Fi nal
Washi ngton, D. C. 20593
14. 5ponsormgAgency Code
G-M
15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstram
Thi s study exami ned the i nf l uence of porosi ty on the f ati gueresi stance of
hi p steel wel dments. A l i terature revi ewwasconducted to determi ne parameters
l hi chhave been f ound to control the f ati gue l i f e of wel ds contai ni ng porosi ty. A
redi cti ve model was devel oped i ncorporati ngthose parameters to account f or both
rack i ni ti ati onand propagati on. Four types of porosi ty; si ngl e pore, uni f orm
orosi ty, co- l i near porosi ty, and cl uster porosi ty, were exami ned usi ng the model .
hemodel s sensi ti vi ty to the parameters (pl ate thi ckness, stress rati o, resi dual
, tress, pore si ze and porosi ty type) was studi ed and di scussed.
A vari abl e ampl i tude l oadi ng hi story was devel oped f romSL- 7 l oadi ng hi story
i ata, and used to predi ct actual servi ce l i ves.
The mai n concl usi on of the study was that porosi ty i s of l i ttl e concern i n wel d!
i f the wel d rei nf orcement i s l ef t i ntact. I f the rei nf orcement i s removed, the
: ypeand si ze of porosi ty wi l l control f ati gue l i f e. When subj ected to the servi ce
l i storythe wel ds were not predi cted to f ai l duri ng any normal desi gn l i f e.
i nal l y, the resul ts are rel ated to the Ameri can Bureau of Shi ppi ng s Rul es f or Non-
destructi veI mspecti onof Hul l Wel ds. The code was f ound to be conservati ve f roma
ati guestandpoi nt.
17, Key Words
Wel ds Porosi ty, Fati gue, Vari abl e
18. DmtrtbutlonStatement
Ampl i tude Loadi ng, LowCycl e Fati gue,
Li near El asti c Fracture Mechani cs
DOCUMENTISAVAIMBLE TO THEPUBLICTHROUGH
THE NATIONALTECHNICAL INFORMATIONSERVICE.
SPRINGFIELD VIRGINIA 22!61
19. SecurmyClasslf. (ofthlsreporc) 20 Securl:y Cass~f (ofth!s Pagr?) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. I NTRODUCTI ON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. DI SCUSSI ONOF THE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 1 Li mi ts of Concern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2 Factors of Concern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2. 1 Fracture Mechani cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2. 2 Pore Geometry and I nteracti on . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2. 3 Resi dual Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2. 4 Threshol d Crack Growth Behavi or . . . . . . . . . .
2. 2. 5 Crack Retardati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. LI TERATURE SURVEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 1. Stress Anal ysi s and Stress- I ntensi tySol uti ons f or
Vol umetri c Stress Rai sers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 1. 1. Stress Anal ysi s of Cavi ti es . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 1. 2. Stress I ntensi ty Factor f or Vol umetri c Stress
Rai ser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 2. Wel d- I nduced Resi dual Stress Fi el ds
4*3. Nondestructi ve I nspecti onSensi ti vi tya~d. T~r&~oi di ~
the Laboratory and i n Fi el d Appl i cati ons . . . . . . . . .
4. 4. Fati gue Crack Growth Data, Fracture Toughness, and
Strai n- Control l edFati gue Behavi or f or~ari ne Materi al s
(Parti cul arl yThose Wi th Porosi ty Probl ems) . . . . . . .
4. 4. 1 Fati gue Crack Growth Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 4. 2. Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
4. 4. 3. Strai n- Control l edFati gue Behavi or . . . . . . . .
4. 5. Anal ysi s Methods Used to Assess the Ef f ects of
Porosi ty on Structure I ntegri ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4*5. 1 Previ ousl y Used Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 5. 1. 1. Harri son s Qual i ty Bands Method . . . . .
4. 5. 1. 2. Hi rt and Fi sher s LEFMAnal ysi s . . . . . .
4. 5. 2. An Anal ysi s Based on Total Fati gue Li f e - A
Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. ANALYTI CAL MODELI NG BACKGROUNI I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 11ni ti ati on Li f e Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 1. 1 Notch- Anal ysi s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 1. 2 Fati gue Notch Factor . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . .
5. 1. 3 Notch Strai ns and LowCycl e Fati gue . . . . . . . .
5. 2. Propagati on Li f e Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 2. 1. Fati gue Crack Growth Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. 2. 2. Stress I ntensi ty Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. STRESS FI ELDS NEAR I NTERNAL CAVI TI ES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. 1. El l i psoi dal Cavi ti es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. 2. Spheri cal Cavi ti es i n a Semi - I nf i ni te Medi um. . . . . . .
6. 3. Cavi ty I nteracti on. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , .
1
2
2
;
3
4
4
5
5
6
;
;
7
:
;
9
10
10
10
10
12
12
: :
15
16
16
17
18
19
; ;
i i i
TABLEOF CONTENTS
(Conti nued)
7. ANALYTI CAL PROGRAM
22
7. 1. Appl i cati on o; i n; t~a~i ; n~P~o~a~a~i ; n*M~d~l t; ~o~o~i ~y : 22
7. 1. 2 Propagati on Li f e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7. 1. 3 I ni ti al Crack Si ze . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 23
7. 1. 4 Fai l ure Cri teri a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7. 2. Vi abi l i ty of the Fati gue Li f e Model . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7. 3. Parametri c Study. . . . , , . . . , . . . . , . , . . , . 34
7. 3. 1. Matri x of Fati gue Li f e Predi cti ons . . . . . . . . 34
7. 3. 2. Materi al Properti es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7. 3. 3. Si ngl e Pore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . - . . 43
7. 3. 4. Uni f ormPorosi ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7. 3. 5. Co- l i near Porosi ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7. 3. 6. Cl uster Porosi ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
.
8. VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE LOADI NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8. 1. SL- 7 Contai nershi p I nstrumentati onProgram. . . . . . . . 62
8. 1. 1. Data Characteri sti cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8. 2. Fati gue Predi cti on. . . , . . . . . . . . , . - , . . . , 59
8. 2. 1. Resul ts. . . . . . . , , . . . , . . . , , . . , , 73
9. PARAMETRI C DI SCUSSI ON . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9. 1. Thi ckness . . . . . . . . , , . . . , . . . , . . , , . . 81
9*2. Resi dual Stress . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 81
9. 3. Stress Rati o. . . . , ; . , . . . , . . . . , . . , , G . 82
Pore Si ze . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . , , . . . . . . , 85
: : ; : Porosi ty Type . . . . . . , . . . . , . . , , . . , . . . 85
9. 6. Rel ati on to the Rul es f or Nondestructi ve
I nspecti onof Hul l Wel ds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10. SUMMARY . . .
11. CONCLUSI ONS .
12. RECOMMENDATI ONS
13. REFERENCES . .
APPENDI X . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . G
89
. . . . . . . . . . ..*,O .*.**
. . . . . 90
FOR FUTURE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
. . . . . G
G 92
. . . . . . , *. , . . . . . . . . . .
. *. . A- 1
i v
LI ST OF TABLES
TABLE 1. MECHANI CAL PROPERTI ES OF E60- S- 3(2P)
Paqe
WELDMETAL. . . . . 25
TABLE 2. FATI GUE TEST RESULTS AND PREDI CTI ONSOF WELDS CONTAI I : I NG
POROSI TY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
TABLE 3. MATRI X OF FATI GUE PREDI CTI ONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
TABLE 4.
TABLE 5.
TABLE 6.
TABLE 7.
TABLE 8.
TABLE 9.
TABLE 10.
TABLE 11.
TABLE 12.
TABLE 13.
MECHANI CAL PROPERTI ESOF ABS EH36 STEEL . . . . . . . . . 40
SI NGLE PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
SI NGLE PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
UNI FORMPOROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS =0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
UNI FORMPOROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS =0. 5 I NCH
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . . 5g
CLUSTER POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS =0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
CLUSTER PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
AVERAGE RMS STRESS BASEDON PROBABI LI TYOF OCCURRENCE FOR
EACHWAVEGROUP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
LI ST OF TABLES
(Conti nued)
TABLE 14.
TABLE 15.
TABLE 16.
TABLE 17.
TABLE 18.
TABLE 19.
TABLE 20.
TABLE 21.
TABLE 22.
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE LOADI NG
SL- 7 McLEAN
YEAR ONE DATA
ATLANTI C ROUTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
SI NGLE PORE
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 74
SI NGLE PORE
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . 74
UNI FORMPOROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
UNI FORMPOROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
NUMBEROF PORES = 3
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
CLUSTER POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
CLUSTER POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABSEH36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
v- i
LI ST OF FI GURES
FI GURE 1.
FI GURE 2.
FI GURE 3.
FI GURE 4.
FI GURE 5.
FI GURE 6.
FI GURE 7.
FI GURE 8.
FI GURE 9(a).
FI GURE 9(b).
FI GURE 10.
FI GURE 11.
FI GURE 12.
FI GURE 13.
FI GURE 14.
FI GURE 15.
COMPARI SONOF FATI GUE TEST RESULT WI TH QUALI TY BAND
APPROACH FOR POROSI TY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ELLI PSOI DAL CAVI TY AND CARTESI ANCO- ORDI NATE SYSTEM. . .
LOCAL STRESS, Uz, ALONG Y AXI S, FOR VARI OUS ELLI PSOI DAL
CAVI TI ES SUBJ ECTEDTO NOMI NAL STRESS, Sz, OF UNI TY . . .
LOCAL STRESS, q/ , ALONG X AXI S, FOR SPHERI CAL CAVI TY
NEAR A SURFACE, SUBJ ECTEDTO NOMI NAL STRESS, Sz,
OF UNI TY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I NTERACTI ONEFFECT OF TWO HOLES OR CAVI TI ES I NAN I NFI NI TE
PLATE OR BODY. . . .
MONOTONI C AND CYCLI C
METAL (2 PASS) . . .
STRAI N- LI FE DATA FOR
FRACTURE SURFACES OF
Paqe
11
20
20
21
. . . . . . . . . . .**.. . . .
21
STRESS- STRAI NRESPONSE FOR E60 S- 3 WELD
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E60 S- 3 WELD METAL. . . . . . . . .
WELDS WI TH CLUSTERS OF POROSI TY . .
STRESS- LI FE PLOT SHOWI NG ACTUALFATI GUE LI VES VERSUS
PREDI CTEDFATI GUE LI VES OF WELDS CONTAI NI NGPOROSI TY . .
STRESS- LI FE PLOT SHOWI NGACTUAL STRAI NRANGE VERSUS
PREDI CTEDSTRESS RANGE OF WELDS CONTAI NI NGPOROSI TY . .
GEOMETRY AND CO- ORDI NATE SYSTEMOF BUTT NELD FOR FATI GUE
LI FE PREDI CTI ONS. THE WELD REI NFORCEMENT I S REMOVED.
THE WI DTH OF THE PLATE I S ASSUMEDMANY TI MES THE
THI CKNESS OFTHEWELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS A AND CLASS B POROSI TY CHART FOR 0. 5 I NCH (12. 5 MM)
THI CK MATERI AL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLASS A AND CLASS B POROSI TY CHART FOR 1. 0 I NCH (25. 3 MM)
THI CK MATERI AL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MONOTONI C AND CYCLI C STRESS- STRAI NRESPONSE FOR
ABSEH36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STRAI N- LI FE DATA FORABS EH36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GEOMETRy AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE)
FORSI NGLEPORE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
27
28
32
33
37
38
39
41
42
44
vi i
LI ST OF FI GURES (CONTI NUED)
Paue
FI GURE 16. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR SI NGLE PORES I NA l - I NCH
THI CK PLATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
FI GURE 17. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N0. 5- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
FI GURE 18. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N0. 5- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
FI GURE 19. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N 1. O- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
FI GURE 20. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N 1. O- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
FI GURE 21. GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE)
FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
FI GURE 22. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR UNI FORMPOROSI TY.
I NSET SHOWS THE DECAY OF THE STRESS I NTENSI TYAS THE
CRACK GROWS AWAY FROMTHE PORE STRESS GRADI ENT TOWARD
THE SURFACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
FI GURE 23. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NAO. 5- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . 53
FI GURE 24. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NAO. 5- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND ZERORESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . 53
FI GURE 25. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 1. O- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . 54
FI GURE 26. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 1. O- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND ZERORESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . 54
. FI GURE 27. GEoMETRy AND ASSI J MEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE)
FOR CO- LI NEARPORES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
FI GURE 28. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY.
I NSET SHOWS THE RI SE I NSTRESS I NTENSI TYAS THE CRACK
TI PS FROMI NDI VI DUAL PORES APPROACH EACHOTHER . . . . . 55
FI GURE 29. S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY GEOMETRY I NAO. 5- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS. . . . . . . . . . 60
FI GURE 30. S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY GEOMETRY I NAO. 5- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS. . . . . . . . . . . 60
. . .
VI I I
LI sT oF FI GURES (CONTI NUED)
Paqe
FI GURE 31.
FI GURE 32.
FI GURE 33.
FI GURE 34.
FI GURE 35.
FI GURE 36.
FI GURE 37.
FI GURE 38.
FI GURE 39.
FI GURE 40.
FI GURE 41.
FI GURE 42.
FI GURE 43.
FI GURE 44.
S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 1. O- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS. . . . . . . . . .
S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY GEOMETRY I NA 1. O- I NCH
THI CK PLATE AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS. . . . . . . . . . .
GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE)
FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA
1. O- I NCHTHI CK PLATE. . . . . .
S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY
AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS. . .
S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY
AND ZERORESI DUAL STRESS. . . .
S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY
AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS. . .
S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY
AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS; . . .
AVERAGE RMS STRESS VS. OBSERVED
..**. .*.** . . .
I NAO. 5- I NCH THI CK PLATE
. . . . . . . . . . , . *
I NAO. 5- I NCH THI CK PLATE
. . . . . . . . *. . . .
I NA 1. O- I NCHTHI CK PLATE
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
I NA 1. O- I NCHTHI CK PLATE
. . . . . . . . . . . . *
WAVE HEI GHT [AMI DSHI P
BENDI NGSTRESS).
.. . _ .
DASHEDLI NE REpRESENTS DATA FROM
ONE- HALF OF THE THI RDSEASON. SOLI D LI NE REPRESENTS THE
SECONDSEASON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HI STOGRAMOF MAXI MUMPEAK TO THROUGHSTRESS DURI NGDATA
yEAR 1 ABOARD sL- 7 MCLEAN (PORT). . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENDURANCE CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORES I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK
61
61
63
63
66
66
67
67
70
70
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY. CURVES CONNECTED
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO . . . . . 78
ENDURANCE CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORES I NA 1. O- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY CURVES CONNECTED
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO . . . . . 78
ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY I N
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY,
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF
ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY I N
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY,
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF
AO. 5- I NCH THI CK
CURVES CONNECTED
ZERO. . . . . . 79
A 1. O- I NCHTHI CK
CURVES CONNECTED
ZERO. . . . . . 79
i x
LI sToF FI GURES (CONTI NUED~
FI GURE 45. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I N
Paqe
AO. 5- I NCH THI CK
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTED
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO . . . . . . 80
FI GURE 46. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 1. O- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTED
BY CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO . . . . . . 80
FI GURE 47. SET UP CYCLE FOR ASTM514 HAZ (STRONG) A36 HAZ (TOUGH)
STEELS, AND ALUMI NUMALLOY 5183 WM (DUCTI LE) MATERI ALS.
THE SET UP CYCLE RESULTS I NA TENSI LE MEAN STRESS FOR THE
STRONGAND TOUGHMATERI ALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
FI GURE 48. S- N PLOT SHOWI NGTHE TRENDOF I NCREASI NGFATI GUE RESI STANCE
WI TH DECREASI NGTENSI LE RESI DUAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . 84
FI GURE 49. PLOT OF STRESS RANGE VS. PORE SI ZE FOR THE FOUR TYPES OF
POROSI TY CONSI DEREDI NTHI S $TUDYAT NT = 10, OOO. . . . . . 87
FI GURE Al . STRESS- STRAI NRESPONSE AT PORE SURFACE FOR EXAMPLE
LI FE PREDI CTI ON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A- 3
x
STUDY TO DETERMI NE THE I NFLUENCE
OF WELD POROSI TYON THE I NTEGRI TY
OF MARI NE STRUCTURES
by
Wi l l i amJ . Wal sh, Bri an N. Lei s and J . Y. Yung
1. I NTRODUCTI ON
The obj ecti ve of thi s study i s to obtai n a better understandi ng
of the i nf l uence of wel d porosi ty on the i ntegri ty of mari ne structures.
Understandi ng the ef f ects of porosi ty on the mechani cal properti es of
wel dments i s i mportant f or the saf e desi gn of wel ded mari ne structures.
I nf ormati onon the porosi ty ef f ects f or a wel dment woul d be usef ul i n
speci f yi ngwel di ng processes and procedures. The expectedservi ce condi -
ti ons of a wel d coul d di ctate the amount of porosi ty al l owed. A wel di ng
process whi ch woul d be expected to resul t i n porosi ty l evel s correspondi ng
to that al l owabl e amount coul d be rati onal l y determi ned and speci f i ed.
The i nspecti on and mai ntenance of wel ded structures woul d al so benef i t
f roma ref i ned understandi ngof the detri mental ef f ects of vari ous si zes,
shapes, and patterns of porosi ty.
Previ ous i nvesti gati ons on the ef f ects of wel d porosi ty on
i ntegri ty of structures i ndi cate that there i s very l i ttl e i nf l uence of
1]. However, porosi ty has been porosi ty upon bri ttl e f racture properti es
[1- 71- The rnOtiVatiOn
shown to i nf l uence the f ati gue properti es of wel ds
f or the present study comes f romthe potenti al of modern f ati gue technol -
ogy and f racture mechani cs pri nci pl es to anal yti cal l y predi ct the f ati gue
perf ormance of wel dments. The l i terature provi des suf f i ci ent i nf ormati on
on the dependence of f ati gue perf ormance on parameters such as si ze of
pores, number of pores, pore shape and pattern. These parameters wi l l be
i ncorporated i nto a f ati gue l i f e esti mati onmodel based upon f ati gue and
f racture concepts.
2. DISCUSSIONOF THE PROBLEM
2. 1 Li mi ts of Concern
The resul ts of most of the studi es exami ni ng the ef f ects of
porosi ty concl ude that porosi ty does not ef f ect the mechani cal pro erti es
[1- 5!
of a wel dment unl ess the amount of porosi ty i s extremel y l arge .
Regardi ng f ati gue, the most cri ti cal l ocati on f or a wel d i s general l y the
wel d toe. Thi s abrupt change i n geometry f romthe wel d metal rei nf orce-
ment to the base metal resul ts i n a stress concentrati on and acts as a
f ati gue crack i ni ti ati on si te. Pores are, by compari son, much l ess severe
stress concentrati ons.
decreasi ng
f orcementl
crack. Th
he severi ty of the wel d- toe stress concentrati on decreases
wel d rei nf orcement si ze. That i s, the smal l er the wel d re-
the l ess ef f ect the wel d toe wi l l have i n i ni ti ati ng a f at
s f act suggests that i f the wel d rei nf orcement i s shal l ow
wi th
n-
gue
enough, the stress concentrati ondue to the wel d toe wi l l be l ess than
that resul ti ng f roma pore. The pore woul d then be the cri ti cal l ocati on
f or f ati gue.
Consi der the f ol l owi ng exampl e. The stress concentrati on
actor t
f or a pore i n an i nf i ni te body subj ected to an axi al stress
i s 2. 05 (f or Poi sson s rati o of 0. 3). The stress concentrati on f actor
f or the toe of a butt wel d subj ected to axi al tensi on
[8]
i s 3. 06 f or a
0. 5 i nch thi ck pl ate, havi ng a rei nf orcement wi dth of 0. 29 i nch (60 degree
bevel ) and hei ght of 0. 17 i nch, and a wel d toe radi us of 0. 02 i nch. Thi s
means that i f a pore (Kt = 2. 05) were present i n the wel d, the more hi ghl y
stressed l ocati onwoul d sti l l be the wel d toe (Kt = 3. 06). The rei nf orce-
ment hei ght at whi ch the stress concentrati ons woul d be equal f or both
the wel d toe and the pore i s 0.11 i nch. At thi s rei nf orcement Ileigtlt,
there woul d be an equal chance of a f ati gue crack i ni ti ati ng at the toe
or at the pore. At hei ghts bel owthi s val ue, the f ati gue crack woul d be
expected to i ni ti ate at the pore.
Thi s exampl e i s an over si mpl i f i cati onof a rather compl ex
stress anal ysi s probl em. Factors such as bendi ng stress, al most al ways
2
present i n actual servi ce, and di f f i cul ty i n accuratel y measuri ng the wel d
toe radi us have not been consi dered. Both of these ef f ects woul d i n-
crease the wel d- toe stress concentrati on. The exampl e does i l l ustrate,
however, that unl ess the
woul d not be expected to
wel d rei nf orcement i s shal l ow, f ati gue cracks
i ni ti ate f roma pore.
2. 2 Factors of Concern
Havi ng di scussed the f act that wel d porosi ty i s general l y onl y
a probl emwhen the wel d rei nf orcement i s shal l owor removed, or when
porosi ty i s excessi ve, the
thi s speci f i c probl emwi l l
2. 2. 1 Fracture Mechani cs
f actors that must be addressed i n anal yzi ng
be outl i ned.
Porosi ty can be characteri zed as a bl unt def ect havi ng no sharp
asperi ti es whi ch can be anal yzed as cracks. Si nce cracks do i ni ti ate
f rompores, at some poi nt i n the cracks growth, the assumpti ons of f rac-
ture mechani cs shoul d be val i d f or descri bi ng the probl em. Assumi ng that
the bl unt def ect i s a sharp crack wi l l gi ve conservati ve answers, but
they may not be real i sti c. Some accounti ngmust be made of the l i f e spent
i ni ti ati ng and growi ng a crack f romthe pore to a f racture mechani cs si ze
f l aw. Thi s i ni ti al peri od of growi ng a crack can be a si gni f i cant part
of the total l i f e, especi al l y f or hi gh cycl e f ati gue.
The general f i ndi ng i n the l i terature i s that porosi ty does not
behave l i ke pl anar wel d def ects, such as l ack of f usi on, whi ch are more
cl earl y crack- l i ke. (See, f or exampl e, Ref erences 2 and 8. )
2. 2. 2 Pore Geometry and I nteracti on
Porosi ty, though general l y spheri cal i n shape, can assume many
shapes and conf i gurati ons. These i ncl ude el ongated pores, rows of si ngl e
pores or col l i near pores, and pore cl usters. Determi ni ng the ef f ects of
vari ous si zes and shapes of pores i s an i mportant f actor af f ecti ng the
structural i ntegri ty of wel dments. Unf ortunatel y, al most no work reported
3
i n the l i terature has deal t di rectl y wi th the mechani sms of crack growth
f rompotenti al l y i nteracti ngvoi ds. I nstead, researchers have
concentrated on correl ati ng total f ati gue l i ves wi th parameters descri bi ng
the wel d porosi ty. Exampl es are percentof porosi ty, reducti on i n area,
and maxi mumpore si ze. Fromthese i ndi rect measurements one may be abl e
to extract some of the rul es governi ng the i nteracti on of pores.
2. 2. 3 Resi dual Stresses
Resi dual stresses have been shown to si gni f i cantl y decrease the
f ati gue l i f e of wel ds 8- 10]. Compared to wel ds not contai ni ng resi dual
stresses, tensi l e resi dual stresses can decrease the l i f e, whi l e compres-
si ve resi dual stresses can i ncrease the l i f e. Measurements i n HY- 80 butt
wel ds have reveal ed l ongi tudi nal and transverse resi dual stresses l ocal l y
8]. Si mi 1ar resul ts have been f ound f or as hi gh as the yi el d strength
11]. Resi dual stress magni tudes and di stri buti ons mi l d steel butt wel ds
810]. General l y, tensi l e stresses are seen at the can vary greatl y
surf aces and compressi ve stresses at mi d- thi cknesses. Because of thi s
vari ati on, the i ni ti ati on and propagati on of a f ati gue crack may depend
on i ts posi ti on i n the wel d- - i . e. , on i ts posi ti on i n the resi dual stress
f i el d.
2. 2. 4 Threshol d Crack Growth Behavi or
Bel owsome arbi trary crack growth rate, f roman engi neeri ng
vi ewpoi nt, a crack i s not of concern because i t does not threaten the
i ntegri ty of the structure i n a reasonabl e amount of ti me. Al though there
i s some debate concerni ng the determi nati onof threshol d stress
i ntensi ti es, the concept i s an i mportant one f or the present study.
I t has been noted that under vari abl e ampl i tude l oadi ng,
threshol d behavi or may not be as si gni f i cant as under constant ampl i tude
l oadi ng[12]. Thi s i s because there wi 11 probabl y be some 1arge 1oads
whi ch cause the smal l crack to grow; and as i t does, more and more of
the l oad spectrumwi l l produce stress i ntensi ti es above the threshol d
val ues.
4
2. 2. 5 Crack Retardati on
Under vari abl e ampl i tude l oadi ng si mi l ar to actual servi ce
condi ti ons, l i near el asti c f racture mechani cs methods have been shown to
gi ve overl y conservati ve crack growth predi cti ons under actual shi p l oad
[12]. Large l oads,
hi stori es when l oad i nteracti ons are not accounted f or
such as bottomsl ammi ng, superi mposedon smal l er l oads, such as l owf re-
quency wave i nduced stresses, resul t i n crack growth retardati on, whi ch
sl owcrack growth bel owrates that woul d be expected by addi ti ve l i near
cumul ati ve damage.
3. SCOPE
The obj ecti ve of thi s study was to research and def i ne the para-
meters whi ch af f ect the f ati gue perf ormance of mari ne wel dments contai ni ng
porosi ty. A model whi ch accounts f or the def i ned parameters was devel oped
and exerci sed to study the sensi ti vi ty of f ati gue l i f e upon these f actors.
The model uses both l owcycl e f ati gue concepts and f racture mechani cs
techni ques to predi ct f ati gue crack i ni ti ati onand subsequent growth. I t
i s i mportant to emphasi ze that al l of the predi cti ons perf ormed duri ng
thi s study were f or wel dments wi th the rei nf orcement removed. Wel dments
wi th rei nf orcement l ef t i ntact wi l l general l y f ai l at the wel d toe whi ch
proves to be a much more severe def ect than i nternal porosi ty
[1- 5]G
The devel oped model was used to predi ct f ati gue l i ves of tests
perf ormed on a l i mi ted number of wel d speci mens contai ni ng i nternal
porosi ty
wi thi n a
as a cal i brati on exerci se. The predi cted l i ves were general l y
f actor of two of the actual l i ves.
Four types of porosi ty were exami ned usi ng the predi cti ve
model : uni f ormporosi ty, a si ngl e pore, co- l i near porosi ty and cl uster
porosi ty. Fati gue l i f e predi cti ons are made f or each of the porosi ty
types usi ng di f f erent pl ate thi cknesses, resi dual stresses, pore si zes,
and
used
deve
oadi ng. For constant ampl i tude l oadi ng, three stress rati os are
A vari abl e ampl i tude hi story based upon SL- 7 stress data was
oped and appl i ed i n the model f or al l f our types of porosi ty. The
5
materi al used f or al l the predi cti ons i s EH36. Because the f ati gue and
crack growth properti es of a wi de cl ass of steel s do not di f f er si g-
ni f i cantl y f romthi s materi al , the trends devel oped are probabl y appl i cabl e
to many shi p steel s.
4. LI TERATURE SURVEY
The work
the probl em, i dent
i n the l i terature revi ewwas di rected at def i ni ti on of
f i cati on of f actors control l i ng f ati gue l i f e and
i denti f i cati onof avai l abl e l i f e predi cti on concepts and approaches to
deal wi th porosi ty. Areas of emphasi s were: stress anal ysi s and stress-
i ntensi ty sol uti ons f or vol umetri c stress rai sers; wel d i nduced resi dual
stress f i el ds; nondestructi ve i nspecti onsensi ti vi ty and threshol d i n the
l aboratory and i n f i el d appl i cati ons; materi al s, da/ dN,
mari ne materi al s, parti cul arl y those wi th porosi ty prob-
methods used to assess porosi ty ef f ects on i ntegri ty.
and I c or
ems; and anaysi s
4. 1. Stress Anal vsi s and Stress- I ntensi tv Sol uti ons f or
Vol umetri c Stress Rai sers
4.1.1. Stress Anal vsi s of Cavi ti es
F.-.1 r. .1
have made l i terature surveys on SternbergL1~J and Savi nL
theoreti cal stress concentrati onf actors f or cavi ti es and hol es. These
ref erences l i st the papers rel ated to three- di mensi onal stress concentra-
ti ons around spheri cal , spheroi dal and el l i psoi dal cavi ti es i n an i nf i ni te
or f i ni te el asti c medi um. The mutual ef f ect of two or more spheri cal
cavi ti es i n an i nf i ni te body and the i nterf erencebetween a spheri cal
cavi ty and external boundary are al so i ncl uded i n these ref erences.
Tsuchi da and Nakahara~15] studi ed a three di mensi onal stress concen~[; ; i on
around a spheri cal cavi ty i n a semi - i nf i ni te el asti c body. Mokarov
experi mental l y determi ned the stress di stri buti on around a chai n consi sti ng
of three spheri cal ores and a chai n consi sti ng of two di f f erent pores.
Lundi n 17! descri bed the pri mary types of porosi ty that may be
of concern i n wel di ng as f ol l ows: (1) uni f orml y scattered (di stri buted)
6
porosi ty; (2) cl uster (l ocal i zed) porosi ty; (3) l i near (al i gned) porosi ty;
(4) wormhol e (el ongated) porosi ty. (Porosi ty i n wel d metal s i s general l y
spheri cal or wormshaped. El on ated spheri cal porosi ty i s rarel y f ound i n
[18! has shown that stress concentrati on
the wel d metal . ) Masubuchl
f actors around porosi ty (under uni axi al l oadi ng) are general l y bel owKt =
4. 0. Stress concentrati on f actors around porosi ty are general l y l ow. A
qual i tati ve di scussi on of stress f i el ds near cavi ti es i s presented i n
Secti on 6 ti tl ed El l i psoi dal Cavi ti es.
4. 1. 2. Stress I ntensi ty Factor f or Vol umetri c Stress Rai ser
[191 obtai ned a stress
Usi ng a superposi ti onmethod, Krsti c
i ntensi ty f actor sol uti on f or an annul ar f l awemanati ng f romthe surf ace
of a spheri cal cavi ty. Stress i ntensi ty f actor handbooks[20 21] contai n
three- di mensi onal sol uti ons f or ci rcul ar and el l i pti cal cracks i n a sol i d.
4. 2. Wel d- I nduced Resi dual Stress Fi el ds
I n Chapter 6 of Ref erence 22, Masubuchi has a comprehensi ve
di scussi on of the magni tude and di stri buti onof resi dual stresses i n steel ,
al umi numal l oys, and ti tani umal l oys wel dments. Local resi dual stresses
at the surf ace of pores are not reported i n the l i terature.
The f ati gue severi ty of porosi ty rel ati ve to other wel d di scon-
ti nui ti es such as wel d toe or ri ppl e depends on both the stress concentra-
ti on f actors and resi dual stresses. Porosi ty whi ch i s l ocated i n zones of
hi gh tensi l e resi dual stresses mi ght be the cri ti cal si tes f or f ati gue
f ai l ure.
Babev[23] has f ound that the di mensi ons and di stri buti ons of
porosi ty had l i ttl e i nf l uence on the f ati gue resi stance of wel ds i f i t i s
l ocated i n a hi gh resi dual tensi l e stress f i el d.
4*3. Nondestructi ve I nspecti onSensi ti vi ty and
Threshol d i n the Laboratory and i n
Fi el d Appl i cati ons
Barsom[24] has f ound that the probabi 1i ty of detecti ng smal 1
di sconti nui ti es i s remote. Porosi ty mi ght obscure other def ects. For
7
exampl e, pl anar def ects may be embedded i n cl uster porosi ty and can not
be detected usi ng nondestructi vemethods.
4. 4. Fati que Crack Growth Data, Fracture Touqhness, and
Strai n- Control l edFati oue Behavi or f or Mari ne Materi al s
(Parti cul arl yThose Wi th Porosi ty Probl ems)
Masubuchi [2225] has extensi vel y revi ewed the materi al s used f or
mari ne engi neeri ng. Mari ne wel ded structures are pri mari l y made of steel s,
al umi numal l oys, and ti tani umal l oys. The steel s i ncl ude carbon steel s,
hi gh strength l owal l oy steel s, quenched- and- temperedsteel s, and maragi ng
steel s. Al umi numal l oys i n the 5XXX seri es and the 7XXX seri es are used
extensi vel y i n mari ne appl i cati ons. Among the ti tani umal l oys, pure
ti tani umand the Ti - 6Al - 4V al l oy have been most commonl y used. Al though
there are many causes of porosi ty i n f usi on wel ds, al umi numal l oys and
ti tani umal l oys are more acti ve than steel s and thus prone to wel d
porosi ty.
4.4.1 Fati que Crack Growth Data
[26271 have compi l ed a 1i st of sources of
Hudson and Seward
f racture toughness and f ati gue crack growth data f or al l oys. Thi s l i st
covers many mari ne metal l i c materi al s. Most of the f ati gue crack growth
data i s f or the base metal . There i s very l i ttl e data avai l abl e f or wel d
Maddox[281 has conducted tests on
metal s and heat af f ected- zone (HAZS).
a vari ety of structural C- Mn steel s base- metal s, wel d- metal s, and HAZS.
The test resul ts showthat the rates of f ati gue crack growth i n wel d
metal s and HAZS are equal or l ess than that i n the base metal . Theref ore,
the upper scatter band of f ati gue crack growth rates f or base metal s can
be used to obtai n conservati ve engi neeri ng esti mates of the f ati gue crack
growth rates i n base metal s, wel d metal s, and HAZS. Barsom[29] has
suggested upper scatter band equati ons f or martensi ti c steel s, f erri ti c-
pearl i ti c steel s, and austeni ti c steel s.
4. 4. 2* Fracture Touqhness
I n general , there are f our types of f racture toughness tests used
f or mari ne wel ded structures 30]: (1) the Charpy i mpact tests; (2) the
Drop Wei ght tests (DWT), or the cl osel y rel ated Dynami c Tear Test; (3)
f racture mechani cs tests to measure cri ti cal stress i ntensi ty f actors (Kc
or KI C) or cri ti cal val ues of the J - i ntegral (J c or J I C); (4) the Crack-
Ti p- Openi ng Di spl acement (CTODor COD) test. Masubuchi , et al .
[311 have
done a l i terature survey on the notch toughness of wel d metal s and the
HAZS, eval uated pri mari l y by the Charpy V- notch i mpact test. Shi p
Structure Commi ttee Reports 248[32] and 276[33] present f racture toughness
characteri zati onof shi p steel s and wel dments usi ng Charpy i mpact test,
Ref erences 26 27] 1i st f ract. ; . ~ DWT test, and expl osi on structural tests,
toughness f or many of the mari ne metal l i c materi al s. Lawrence, et al .
studi ed the ef f ects of porosi ty on the f racture toughness of three al umi num
al l oy wel dments usi ng DWT energy and J i ntegral .
4. 4*3* Strai n- Control l ed Fati cme Behavi or
Very f ewstrai n- control l ed
mari ne materi al s. Ref erences[35 36]
properti es f or the base metal s, wel d
and al umi numal l oys.
f ati gue properti es are avai l abl e f or
provi de several cycl i c f ati gue
metal s, and HAZS of vari ous steel s
4. 5. Anal vsi s Methods Used to Assess the Ef f ects of
Porosi ty on Structure I nteqri tv
Bri ti sh Standards i nsti tute Document PD6493: 1980[37] provi des
gui dance on some methods f or the deri vati on of acceptance l evel s (f i tness
f or servi ce) f or def ects i n f usi on wel ded j oi nts. I n the secti on bel ow,
the anal ysi s methods used to assess the ef f ect of porosi ty on the f ati gue
perf ormance of wel dments wi l l be di scussed.
4. 5. 1 Previ ousl y Used Methods
4. 5. 1. 1. Harri son s Qual i ty Bands Method
Harri son[ ] presented a f i tness- f or- servi ceeval uati on of
porosi ty as shown i n Fi gure 1. The l evel s shown f or qual i ty bands denoted
as V, W, X, Y, Z and correspondi ng to O, 3, 8, 20 and 20+ percent porosi ty
were drawn based on the avai l abl e data. Fi gure 1 al so shows the compari son-
of qual i ty band method wi th f ati gue test resul ts. Thi s method general l y
gi ves conservati ve and l ower- bound f ati gue resi stance esti mates f or
wel dments wi th porosi ty.
4.5.1.2. Hi rt and Fi sher s LEFMAnal ysi s
Hi rt and Fi sher 38] have studi ed the i nf1uence of porosi ty on the
f ati gue behavi or of l ongi tudi nal web- to- f l ange wel ds by assumi ng the
pores to be ci rcul ar penny- shaped cracks. Li near el asti c f racture
mechani cs was used to cal cul ate the f ati gue crack propagati on l i f e. Thi s
approach may be very conservati ve because the pores are general l y rounded.
4. 5. 2. An Anal vsi s Based on Total Fati que Li f e - A Proposal
The most seri ous def i ci ency of the method of Hi rt and Fi sher i s
the negl ect of the peri od of l i f e devoted to f ati gue crack i ni ti ati on and
earl y growth. A more accurate assessment of the ef f ects of porosi ty on the
f ati gue l i f e of mari ne structures coul d be obtai ned by addi ng esti mates of
f ati gue crack i ni ti ati on l i f e to the f ati gue propagati on l i f e usi ng methods
~3gl and Reemsnyder[401. Both of these
such as those of Lawrence, et al .
.
methods provi de esti mates of the f ati gue crack i ni ti ati on l i f e and consi der
the i mportant ef f ects of mean and resi dual stresses. Whi l e LEFMprovi des
good esti mates of l ong crack growth, methods devel oped by Lei s
[41]
coul d
be used to i mprove the accuracy of f ati gue crack propagati on l i f e esti mates
f or the porti on of the f ati gue crack propagati on l i f e i n whi ch the domi nant
crack i s l ocated wi thi n the i nel asti c stress f i el d of the notch (pore).
10
---
luu
all
60
.
40
20
I
Mild Steel
Reinlorcemeni Intoci
t
I
Circled Numbws Refer
To Percent Volume
Porosity Estimated From
10
Rodiogra@hs.
1 1 x 1 I 1 1 1 I I
\
k
,~4
2 4 6 8 II
Fatigue Li f e,Cycl es
t
I
v o %
w 3 z
\
x 8 x
Y 20 %
b
z 20+;
4 6 8 10?
FI GURE 1. COMPARI SONOF FATI GUE TEST RESULT WI TH QUALI TY BAND APPROACH
FOR POROSI TY
5. ANALYTI CAL MODELI NG f 3ACKGROUND
The model used to predi ct the f ati gue l i ves of wel dments used
duri ng thi s study consi sts of two parts; the crack i ni ti ati on l i f e, Ni l i n
cycl es, and the crack propagati on l i f e, N
P
i n cycl es. The sumof these
two components i s the total l i f e, Nt,
Ni +N=t$ .
P
(1)
The crack i ni ti ati on l i f e i s esti mated usi ng l owcycl e f ati gue concepts and
the crack propagati on l i f e i s esti mated usi ng l i near el asti c f racture
mechani cs concepts. The i ntentof thi s secti on i s to provi de the l ow
cycl e f ati gue and f racture mechani cs background used i n the devel opment
of the predi cti ve model . I n Secti on 7, ti tl ed Anal yti cal Proqram, these
concepts wi l l be appl i ed to si ngl e pores, co- l i near porosi ty, uni f orm
porosi ty,
such as a
stress i n
and pore cl usters.
5. 1 I ni ti ati on Li f e Model
Fati gue cracks general l y i ni ti ate at a geometri cal di sconti nui ty
notch or pore. These act as stress concentrati ons, rai si ng the
the regi on of the notch to l evel s above the nomi nal stresses.
The materi al at the notch root may def ormpl asti cal l y whi l e the rest of the
component remai ns essenti al l y el asti c. Subj ecti ng the regi on to cycl i c
l oadi ng resul ti ng i n pl asti c def ormati onwi l l eventual l y resul t i n a
f ati gue crack.
5. 1. 1 Notch Anal ysi s
Determi ni ng the stresses and strai ns i n the notch regi on af ter
the onset of l ocal pl asti ci ty requi res a notch anal ysi s techni que. I n the
el asti c range, the notch stress can be cal cul ated usi ng the el asti c
stress concentrati on f actor, Kt. The Kt val ue i s si mpl y a conversi on
12
f actor between the maxi mumpri nci pal notch stress, a, and remote stress,
s,
/
u= KtS, (2)
and i s determi ned usi ng el asti ci ty theory or by f i ni te el ement anal ysi s.
Af ter the notch regi on materi al def orms pl asti cal l y, however, the el asti c
stress concentrati on f actor no l onger appl i es as a di rect conversi on
f actor. The stress wi l l ri se at a l esser rate and the strai n at a greater
rate than duri ng el asti c def ormati on where both stress and strai n rates
were equal . Neuber s rul e[42] i s used to esti mate the l ocal stresses and
strai ns i n thi s si tuati on. Nueber s rul e states that the el asti c stress
concentrati on t
wi l l remai n equal to the geometri c mean of the i nstan-
taneous stress and strai n concentrati on f actors, Ku and KE, respecti vel y,
1/ 2
t= (%Q
. (3)
Rewri ti ng thi s rel ati on i n terms of stress and strai n ranges as
Au AE
( )
1/ 2
Kt=
AS Ae
where AS i s the nomi nal stress range, and Ae i s the nomi nal strai n range,
and recal l i ng that
Ae = AS/ E (4)
where E i s the el asti c modul us, Neuber s rul e may be wri tten f or nomi nal l y
el asti c response as
AS2 K2
- - +- = AE
13
Thi s expressi on rel ates the l ocal stress- strai n response at the notch
root to the nomi nal stress and el asti c stress concentrati on f actor.
Furthermore, representi ng the stress- strai n response of the materi al wi th
power l awhardeni ng constants,
(5)
where K i s the strength coef f i ci ent, and n i s the strai n hardeni ng
exponent, the rel ati on can be wri tten wi th Au as the onl y unknown,
AS2 ~2
E
< ($+ (: )n)
Sol vi ng f or Au i s accompl i shed usi ng an i terati ve techni que such as
Newton s method.
5.1.2 Fati que Notch Factor
I n f ati gue testi ng, i t i s general l y observed that the actual
l i ves of notched components are somewhat l onger than woul d be expected
f or the notch root stress cal cul ated usi ng the el asti c stress concentrati on
f actor, Kt. That i s, notches have a l ess detri mental ef f ect on f ati gue
l i f e than woul d be predi cted. Thi s ef f ect i s dependent upon both def ect
si ze and materi al . To account f or thi s di f f erence, a f ati gue notch
f actor, Kf , i s of ten used i n pl ace of Kt f or f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons.
The f ati gue notch f actor i s def i ned as
unnotched at a f i ni te l i f e (e. g. 107)
f =
G (6)
notched
14
The val ue of Kf f or a gi ven notch geometry and materi al can be determi ned
experi mental l y or by the use of anal yti cal rel ati ons. A commonl y used
[43]
f ati gue notch f actor rel ati on i s Peterson s equati on ,
( )
t-l
f = 1 + ~[r ,
(7)
where a i s a materi al constant dependent on strength and ducti l i ty and r
i s the notch ti p radi us. The materi al constant a can be approxi mated f or
f errous- based wrought metal s by an equati on f i tted to Peterson s data,
(8)
where SU i s the ul ti mate strength i n ksi uni ts. Peterson s equati on
i ndi cates that smal l notches are l east sensi ti ve i n f ati gue, and that
ducti l e materi al s are l ess sensi ti ve to notches i n f ati gue than strong
materi al s.
5.1.3 Notch Strai ns and LowCycl e Fati que
Usi ng Nueber s rul e f or notch root stress- strai n behavi or al ong
wi th Peterson s equati on f or the f ati gue notch f actor, i t i s possi bl e to
esti mate the stress- strai n response of the notch root materi al subj ected
to f ati gue l oadi ng. I t sti l l remai ns to rel ate these l ocal stresses and
strai ns to actual f ati gue l i f e data. Because the pl asti cal l y def ormed
notch root materi al i s constrai ned by the surroundi ng el asti c materi al , the
notch root i s nearl y i n a strai n- control condi ti on. The notch root
materi al i s essenti al l y cycl ed between strai n l i mi ts anal ogous to strai n-
control , l owcycl e f ati gue testi ng. The assumpti on, theref ore, i s that
strai n- l i f e f ati gue data obtai ned usi ng unnotched, l owcycl e f ati gue
speci mens can be used to predi ct the cycl es to crack i ni ti ati on, Ni , at a
15
notch root. Lowcycl e f ati gue strai n- l i f e data i s of ten represented by
the Cof f i n- Manson equati on wi th Morrow s mean stress correcti on,
(9)
where AE/ 2 i s the strai n ampl i tude, E+ i s the f ati gue ducti l i ty coef f i -
ci ent, a; i s of the f ati gue strength coef f i ci ent, umi s the mean stress,
2Nf i s the reversal s to f ai l ure, Nf i s the cycl es to f ai l ure, c i s the
f ati gue ducti l i ty exponent, and b i s the f ati gue strength exponent. By
rel ati ng the strai n cal cul ated at the notch root to the strai n- l i f e data,
the number of cycl es to i ni ti ate a f ati gue crack at the notch can be
esti mated. Thi s i s the basi s of the i ni ti ati on l i f e predi cti ons. The
strai n- l i f e data parameters, E+, ~~,
c, and b, are obtai ned ei ther by l ow
cycl e f ati gue testi ng or by usi ng esti mates.
[44]
5. 2. Propagati on Li f e Model
5.2.1. Fati que Crack Growth Rate
Pari s and Erdogan 45] have shown that f ati gue crack growth rates
are dependent upon the stress i ntensi ty associ ated
ti p. The power- l awrel ati onshi p i s of the f orm
wi th the f ati gue crack
(lo)
where da/ dN i s the f ati gue crack growth rate, AK i s the stress i ntensi ty
.
f actor range, and A and mare materi al constants dependent upon envi ron-
ment, stress rati o, temperature, and f requency. Thi s rel ati onshi p i s
consi dered val i d above an experi mental l y determi ned threshol d stress
i ntensi ty val ue; Bel owthe threshol d val ue, f ati gue cracks growso
16
sl owl y as to be
used throughout
stress ef f ects,
of no practi cal consequence. The growth rate expressi on
thi s study has a correcti on f actor to account f or mean
da AAKm
m==
where R i s the stress rati o,
R= smi n/ $max
I
.
(11)
5. 2. 2. Stress I ntensi tVFactor
The general rel ati onshi p f or the stress i ntensi ty f actor range
i s wri tten as
AK=YAS (ma)l 2 , (12)
where Y i s a geometry dependent f actor, AS i s the stress range, and a i s
the crack l ength. The geometry f actor Y i s actual l y composed of a number
of separate mul ti pl i cati vegeometry f actors whi ch account f or the shape of
the crack, the thi ckness of the component or speci men, and the posi ti on
of the crack wi thi n the body. The val ue Y i s wri tten as
y=MsMtMk
o
(13)
where Ms accounts f or. the f ree f ront surf ace, Mt accounts f or the f i ni te
pl ate thi ckness, Mk accounts f or the nonuni f ormstress gradi ent due to the
stress concentrati on of the geometri c di sconti nui ty, and 40 accounts f or
the crack shape.
I
17
The MS f actor, whi ch accounts f or the f ront f ree surf ace, i s
expressed by the rel ati on
[46]
Ms = 1. 0 - 0. 12(1 - a/ 2c)2 (14)
where a/ c i s the rati o of the mi nor and maj or el l i pse axes. The maj ori ty .
of cracks exami ned i n thi s study, however, are embedded i n the materi al ,
so the f ree surf ace correcti on i s equal to uni ty.
The Mt f actor, whi ch accounts f or the f i ni te pl ate thi ckness, i s
[20J 211 The Mk f actor requi res
f ound i n stress i ntensi ty handbooks such as .
a bri ef expl anati on. The need f or such a f actor ari ses because the
stress, U, near a di sconti nui ty i s greater than the remotel y appl i ed
stress, S, used to cal cul ate AK. A crack ti p growi ng through the stress
gradi ent i s theref ore subj ected to hi gher stresses whi ch resul t i n a
greater stress i ntensi ty f actor range, AK. Not accounti ng f or thi s
i ncrease i n stress i ntensi ty woul d l ead to unconservati ve predi cted
growth rates near the di sconti nui ty. The di screpancy i n total l i f e woul d
be greatest f or l arge notches because the stress gradi ent i s sustai ned i n
proporti on to the absol ute notch si ze. Thk subj ect of stress i ntensi ty
f actors i n stress gradi ents i s exam{ned by Al brecht and Yamada
[47]. The
method presented i n Ref erence 47 i s used to cal cul ate Mk i n the present
study.
The crack shape correcti on f actor, O. , i s expressed by the
i ntegral
where a i s the
maj or axi s.
o =
J
/2 [1-(1-a2/c2)si n2$]1/ 2 do
o
(15)
ength of mi nor axi s of el l i pse and c i s the ength of the
6. STRESS FI ELDS NEAR I NTERNAL CAVI TI ES
Porosi ty i s def i ned as cavi ty type di sconti nui ti es (voi ds) f ormed
by gas entrapment duri ng sol i di f i cati on. The shape of the voi d is
18
dependent on the rel ati ve rates of sol i di f i cati on of the wel d metal and
the nucl eati on of the entrapped gas. The resul tant stress f i el d surround-
i ng the pore depends upon the pore shape and the l oadi ng.
6. 1. El l i psoi dal Cavi ti es
The shape of porosi ty can be general i zed f or anal yti cal purposes
as an el l i psoi d. The coordi nate systemdef i ni ng the cavi ty i s shown i n
Fi gure 2. Pore shapes can range f roman obl ate el l i psoi d (a=b=l ) to a
sphere (a=b=c=l ) to a prol ate el l i psoi d (b=c=l) or any shape i n between,
as shown i n Fi gure 3. The el asti c sol uti on f or the stress f i el d around a
tri axi al el l i psoi dal cavi ty i n an i nf i ni te medi umhas been f ound by
48] The stress i n the pl ots i n Fi gure3, Cz, i s Sadowsky and Sternberg .
the l ocal stress resul ti ng f roman appl i ed uni axi al stress, SZ, of uni ty.
Some general characteri sti cs of the stress f i el ds are worth
noti ng. Subj ect to a uni axi al l y appl i ed stress of SZ, the maxi mumstress
concentrati on wi l l al ways occur at the mi nor axi s of the x- y pl ane el l i pse,
poi nt B. The stress Oz, theref ore, i s pl otted rel ati ve to poi nt B al ong
the y axi s. I n the l i mi ti ng cases, ,when a=b=l and c approaches O, the
stress Oz tends toward i nf i ni ty, representi ngthe case of an embedded
penny- shaped crack. As c approaches i nf i ni ty, uz tends toward the remote
stress, Sz. When b=c=l , and a al so equal s 1, the sol uti on i s that f or a
sphere. As a approaches i nf i ni ty, the sol uti on coi nci des wi th that of a
hol e i n a pl ate wi th a stress concentrati on of 3.
These sol uti ons are f or cav- i ti esi n an i nf i ni te medi um. I n
appl i cati on to wel d porosi ty, they are
smal l i n rel ati on to the di mensi ons of
val i d i f the si ze of the cavi ty i s
the wel dment.
6. 2. Spheri cal Cavi ti es i n a Semi - I nf i ni te Medi um
The el asti c sol uti on f or the stress f i el d near a spheri cal cavi ty
i n a semi - i nf i ni te medi umhas been f ound by Tsuchi da and Nakahara
[151.
Fi gure 4 shows the ef f ect of i ncreasi ng stress concentrati on as the
di stance between the surf ace and the pore decrease. The pl ot al so shows
that the presence of the surf ace has l i ttl e ef f ect on the stress f i el d
19
FI GURE 2.
a=b=l
1
C=O.2
o
c=O.6
o=b,c:l
splnxe
o
o,lj=l
I
Q
C=I.5
(1
C=3
ELLI PSOI DAL CAVI TY AND CARTESI ANCO- ORDI NATE SYSTEM
e
O=b=l
7
6
5
b 4
3
2
I-
0
1 I I I I I 1 I I
la 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
y/b
0=1.5
@ -
b,~,l
0,3
b=c=l
2.8
2.4
2.0
bw L6
1.2
m
0.4
L
o~
m 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 2
ylb
I
FI GURE 3. LOCAL STRESS, ~z, ALONG Y AXI S, FOR VARI OUS ELLI PSOI DAL
CAVI TI ES SUBJ ECTEDTO NOMI NAL STRESS, Sz, OF UNI TY
20
FI GURE 4.
I-nw-tll
2.2 U.L4J47LJLLLU
7.s
-1.: -m -0.6 -0.4 -02 0
x
LOCAL STRESS, Uz, ALONG X AXI S, FOR SPHERI CAL CAVI
SURFACE, SUBJ ECTEDTO NOMI NAL STRESS, SZ, OF UNI TY
:1
f cr
~ I
I I
~ I
1.7
E
:1
1.6
1.5 -
1.4
\
Sphericol CUVI!y, U, only (estlma!ed) -
Holes. bi-oxioi Uz ~ al ;2,[est Imoted)
1.3
Spherical cOvNy,tri.oxlo~q =m2=u3,(est.)-
\
%herlcolccv,:y, bi.oxiot, u2=u,/2,(est.)
Hole5. uni-onlol, q only
1.2
Sphericcl Covity, ~1.oxiol -
1. I --
_
TY NEAR A
Ll a
I NTERACTI ONEFFECT OF TWO HOLES OR CAVI TI ES I NAN I NFI NI TE
PLATE OR BODY
21
when the rati o of the pore
surf ace i s l ess than 0. 4.
radi us to the di stance between pore center and
.
6.3. CavitV Interaction
The probl emof cavi ty i nteracti on i s compl ex and correspondi ngl y
there i s l i ttl e i nf ormati on avai l abl e on the topi c. Sadowsky and
Sternberg[48] exami ned the probl emand sol ved two speci f i c cavi ty spaci ngs
f or tri axi al l oadi ng. Peterson 49] took these resul ts and made approxi -
mati ons f or the uni axi al case. The resul ts are presented i n Fi gure 5
al ong wi th sol uti ons f or hol es. Duri ng the present study, cavi ty i nterac-
ti on was assumed onl y f or the case of cl uster porosi ty where pores are
expected to be i n cl ose proxi mi ty to each other. Al l other pores were
Markarov[16] has demonstrated through
assumed to be non- i nteracti ng.
photoel asti c techni ques that cavi ti es separated by two pore di ameters do
not ef f ect the stress di stri buti on of the other.
7. ANALYTI CAL PROGRAM
.
.
7.1. Appl i cati on of I ni ti ati on- Propagati onModel to Porosi ty
7. 1. 1 I ni ti ati on Li f e
Vol umetri c di sconti nui ti es such as pores act as rel ati vel y mi l d
stress concentrati ons because of thei r rounded asperi ti es. A spheri cal
cavi ty, f or i nstance, has a stress concentrati on f actor of onl y 2. 05 (wi th
Poi sson s rati o of O. 3). The l owstress concentrati on suggests that a
f ati gue crack woul d take a l arge number of stress cycl es to i ni ti ate.
.
For smal l er pores more cycl es woul d be needed because of the f ati gue
notch si ze ef f ect, Kf . Larger pores woul d be expected to i ni ti ate cracks
sooner.
22
7. 1. 2 Propagati on Li f e
When s crack does f orm, i t i ni ti al l y has a hi gh stress i ntensi ty
f actor range, AK, whi l e growi ng through the pore stress gradi ent. The
stress gradi ent, however, decays rapi dl y as i s characteri sti c of vol u-
metri c def ects. The l arger the pore si ze, the l onger the di stance that the
crack i s subj ected to the hi gher stress because the gradi ent i s sustai ned
i n proporti on to the absol ute pore si ze.
The crack shape i s assumed to
remai n ci rcul ar whi l e i t propagates.
A ci rcul ar crack shape i s the most
energeti cal l y stabl e pl anar f l awconf i gurati on f or Mode I crack growth.
Consi deri ng Equati on 13, *O f or a ci rcul ar crack i s 1. 57 whereas 00 f or
an el l i pti cal crack wi th a smal l a/ c aspect rati o i s nearl y 1. 0. Thi s
means that a ci rcul ar crack wi l l have onl y 0. 6 ti mes the stress i ntensi ty
f actor range, AK, than an el l i pti cal crack wi th a smal l aspect rati o and
an equal crack f ront (a) di mensi on.
A pl asti ci ty crack l ength correcti on f actor was not used i n the
crack growth cal cul ati ons.
The general l y l owstresses (nomi nal l y el asti c)
used i n thi s study resul ts i n a smal l pl asti c zone si ze at the crack ti p.
The conf i ned yi el d zone assumpti on.means that LEFMi s val i d f or most of
the propagati on cal cul ati on.
7.1.3 I ni ti al Crack Si ze
The i ni ti al crack si ze used i n the propagati on esti mates was
taken as 0. 05 ti mes the pore di ameter.
Thi s assumpti on starts the crack
at the same di stance rel ati ve to the stress gradi ent i n al l cases.
The
i ni ti al crack l ength i s consi dered to be beyond the regi on were anomal ous
crack rowth behavi or when anal yzed i n terms of LEFMoccurs.
! 1
Smi th and
Mi l l er
50 f ound that- the transi ti on l ength between anomal ous behavi or
and that governed by LEFMto be 0. 065 ti mes the di ameter f or a ci rcul ar
hol e. Thi s di stance woul d be expected to be somewhat l ess f or a three-
di mensi onal f l owsuch as a pore.
23
7. 1. 4 Fai l ure Cri teri a
The f ai l ure cri teri a f or al l cases i s through thi ckness cracki ng.
7. 2. Vi abi l i tv of the Fati que Li f e Model
The l i terature was searched f or f ati gue tests on
contai ni ng porosi ty wi th suf f i ci ent documentati on to appl y
wel dments
the predi cti ve
model . The most usef ul type of documentati onwas f ractographs of the
surf aces whi ch cl earl y showed the si zes, shapes, and posi ti onal
rel ati onshi ps of the porosi ty. Onl y two test programs
[6,51]
were f ound
whi ch i ncl uded such f ractographs. A total of ei ght f ati gue tests were
f ound to whi ch the model coul d be appl i ed. Nei ther of these test
programs, however, i ncl udedmateri al property data f or the wel d metal .
Both test seri es used E70 wel d metal i n a gas- metal - arc wel di ng process.
The method f or i ntroduci ngporosi ty i nto the wel d metal was i nterrupti on
of the shi el di ng gas f l owi n both studi es.
Because no f ati gue materi al p~~~~rty data was avai l abl e f or E70
wel d metal , E60
basel i ne data.
i s shown i n Tab
Lei s,
S-3 (2 pass) wel d metal LdbJ properti es were used as the
The mechani cal properti es of E6Ci S- 3 (2 pass) wel d meta
e 1 and Fi gures 6 and 7.
et al . 6] perf ormed axi al f ati gue tests on pi pe wal l
segments wi th gi rth wel ds i n A106B steel . The wel d rei nf orcement was
l ef t i ntact, but the wel d toe was ground to a l arge radi us to cause
f ati gue crack i ni ti ati on f romthe i nternal f l aws. Three tests contai ned
suf f i ci ent porosi ty that al l owed appl i cati on of the model . The
f ractographs of these speci mens are shown i n Fi gure 8(a- c). The porosi ty
cl usters are el l i psoi dal i n shape and i ncl ude i ndi vi dual pores of
approxi matel y 0. 02 i nches i n di ameter. Wi thi n the cl uster area, the
percent porosi ty i s approxi matel y f orty percent by area.
Ekstromand Munse[51] perf ormed f ati gue tests on a doubl e V butt
wel d geometry. I n thi s test program, the rei nf orcement was compl etel y
removed to cause i nternal crack i ni ti ati on. Fi ve tests i ncl uded wel ds
wi th severe porosi ty. The f racture surf aces f or these test pi eces are
shown i n Fi gure 8(d- h).
24
TABLE 1. MECHANI CAL PROPERTI ESOF E60 S- 3(2P) WELD METAL
Monotoni c Properti es
Young s Modul us,
Yi el d Strength (0. 2%)
Tensi l e Strength
Reducti on i n Area
True Fracture Strength
True Fracture Ducti l i ty
Cycl i c Properti es
Cycl i c Yi el d Strength
Cycl i c Strength Coef f i ci ent
Cycl i c Strai n Hardeni ng Exponent
Fati gue Strength Coef f i ci ent
Fati gue Strength Exponent
Fati gue Ducti l i ty Coef f i ci ent
Fati gue Ducti l i ty Exponent
Propagati on Properti es
Crack Growth Coef f i ci ent
Crack Growth Exponent
E 27400 ksi 188923 MPa
s 59 ksi 408 MPa
Y
s- 84 ksi 579 MPa
%RA 60. 7 60. 7
f
126 ksi 869 MPa
Ef
0. 933 0G 933
v 53 ksi
K:
179 ksi
n 0.197
u 149 ksi
bf - 0. 09
E;
0. 602
c -0.567
373 MPa
1234 MPa
0. 197
1027 MPa
- 0. 09
0. 602
- 0. 567
A 2. 69x10- 12 3. 95X10- 14
m 5. 8 5. 8
25
I
!
i
FI GURE 6.
.
.
E 60 S- 3- WM(2P)
I I I
0. 005 0. 010 0. 015 0. 020
True Strai n
MONOTONI C AND CYCLI C STRESS- STRAI NRESPONSE FOR E60 S- 3 WELD
METAL (2 PASS)
26
1
I
b = - 0. 090
I0--
<
-
~ SroM in tW&oin Refin~ -
.-
= Plastic
u
c
.-
g
z
Elostlc
10-
10 4
I 10 10* 10 I04 105 10 107 10
Reversals to Foilure, 2Nf
27
FI GURE 7. STRAI N- LI FE DATA FOR E60 S- 3 WELDMETAL
.,, ., ..., ,,. , ,, .,.,. ,,, ,
(c) CPN- 5 Stress Range 27. 5 ksi ,
Li f e - 334, 100
FI GURE 8. FRACTURE SURFACES OF WELDS WI TH CLUSTERS OF POROSI TY
28
(d) PS 5- 1
Stress Range 34 ksi
Li f e - 713, 300
(e) PS 5- 2
Stress Range 34 ksi
Li f e - 325, 500
(f ) Ps 5- 3
Stress Range 44 ksi
Li f e - 80, 300
(h) PS 5- 5
Stress Range 27 ksi
Li f e - 1, 024, 900
(g] Ps 5- 4
Stress Range 29 ksi
Li f e - 633, 000
1
FI GURE 8. FRACTURE SURFACES OF
WELDS WI TH CLUSTERS OF POROSI TY
(Conti nued)
29
Fati gue l i f e predi cti ons were made f or al l ei ght tests usi ng the
model descri bed i n Secti on 7. 3. 6. Al l the i ndi vi dual pores were assumed
to be spheri cal so an el asti c stress concentrati on f actor,
t f 205 as
appl i ed. I n those cases were i nteracti onwas assumed an addi ti onal
f actor of 1.12was appl i ed. Tabl e 2
and the f ati gue predi cti ons f or each
predi cti ons are presented: p(edi cted
stress range; predi cted stress range
predi cted f ati gue l i f e f or speci f i ed
l i sts the exper4
test. For each
f ati gue l i f e at
f or the speci f i [
mental test resul ts
test, the f ol l owi ng
the speci f i ed test
d f ati gue l i f e;
test stress range treati ng the
porosi ty cl uster as a gross el l i psoi dal cavi ty wi th di mensi ons a, b, and
c; and f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons usi ng onl y the reduced cross secti onal
area wi thout assumi ng a stress concentrati on. The resul ts showthat
treati ng the pore cl uster as a gross el l i psoi dal cavi ty i s somewhat
conservati ve whi l e consi deri ng the f l awas merel y a reducti on i n cross
secti onal area I s very unconservati ve. Appl yi ng the model f or cl uster
porosi ty resul ted i n good esti mate f or f ati gue l i f e and, when vi ewed i n
terms of stress, even better esti mates. The absol ute magni tude of the
predi cti ons are not as i mportant as the trends because of the uncertai nty
i n materi al properti es. Fi gure 9(, a)shows the compari son between
experi mental and predi cted f ati gue l i ves and Fi gure 9(b) shows the
compari son between the experi mental and predi cted stress ranges f or the
test l i f e.
The predi cted l i ves are domi nated by the crack i ni ti ati on
peri od. Thi s i s due mai nl y to the si ze of the def ects wi th respect to
the cross secti onal area of the speci men. The i ni ti ati on l i f e i s
consi dered to be the number of cycl es unti l the crack begi ns growi ng
radi al l y away f romthe def ect cl uster. Thi s i ncl udes the peri od of crack
coal escence between the pores. Af ter the cracks between the pores
coal esce, the materi al at the outer porti on of the peri phery pores are
assumed to i ni ti ate a crack and growtoward the surf ace.
the net cross secti onal area i s greatl y decreased and the
stresses propagate the crack rapi dl y unti l f ai l ure.
These predi cti ons are based on a l i mi ted sampl e
At thi s poi nt
resul tant hi gher
of wel dments and
theref ore can not be consi dered concl usi ve evi dence that the predi cti ve
model i s vi abl e or not. I t shoul d be noted, however, that assumi ng an
30
I
TABLE 2. FATI GUE TEST RESULTS AND PREDI CTI ONSOF WELDS CONTAI NI NG PORO
Speci I on Nosi na I St rass Stress Area Percent Gross ktua I Fst i guo
Uumtmr Range, ks i
Prod i cted Fat i gue L i f., eye Ias
Ratio Porosity Flaw Din, Life, cycles Hi Ilp Wt
CPN-4
CPM-2
CPN-6
PM-3
PS6-2
PM-l
PS6-4
PS6-5
32.7
27,2
27.2
44.0
34.0
34.0
29.0
27.0
0. 1
0.1
0.1
0.222
-o, osi7
-0.060
0.196
0.260
6.3
0.3
11.8
8,4
4.8
2.2
3.1
4.6
S=0,67
b=o . 07s
C=ll ,030
S=o. all
b=O.063
c=O.032
s=0,76
b=o. 12
c=O.032
S=O.34
b=0,13
C=ll ,070
s=(I .29
b=O.14
C=O.062
s=0,27
b=O.12
C=D,12
S=O.43
b=O.12
C=O.093
S=0,39
64,600
2,116,000
334,100
80,300
326,600
7)3,300
633,000
1,024,900
b=O.12 -
c=0,062
Cluster Method:
Gross FI au:
Percent Area:
Cluster Method:
Gross Flaw:
Percent Ares:
Cluster Wethod:
Gross F I sw:
Percent Area:
Cluster Method:
Gross Flaw:
Percent Area:
Cl usher Unthod:
Gross Flaw:
Percent Area:
Cluster Method:
Gross Flaw:
Percent Area:
Cluster ~ethod:
Gross Flaw:
Percent Area:
Cluster Method:
Gross FI aw:
Percent Area:
136,003
1,271
771,9?3
3,106
483,780
14s
21,640
1,174
670,142
1,634
717,014
30,066
444,026
8,776
2,177,281
2,119
136,161
K 1,339
3, OeB
319 772,292
319 3,426
2. 3eQ
17 463,80s
17 182
6. 7e9
12 21,662
12 1,188
1. 7e7
29 670,171
29 1,683
2. 9e7
394 71 B,200
394 31,269
3. 7e7
119 444,1
119 6,0
7.7e
142 2,177,423
142 2,261
1. 8e9
- ----
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
+ I d
I I I 1 I 1 I
tJ +B
i d
,
+
n ACTUAL TEST RESULT
+ PREDI CTED LI FE
3 4 5 6 7
FATI GUE LI FE, I og(cycl es)
FI GURE 9(a). STRESS- LI FE PLOT SHOWI NGACTUAL FATI GUE LI VES VERSUS
PREDI CTEDFATI GUE LI VES OF WELDS CONTAI NI NG POROSI TY
.- ,.. . . ..
50
45
40
(d
m
E
Id
a
1-
25
m
20
15
10
c1
I
+
+
I
K
n ACTUAL TEST RESULT
+ PREDI CTED STRESS RANGE
+
.
I J I
,
1 1 I I
3 4 5 6 7
FATI GUE LI FE, I og(cychu)
FI GURE 9(b). STRESS- LI FE PLOT SHOWI NGACTUAL STRAI NRANGE VERSUS
PREDI CTEDSTRESS RANGE OF WELDS CONTAI NI NGPOROSI TY
.
exi sti ng crack- l i ke def ect equal to the si ze of the cl uster woul d l ead to
grossly conservative l i f e esti mates (equal to the propagati on l i ves).
The model seems to ref l ect the correct trends f or the f ati gue l i ves of *
the speci mens tested. The resul ts are even more encouragi ng when
consi deri ng percent error i n stress range predi cted to yi el d the f ati gue
l i f e of the sampl e. A number of uncertai nti es such as usi ng approxi mate
mechani cal properti es data and esti mati ng the percent area porosi ty and
pore si zes f romphotographs wi l l certai nl y contri bute to the scatter i n
the- predi cti ons. The smal l sampl e si ze al so compounds the probl em. The
resul ts are encouragi ng, but f urther testi ng i s warranted to val i date i ts
accuracy.
7. 3. Parametri c Study
Fromthe l i terature revi ew, the parameters whi ch have been
f ound to i nf l uence the f ati gue l i ves of wel dments contai ni ng porosi ty
are: wel d type, materi al , thi ckness, resi dual stress, l oadi ng, porosi ty
type, and pore si ze. I n order to expl ore the ef f ects of these parameters,
f our di sti nct anal yti cal procedures are presented; one each f or the f our
types of porosi ty bei ng consi dered. Because of the l i mi ted amount of
actual test data, the procedures rel y i n l arge part on assumpti ons whi ch
are consi dered to be consi stent wi th the mechani sms of crack i ni ti ati on and
growth. The assumpti ons f or each procedure are presented i n the ap-
propri ate secti ons.
7. 3. 1. Matri x of Fati que Li f e Predi cti ons
The matri x of f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons i s shown i n Tabl e 3. For
the constant ampl i tude l oadi ng, there are 144 separate cases to be
exami ned. Each case requi res l oadi ng at f our stress ranges to generate
TABLE 3. MATRI X OF FATI GUE PREDI CTI ONS
G
Parameters Opti ons
Wel d type
Steel
Thi ckness
Resi dual stress
Loadi ng:
Constant ampl i tude
Vari abl e ampl i tude
Porosi ty Type
Transverse butt weld
EH36
0. 5 i n. , 1. 0 in.
+Sy, o
R= -1, 0, 0.5
SL- 7 hi story, O and
6. 5 ksi mean stress
bi as
Porosi tv Si ze, i nch
0. 5- i nch wel d l - i nch weld
Uni f ormporosi ty 0. 015 0. 030 0. 045 0. 015 0. 045 0. 075
Si ngl e pore 0. 125 0. 1875 0. 25 0. 1875 0. 25 0.30
Co- l i near porosi ty 0. 125 0. 1875 0. 25 0. 1875 0. 25 0. 30
Cl uster porosi ty 0. 125 0. 1875 0. 30 0. 1875 0. 25 0. 40
stress ranges; 80, 60, 40, and 20 percent of the yi el d strength were used
to construct S- N curves.
The geometry and coordi nate systemused i n thi s study i s shown
i n Fi gure 10. Note that no wi dth di mensi on i s i ncl uded on the pl ate. The
cal cul ati ons f or al l l i f e esti mates i n the parametri c
on the assumpti on of i nf i ni te wi dth. Thi s means that
pore and subsequent crack wi l l not change the nomi nal
anal ysi s are based
the si ze of the
appl i ed stress, S.
The resul ts can be appl i ed to a f i ni te geometry correcti ng f or a decrease
i n net cross secti onal area.
Al l l i f e predi cti ons aremade f or a butt wel d wi th the rei nf orce-
ment removed to model crack i ni ti ati on f romi nternal porosi ty. The si ze
and number of the porosi ty was chosen accordi ng to Secti on 2. 6. 4:
Radi ographi c I nspecti on for Porosity in the Rules for Nondestructive
54] Figures 11 and 12 show the porosity Inspection of Hull Wel ds .
acceptance charts f romthi s code f or the thi cknesses exami ned in this
study. The code states that the maxi mumarea percent porosi ty al l owabl e
i n any si ze wel d i s 1. 5 percent. Three porosi ty si zes were used. One
was equal to the maxi mumal l owabl e porosi ty si ze as def i ned i n the code.
The other two si zes are chosen l arger than the f i rst one.
The S- N curves presented were constructed usi ng a smooth f i t to
the total l i ves. Cases where l i ves were greater than 108 are not shown on
the pl ots. The curves termi nate at the greatest predi cted l i f e l ess than
10? Those predi cti ons greater than 108 are i ndi cated i n the tabl es.
7. 3. 2. Materi al Properti es
The materi al properti es f or ABS EH36 used i n thi s study are
presented i n Tabl e 4 and i n Fi gures 13 and 14. The materi al i s assumed
to be homogeneous and i sotropi c. I n real i ty, wel d metal i s sel dom
homogeneous, due to
the i ntroducti on of
non- equi l i bri umcool i ng rates, thermal gradi ents, and
i mpuri ti es. Al so, the pressure of porosi ty suggests
rfmmuz
t
z
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
FI GURE 10. GEOMETRY AND CO- ORDI NATE SYSTEMOF BUTT WELD FOR FATI GUE LI FE
PREDI CTI ONS. THE WELD REI NFORCEMENT I S REMOVED. THE WI DTH OF
THE PLATE I S ASSUMEDMANY TI MES THE THI CKNESS OF THE WELD
37
Pmetyp
Pm &meiEr
A-le v
2.54 mm (0.10 in.)
tied
2
1.02 mm (0.04 in.)
12
0s08 mm (0.02 in.)
45
.
G *.
.
G *
G *
G
. G *
.
.
.
G
G . . .. : :*.*. .*.
G .
. . G
. .
G -
G *
G
. G .*
kg,
254 mm (0.10 in.)
6
G G
G
G
G G
Medium 1.02mm (0.04in.) 36
G
9
G
G
G
G m
G G *.
G G G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G .*
G
G . G
G G
G G
?iie 0.S06mm (0.02 in.) 143
. . . . .
.. .*.*. . .
G
.
. . . .
.
. .
. .
. ..
..
G . . .
. . .*
.
.
. . .
. . .. . . .
.. *
. . . . . -.
. . . .
. . . . .
m.. .
.
. . . . . . . . .
FI GURE 11. CLASS A AND CLASS B POROSI TY CHART FOR 0. 5 I NCH (12. 5 MM) THI CK
MATERI AL
38
Pm me l% diameter
Allowable pm
. .
3.17 mm (0.12.5 in.)
.2
korted 1.27mm (0.05in.)
17
0.762mm (0.03in.)
45
G
m.
G
G
b
.
G
.
.
G o
.
. G
G
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
G *
.
.
, . . 0 . G, . g . ,
.
G
G G G
. . G . . . - . .
G
G
.
krge 3.17mm (0.125 in.) 7
I
G
G
G
Medium 1.27 mm (0.05in.)
46
G
.*
G G
. 9
G .
.
G
.
G
G
G
G
.
G
G G
G
G
G
G
.*
G
G
G
G
9
G
G
9
.
G
.
G
G G b
G
G
. .
G
G
Fine 0.762 mm (0.(N in.) 127
..=*
.
. . . . .
., G
.
.
.
. G
.* G
.
G *
...
.
. .
. .
G
G
. . . .
. . . . ..* G
.*.
G *.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. . . .
..
. . .
G
.-
.
G
.* G .
.
.
.
. . .
.
.
. .
.
.
.* G
. . . G . .
. .
. G
G
. G
. .
.
. .
.
.* . . . . .
FI GURE 12. CLASS A AND CLASS B POROSI TY CHART FOR 1.0 I NCH (25. 3 MM) THI CK
MATERI AL
39
TABLE 4. MECHANI CAL PROPERTI ESOF ABS EH36 STEEL
Monotoni c Properti es
Young s Modul us,
Yi el d Strength (0. 2%)
Tensi l e Strength
Reducti on i n Area
True Fracture Strength
True Fracture Ducti l i ty
Cycl i c Properti es
Cycl i c Yi el d Strength
Cycl i c Strength Coef f i ci ent
Cycl i c Strai n Hardeni ng Exponent
E
s
Sy
% RA
f
q
Fati gue
Fati gue
Fati gue
Fati gue
Strength Coef f i ci ent u
Strength Exponent bf
Ducti l i ty Coef f i ci ent
E;
Ducti l i ty Exponent c
Propagati on Properti es
Crack Growth Coef f i ci ent A
Crack Growth Exponent m
30,700 ksi
61 ksi
75 ksi
77. 4
186. 3 ksi
1. 49
49 ksi
132 ksi
0. 162
103 ksi
- 0. 075
0. 227
- 0. 462
1. 76x10- 12
4. 5
211, 677 MPa
421 MPa
518 MPa
77. 4
1285 MPa
1. 49
338 MPa
912 MPa
0. 162
713 MPa
-0.075
0.227
-0.462
2.92X10-14
4. 5
40
20
0
r I I
r
Cycl i c
- v - -
*- .
44
Monotoni c
/ /
ABS EH36
0.005 0.010
True Strai n
FI GURE 13. MONOTONI C AND CYCLI C STRESS- STRAI N
0. 015
RESPONSE
0.020
EH36
41
10-
10-2
10-3
-4
X/
Total
ABS EH36
\\ Pl asti cz ,
El asti c
I I I I I I I
)
10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Reversal sto Fai l ure, 2Nf
FI GURE 14. STRAI N- LI FE DATA FORABS EH36
7. 3. 3. $i nql e Pore
The si ngl e
shown i n Fi gure 15.
pore geometry and assumed crack growth pattern are
The maxi mumpore si ze al l owed f or an i sol ated pore i n
the Rul es f or Nondestructi ve I nspecti onof Hul l Wel ds[54] i s gi ven as
0.25t or 0,1875 i nch, whi chever i s l ess. The pore si zes chosen represent
the l argest al l owabl e pore si ze and two l arger si zes. The pore i s assumed
spheri cal and posi ti oned at the centroi d of the cross secti on. The crack
growth pattern i s assumed to remai n ci rcul ar throughout the crack
propagati on stage. The f i ni te thi ckness correcti on f actor, Mt, f or a
ci rcul ar crack i s approxi matedby the pol ynomi al expressi on
t
= 1. 46 - 1. 85(a/ (t/ 2)) + 1. 79(a/ (t/ 2))2 . (16)
Thi s expressi on i s the resul t of a regressi on of sol uti ons of di f f erent
crack depths f ound on pages 294- 295 i n Rooke and Cartwri ght[21] f or
el l i pti cal cracks i n a semi - i nf i ni temedi um. The stress i ntensi ty
sol uti ons are presented i n Fi gure 16. Note that the i ni ti al stress
i ntensi ty f actor i s qui te hi gh. As the crack becomes l arger and grows
out of the regi on of i nf l uence of the stress gradi ent, the stress i ntensi ty
val ue decreases.
The resul ts of the f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons are presented i n
Tabl es 5 and 6 and pl otted as S- N curves i n Fi gures 17- 20.
7. 3. 4. Uni f ormPorosi tv
The uni f ormporosi ty geometry and assumed crack growth pattern
are shown i n Fi gure 21. The porosi ty i s assumed to be uni f orml y di s-
.
tri buted throughout the wel d. The Rul es f or Nondestructi ve I nspecti on of
Wel ds[54] states that no more than 1. 5 percent area porosi ty i s al l owed.
It al so states that pores smal l er than 0. 015 i nch may be di sregarded.
The smal l est pore si ze chosen i s theref ore 0. 015 i nch. Two other l arger
pores are al so consi dered f or both thi cknesses. The anal ysi s assumes
that the maxi mumal l owabl e area percent porosi ty i s al ways present
throughout the wel d. Thi s reducti on i n net cross secti onal area has the
43
x
FI GURE 15. GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE) FOR
SI NGLE PORE
o
5
x
1.9
1.8
1
SinglaPbre
1.7 -
1.6-
1.5-
1.4-
1.3-
1.2-
1.1 -
1-
0.9-
0.8-
0.7-
0.6-
Pore Size
Thicknees (t) = 1.0in.
Ko= S=
0.25
0.1875
0.5
I
I 1 I i I I I I I
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
a/(t/2)
FIGURE 16. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR SI NGLE PORES I NA l - I NCHTHI CK
PLATE
44
---- -
SI NGLE PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS TAf3Lt h.
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABS EH36
Porti=O.125 inch
N-Prq3 H-wlrfm
10709 132-99
39081 f7916
2%2320 322073
5WW3CI0 38t120676
P~re=O.lB75 inch
l+Ir~it t+-PrOp bl-TClrftL
22;62 39B3 63 15
7971 l~53a 22509
68E16e 90120 15EKu3B
25656872 2039600 27696472
Pm-e=O.lB75 inch
N-Ir~it H-Prop H-TOT!3L
22[124 45066 67090
201521 16+t80 366001
10576766 10 lWIO 11596566
>100000000
Pore=O.1075 inch
N-Init t+PrOp N-TOTRL
2585EAB 509060 3095508
7EWIB952 le60eclo 80579752
>100000000
>100000000
Pm-e=O.1875 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-TOTFtL
8691 3903 12674
42170 1+538 56708
772719 90120 B62039
>100000000
Pw-e=O.lB75 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-~OWIL
10 1&35 %5066 1+670 1
1~69932 16+leo 1634~ 12
>1OOIIOCIOOO
>lonoaclooo
Pore=O.18i5 inch
N-Init t4-PrOp ti-ToTftL
17001351 503360 17511211
>100000000
>100000000
>1OOOUOOCIO
PoreaO.250 inch
H-Prop N-TOTflL
1362 3613
4968 12522
30800 94621
696900 23349779
Stress Ratic,=-1
Resldu#l Siress=51 ksi H-[nit
2590
0835
79753
32537876
N-Init
2251
7554
63821
22652079
Pot_e=D.250 inch
N-Prop M-TOT!W
15405 35722
562CJ0 238069
3W5D0 963365H
>100000000
Stress Ratic~=O
Residual Stttiss=51 ksi
Pore=O. 125 inch
N-Prop l+TOTfIL
121167
146892
+12 150 687501
2741500 16273927
>100000000
SirQss Rang@ <ksi)
40.80
3CI.60
20.40
10.20
N-Init
25725
2+5351
13532427
H-Init
20317
181869
9285158
Pore=O.250 inch
N-Pr~p H-TIJTRL
174200 2433052
635000 6056208~
>100000000
>100000000
Pm-&=O.125 inch
H-Prop I+TOTRL
1370S60 4717097
>lotJoonooD
>100000000
>1OCIOOOOOO
Stress Range <ksi>
20.40
15.30
10.20
5.10
N-lnit
3346237
N-init
2258772
679270e4
Pore=O.250 inch
H-Prop N-TOTFIL
1362 9537
4968 +123B
30800 727753
>100000000
PoreaO.125 inch
N-Prop . N-TOT13L
10709 20475
39081 87426
2%?320 l195r.171
>lopom!oocl
N-It,it
3766
4H345
942751
tl-Init
8175
39270
696953
PorrGO.250 inch
tt-Prop N-TOTI?L
15405 107675
562CI0 1353797
>1O(IOOOCIOO
>100000000
Por*=O.125 inch
N-Pt-ofl N-TOTRL
121167 2136 lil
442150 2309760
>100000000
:>IOOOOOCIOO
Strw~s Rang@ (ksi>
40.80
30.60
m .w
10.20
N-Init
122+13
IMJ7E41O
H-Init
92270
1297597
Stt-059R.5tic,=iJ.5
Re%idud Strwfs=O ksi
Pot-e=tl.125 inch
t+PrOp N-TOTHL
13708E.(1 24187265
>100000000
~loooooooo
:..100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
N-Prop N-ToTfiL
17+2E!0 147Ji7919
>1OOI)OOOOO
>100000000
:Jloooooooo
F1-Init
14573639
TABLE 6. SI NGLE PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
Stress Ratic\=-1
Residual Stress=51 ksi
5tr*ss Ratio=U
Residual S+.r@ss=51 ksi
5tress Ratia=O.5
Residual Strqss=51 ksi
-P
m
5tress Ratio=-l
Residual 5tress=0 Lwi
ksi
ksi
Stress Rang@ (ksi>
01.60
61.20
qo.eo
20.W
Stress Rang@ (ksi)
W3.m
30.60
20.w
10.20
5tress Rang= Wsij
20.+0
15.30
10.20
5. w
Stress Rmg~ Cksi>
01.60
61.20
40.BO
20.+0
St.r-ess Rang@ Cksi>
WJ.80
30.60
20.40
10.20
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABS EH36
PorezO.1875 inch
t4-Init N+rop N-TOTfiL
23E12 7323 96B5
7971 26722 ZM693
68i3GH 165677 23q545
25656072 37=19 NW 23405972
Pore=O.1075 inch
tbInit N-1%-Op M-roTflL
22024
~~~ql
10q8b5
201521 302333 503854
1D576?66 1874qoo 12451166
>Iocrooililncl
Pm-~=O. 1875 inch
M-Init H-Prop H-TOTflL
25135&lB 937230 3522B76
78718952 3~20520 B21.39472
>lDI)OOOOOO
>100000000
PorezO.lB?5 inch
t+-Inii I+-Prop t4-TOTRL
8691 7323 160 1~
421?0 26722 E@1392
772719 1656?7 338396
>Ku3000000
FOre=O.lH75 inch
N-Irrit If-Prop N-TOTfiL
101635 82841 1S+76
1%3?32 302533 1772265
>1!:10000000
llmmliluilclo
Pmw=o.1875 inch
N-1nit ti-Prop H-TOTUL
17001.351 E137230 179385al
>lcl1301Xmclo
>1OCNIUUOOI)
>1OUOOOIIOO
Pore=O.250 inch
M-[nit t+Prop t+TOTFIL
2251 4503 6?54
7554 16%29 23983
63~21 101B711 165691
22652879 2305130 2+158CI09
Pm-eeO.250 inch
tl-lnit N-PrOp ti-TOTRL
203 1? 50936 71253
181669 185B77 367?~6
92B515H 1152510 1043766B
>1OOOOOOOCI
P*re=O.250 inch
N-Init N-Prop t+T13TFIL
2258772 5?6270 2035042
679270&l 2103050 7o03013~
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.25D inch
N-Init M-Prop tt-TOrf3L
0175 q503 1267B
39270 16q29 55699
696953 10 lWO 79EIB23
>100000000
Fow=O.250 inch
M-Init H-PrOp tETOT!4L
9227Ci 50936 143206
129759i t05a77 l%33q7-1
>Mloooo1300
>loooomJKlo
Pm_e=O.250 inch
N-I ni k tbPrOp N-TOTRL
145?3639 576270 15149909
>1000000130
>1OOODOOOO
>100000000
Pcme=O.300 inch
N-Irtit N-Prop H-TJ3TFIL
2196 3051 52q7
7350 11131 18481
61393 69020 130q 13
21253360 1561690 22815050
PoreEO.300 inch
. 14-lnit H-Prop H-TOTRL
1949e 3q511 5WI0
172584 125930 29B522
8700163 7aoe70 9481033
>UM30ttouoo
Pore=O.300 inch
t4-Init t+Prop t+TOTftL
2107?11 390-150 249B161
62977515 lq2~820 64q02335
>100000000
>KMlouoooll
Pore=O.3110 inch
t+-Init M-Prop ff-TOWiL
7923 3051 10974
37867 11131 4899B
661249 69020 730269
>100000000
Pore=13.30D inch
t4-Init H-Prop t+TOTfIL
87B33 3=15 11 122344
1217575 12593EI 13~3513
>100000000
>100000000
Pm-e=O.300 inch
tbIniL N~Prop tkTOTfiL
13468239 39cl~50 13858689
>100000000
>100000000
>Icrooooooo
.,..- ..
.
1!
u
m
100 t
SI 18Pom
Re%ml Stmss=m bl
&-l
l hl dumswO. 5 I ndl
- =*za
a.
W. 6
- - - -
- mm
-a*
Pm3 Sl ti . zso. 0. 1s7s. 0. 125 lb
10
1 1 1 1
b
1E3 1E4 1E5 1E7 l E8
Q=I =s to Eal l u~s~ Nt
FI GURE 17. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE AND
51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS

.!!
.
&
5
K
I00
St 18Pam
RJftiiStrd hi
t+! Thl ~. 5 I n&
~f ~mrw Sb
- %: : : . . : %. . -
.. . . : : . , %.
. . : : : . : : . . .
%: : : : : : . . .
..... ..
- i n 1E4 I E5 l EE 1E7 I E8
I
PoreSI A. 250. O. 1~. 0. 125 l b
It+
t
\
i
Cgcl es to Fal l ure. N*
FI GURE 18. S-N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE AND
ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS
47
1
m
FI GURE
m
SI Ie Pore
I?&31id str$s8=51 ksl
*I
ThldmWA .0 1*
Pore S128s=0.300. 0.250. 0. !875 1-
io
I t t I u
1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 I E7 I E8
@cl es to Fai l ure. Nt
19. S-N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N 1.O-INCH THI CK PLATE AND
51 K$I RESI DUAL STRESS
m
IOU]
St [8Pom
k~ti l Stress-o ksl
*f lhi~l.o In&
.........-. ..
.......... .
........
m +..:.:.: ......
--..: ......
.-. .
PoreSl ma- O. 310. 0. 250. 0. 1675 I *
M 1E4 I m 1E7 1E8
~cl ~s=to Fal l ure. Nt
FI GURE 20. S- N CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORE GEOMETRY I N 1. O-INCHTHI CK PLATE AND
ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS
48
TO. 125 x poresi ze .
I r Poresi ze
1
x, x
FI GURE 21. GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE) FOR
UNI FORMPOROSI TY
1.2
I
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
LocolGradientNear Sutiaco
UniformPorosity
l.? -
1.* -
: ~ / 5:s
al
Pam +
u
n, .
*1-,
G u u u u u till
t
0.6
1
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 o.a 1
o/t
FI GURE 22. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFORUNIFORMPOROSITY. INSET SHOWS
THE DECAY OF THE STRESS I NTENSI TYAS THE CRACK GROWS AWAY FROM
THE PORE STRESS GRADI ENT TOWARDTHE SURFACE
49
ef f ect of rai si ng the net secti on stress. (Thi s assumpti on i s not made
f or the other three geometri es where the area reducti on caused by the
porosi ty i s consi dered as negl i gi bl e. )
The cri ti cal pore i n thi s parti cul ar anal ysi s i s l ocated i n cl ose
proxi mi ty to the surf ace of thewel dment. The el asti ci ty resul t of
Tsuchi da and Nakahara 15] f or a pore l ocated 0. 125 ti mes the pore si ze
(di ameter) f romthe surf ace (a = 0. 8 i n Fi gure 4) i s used to cal cul ate
the stress gradi ent to the surf ace. Si nce the pores rel ati on to the
surf ace causes an i ncreasei n the stress concentrati on, i t i s assumed
that thi s pore wi l l i ni ti ate a f ati gue crack f i rst. As th, i scrack becomes
the domi nant si ngul ari ty, no other cracks i ni ti ate. The stress i ntensi ty
sol uti on f or the gradi ent near the surf ace i s shown i n the i nset i n
Fi gure 22. The stress i ntensi ty steadi l y decreases unti l the crack
breaks the surf ace. Thi s near surf ace crack growth i s assumed remai n
ci rcul ar. When the crack i ntersects the near surf ace, the stress i ntensi ty
sol uti on i s approxi mated as that of a semi ci rcul ar crack I n a sl ab. The
stress i ntensi ty sol uti on f or thi s crack geometry i s al so f ound i n
[21]
(page 298) and is represented by the expressi on
t
= 0. 70 -
where a i s the crack radi us and
0.34(a/t) + 0.47( a/t)2 (17)
t is the pl ate thi ckness. The stress
i ntensi ty sol uti on f or thi s geometry i s shown i n Fi gure 22.
The resul ts of th, ef ati gue l i f e cal cul ati ons are presented i n
Tabl es 7 and 8 and as S- N curves i n Fi gures 23- 26. Many of the cases whi ch
were anal yzed proved to be non- propagati ngcracks, especi al l y the smal l
pores and hi gh stress rati os.
7. 3. 5. Co- l i near Poi osi tv
The pore geometry and assumed crack growth pattern f or the co- l i near
Lundi n[17] i ndi cates 1i near or al i gned pores are shown i n Fi gure 27.
porosi ty i s usual l y associ atedwi th a root or i nterpass and f ound i n
concert wi th l ack of penetrati on or f usi on.
Cauti on shoul d theref ore be
exerci sed when tryi ng to ascertai n the structural i ntegri ty of a wel dment
50
TABLE 7. UNI FORMPOROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE P
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 INCH
ABS EH36
m
Stress Ratio=-l
R@sidual Stress=51 ksi
Stress Ratin=fJ
R@sictual !3tr@ss=51 ksi
Str*ss Ratio=13.5
Residual 5tress=51 ksi
Str@ss Ratio=-l
ResidwJ Str@ss=Cl ksi
>tress ftatic~=ll
R@sidual Stress=O ksi
Stress Ratiu=H.5
f+asiduel StrG5s=0 ksi
Stress Range Cksi>
40.0
30.6
20.4
10.2
Stress flange (ksi)
20.4
15.3
10.2
5.1
Stress Range Cksil
al.~
61.2
W1.a
20.4
Stress Range ~ksi~
40.s
30.6
20.=1
10-2
..- ---
Pmw=L1.Ll15 inch
N-[nit Ii-Prop N-TorflL
2750 318171 320921
>100000000
>lUOJIOOIIOII
>Illollooooo
Pcwe=O.015 inch
N-Init t+-Prq3 ti-TOTfIL
2E1519 3590119 361B636
>100000000
>100000000
>lCIOOOOOOO
Pm-e=O.015 inch
H-Init M-PriJp N-TOTflL
39642+2 40632010 W5962S2
>100000000
>100000000
:Jiooooooot)
Pm-e=O.0i5 inch
M-Ir,it H-Prop H-TOTRL
lo54q 31131?1
328715
>1OCIOOOOOO
>100000000
>Klooooooo
Pwe=O.015 inch
N-I~]it H-Prop H-TOTFiL
138567 359i3119 3728W6
. :+1000000[10
>100000000
>100000000
Por@zO.015 inch
N--Ir*i+- N-Prop N-W.JTWL
20.4 - 276QF35F 4063201iJ M131W166
15.3 >1OUI3OOOOO
11-1-~
:100000000
5.1 >100000000
Pore=CJ.11311 inch
N-Init H-Prop H-TOTRL
1397 143530 144927
4-197 525029 529526
>100000000
>100000000
PoreaO.030 inch
tl-Init H-Prop H-~OTf!L
9512 1626020 1635532
68592 5932650 6001242
>10000000
>10000000
Pore=O.030 inch
N-lnit N-Prop FI-TOTFIL
609110 1B395V0 1900458B
15936323 67131600 83067923
>10000000
>10000000
Pore=O.030 inch
N-Init N-Prop ti-TOTflL
4500 143530 lq8030
19869 525029 5+la9a
>10000000
>10000000
Pore=D.030 inrh
N-Init N-Prop ti-TOWtL
372q3 1626020 1663263
398qq3 5932650 6331093
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=C1.030 inch
N-Init Ii-Prop N-TOTFIL
5293535 1H395W0 21679105
136329370 67131600 2034609?0
>1OUOOOOOO
>,100000000
... . . . ...... .~..... . ,.
m
m
TABLE 8. UNI FORMPOROSI Ty CONsTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE Predi Cti OnS
THI CKNESS = 1,0 INCH
ABS EH36
Str@ss Ratio=-1
Residual 5trws=51 ksi
Stress F!atiO=fJ
Residual Stress=51 ksi
Stress Ratio=C1.5
Residual Stress=51 ksi
Stress Ratio=-l
Residual Stress=O k.si
Str@ss !%kio=(l
Residual Stress=O ksi
5tr*s3 l?.3ti0=D.5
Residual Stress=fl Lsi
Stress Range Cksi)
B1.6
61.2
-10.e
X1.q
Strws Range Cksi>
4C1.e
30.6
20.4
10.2
Stress RarIgQ <ksi)
20.4
15.3
10.2
5.1
Strsss Range (ksi>
t31.6
61.2
41).13
20.4
S+.rmss R.mge [ksi)
40.e
30.6
20.4
Ml.2
str- ~ss Range (Dksi)
20.4
15.3
10.2
5.1
Pm-Q=Il.U15 inch
N-inlt N-Prup H-TI)TFIL
2?50 301776 304526
>Itloooflooll
>1000110000
>11)WOO1300
Pow=O.015 inch
N-Ini+. H-Prop N-TOIWL
20519 340q936 :3433455
>100000000
>100000000
>100000000
Por@=O.015 inch
ti-Init N-l%op H-~OT13L
3964242 38535230 42499~72
>Mrooooooo
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.015 inch
N-Init &Prup N-TOTFIL
10544 301776 312320
>113UOO(IOO0
>1OIIOOOUOO
>100000000
Pore=O.015 inch
H-Init N-i%op tl-TOTfIL
13B5137 3104936 3!5q3503
>1OUOOOOOO
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.015 inch
N- Init N-PrOp N-TOTW
276H79S6 3S535230 6E~2231B6
:~lowlooooo
>1OMHIOOOO
>Mmxroooo
Pmw=O.045 inch
H-Init H-Prop t+-TOTFIL
1017 e3Ei52 B4G69
3217 305i%ll 306977
>100000000
>100000000
POre=O.O-15 inch
F1-Init H-Prop N-TOTfiL
5960 94W197 951457
37q713 3458163 34959~1
>iooooClor30
>100000000
Pore=O.0~5 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-TOTRL
26333fl 10725259 lCJ9ee597
617256B 39141260 45313828
>100000000
>100000000
Pm-e=O.0q5 inch
t+lnit H-Prop N-TOTI?L
30-16 03E152 8609@
12885 3f1576U 31B6q5
>100!300000
>Ioooooollo
fore=O.045 inch
H-Irtit t+Prop H-TOTF!L
21349 94W197 969B-46
192393 3q5B~63 3650B5b
>Krclolloooo
>100000000
Pare=O.045 inch
ti-Init N-Prop N-TOTRL
1269566 i0725253 119W1325
45936044 39141260 a5077304
>1OOCK!OOOO
Pore=O.0?5 inch
t+Ir,it tl-Pri3p H-TOTFIL
74a 46906 4765q
2339 171234 173573
13677 1061765 1075442
>100000000
Pore=O.075 inch
tl-lnit H-Prop N-TOTflL
3a90 530838 534726
21668 1936353 195HD21
566259 12007410 12573669
>iOOOOOOOD
Pm-e=O.075 inch
H-I nit tl-Prop N-TOTRL
120732 6003703 6124q35
2516148 21910630 24426778
>100000000
>100000000
Pnre=O.075 inch
H-Init N-Prop N-TOTftL
2090 46906 q9004
8584 i7123+ 179B18
06719 1061765 11W48I
>100000000
Pore=O.075 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-TOTFIL
12860 53083e 543706
99670 1936353 2036023
5185915 12007410 17193325
>100000000
Pore=O.075 inch
t+-Irtit t+-Prop N-TOTFIL
525?45 6003703 6529WB
16481270 21910630 38391SOII
>100000000
>1OUOOCI OOO >100000000
Ui
... ...
---- ..
.......
;
.....
M =
.....
K
al
al
2
&
%%
m
; %%
W*6 +.
Ram S1- . 045. O. I MI I *
i n
1 1 1 1
w
h 1E4 I E7 I E8
Q@~Htn Fui l u~? N*
FI GURE 23. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND 51 KSI RESIDUALSTRESS
I an
L
FBm S1- . O75. 0. 045 I *
to
I 1 1 1
*
FI GURE 25. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 1. O-INCHTHICK
PLATEAND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS
1111 f om Poml tl J
a
\
kl ckmi Stti I @l
*! T1- l I ~! . 0 l l d- 1
~~ti w
.. ...
... ..
... ..
... . . .
w . . . . ; : .
...
....
....
- . .
...
101
1 I t 1
1
- i = 1E4 1E5 1E6 I E7 I E%
~cl es to Fai l ure. N*
FI GURE 26. S- N CURVES FOR UNI FORMPOROSI TYGEOMETRY I NA 1.O-INCH THI CK
PLATE AND ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS
54
T
t
L
FI GURE 27. GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN(DASHEDLI NE) FOR CO-
LI NEAR PORES
2
I
1.9-
1.8-
1.7-
1.6- q
1.5-
1.4-
1.3-
1.2-
1.1-
1 -
0.9-
Intamctlonof Crockllps Co-LInaorPorosity
.
z
AllPorH s izes
M-
, , . -
ond Thlcknossns
,.? -
1.9-
I,* -
Ko= S=
,.* -
1.s -
,.i -
*. I
*-
**-
u.
u u WI u
o/[(Distant@ BetweenPom Centem)/2]
0 . 8
I
I I I I
0.5 0.7 0.9
d(W!)
FI GURE 28. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY. I NSET SHOW$
THE RI SE I NSTRESS I NTENSI TYAS THE CRACK TI PS FROMI NDI VI DUAL
PORES APPROACH EACHOTHER
55
contai ni ng co- l i near porosi ty based upon the pores al one. Assumi ng that
the wel d may have a si gni f i cant crack i ni ti ati on peri od may be hi ghl y
unconservati ve i f a pl anar def ect such as l ack of penetrati on i s present.
The anal ysi s techni que presented here does not account f or any pl anar
def ects and shoul d be consi dered i n the l i ght of the f oregoi ng comments.
The pores are i ni ti al l y spaced two pore di ameters apart so no
stress gradi ent i nteracti on i s assumed. The cracks i ni ti ati ng f romthe
pores are assumed to occur at nearl y the same ti me and growsi mul taneousl y.
Bef ore the i ndi vi dual ci rcul ar cracks j oi n, there wi l l be i nteracti on
between the approachi ng crack ti ps resul ti ng i n an i ncreased stress
i ntensi ty f actor and accel erated crack growth. No stress i ntensi ty
sol uti on was avai l abl e f or two co- pl anar cracks i n a three di mensi onal
medi umso thi s i nteracti onwas approxi mated by the sol uti on two di mensi onal
21] The sol uti on i s represented by the pol ynomi al sheet sol uti on .
expressi on
M
= 1 + (j . 8$(a/ d)-
6. 6(a/ d)2 + 23. 3(a/ d)3
co
- 32.9( a/d)4 + 16.6( a/d)5 (18)
where a i s the crack radi us and d i s the di stance between pore centers.
The stress i ntensi ty sol uti on i s shown i n the i nset i n Fi gure 28. Thi s
assumpti on i s conservati ve al though somewhat tempered by the crack shape
f actor 00 i n Equati on (13). For a ci rcul ar crack, 00 i s 1.57 whi ch
reduces the stress i ntensi ty by about 0. 6.
Af ter the i ndi vi dual ci rcul ar cracks j oi n, the crack shape
becomes el l i pti cal (a/ c equal s approxi matel y 0. 4) and growth conti nues.
As wi th the ci rcul ar cracks, the el l i pti cal crack i s assumed to undergo
sel f - si mi l ar growth. Thi s assumpti on i s l ess accurate si nce el l i pti cal
cracks actual l y tend to growi nto the more energeti cal l y stabl e ci rcul ar
shape. The Mt correcti on f actor f or the el l i pti cal crack i s agai n f ound
i n[21] (pages 294- 295) and i s approxi matedby
Mt = 1. 22 - 1.10( a/(t/2)) + 1.40( a/(t/2))2 . (19)
56
The stress i ntensi ty sol uti on i s pl otted i n Fi gure 28. The resul ts of
the f ati gue predi cti ons are
Fi gures 29- 32.
7. 3. 6. Cl uster Porosi tv
The pore geometry
gi ven i n Tabl es 9 and 10 and as S- N curves i n
and assumed crack growthpattern f or the
cl uster porosi ty anal ysi s i s shown i n Fi gure 33. The cl uster porosi ty i s
the most di f f i cul t to model anal yti cal l y because of the i nf i ni te vari ety
of pore si zes and conf i gurati ons whi ch cl usters can assume. Thi s vari ety
i s apparent f romthe f racture surf ace photographs i n Fi gure 8. The
geometry f or the anal ysi s presented here was chosen to model the three
di mensi onal nature of cl usters (not al l pores on the same pl ane) and the
possi bi l i ty of i nteracti on between i ndi vi dual cl usters. The i ndi vi dual
pores are al l equal si ze and are assumed to i ni ti ate a crack at the same
ti me. They are spaced a di stance of 0. 25 ti mes the i ndi vi dual pore si ze
so the stress gradi ents wi l l i nteract (see Fi gure 5). The i nteracti on
resul ts i n an i ncreased stress concentrati on f actor and, theref ore,
f ati gue notch f actor.
.
The i ni ti ati on l i f e f or the cl usters consi sts of two stages:
i ndi vi dual pore cracki ng coal escence; and i ni ti ati on of a crack around
the peri phery of the cl uster. Because the stress concentrati on f actor i s
hi gher f or the materi al toward the center of the cl uster due to i nterac-
ti on, that materi al i s more severel y damaged compared to the materi al on
the peri phery of the cl uster. The cycl es to coal escence i s cal cul ated
usi ng the hi gher, i nteracti on- i nf l uenced, f ati gue notch f actor. Meanwhi l e
the peri phery materi al has accumul ated a l esser amount of f ati gue damage
al though not enough to have i ni ti ated cracki ng. Usi ng the Pal mgren- Mi ner
l i near damage rul e,
~ (at stress l evel x)
= 1 at f ai l ure (20)
(f ai l ure at stress l evel x)
57
/
TABLE 9. CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ON W
Stress Ratio=-l
Residual Stress=51 ksi
Stress R,atio=l).5
Rasidqal Stress=51 ksi
u-t
m
Stress Ratio=-1
!?asidual Struss=O ksi
5tress Ratio=O
Residual Stt@ss=Cl ksi
Stress Rang@ <ksi>
01.60
61.20
40.00
20.40
Stress Range Eksi>
4tl.eo
3CI.60
20.40
10.2II
Stress Range Cksi)
Zo.qo
15.30
10.2U
5.111
Strvss Range (ksi)
01.60
61.20
-10.so
20.+0
5+.ress Range (ksi)
w.lao
30.60
20.40
10.20
Stress Rang~ Cksi>
2LI.40
15.30
10.20
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
ABS EH36
Pore=O. 125 inch
N-Init N-Frop N-rorfw
2590 5052 e442
8635 21359 30 19-I
79753 132q36 212D39
32537EWb 299b330 3553q206
Pore=O. 125 inch
H-Init N-PrOp N-TOTFIL
25725 66159 91924
245351 2416q5 Wb996
13532-127 1-W3360 150307B7
>1OOOUOOOO
Pm-R=O .125 inch
N-Init N-PrOp t4-rorftL
3316237 7qa950 qo95 ie7
>100000000
>1OOOOOCIOO
>100000000
Pore=O.125 inch
N-Init N-PrOp N-lWrRL
9766 5a52 156 IS
W3-15 21359 697(I-I
9q2751 13M36 1075 le7
>100000000
Poria=O.125 inch
N-Ini+_ N-PrOp N-ToTflL
lzzqqa
66199 laa6q2
1S67610 2qlE445 210!J255
>1OOOOOOW3
>100000000
PorQ=O.i25 inch
N-Init N-%up H-TOTFIL
221316405 WIS?50
?:3565355
>Ioooooooo
:100000000
5.10 >1OI-IOOOOOO
Pwe=Q.1875 inch
N-Init t4-PrOp H-TOTRL
2362 3307 5669
7371 1207iI 2130q 1
6W360 7qB20 IW36B8
25656H72 1693qoo 27350272
Pm-e=O.1875 inch
N-Init M-Prop N-T13TRL
2202q 3W 16 5Y140
201521 136560 3300B i
10576766 W6500 llq23266
>1OOOOODOO
Pcre=O.1075 inch
tt-lnit N-Prop N-T13TRL
2585698 423310 3fJ09008
7B71t3952 15q50qo 80263952
>100000000
>100000000
Pcre=C1.1875 inch
N-lnit tl-Prop WTOIHL
B691 3:307 11990
q2 170 121170 542-ID
772719 W320 047539
>1000013000
Por~=O.1875 inch
N-lnit N-Prop N-roTFIL
101635 3?416 133051
1469332 136560 16UE#32
>100000000
>100000000
Pot-e=O.lt3?5inch
N-Init N-Prop ti-rom
17001:151 -123310 17q2q661
>100000000
:*lCJOIIC!OOOO
>100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
N-Ini* N-Prop N-rOTFiL
2251 16q8 3099
7554 6016 13570
63B21 37300 101121
22652B?9 W41OO 23q969?9
Pore=O.2S0 inch
N-Init H-Prop N-TOl13L
20317 18650 38967
101S69 68070 249939
92B515B q22000 9707 lse
>100000000
Pora=O.250 inch
N-Init H-Prop N-TOTfIL
2258772 211000 2q69772
679270Sq 770100 6B69718q
>100000000
>100000000
Fore=O.250 inch
N-Init t+PrOp t+TOTFiL
8175 16W 9823
39270 6016 q5266
696953 37300 73q253
>100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
H-init N-Prop N-TOTRL
92270 1B650 110920
1297597 6H070 1365667
>1OOOOOI)OO
,
>~o~l)ooooo
Pore=O.250 inch
H-Init H-PrOp t+-rorRL
lq573G39 211000 lq7&1639
>100000000
>100000000
>lUOOOOOOO
.Z...-,... - -..-,---
TABLE 10. CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
Stress Ratio=-l
Residual 5tress=51 ksi
Stress Rati~=O
Residual Stt-Qss=51 ksi
%-es? Ratio=O.5
Residual Stress=51 ksi
Stress Ratio=-l
Rasidual Str@ss=O
Stress Uatio=O
Residual Skr@ss=O
Ltt-ess Ra+.io=O.5
Residual 5+.ress=O
ksi
ksi
ksi
THI CKNESS = 1.0 I NCH
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
ABS EH36
PorecO.lB75 imch
Siress Range Wsi> M-Itlit H+rop H-TOWiL
81.6 2362 3?BA 6146
61.2 ?9-?1 13806 21777
qo.e 6Be68 85595 15W63
20.4 25656872 1937150 27594022
Pore=O.1875 it]ch
Stress Rang* Cksi> bl-IniL N-Prop N-TOWiL
40.s 22024 42001 6qWS
30.6 201521 156215 357736
20.-1 10576766 36B396 l15q5162
10.2 >100000000
Pmva=O.lB75 inch
5tr*ss Range Wsi] H-lnit H-PrOp H-ToWIL
20.4 2585648 q8q2 19 3069867
15.3 7B?1B952 1767380 BOW6332
10.2 >1OIIOOCII3OO
5.1 >Iolloooooo
Pore=O.lEi75 inch
5triw.sRange [ksi> N-[nit t+PrOp WroTfiL
8i.6 8691 37W 12~75
61.2 42170 13906 55976
qo.0 772719 05595 S58314
20.4 >100000000
Pore=O.lB75 itqch
Str~ss Rat]ge (ksi) tt-Init M-Prop N-TOTflL
flo.c 101635 W801 IW436
30.6 lq69932 156215 1626117
20.4 >100000000
10.2 >100000000
Pore=O. lS75 inch
Stress Range [ksi> N-Init I+-Prop N-TOTf7L
w.~ 17001351 -laq219 1W185570
15.3 :,100000000
10.2 >100000000
5.1 > 100000000
Pore=O.25U inch
N-Ini t N-Prop N-TOTRL
2251 2q62 q713
755+ B97El i6532
63H21 55665 1194e6
22652B79 1253450 23912329
Pore=CI.250 inch
N-Init N-Prop M-TOTFU.
20317 2iw3q 4e151
181e69 101566 2e3q35
9285 15e 629779 9911937
>1OOOOOI3UO
Pore=O.250 inch
N-lnit N-Prop N-TOTRL
22se772 314913 25736e5
679270e-1 11490B0 69076164
>Iooooaoclo
>MJlxloool)o
For~=O.250 inch
N-Init H-Prop H-TOTRL
8175 2q62 10637
39270 e97e w2qe
696953 55665 7526 le
>1000000!)0
Pcwe=O.250 inch
t+-Init N-Pt-op N-TOTRL
92270 278W 120104
1297597 1015L6 1399163
>Iooooocllxl
>100000000
Por@=O.250 inch
N-Init H-Prap H-TOTRL
lJi5i3639 314913 1WW552
>100000000
>100000000
>1OCHJOOOOO
Pore=O.300 inch
M-Init N-Pt-op N-~OT13L
2196 1903 4099
7350 69q3 14293
61393 q3048 lo~4ql
21253360 973990 22227350
PwG=13.300 inch
N-[nit H-Prop H-TOTRL
19q9e 2152q q 1022
172584 785q5 251129
8700 S63 407030 91e7193
>100000000
Pare=O.300 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-TOTHL
2107711 243524 2351235
62977515 e88630 63e66145
>MHJOIIOOUO
>100000000
Pore=O.300 inch
N-lnit N-Prop N-TOT13L
?923 1903 9826
37e67 6W13 q4810
661249 430qB 7oq297
>100000000
Pare=C1.30tiinch
14-Init N-PrOp N-TOTRL
87833 21524 109357
1217575 78545 1296120
>1OCIOOOOOO
>100000000
Pore=O.3J30 inch
N-Ittit N-Prop N-TOTRL
1346B239 243524 13711763
>100000000
>100000000
>lmxlooono
.
.. . .
10
*I
M*5
El w Es I E7 l Ea
Qc le s to Fal l u~e? N*
FI GURE 29. S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY GEOMETRY I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS
1
9
m
00
bLf nsarPorusi @
Resi ci ucl i stress- obi
*f
mi &nti . 5 i ti
. .......
........
.......
. . . . . . . .
..........
~....... . . / . . . . . .
......
... . . . . .
war of Porwn+
I
Porssl - . m. 0. 167s. 0. 125I rdl
.
+%k-!!!!%
Pore Sl zmPO. 300. 0. 2S0. d. 18751-
1E3 1E4 I E5 I E6 I E7 I ES
Qcl es to FctiI urs, N*
FI GURE 31. S- N CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY GEOMETRY I NA 1.O-INCH THI CK
PLATE AND 51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS
l m
Nxrber of Par-
Poresl ti . m. 0. 2S0. 0. 1676 l a
where N denotes cycl es, the outer materi al has been damaged an amount
(coal escence)
G
(f ai l ure a peri phery stress l evel )
Bef ore i ni ti ati ng a f ati gue crack, the outer materi al must sati sf y Mi ner s
cri teri a (Equati on20). Af ter the i nner regi on of the pores coal esce,
the l oad path around the cl uster wi l l change because l oad can no l onger
be carri ed between the pore l i gaments. Al though the stress f i el d around
the cl uster wi l l admi ttedl y be very compl ex, i t i s assumed f or our purposes
to approxi mate the stress f i el d around an el l i psoi d of comparabl e di men-
si ons. Observi ng Fi gure 33, the el l i psoi d wi l l be an obl ate spheroi d,
hal f as hi gh as i t i s wi de. I n ref erence to Fi gure 3, i t woul d be of the
shape a=b=l and c=O. 5. The remai ni ng i ni ti ati on l i f e of the cl uster
(bef ore a crack begi ns growi ng radi al l y) at thi s newhi gher stress
concentrati on l evel i s cal cul ated f romEquati on 20. The total i ni ti ati on
l i f e i s taken as the cycl es to cause coal escence and the cycl es remai ni ng
bef ore the peri phery i ni ti ates a crack. The crack growth stress i ntensi ty
sol uti on i s shown i n Fi gure 34. Note the hi gh i ni ti al stress i ntensi ty
f actor. Thi s i s due to the hi gh stresses resul ti ng f romthe assumed
el l i psoi d shape of the coal esced cavi ty. The stress i ntensi ty f actor
decays rapi dl y and the sol uti on becomes domi nated by the Mt f actor. Thi s
i s the same as the si ngl e pore Mt sol uti on, Equati on 16, because both are
ci rcul ar cracks.
The f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons f or the cl uster geometry are
presented i n Tabl es 11 and 12 and as S- Ncurves i n Fi gures 35- 38.
8. VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE LOADI NG
8. 1. SL- 7 Contai nershi P I nstrumentati onProqram
T
t
J-
-i 1-
Cl ustersi ze
t
z
x
0. 5x cl uster si ze
~q(~+~- , -
FI GURE 33. GEOMETRY AND ASSUMEDCRACK GROWTH PATTERN (DASHEDLI NE) FOR
CLUSTER POROSI TY
2.5
2.4-
ClustmPorosity
2.3-
CluatirSi=
2.2?
2.1-
2-
1.9-
1.8-
1.7-
1.6-
1.5-
1.4-
1.3-
1.2-
1.1-
1-
0.9-
0. 8-
0.7-
0.6-
0.1875
Thickness (t)= 1.0in.
0.25 Ko= S=
0.5
1
1 I 1 I I I 1 I i
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.0 1
a/(t/2)
FI GURE 34. STRESS I NTENSI TYSOLUTI ONFOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 1. O-INCH
THI CK PLATE
63
TABLE 11. CLUSTER POROSI TY CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
StrQss FhtiO=-1
Residual 5trFss51 ksi
!Stres5RatiO=O
Residual Str~ss=51 ksi
Str-e5s F.aticd=O.5
Residual !3tt-&ssClksi
Stress Range Cksi3
81.60
61.20
40.s0
20.40
Stress Range Cksi>
40.80
30.60
20.40
10.20
Str@ss Rauge (ksi>
20.4!3
15.30
10.20
5.10
5f.t-ess Rangv LIA)
U1.60
61.20
40.80
20.qo
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABS EH36
3001 26+ 3265
10339 26403 36742
94945 lw39b 2793q 1
395q9543 q2069clo %3756443
Pore=O. 125 inch
H-Init H-PrOp N-TIITRL
30602 96121 126723
29q409 3116q10 600819
1652q596 2011560 iE535956
>1013000000
Pore=O.125 inch
N-Init tl-Ptop ti-TOWtL
4112120 1045220 !5157340
>100000000
>1OOUOOOOJ)
>100000000
Pmw=O.125 inch
tl-Init M-Prop t+TOTI?L
11398 264 11662
5S98@ 26403 83391
1136570 lr34396 1.320966
>100000000
Pm-@=tl.125 inch
N-Init tl-Prop N-TOTFIL
1HW64 96121 242985
2284339 3oLq 10 2590?49
>100000000
>100000000
POre=ll.125 irlch
N-Init N-FrOp N-TOTfIL
?%h7557d 1045220 2372C1794
>lDOOOOOOII
>1OOOOOOCJO
)1013000000
Pm-e=J3.1875 inch Pore=O.3011 inch
N-Init I+-Prop N-TOTRL
2416 146 2562
8113 2455 1056B
67455 66133 1335f38
22645488 1420820 2q066308
i%-e=O.1875 inch
ti-Init N-Prop t+TOTRL
21297 32096 53393
185885 128011 313B96
3265536
739750 10005286
>1OOCJIIODOII
Por@=O.18?5 inch
N-]nit tl-PrOp Fi-TDrfiL
2244159 365790 2609949
66980861 1318920 68299781
>100000000
>1OOOODOOCI
Pore=il.lB75 inch
H-Init N-l%op M-TOTRL
B664 146 8e 10
q 1356 2455 q3811
71~279 66133 700412
>1OCIOOOOOO
Por-e=O.1875 inch
H-Irtit H-Prop N-TOTFIL
95CM3 32096 127139
13036S6 128011 lq31697
>lctooooooo
>100000000
Pore=O. 1875 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-UWFIL
lq362233 365790 1172B023
>100000000
>1OCIOOI3OCIO
>1OOOOOOCIO
M-Init N-Prop t&VJTRL
1993 39 2032
6567 140 6707
50364 7379 57743
131354792 171500 1W26292
Pore=O.300 ~nch
H-[nit H-Prop t+TOTRL
15603 -133 16036
124795 12936 137731
5563810 85760 5649570
>100000000
Pm_e=O.300 inch
bl-lnit N-Prop t4-TOTRL
46141 1315703 1361W4
15381CI 37222982 37376792
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.300 inch
li-Init H-Prop N-TOWIL
6804 6843
31318 1;; 31458
480025 7379 48710q
>1OOI)UOOOO
POre=O.300 inch
N-Init N-Prop N-TO~RL
65q59 q33 65892
802714 12936 015650
855E12B13 85?60 D56685i3
>100000000
Pore=O.300 inch
t&Irrit N-Prop N-TOTFIL
7814651 1315703 9130354
>1OOOOOOOJI
>100000000
>100000000
TABLE 12. CLUSTER PORE CONSTANT AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
Stress Range f.ksi>
-m . e o
3D.60
20.40
10.20
Stress Range (ksil
20.40
15.30
10.20
5.10
!5+.r~ssRang@ Cksil
81. 50
61.20
40.811
2cl.Jlo
Stress Range [ksi>
=40.80
30.60
20.40
10.20
Strwss Range [ksi)
20.40
15.30
10.2LI
5.10
THI CKNESS = 1.0 I NCH
ABS EH36
?orG=IJ.ls75inch
H-Init N-FrOp N-ToiWL
2416 151 2567
8113 4762 12S75
67455 130s 13 198260
226d5q@8 2707320 25432HCIB
POre=O. 11375 inch
N-Init t+-PrOp H-TOTRL
21297
6q36B 85665
le58B5 251111 436996
9265536 1+1 1270 10706M36
>1OOIJOOOOO
Pore=O.1875 inch
Ii-[nit t+PrOp H-TOTRL
22+1 159 675320 2919479
66980B61 2791330 69772191
>100000000
>1OOOOOOO!I
Poro=U.lF175 inch
i+Init Ii-Prop t+TorRL
8664 151 0815
~ 1356 ~?62 46118
714279 130s13 845092
>Iooo[loollo
Pore=O. lr3?5inch
N-lnit t+-PrOp t4-TOTt3L
95043 6q368 159=111
13C136E$6 251111 155479?
>Illlouooocl
>100000000
Pm-e=O.lt375 inch
N-Init I+-Prop N-TOTHL
2FW75574 675320 29350894
:Jluooctoooo
>Il)olloolxjo
>100000000
Pore=O.25Ll inch
N-lnit N-?r-q N-TOTRL
2132 112 2244
7068 4oq 7472
55727 82902 130629
16450388 1~85270 1H335658
Pore=O.250 inch
&Init tbPrOp H-TOTftL
17380 38B24 56204
iq3330 151976 295306
66q9569 925680 7575249
>100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
H-[nit t+-Prop H-TOTFiL
15E!5675 41205B 2027733
45742008 l?3q370 q7q76370
>lo131300Cloo
>100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
N-Inii H-Prop t+ToTRL
?-loq 112 7516
3-i501 Jloq 3W05
550137S 92902 633777
>1OOOI3OOIIO
Pore=O.25Jl inch
WInit t+PrOp N-roTIW.
74=?90 3e@24 113314
950036 151976 I102U12
>1OCJOOOOOI)
>100000000
Pore=O.250 inch
N-Irtit N-Prop WTOTRL
3b6&lqi W205B 101JI8199
>100000000
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.qOO inch
N-Init t&Prop N-TOWIL
1023 55 le?a
595a 196 6 lW
44122 23137 67259
11041311 557720 11599031
Pore=O.qOO inch
N-Init H-Prop N-TOTRL
13546 5640 19186
lWio37 43B62 147899
q3955e 1 261050 q656631
>100000000
Pore=O.400 inch
H-Init H-Prop N-TOTfiL
1027960 13866! 1166624
2B30953B q95850 28805388
>100000000
>100000000
Pore=O.qOO inch
N-Init H-Prop H-TOTFIL
60H4 55 6139
27571 196 27767
400954 23 13? 42409 i
>100000000
Pore=O.qOll inch
N-Init N-Prop H-TOTRL
55270 56q0 6CI91O
6-13493 q3062 6B7355
63B51693 261050 64112743
>100000000
Pore=O.-100 inch
N-Init I{-Prop t+-TOlflL
5900201 138661 603B9q5
>100000000
>100000000
.~looooourlo
iii
2
ii
ii
u
al
g
-#
u)
FI GURE
lm
Cl mter SI A. ~. 0. 187S. O. l ZS [-
1 1 I 1
!
1 1E4 1E5 l E6 1E7 1E8
Qcl ea to Fai l ure. Nt
35. S- N CI J RVESFOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE AND
51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS
Cl ust8r Poro81Q
Rwi dl ul sh8#l ksl
*1
l hi dm#A1. 5 I *
~- -
...... ...... ....
...... .... ......
.... . -....
......
- . . . ....... %. .
- . . %. . . %. -
+. . . .
....
- . .
......
......
.........
.....
.......
Cl @er SI - . 3W. 0. 1875. 0. 126 l b
lUJ
1 I 1 1
u
Tu I E4 1= 1E5 1E7 ~8
Cgc[es to Fai l ure, Nt
FI GURE 36. S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE AND
ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS
66
100]
%-!5!!P
- i m 1E4 I E5 I E8 l E7 SE%
~cl es tO Fai i urs. Nk
FI GURE 37. S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 1.O-INCH THI CK PLATE AND
51 KSI RESI DUAL STRESS
l ml
Cl wtsr Pwwi Q
Rmi ci mi Stti ksl
*I Thi dul #d . 0 Ml
>~hmwb
.....
G;... . - . . . . .
. *. % .....
..... .......
... .. . y. . -
.....
%. . ... . %.
......
%. . .
.......
.....
.......
%. . . - .
...
....
FI GURE 38. S- N CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 1. O-INCHTHI CK PLATE AND
ZERO RESI DUAL STRESS
67
transatl anti c and transpaci f i c
gene~ate a stress hi story to
8. 1. 1. Data Characteri sti cs
c routes. A sampl e of thi s data was used to
be used i n the predi cti ve model .
Stresses i nduced i n a shi ~ structural el ement have components
f roma number of sources. These i n~l ude[12] l ocal resi dual stress f rom
f abri cati on or wel di ng, i ni ti al sti l l water bendi ng stress, varyi ng mean
stress due to f uel burn of f , the shi ps own wave system, di urnal thermal
stresses, l owf requency wave- i nduced stress, and hi gh f requency wave
i nduced stress. Of these onl y the wave i nduced stresses, both l owand
hi gh f requency wi l l be used i n constructi ng a stress hi story f or the
model . The other sources wi l l be consi dered as quasi - stati c, contri buti ng
to the i nstantaneous mean stress rather bei ng than a source of cycl i c
l oadi ng.
Hi gh f requency wave i nduced stresses are caused by dynami c wave
l oadi ng agai nst the shi p structure. These can consi st of bottomsl ammi ng,
shi ppi ng of water on deck, and f l are i mpact. Dynami c l oads produce
whi ppi ng and spri ngi ng el asti c moti ons of the hul l , typi cal l y at hi gher
than the f requency of wave encounter. Lowf requency wave- i nduced stresses
occur at the same f requency as wave encounter. These are caused by the
wave f orces on the hul l . The l evel of stress i s di rectl y rel ated (al though
not di rectl y proporti onal to) the si gni f i cant wave hei ght of the en-
countered seaway.
The stresses recorded duri ng the SL- 7 i nstrumentati onprogramare
the maxi mumpeak stress and the maxi mumtrough stress whi ch occur duri ng
a f our hour recordi ng i nterval . These maxi mumstresses do not necessari l y
occur duri ng the same,cycl e. I n general , the maxi mumpeak and trough
stress recorded wi l l be produced by a dynami c, hi gh f requency l oad.
Theref ore, the maj ori ty of the reported data i s hi gh f requency data. A
l i mi ted amount of l owf requency data, however, ,has been reported
[121. ~
representati ve hi story can be constructed f romthe avai l abl e l owand hi gh
f requency data.
The l owf requency are di rectl y rel ated to the si gni f i cant wave
hei ght encountered by the shi p. The si gni f i cant wave hei ght i s the
68
average hei ght of the hi ghest one thi rd porti on of the waves. Fi gure 39
i l l ustrates the rel ati on between the observed wave hei ght and the root
mean square (RMS) stress val ue. Thi s data was col l ected on board the SL-
7 SEA- LANDMcLEAN duri ng 1974; the f i rst date year of the data col l ecti on
program. The f requency of occurrence f or each wave hei ght i s reported
i n[52] and presented i n Tabl e 13. Fromthe l oadi ng summary sheets .
presented i n Ref erence
mi nute i nterval i s 176
the cycl e rate and the
group, a l owf requency
stresses.
12, theaverage number of wave cycl es duri ng a20-
cycl es, or 385, 440 cycl es per month at sea. Usi ng
reported probabi l i ty of occurrence f or each wave
l oadi ng spectrumcan be cal cul ated based on RMS
The hi stogram 53] of maxi mumpeak to trough stress recorded
duri ng date year one aboard the SL- 7 SEA- LANDMcLEAN (port) i s shown
Fi gure 40. Recal l that each reported cycl e i s the maxi mumval ue, peak
and trough, recorded duri ng a 4- hour i nterval . The average rate of
occurrence f or hi gh f requency or burst data i s reported i n Ref erence 12
as 18 bursts per 20- mi nute i nterval . Thi s converts to 216 bursts f or
every one burst recorded. I n constructi ng the hi gh f requency porti on of
the l oadi ng spectrum, the conservati ve assumpti oriwi l l be made that 216
bursts occurred at the same ~al ue as the reported maxi mum. The number of
cycl es f romthe hi gh and l owf requency l oadi ngs are then combi ned on a
per month basi s as shown i n Tabl e 14. Any overl ap of the hi gh and l ow
f requenci es were assumed to be addi ti ve, i . e. , an el ement of materi al
wi l l be damaged equal l y by a dynami c l oad and a l owf requency l oad of
equal magni tude.
8. 2. Fati que Predi cti ons
Fati gue predi cti ons were made usi ng the same materi al properti es
and pore geometri es as i n the constant ampl i tude program. Ref erence 12
reported an average mean stress of 6. 5 ksi . I n servi ce, the mean stress
actual l y vari es as f uel i s spent and f rombal l ast changes. Predi cti ons
were made at mean stress bi ases of 6. 5 and O. The stress hi story was
scal ed f rom1 to 1. 75 to provi de a wi de range of predi cted servi ce l i ves.
69
..-
- im-lw Ttm SAW
s Ec oNDs En s lm
~~
1 0 M
11~ (&isERwcl),30FT.
I
FI GURE 39. AVERAGE RMS STRESS VS. OBSERVEDWAVE HEI GHT (AMI DSHI PBENDI NG
STRESS). DASHED LI NE REPRESENTS DATA FROMONE- HALF OF THE
THI RDSEASON. SOLI D LI NE REPRESENTS THE SECOND SEASON
30
1
250 ~~
McLEAN-PORT
-225 DATA YEAR 1
II
ATLANTIC
200 ,,69
SCRATCHWEES~E@l
La%d
2
II 1 1
o 5 io i5 2b 25 * 35 4b
MAxIMWPEAKTOT~UGH STRESS-KPSI
FI GURE 40. HI STOGRAMOF MAXI MUMPEAK TO THROUGHSTRESS DURI NG DATA YEAR 1
ABOARD sL- 7 MCLEAN (PORT)
70
TABLE 13. AVERAGE RMS STRESS BASEDON PROBABI LI TYOF
OCCURRENCE FOR EACHWAVE GROUP
Average
RMS
Wave Probabi l i ty of Occurrence Stress
Group of Wave Group ksi
I 0. 6294 2. 037
II 0.3133 4.320
III 0.039 6.325
I V 0. 0167 7. 249
v 0. 0012 11. 093
VI 0. 0004 10.694
71
TABLE 14. VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE LOADI NG
SL- 7 McLEAN
YEAR ONE DATA
ATLANTI C ROUTE
Stress Range (ksi ) Cycl es/ Month Rel ati ve Frequency
2 261604
4. 3 120758
6 23024
7. 2 6437
10. 2
3208
14 1296
18 864
22 432
0. 626
0. 289
0. 055
0. 015
0. 007
0G 003
0. 002
0. 001
72
The resul ts are reported as bl ocks wi th each bl ock representi ng 1 month
of servi ce at sea.
No attempt was made to, empl oy a crack growth retardati onmodel
because the reported stress data consi sted of ei ther maxi mums recorded
over a l ong ti me peri od (hi gh f requency) or an averaged stress (l ow
f requency). As such, no ef f ect of the l oadi ng sequence can be accounted
f or.
8.2.1. Resul ts
The resul ts of the vari abl e ampl i tude f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons
are presented i n Tabl es 15- 22 and Fi gures 41- 46. I n general , the resul ts
f or the hi story wi thout bei ng scal ed (scal e = 1) represent l i ves many
ti mes l onger than any desi gn l i ves, some on the order of thousands of
years. For the uni f ormporosi ty case where the smal l est pores were
consi dered, some cracks were predi cted to arrest af ter growi ng outsi de of
the pore stress f i el d. As the scal e was i ncreased, l i ves on the order of
tens or hundreds of years were predi cted.
9. PARAMETRI C DI SCUSSI ON
The model used to predi ct the f ati gue l i f e of wel dments contai n-
i ng porosi ty has been f ormul ated to account f or parameters whi ch have
been demonstrated to af f ect f ati gue l i f e. Some aspects of the model
have been i ncl uded based upon f i ndi ngs i n the l i terature search deal i ng
speci f i cal l y wi th porosi ty, such as the need f or pore i nteracti on i n pore
cl usters. The maj ori ty of the model s f eatures are based upon hi stori cal
precedent of l i near el asti c f racture mechani cs and l i f e predi cti ons i n
notched speci mens. In thi s secti on, the model s dependence upon the
vari ous parameters i s exami ned. Ref erri ng to Tabl e 3, the f ol l owi ng
parameters were vari ed i n thi s study: thi ckness, resi dual stress, stress
rati o, pore si ze, and porosi ty type. The f eatures of the model whi ch are
i nf l uenced by these parameters wi l l be hi ghl i ghtedwi th exampl es.
73
TABLE 15. SI NGLE PORE
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABS EH36
Fnr~=ll.i25inch Pwe=D.1875 inch
1+-If,ltH-Pi-clp t4-TWRL H-Init H-Prop H-TOTRL
07 IW 211 70 q6 116
307 2=19 556 242 92 33+
1613 571 21%~ 12+0 210 l=150
154q3 1657 17300 11526 580 12106
Pcwe=ll.125 inch PoresO.lB75 inch
N-1 nit tEPrup WTOTRL H-lni t tt-PrOp tl-roTfW
1B8 322 502 1~6 111
607
25?
a5i lq64 qB3 23? 720
3[132 1755 ~7e? 23q9 555 2904
27331 7EW? 352113 2055~ 1809 22367
Pore=O.2SD inch
H-[nit H-Prop H-TOTRL
61 15 76
206 31 237
IOW 1109
9+i7 11; 96q3
Pora=O.250 inch
N-Init M-Prop t+-TOTRL
120 37 165
qlq q90
1975 1:: 2158
16936 520 17+56
TABLE 16. SI NGLE PORE
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABS EH36
liean~t.r~ss Bias !%ale [.wltiplied
Wsi:1 bg base histnry)
E!.5 1.75
1.50
l.~~
1.00
Pm-e=O.1875 inch Pm-e=O.250 inch Pore=O.30Cl inch
t+[nit H-l+cip tl-lXll-RL 11-Init t4-PrOp t4-TCITRL H-Irtit t+-PrOp H-TOTFIL
73 B5 l!5# 6Jl 52 116 60 35 95
252 170 W2 221 toq 325 2oq 71 275
1295 3B? 1682 1119 23? 1356 1022 161 1193
1WW4 1066 13160 lL127~ 6q9 109213 9289 439 972B
Fm-@=U.1875 inch Pare=O.250 inch
tl-Init.
Pore=O.300 inch
H-Prc~p tl-rorf=m t+-Init H-PrOp M-TorflL t+-[nit H-Prop t+TOTFiL
151 203 354 135 121 253 126 209
501 ~27 928 +t2 250 692 409 1X 5 ?8
24q9 1016 W165 2126 615 27q 1 19q7 =101 2351
215+ 32+3 24792 1s389 18W 20233 16661 1160 17B21
TABLE 17. UNI FORMPOROSI TY
u
m
1.50
1.25
1.DU
1.50
1.25
1.00
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABSEH36
Pm_w=U.D15 inch
N-]nit N+t-op M-TOTFIL
Hon-pt-opacjatlngcrack
Non-propagating crack
Hon-propacjating crack
tlon-propagating crack
M-
For@=O.015 inch
nit t4-Prop N-TOTHL
Non-propagating crack
km-propagating crack
tion-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
TABLE 18. UNI FORMPOROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE
1.50
1.25
1.011
PorQ=O.030 inch
F1-[nit N-Prop H-TOTRL
2B 2459 24e7
Non-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
FmwzO.1130 inch
N-Init H-PrOp t+-TOTRL
Non-propagating crack
Htin-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
Hen-propagating crack
FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABS EH36
Pore=O.015 inch Pore=O.045 inch
N-[nit t+-Prop N-TOTRL t+-lnit tl-Prop
Non-propagating crack 16 1109
t+on-propagat~ng crack 47 271EI
Nun-propagating crack 137 0987
Non-propagating crack Non-propagating
t4-TOTRL
1205
2?65
9ie4
crack
Pm-Q=O.015 inch Pore=O.0~!5 inch
t+-Init Id-Prop N-TOTFIL N-Init H-Prop N-TOTRL
Non-propagating crack Non-propagating crack
Non-propqating cr-ack Non-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack Non-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack Him-propagating crack
Pore=O.045 inch
N-Init tl-Prop N-rOTRL
16 1315 1331
47 3040 3007
Non-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
Pore=O.0~5 inch
H-Init N-Prop N-TOTRL
Hen-propagating crack
tfon-propagating crack
Him-propagating crack
Non-propagating crack
Pore=D.0?5 inch
H-Init H-Prop N-TOTRL
10 575 585
2? 1256 12B3
10I 3265 3369
698 13~26 14124
Pore=O.075 inch
tl-Init t+-PrOp N-TOTRL
22
1072 1894
Non-propagating crack
Hen-propagating crack
Mm-propagating crack
,. . .,.-. .- ,,..
Hem !3trms Bias Scale Cnultiplid
<k~i> bq base history)
6.5 1.75
1.50
1.25
1.00
Hean Stress Bias ScalG [multiplied
Cksi1 by base history>
O.cl 1.75
1.50
1.25
1.00
TABLE 19. CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
NUMBER OF PORES = 3
THI CKNESS = 1, 0 I NCH
ABS El i 36
Pore=O.1875 ittch Pm_e=O.250 inch Pm-e=O.300 inch
N-Irlit H-Prop N-rowiL H-Init N-Prop M-TOTRL H-[nit t+FrOp H-TOTRL
73 % 119 66 20 9q 63
253 WI
22
3W
85
22B 5e 266
1300 215
217 +
1515 1161
261
131
12117
1292 1096
530
100 1196
12737 10710 359 11069 lcfoq2 27q 10316
Pm_e=O.lH75 inch PQr-e=O.250 inch Pore=O.300 inch
N-Init N-f%mp N-TOTFIL N-Init N-Prop N-TDTt3L H-lnit WPrOp N-TOTHL
152 111 263 139
503
207
225
133 51
720 456
184
1:;
2q59
59q
557
434 105
3iI16 2203 333
539
2536 20B3 241 2324
21637 1760 23397 19110 9q6 20086 179?5 ?22 la697
TABLE 20. CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
NUM8EROF PORES = 3
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABS EH36
HQWI ~tr~ss Eias %al~ [.rnultiplied
Wsi 1 bg base history]
0.0 1.75
1.50
1-25
1.00
Pmr@=O. W!5 inch Pm-e=0.1875 inch Pore=O.250 inch
N-Init Ii-Prop N-TOTIW N-lnit N-Prop N-~OTRL N-Init H-Prop N-TOTRL
e7 Ei8 155 73 38 111 66 19 as
307 13a W5 253 77 330 228 3a 266
1613 313 1926 1300 17~ 1=474 1161 07 1243
l!W+ 956 164[10 12147 4i30 12627 10710 237 10947
Pm-e=O. 125 inch PorezO.li375 inch Pore=O.250 inch
N-lnit N-Prop N-TolF/L N.-Ir,it H-Prop H-TOTRL H-Init
180 17JI
N-Prop N-TWTIL
S?id 152 244 139 18+
607 361 YW 503 t% 690 456 :: 54a
3033 948 39E1 2q53 q61 2920 2203 227 2W0
27334 3232 312LG
~ 1637
1486 23123 19140 631 19771
.. ,-..
TABLE 21. CLUSTER POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 0. 5 I NCH
ABS EH36
km St,rQss.Bias Scale <tiultipli~d Pm-e=O. 125 inch Por-e=O.18?5 inch Pore=O.30D inch
Wsi ) by basn histary~ t+-Init I+-Prop N-TC)TRL t+-Init N-Prop N-TLITRL
6.!5 1.75
t4-Init N-Prop N-TIITRL
101 291 392 66
1.50
151
360
217 43
E&l
26
964
69
1.25
223 303
1301
526 141 70
15s5 3-le6
211
1.00
11s5 i%s
10327
1H60 666
5527
159 825
23054 10119 2~B5 126fM 5660 461 6129
ti eanStress Bias Seal* Gultiplid Pwe=O. 125 inch Pore=O. 1875 inch Pm-e=O.30CJ inch
Wsi ) bg base history> N-Ini t N-Prop N-TWRL N-Init H-Prop N-Ti31TlL
0.0 1.75
M-Init
2 Ill 95El 116~
N-Prop M-T13TRL
1.50
139 487
711
626 94
2403
120
311-1
2 1=1
1.25
q48 1083 1s31 288 246 53q
Non-propagating crack
1.00
2126 3658 5784 12B9 639 1928
Non-propagating crack Non-propagating crack 10324 2625 12949
TABLE 22. CLUSTER POROSI TY
VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE FATI GUE LI FE PREDI CTI ONS
THI CKNESS = 1. 0 I NCH
ABS EH36
tlean Stress Bias 5cde hWltipli@d Pm_e=O. lB75 inch Pore=O.250 inch
(ksi) bg base history] ti-lnit. N-Prap t4-ToTfW t4-Init N-Prop N-TOWIL
6.5 1.?5
~~
IE,O 227 113 165
1.50 223 338 566 1% 229 ~02
1.25 11+3 770 1913 EM 1 557 1398
1.00 10402 23s9 12791 7374 1639 9013
Iiean Str-5 Bias Scale Irnultipli*d Por~=O. lE175 inch PorezU.250 ir,ch
[ksi~J b,jbase histor!j) tl-Ini+_ ti-Pr13p t+TOWiL H-Init N-Prop N-TOTRL
0.0 1.75 1=+2 qiu 612 112 3%? 454
1.50 =lSa 934 lq52 352 709 1061
1.25 217H
~~~~
4705 16 Ii 1820 3q37
1.00 l&lL43 lo75a 29qo 1 13336 726? 20603
Poredl.400 inch
M-Init N-Prop Ft-ToTRL
46 83
1:: 91 210
551 251 802
45ao 688 5260
PoreaO.400 inch
tkInit H-Prop t+-TOTRL
01 157 23B
2q5 336 5s 1
1074 7B8 1862
0390 2518 109!38
.
Z. ao
Si ql ePom
FbB=y- g ksl
.
1
1
i
i El I E2 l m i E4
Bl acks to Fai i ure
FI GURE 41. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORES I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE FOR
SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY CURVES CONNECTEDBY CI RCLES
REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO
1
In
-E
(I 1
m
1
i
. 75- \ .
\ ..
\ .
-* *mm
%*.
% .
% ..
% .
% *.
. 50-
%..
% -.
% . . .
% . .
. 25,
ParsS1-.=. 0.260. 0. 187S1*
. 00
i El I E2 I Q I E4
Bi ocks to i%i]U~
FI GURE 42. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR SI NGLE PORES I NA 1.0 I NCHTHI CK PLATE FOR
SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY. CURVES CONNECTEDBY CI RCLES
REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO
78
1
1
1
l E1 1E2 I n 1E4
Bl acks ta Fai i ure
FI GURE 43. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY I NA O. 5- I NCHTHI CK
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTEDBY
CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO
2. m
1. 75
1a
1m
8..
\.
\..
\.
\%
x.
\*..
x.
\ .*
w.
**.
w..
%..
u..
%*.
Poresl-.m. 0.250. 0. 1S75 1*
l EI 1E2 I B I E4
Bi ocks to %iiU~
FIGURE 44. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CO- LI NEAR POROSI TY I NA 1. O-INCHTHI CK
PLATE FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTEDBY
CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO
79
1
1
. 75
. 50-
.a 1-
1-
,.
I Ei 1E2 I B 1E4
Bi ocka to Fui i um
FI GURE 45. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 0. 5- I NCHTHI CK PLATE
FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTEDBY
CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS . BI ASOF ZERO
2.m
Ci u9t8r Pcm3i ~
kl i dmi st~l hi
Thi-!.o iti
1G75 - \ **
\
\
G. *
\
. .
\
. *
a
\ . *
\ . .
z
\
\
*.
CJ l. = -
\
.
..
m
\
%
%
G.
\
G.
%
...
%
- .
1. 25-
\ \ ......
\
G. *
\ . . *
\
*
Cl u3ter SI _. 4Ul . 0. =. 0. 1875 l nd- I \
%%
l . al ~
\
l EI I Q 113 1E4
Bi ocka to i %i i ure
FI GURE 46. ENDURANCE CURVES FOR CLUSTER POROSI TY I NA 1.O-INCH THI CK PLATE
FOR SL- 7 VARI ABLE AMPLI TUDE HI STORY, CURVES CONNECTEDBY
CI RCLES REPRESENT A MEAN STRESS BI AS OF ZERO
80
9. 1. Thi ckness
Two pl ate thi cknesses were i nvesti gated i n thi s study.
i mportant to note that si nce a speci f i c wi dth was not speci f i ed,
It is
the
wi dth of the pl ate i s assumed to many ti mes that of the pl ate thi ckness.
The i nf i ni te wi dth assumpti onmeans that the si ze of the porosi ty and
subsequent crack are smal l i n compari son to the pl ate and theref ore the
reducti on i n cross secti onal area does not af f ect the nomi nal stress.
The- thi ckness of the pl ate, theref ore, has no af f ect on the i ni ti ati on
l i f e of the crack, al l other parameters bei ng equal . The di f f erence i n
l i f e between pl ate thi cknesses i s due to the propagati on l i f e. For equal
pore si zes, i t wi l l si mpl y take l onger f or a crack to growtoward the
surf ace i n a thi cker pl ate. There i s al so a l onger regi on where the
stress i ntensi ty i s not i ncreased by the pore stress gradi ent or the back
wal l ef f ect.
The f ati gue l i f e predi cti ons proved to be rel ati vel y i nsensi ti ve
to the pl ate thi ckness. The l arger thi cknesses resul ted i n onl y sl i ghtl y
l onger l i ves. Thi s i s due to the f act that l i f e predi cti ons are not
greatl y dependent upon the f i nal crack l ength at f ai l ure (i . e. , f ai l ure
cri teri on and back surf ac eef f ects). When the crack becomes l arge i n
si ze, the i ncreased stress i ntensi ty dri ves the crack growth at an
i ncreasi ngl y h
ti ons are very
l ength di scuss4
gher rate unti l f ai l ure occurs. Conversel y, l i f e predi c-
sensi ti ve to i ni ti al crack l engths. See the i ni ti al crack
on i n Secti on 7.1.
9. 2. Resi dual Stress
As was notedi n the l i terature survey, l ocal resi dual stresses
Masubuchi 221 i ndi cated that at the surf ace of pores i s not reported.
tensi l e resi dual stress& as hi gh as the yi el d strength of the base metal
was measured near the centerl i ne i n butt wel ds. Two resi dual stress
l evel s were used i n the present study: the stress rel i eved condi ti on
(resi dual stress equal s zero) and a resi dual stress equi val ent to the
yi el d stress i n EH36 (51 ksi ). The ef f ect of resi dual stress i s onl y
accounted f or i n the i ni ti ati on l i f e cal cul ati ons. Si nce the resi dual
81
stress f i el d i s thought to vary throughout the wel d, accounti ng f or the
changi ng stress f i el d i n crack growth cal cul ati ons woul d prove to be very
compl ex. Theref ore, the resi dual stress i s ~aken as zero f or al l the
propagati on cal cul ati ons.
For the i ni ti ati on l i f e cal cul ati ons, a resi dual stress di ctates
the starti ng poi nt f or the l oadi ng. Fi gure 17 f romRef erence 10 i l -
l ustrates the ef f ect of the resi dual stress upon the stress- strai n response
of the materi al near the notch root of a wel dment wi th rei nf orcement. An
anal ogy can be drawn between the notch root materi al and the materi al
near the surf ace of a pore si nce both act as geometri cal stress concentra-
ti ons or notches. The pl ot shows the stress- strai n response f or three
materi al s; one strong, one tough, and one ducti l e; and the ef f ect the
resi dual stress, Ur, has on the set- up cycl e. The resul t i s a hi gher
l ocal mean stress than woul d be real i zed i n the stress- f ree condi ti on.
The i ncrease i n mean stress i s detri mental to f ati gue l i f e (see Secti on 9. 3
Stress Rati o). Fi gure 48 shows the i nf l uence of resi dual stress on the
f ati gue l i f e f or a si ngl e pore as predi cted by the model . Note the
i ncrease i n l i f e as resi dual stress i s decreased.
9. 3. Stress Rati o
The stress rati o, def i ned as
R=Smi n / $max ,
i s i ncorporated i nto the model f or both the i ni ti ati on and propagati on
cal cul ati ons. The stress rati o i s di rectl y rel ated to the mean stress,
s
mean by
s
s
mean
rn~(l +R) .
(20)
As the stress rati o i ncreases, the tensi l e mean stress al so i ncreases. A
tensi l e mean stress i s general l y observed to be detri mental f or f ati gue
82
200
150
g I m
I
i!
m
! 50
z
o
-50
c
FI GURE 47.
A514HAZ
(Strong)
\ *
&
. sus-
Uf
Urn, i
( KfAS12/E = AuAa
#
/
~KfA#/E~AuAa 4KfAS)=/E =&Aa
I I I
0.01 (202 003
Stroi n, c
SET UP CYCLE FOR ASTM514 HAZ (STRONG),A36 HAZ (TOUGH) STEELS,
AND ALUMI NUMALLOY 5183 WM (DUCTI LE) MATERI ALS. THE SET UP
CYCLE RESULTS I NA TENSI LE MEAN STRESS FOR THE STRONGAND TOUGH
MATERI ALS
1
t+ f
S1 let f%rs
R&d Shwe-0, 51 ksl
lhlche89-o.5 Inch
> ~lm -Mu! Stm
-...
I.<
...
m..
I
Pore SI-. IB76 IM
FI GURE 48. S- N PLOT SHOWI NGTHE TRENDOF I NCREASI NG
WI TH DECREASI NGTENSI LE RESI DUAL STRESS
lE7 I EB
t
FATI GUE RESI STANCE
.- ... ..- -..4 . . . . . . .. --
l i f e, provi ded that the strai ns are not
mean stress rel axati on. I t can be seen
I
AE I . us-
great enough to cause compl ete
f romEquati on 9,
am
+
= Ef (2Nf )L +
[)
& (2Nf )b
that a tensi l e mean stress decreases the ef f ecti ve f ati gue strength
coef f i ci ent whi ch i s a measure of hi gh cycl e f ati gue resi stance. The
strai n- l i f e equati on i s used to predi ct the i ni ti ati on l i f e at the pore
surf ace, so a tensi l e mean stress wi l l predi ct l esser i ni ti ati on l i ves
than zero or compressi ve mean stresses.
A hi gh tensi l e mean stress i s al so f ound to i ncrease crack growth
rates. The crack growth rate rel ati on,
da = AAKm
z (l - R)
was devel oped to account f or the hi gher observed crack growth rates at
hi gher stress rati os (and theref ore hi gher mean stresses). Because both
Equati ons 9 and 10 are used i n the predi cti ons, the trend on al l of the
S- N pl otsshow a decreasi ng f ati gue resi stance wi th i ncreased stress
rati o.
The S- N pl ots showthat none of the R = 0. 5 predi cti ons resul t
i n l owl i ves (e 105). Thi s seems to contradi ct the asserti on that the hi gh
stress rati o l oadi ng i s the most damagi ng. Actual l y thi s i s the resul t
of the method of choosi ng the stress l evel s f or the predi cti ons. Si nce
the maxi mumstress f or the predi cti ons are chosen as 0. 8, 0. 6, 0. 4, and
0. 2 ti mes the yi el d stress of the materi al , the stress ranges f or the R =
0. 5 are smal l er than the other stress rati os. Stress range i s the most
i nf l uenti al parameter i n the l i f e predi cti on model . - The smal l stress
ranges i n the R = 0. 5 predi cti ons theref ore resul t i n l ong l i ves.
85
9. 4. Pore Si ze
The i nf l uence of pore si ze af f ects both the crack i ni ti ati on and
propagati on esti mates. The f ati gue notch f actor, Kf , was devel oped to
account f or the observati on that smal l er notches were f ound to be l ess
detri mental i n f ati gue than l arger notches of si mi l ar geometry. The
rel ati on used i n the model to account f or thi s phenomenon (Equati on7),
t-l
1+- , f
was i ntroduced by Peterson. I t model s the tendency of l arger pores to
have l esser i ni ti ati on l i ves.
The propagati on l i ves are al so af f ected by the pore si ze. The
ef f ecti ve f l awsi ze, once the crack i ni ti ates or sharpens, i s def i ned as
the sumof the pore radi us and the emergi ng crack. The l arger the pore
si ze, theref ore, the l arger the i ni ti al crack si ze and shorter growth
peri od requi red to reach the surf ace. The ef f ect of decreasi ng pore si ze
on f ati gue l i f e i s noted on al l of the S- Npl ots,
9. 5. Porosi ty Type
The ef f ect of the type of porosi ty on f ati gue l i f e as predi cted
by the model can be i nf erred somewhat f romFi gure 49. The pl ot shows the
stress ranges at total f ati gue l i ves, Nt of 10, 000 f or the f our porosi ty
types. Thi s pl ot i l l ustrates that the geometry or porosi ty type i nf l uences
f ati gue. I n vi ewof the assumpti ons made f or each of the pore geometri es,
the uni f ormporosi ty geometry woul d be expected to have the greatest
f ati gue resi stance, and the cl uster geometry the l east f or equal pore
si zes. For the l arger pore si zes, the si ngl e pores woul d be expected to
have onl y sl i ghtl ymore f ati gue resi stance than a co- l i near arrangement
of non- i nteracti ng pores of equal si ze. The i nf i ni te wi dth assumpti on,
where area percent porosi ty i s not accounted f or, i s i mportant to consi der
when maki ng compari sons between the porosi ty types. For i nstance, the
reducti on i n cross secti onal area f or the co- l i near pores woul d resul t i n
86
100
90
80
70
00
50
40
0
1
Unl farm
A
\
i.
...
Cl wtor
cO- Ll m. ar
1 1 I
.
1
30
0.00 O*E 0.10 0.15
Pore S128. In&
0.20
kI GURE 49. PLOT OF STRESS RANGE VS. PORE SI ZE FOR THE FOUR TYPES OF
POROSI TY CONSI DEREDIN THIS STUDY AT NT = 10,000
0.25
87
a hi gher nomi nal stress, and the si ngl e and co- l i near curves woul d be
spread f arther apart. If trends observed i n thi s f i gure were extrapol ated
over the range of pore si zes, i t i s reasonabl e to assume that the si ngl e
pore woul d showthe greatest f ati gue resi stance, f ol l owed by the co-
l i near porosi ty, the uni f ormporosi ty, and the cl uster porosi ty.
9. 6. Rel ati on to the Rul es f or Nondestructi ve
I nspecti onof Hul l Wel ds
The pore si zes chosen f or the parametri c study were based upon
the Rul es f or Nondestructi ve I nspecti onof Hul l Wel ds, 1986, prepared by
[541. For uni f o~ porosi ty, cal l ed f i ne
the Ameri can Bureau of Shi ppi ng
porosi ty i n the code, pore si zes l ess than 0. 015 i nch i n di ameter are
not consi dered to be detri mental . Thi s 0. 015 i nch pore was the smal l est
si ze exami ned i n thi s study. For al l the uni f ormporosi ty cases, the
maxi mumal l owed area percent porosi ty, 1. 5 percent, was assumed. Thi s
pore si ze was general l y f ound to have l i ves greater than 108 except at
the hi ghest stresses. The l owest predi cted l i f e f or thi s pore si ze was
320, 921 f or f ul l y reversed l oadi ng at a stress range of81.6 ksi . Larger
pore si zes were predi cted to have decreasi ng f ati gue resi stance as seen
i n the S- N pl ots. These predi cti ons i ndi cate that the 0. 015 i nch pore
si ze i s a conservati ve val ue f roma f ati gue standpoi nt, f or the mi ni mum
pore to be consi dered i n desi gn.
The l argest i sol ated or si ngl e pore al l owed i n the code i s 0. 25
ti mes the thi ckness of the pl ate, or 0, 1875 i nch, whi chever i s l ess. For
the 0.5 i nch- thi ck pl ate, the l argest al l owed pore i s 0. 125 i nch. For
the 1. 0 i nch- thi ck pl ate, the l argest al l owed pore i s 0. 1875 i nch. Both
of these maxi mumal l owed pore si zes were predi cted to have f ati gue l i ves
of about 105 f or f ul l y reversed l oadi ng at a stress range of 81.6 ksi ,
the worst case consi dered. Larger pores are predi cted to have correspond-
i ngl y l esser l i ves. The predi cti ons i ndi cate that these mi ni mumval ues
are agai n somewhat conservati ve and woul d not prove to be f ati gue cri ti cal ,
at l east f or the materi al bei ng consi dered.
The code al so i ndi cates that the concentrati on of porosi ty i s not
to exceed that shown i n the charts i n Fi gures 11 and 12. The f ati gue
88
l i f e predi cti ons f or cl usters do i ndi cate decreased f ati gue l i f e wi th
i ncreased pore concentrati onbecause of i nteracti on. However, as di scussed
i n Secti on 6. 3, pores separated by a di stance of two pore di ameters do
not af f ect the others stress f i el d. The charts shown i n Fi gures 11 and
12 woul d di sal l owpore separated by any l ess than f i ve pore di ameters.
Agai n, thi s aspect of the code i s conservati ve.
The asserti on that the AB$ code i s conservati ve i n i ts porosi ty
al l owabl e f roma f ati gue standpoi nt i s not to be construed as an endorse-
ment f or i ts abandonment of even amendment. The presence of porosi ty,
especi al l y cl uster porosi ty, i n wel d metal suggests i mproper wel di ng
practi ce and of ten masks other i rregul ari ti es such as materi al degradati on.
10. SUMMARY
The ai mof thi s study was to exami ne the ef f ect of porosi ty upon
the structural i ntegri ty of mari ne wel dments. The parameters whi ch
i nf l uence the f ati gue l i f e of wel dments wi th porosi ty were f ound f rom
l i terature rel ated speci f i cal l y to porosi ty as wel l as tradi ti onal l i near
el asti c f racture mechani cs and l owcycl e f ati gue concepts. Usi ng thi s
data, a model was devel oped to predi ct the f ati gue l i ves of wel dments
wi th porosi ty and wi th rei nf orcement removed. Speci f i c anal ysi s routi nes
were devel oped f or l i f e predi cti on of si ngl e pores, uni f ormporosi ty, co-
l i near porosi ty, and cl uster porosi ty. The model was used to predi ct the
l i ves of a l i mi ted number of actual f ati gue tests of wel ds contai ni ng
severe cl usters of porosi ty. The predi cti ons agreed wi th the test resul ts
nearl y wi thi n a f actor of two. The model was used to exami ne the depend-
ence of f ati gue l i f e on a number of parameters f ound to be i nf l uenti al .
A vari abl e ampl i tude l oadi ng hi story was devel oped usi ng SL- 7 stress
hi story data. Thi s hi story was used to generate vari abl e ampl i tude l i f e
predi cti ons f or the f our types of porosi ty bei ng consi dered.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
11. CONCLUSI ONS
Porosi ty i s not f ati gue cri ti cal i n butt wel dments whi ch have
rei nf orcement i ntact. The stress concentrati on at the toe of the
rei nf orcement i s much more severe than i nternal porosi ty so f ati gue
cracks wi l l i ni ti ate at the toe rather than a pore.
For butt wel ds wi th rei nf orcement removed, the f ol l owi ng parameters
have been f ound to i nf l uence f ati gue l i f e: materi al , thi ckness,
resi dual stress, stress rati o, stress range, pore si ze and type of
porosi ty.
I n vi ewof the assumpti ons made regardi ng pore geometry, f or equal
pore si zes, the si ngl e pore woul d be l east detri mental i n f ati gue
f ol l owed by co- l i near porosi ty, and uni f ormporosi ty. Cl uster
porosi ty i s predi cted to be most detri mental .
For the SL- 7 vari abl e ampl i tude stress hi story, al l pore geometri es
were predi cted to l ast i ndef i ni tel y. For members subj ected to
stresses 1. 75 ti mes that of the base hi story, l i ves on the order of
tens of years were predi cted. ,
I n rel ati on to the f i ndi ngs of thi s study, the Nondestructi ve
I nspecti on of Hul l Wel ds, 1986, prepared by the Ameri can Bureau of
Shi ppi ng, was f ound to be conservati ve f roma f ati gue standpoi nt.
However, si nce the presence of porosi ty suggests i mproper wel di ng
procedure, other probl ems may wi th the wel d may be present. The
f i ndi ng that the code i s conservati ve f roma f ati gue standpoi nt i s
not suf f i ci ent reason f or amendment of the porosi ty al l owabl e.
12. RECOMMENDATI ONSFOR FUTURE WORK
To f urther substanti ate the methodol ogy presentated i n thi s
report, there i s a need f or more f ati gue test data of wel dment porosi ty.
The authors were abl e to uncover onl y ei ght f ati gue tests wi th suf f i ci ent
documentati on to whi ch to appl y the model . Thi s sampl e i s f ar f rombei ng
stati sti cal l y si gni f i cant. I t i s recommended that a l aboratory program
be i ni ti ated i nvesti gate the model s sensi ti vi ty to i ts vari ous parameters.
90
A test programi ncl udi ng a number of di f f erent shi p steel s and wel d
metal s woul d prove i nsi ghtf ul .
A method f or predi cti ng the three di mensi onal pore geomerty
woul d greatl y i mprove the usef ul ness of the proposed methodol ogy. These
l i f e esti mates were made wi th f racture surf aces showi ng the posi ti onal
rel ati onshi p of the pores. I t woul d presentl y be di f f i cul t to determi ne
the geometry f romradi ographs to predi ct f ati gue l i ves of components pri or
to f ai l ure.
The probl emof cavi ty i nteracti on i s not covered i n any great
depth i n the l i terature. I nteracti on i s a compl ex stress anal ysi s probl em
perhaps best approached usi ng photoel asti c techni ques. The avai l abi l i ty
of sol uti ons to thi s probl emwoul d enhance the physi cal soundness of the
methodol ogy.
13. REFERENCES
[1] J. D. Harri son, Basi s f or a Proposed Acceptance- Standardf or Wel d
Def ects. Part 1: Porosi ty, Met. Constr. Br. Wel d. J . Vol . 4, pp.
99-107.
[21 A. Matti nq andM. Ne{tzel ,
The Eval uati on of Wel d Def ects i n Fati que
. .
Testi ng , - Wel d.Res. Abroad, Vol . 12, pp. 34- 60, August- September, -
1966.
[3] M. B. Kasen, Si gni f i canceof Bl unt Fl aws i n Pi pel i ne Gi rth Wel ds,
Wel di ng J . , pp. 117- s- 122- s, May, 1983.
[4] F. V. Lawrence, Jr., W. H. Munse, and J . D. Burk, Ef f ects of Poros
on the Fati gue Properti es of 5083 Al umi numAl l oy Wel dments, Report
to Naval Shi p Systems Command, U. S. Navy, (Contract NOO024- 73- C-
5344), October, 1974.
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ty
- .
Def ects wi th Speci al Ref erence- to BWRA Researcf i ; , Wel d. Res. Abroad,
Vol . 14, pp. 58- 67, August- September 1968.
[6] B. N. Lei s, D. P. Goetz, and P. M. Scott, The I nf l uence of Def ects
on the Fati gue Resi stance of Butt and Gi rth Wel ds i n A106B Steel ,
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[7] Y. Ishii and K. Iida, Lowand I ntermedi ateCycl e Fati gue Strength
of Butt Wel ds Contai ni ng Def ects, J . of the SOc. of Non- destructi ve
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the Fati gue Behavi or of Transverse Butt Wel ds i n Steel , Report
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Apri l , 1981.
[9] V. 1. Truf yakov, Wel ded J oi nts and Resi dual Stresses, Wel d. Res.
Abroad, Vol . 5, No. 3, pp. 11-18, March, 1959.
[10] J. D. Burk and F. V. Lawrence, J r. , The Ef f ect of Resi dual Stresses
on Wel d Fati gue Li f e, Fracture Control ProgramReport No. 29,
Col l ege of Engi neeri ng, Uni versi ty of I l l i noi s, J anuary, 1978.
[11] F. V. Lawrence, J r. , N. J . Ho, and P. K. Mazumdar, Predi cti ngthe
Fati gue Resi stance of Wel ds, Fracture Control ProgramReport No.
36, Col l ege of Engi neeri ng, Uni versi ty of I l l i noi s, Octoberl 1980.
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A. $tambaugh, Fati gue Consi derati ons i n Vi ewof Measured Load
Spectra, Shi p Structure Commi ttee Report SSC- 315, 1982.
92
[13] E. Sternberg, Three- di mensi onal Stress Concentrati on i n the Theory
of El asti ci ty, Appl i ed Mechani cs Revi ew, Vol . 11, No. 1, pp. 1-4,
1958.
[14] G. N. Savin, Stress Concentration Around Hol es, Pergamon Press,
NewYork, 1964.
[15] E. Tsuchi da, and 1. Nakahara, Three- Di mensi onal Stress Concentrati on
Around a Spheri cal Cavi ty i n a Semi - I nf i ni te El asti c Body, Bul l eti n
of the J SME, Vol . 13, No. 58, 1970.
[16] I. I.
Spher
No. 5
[17] C. D,
cance
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
Makarov, et al . , Stress Concentrati on i n the Vi ci ni ty of
cal Cyl i ndri cal Pores i n Butt Wel ded J oi nts, Svar. Proi z,
pp. 25-26, 1975.
Lundi n, Fundamental s of Wel d Di sconti nui ti es and Thei r Si gni f i -
Wel di ng Research Counci l Bul l eti n 295, 1984.
K. Masubuchi , I ntegrati onof NASA- SponsoredStudi es on Al umi num
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318, 1981.
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1970.
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Control f or Fi xed Of f shore Structures, Shi p Structure Commi ttee
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Report 276, 1978.
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the Fracture Toughness of 5083, 5456, and 6061 Al umi numAl l oy
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Steel s, Vol . l , Metal Handbook, 9th edi ti on, 1978.
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95
APPENDI X
STEP- BY- STEP EXAMPLE OF THE PREDI CTI VE MODEL
1
1
APPENDI X
Step- bv- Step Exampl e of the Predi cti ve Model
$i nql e Pore
Parameters:
Stress range: 61. 2 ksi
Stress rati o: - 1
Resi dual stress: 51 ksi
Pore di ameter: 0. 1875 i nch
Pore Kt: 2.054
Weld thickness: 1.0 inch
Step 1. Notch anal ysi s
The notch anal ysi s determi nes the strai ns expected at the
materi al adj acent to the pore surf ace. As di scussed i n Secti on 5. 1. 2,
the f ati gue notch f actor i s of ten used i n pl ace of the stress
concentrati on f actor when anal ysi ng f ati gue l oadi ng. Sol vi ng f or the
materi al constant a i n Equati on (8),
a . * 1*8X 10- 3 i n
()
.
u
usi ng the ul ti mate strength of the ABS EH36 steel i n Tabl e 4 as 75 ksi , a
= 0. 01 i nch. Usi ng Equati on (7),
( )
t-l
f =l + ~~r ,
(7)
i
(8)
and the val ues above, the f ati gue notch f actor, Kf , i s 1. 95.
To determi ne the maxi mumand mi ni mumstrai ns at the pore surf ace
due to cycl i c l oadi ng, Nueber s rul e i s used. Because the l oadi ng i s
cycl i c, the cycl i c strength coef f i ci ent, K , and the cycl i c strai n
hardeni ng exponent, n , can be used i n the f i nal f ormof Equati on (3),
AS* 2
T
t= w+ (w)
The resi dual stress of 51 ksi i s added to the l ef t hand termgi vi ng,
(ASKt + ~r)2
E t= o (- + E)) G
Sol vi ng f orAo, the resul t i sAcr= 56. 51 ksi andAE =0.00716. The
reversal swi tches the coordi nate axes of stress and strai n, and the
equati on i s sol ved agai n, thi s ti me wi thout the added resi dual stress.
Thi s and al l subsequent reversal s use a val ue of the cycl i c strength
equal to 2(1-n )*K This is necessary because K i s
coef f i ci ent, Ki ev, .
used to def i ne the cycl i c stress- strai ncurve whi ch i s constructed of the
tensi l e hysteresi s l oop ti ps. The actual materi al stress- strai n response
duri ng revesal s f ol l ows a l arger path when goi ng i nto compressi on. The
resul ts f or the reversal l ocal stress range and strai n range are 89. 08
ksi and 0. 00534. The mi ni muml ocal stress i s the; ef ore - 32. 56 ksi and
the mi ni muml ocal strai n i s 0. 0018. The l ocal mean stress, Cm, i s 11. 97
ksi . Fi gure Al shows the hysteresi s l oop f or the materi al at the pore
surf ace f or thi s l oadi ng case. Note that the resi dual stress state
i ni ti al l y i ncl udes a l arge pl asti c strai n val ue. I n real i ty, the resi dual
stress i s general l y bel owyi el d because at thi s stage the materi al stress-
strai n response f ol l ows the monotoni c stress- strai ncurve. The f ati gue
l i f e predi cti on model makes the assumpti on that the notch materi al assumes
cycl i c behavi or rel ati vel y earl y i n the l oadi ng hi story, so i t i s used
throughout the anal ysi s. The presence of the i ni ti al pl asti c strai n does
not af f ect the numeri cal computati ons i n esti mati ng the crack i ni ti ati on
l i f e.
Step 2. Esti mate cycl es to i ni ti ati on usi ng l ow- cycl e f ati gue properti es.
Equati on (9), the Cof f i n- Mansonequati on wi th Morrow s mean stress
correcti on,
A- 2
.
.
.
.
.
.
IA
G
z
w
a
z
L
0
AC
T
= +ff)c+
f- m
( )
~ @Nf )b
(9)
i s used to sol ve f or the esti mated cycl es to f ai l ure, Nf . Thi s agai n i s
an i terati ve procedure. For thi s exampl e, the cycl es to crack i ni tati on
i s 7971 cycl es. The resul ti ng Nf i s actual l y the number of cycl es
requi red to i ni ti ate a f ati gue crack at the pore surf ace si nce the
cal cul ated strai ns are l ocal to thi s regi on. The remai ni ng wel dment i s
sti l l i ntact at thi s cycl e count. The rest of the anal ysi s esti mates the
number of cycl es to f ai l ure by crack propagati on through the wel dment.
Step 3. Esti mate cycl es requi red to propagate crack to f ai l ure.
The crack propagati onmodel i s outl i ned i n secti on 5. 2. The
i ni ti al crack si ze assumpti on used throughout thi s study was 0. 05 ti mes
the pore di ameter. The i ni ti al crack si ze f or thi s case i s 0. 0094 i nch.
To determi ne the stress i ntensi ty range f or a gi ven crack si ze and l oadi ng,
the geometry correcti on f actor f romEquati on (13)
Ms Mt Mk
Y=
o
(13)
i s cal cul ated. When the crack i s i n the regi on of the stress
concentrati on due to the pore, the stress i ntensi ty range sol uti on i s
domi nated by the stress gradi ent term, Mk. Cal cul ati ng theMk term
47] taki ng i nto account the stress gradi ent requi res a numeri cal procedure
away f romthe pore. The Mk termi s cal cul ated by superposi ti on of the
notch stress gradi ent upon the crack. The expressi on i s
2 :
bi
(
b
i +l
bi
k= ; =
arcsi n -
a
arcsi n
a
)
where bi i s the posi ti on b al ong the crack, ~bi i s the stress at posi ti on
bi due to the notch (assumi ngno crack), and a i s the crack l ength. I n
A- 4
thi s exampl e, at the i ni ti al crack l ength of 0. 0094 i nch, the val ue of Mk
i s 2. 11. The f i ni te thi ckness correcti on f actor, Mt i s negl i gi bl e (equal
to one) at thi s smal l crack l ength. Al so, the f ront surf ace term, M~, i s
equal to uni ty f or an i nternal crack. The crack Shape f actor, O. , f or a
ci rcul ar crack i s 1. 57. The geometry correcti on f actor, Y, i s theref ore
1. 34 at the i ni ti al crack l ength. Thi s val ue decreases rapi dl y wi th
i ncreasi ng crack l ength as shown i n Fi gure 16. As the crack grows near
to the surf ace, the val ue of Y begi ns to i ncrease. For compari son, appl y
Equati on 16 at a = t/ 2, the posi ti on of the crack f ront j ust bef ore
breaki ng the surf ace. Mt i s 1. 4, and Mk becomes near uni ty. The f i nal
val ue of Y i s theref ore 0. 89.
Esti mati ng the number of cycl es to f ai l ure by crack propagati on
i s accompl i shed by cal cul ati ng the stress i ntensi ty f actor range, AK, at
every cycl e and i ncrementi ngthe crack l ength accordi ng to the materi al
crack growth rate. The esti mated propagati on cycl es to f ai l ure f or thi s
exampl e i s 26722 cycl es. The total esti mated f ati gue l i f e i s theref ore
34693 cycl es.
A- 5
I
:
-. .
,,-
9
/ ;
,.
,, .A ~-
,...
COMMITTEE ON MARINE STRUCTURES
Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council
The COMMITTEE ON MARINE STRUCTURES
interagency Ship Structure
has technical cognizance of the
Committees research program.
Mr. Stanley G. Stiansen, Chairman, Riverhead, NY
Prof. C. AllinCorneIl, Stanford Univesity, Stanford, CA
Mr. Peter A. Gale, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, NY
Mr. Griff C. Lee. Griff C. Lee. Inc.. New Orleans. LA
Prof. David L. Olson, ColoradoSchool of Mines, Goldon, CO
Mr. Paul H. Wirsching, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Mr. Alexander B, Stavovy, Staff Officer, National Research Council, Washington, DC
CDR Michael K. Parmelee,Secretary, Ship Structure Committee, Washington, DC
LOADS WORK GROUP
Paul H. Wirschin~. Chairman. University of Arizona..Tucson. AZ Mr. _
Prof. Keith D. Hjelm;tad, University of-Il~inois,Urba;a, IL
Dr. Hsien Yun Jan, President of Martech Inc., Neshanic Station, NJ
Prof. Jack Y. K..Lou ,Texas A & M University, College Station, TX
Mr. Edward K. Moll, Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, MA
Mr. Naresh Maniar, M. Rosenblatt & Son, Inc., New York , NY
Prof. Anastassios N. Perakis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
MATERIALS WORK GROUP
Prof. David L. Olson, Chairman, Colorado School of Mines, Golden,CO
Prof. William H. Hartt, Vice Chairman, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL
Dr. Santiago Ibarra Jr., Amoco Corporation, Naperville, IL
Mr. Paul A. Lagace, Massachusetts Institute of Tech., Cambridge, MA
Mr. Mamdouh M. Salama, Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK
Mr. James M. Sawhill, Jr., Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, VA
Mr. Thomas A. Siewert, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO
.
%.+, ., ,
i>
SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS
SSC- 322
,.SSC-323
SSC- 324
SSC- 325
SSC- 326
SSC-327
SSC- 328
SSC- 329
SSC-330
SSC-331
SSC-332
SSC-333
SSC-334
None
Analysis and Assessment of Maior Uncertainties Associated
With Shi~ Hull Ultimate Failure by P. Kaplan, M. Benatar,
J. BentSon and T. A. Achtarides, 1984
U~datinq of Fillet Weld Strenqth Parameters for
commercial shipbuilding by R. P. Krumpen, Jr., and C. R.
Jordan, 1984
Analytical Techniques for Predicting
Grounded Shi~
Response by J. D. Porricelli and J. H. Boyd, 1984
Correlation of Theoretical and Measured Hydrodynamic
Pressures for the SL-7 Containershi~
and the Great Lakes
Bulk Carrier S. J. Cort by H. H. Chen, Y. S. Shin & I. S.
Aulakh, 1984
Lonq -Term Corrosion Fatiaue of Welded Marine Steels by
0. H. Burnside, S. J. Hudak, E. Oelkers, K. B. Chan, and
R. J. Dexter, 1984
Investigation of Steels for Improved WeldabilitY
in Shi~
COIEtrUCtiOn by L. J. CuddY, J. s. @llY and L* F. Porter
1985
Fracture Control for Fixed Offshore Structures by P. M.
Besuner, K. Ortiz, J. M. Thomas and S. D. Adams
1985
Ice Loads and Ship Response to Ice by J. W. St. John,
C. Daley, and H. Blount, 1985
Practical Guide for Shi~board Vibration Control by E. F.
Noonan, G. P. Antonides and W. A. Woods,
1985
Desian Guide for Ship
Structural Details by C. R. Jordan
and R. P. Krumpen, Jr., 1985
Guide for Shi~ Structural Ins~ections by Nedret S. Basar
G victor W. Jovino, 1985
Advance Methods for Ship
Motion and Wave Load Prediction
by William J. Walsh, Brian N. LeiS, and J. Y. Yung,
1989
Influence of Weld Porosity
on the Intearity of Marine
Structures by William J. Walsh , Brian N. Leis, and J. Y.
Yung, 1989
Ship Structure Committee Publications - A s~ecial
BiblioqraDhy, AD-A140339