Applicable Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in Vicinity of Underground Structures

S/No. Cause Identification

Applicable Preventive / Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in
Vicinity of Underground Structures.
page 1
1 Erroneous setting-out and damage
cause to the numerous vital
underground structures and utilities
underlying propose development
Establish Project Setting-Out Control, Existing Underground Structures and Surrounding
Development Survey, and incorporate the same with construction tolerances provided in
Section 9 of Particular Specifications into Propose Development Setting-Out Plans to eradicate
erroneous setting-out and prevent damage causes to the numerous vital underground
structures and utilities underlying propose development. Setting out shall be carried out by
qualified surveyor.
2 Underground utilities damages,
underground obstruction, slurry
outflow and sudden loss of slurry in
trench, resulting in trench collapse
and potentially endangering platform
stability.
Carryout utilities detection by Licensed Cable Detection Worker along propose work layout to
ascertain physical layout and function [live, abandon] status of known utilities. Trial trench and
survey to ascertain position or absence of utilities example: sewer lines, cable ducts or ground
cavities and implement appropriate measures [protection, diversion, termination, weep holes
plugging, etc] prior to guide walls construction or casing installation to ensure against
underground utilities damages and slurry outflow preventing trench collapse and endangering
platform stability.
Verify historic land use, study soil log to ascertain presence or absence of disturb ground,
obstructions, and ground cavities. Implement relevant measures where applicable.
3 Underground structures damages All works within the Railway Protection Zone and within 6m of Common Service Tunnel shall
adopt restricted activities guidelines stipulated in Code of Practice for Railway Protection and
Standard Operating Procedure for Works within 6m of CST Structure.
Setout 3.0m high Flag Marker Stumps, demarcate Reserve Lines layout on ground and
hoarding and inculcate awareness in workmen on prohibited work processes to avert damages
to Underground structures.

Notwithstanding the minimal influence concluded by ERRs’ on Existing North-South Line
Tunnel section due to Silo Loadings, buoyancy from Bentonite Pond Construction and Heavy
Machinery Movements across underlying structures, the following contingency measures shall
be adopted under the following events:
4 Excessive Tunnel Movement during
Bentonite Slurry Silo Loading
Redistribute slurry to more distant silos and limit silo storage capacity to minimize tunnel
movement.
5 Excessive Tunnel Movement during
Slurry Pond Excavation
Stop further excavation, backfill to higher elevation where applicable to minimize tunnel
movement.
6 Excessive Tunnel Movement during
Heavy machineries traverses or
loading over tunnel.

Relocate position of Heavy machineries to minimize influence over tunnel.

Applicable Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in Vicinity of Underground Structures

S/No. Cause Identification

Applicable Preventive / Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in
Vicinity of Underground Structures.
page 2
7


Minor Collapse during excavation,
due to lack of cohesion in sandy
stratum; trench slurry level too low
due to seepage, lack of topping up or
excessive pumping; under
circumstance where loose material
stop raveling and platform stability is
maintained.
Analyze lowest slurry level where trench stability could be achieved and maintain slurry level
during ongoing trenching process. Provide wider open trench within guide walls to increase
reservoir of slurry to minimize slurry head drop. Banksman monitor rate of supply and operator
could monitor rate of suction. Instrument trial panel to ascertain stability of soil stratum
susceptible to loosening, at presence of very plastic marine clay to verify open trench or
borehole stability. Conduct ultrasonic trench profile with Koden machine to ascertain extent of
collapse do not undermine platform stability. Proceed with diaphragm wall or boring activities
when open trench or borehole raveling stop and safe platform stability is ascertained.
Trench Stability Analysis. Operating procedure of trench cutter and boring rig. Instrumented
Trial Panel. Readings from Koden machine.
8 Major Collapse during excavation,
due to lack of cohesion in sandy
stratum; trench slurry level too low
due to seepage, lack of topping up
or excessive pumping; under
circumstance where loose material
keeps raveling and platform stability
is in question.
In event of major collapse, shift heavy machinery away from open trench. Check for signs of
cracks and depression on platform. Ascertain extent of trench collapse and platform stability
ultrasonic trench profile with Koden machine.
If equipment is in trench, where feasible, devise the salvage plan after reviewing the extent of
collapse, otherwise backfill the open trench with excavated spoil from discharge pit, or other
cohesive material available on site, particularly suitable would be excavated materials.

9 Minor Collapse during cage
installation, due to lack of cohesion
in sandy stratum, trench slurry level
too low due to seepage, lack of
topping up or excessive pumping;
trench squeeze in very plastic
marine clay, or caused by heavy
machineries surcharge during cage
installation; especially after
desanding where slurry density are
generally lighter than excavation
slurry; under circumstance where
platform stability is maintained and
service crane could salvage or
extract cage in trench.
Analysis on lowest slurry level where trench stability could be achieved and trial panel to
ascertain stability of stratum susceptible to loosening. Prevent excessive lowering of slurry level
by limiting suction level of submersible pump. During cage installation observe for presence of
bubbles from slurry in trench, which can be deduced the cause of air pockets release through
collapse medium. Note differences from crane hoist load indicators to signify load reduction or
increase caused by squeezing or collapse trench or borehole.
Check depth soundings, where toe level difference is within 100mm, remove loose material
through airlift or redesanding after trench raveling stop; otherwise withdraw cage, repair cages
where necessary, remove excess loose material, redesand and proceed with diaphragm wall
production processes when trench and platform stability is verified stable through Koden
readings.

Applicable Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in Vicinity of Underground Structures

S/No. Cause Identification

Applicable Preventive / Contingency Measures for Diaphragm Wall & Bored Pile Production in
Vicinity of Underground Structures.
page 3
10 Major Collapse during cage
installation, due to lack of cohesion
in sandy stratum, trench slurry level
too low due to seepage, lack of
topping up or excessive pumping;
trench squeeze in very plastic
marine clay, or caused by heavy
machineries surcharge during cage
installation; especially after
desanding where slurry density are
generally lighter than excavation
slurry; under circumstance where
platform stability may be in question
and service crane could not salvage
or extract cage in trench.

In event of major collapse, shift heavy machinery away from open trench. Check for signs of
cracks and depression on platform. Ascertain extent of trench collapse and platform stability
through readings from Koden machine ultrasonic trench profile or other feasible probing means.
If steel cage is in trench, where feasible, devise the salvage plan after reviewing the extent of
collapse. Backfill the collapse trench with excavated materials or other non-high strength
cementious mixes. Review information from collapse event; devise and implement applicable
ground improvement measures prior to subsequent diaphragm wall construction.
Precaution
Salvage plan devised shall preferably increase the number of lifting points [load distribution]
at structurally suitable layout, but otherwise strengthening of lifting points, which currently does
not cater to withstand unlimited or unknown loadings.

11 Trench Collapse during Casting
Where Salvage and Extraction is
Not Feasible owing to Cage
Embedment in Concrete

Shift heavy machinery away from vicinity of open trench when stability of platform is in doubt.
Under dire situation where cage extraction is not feasible owing to cage embedment in concrete
where inactivity due to lack of other practical solution will aggravate the untoward
circumstances, it is inevitable but prudent to adopt the following procedure to alleviate overall
risk exposure.
Measure level of concrete and compare with anticipated rise, too much a rise signifies necking
or collapse. Check for signs of cracks and depression on platform. Note the level and
magnitude where anomaly occurs and continue with casting operation. Do not cut tremie pipes
shorter than theoretical concrete embedded depth. Where possible maintain tremie pipes as
low as possible to enable increased flushing. Overcast panel till fresh concrete overflows from
top of guide wall or assurance attained by the extent of overcast. Carryout PIT test, coring test,
etc. to verify soundness of constructed element and provide remedial proposal where
applicable.