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The Government of the Philippines, also known as the Philippine Government is the national
government of the unitary state of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a presidential, representative,
and democratic republic where the President of the Philippines is both the head of state and
the head of government within a pluriformmulti-party system.
The government has three interdependent branches: the legislative branch, the executive branch,
and the judicial branch. The powers of the branches are vested by the Constitution of the
Philippines in the following: Legislative power is vested in the two-chamber Congress of the
Philippinesthe Senate is the upper chamber and the House of Representatives is the lower
Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the President. Judicial
power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.
Legislative Department
The legislative power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which consists of
the Senate and House of Representatives. The upper house is located in Pasay, while the lower
house is located in Quezon City. The district and sectoral representatives are elected for a term of
three years. They can be re-elected but they may not run for a fourth consecutive term.
Senators are elected to a term of six years. They can be re-elected but may not run for a third
consecutive term. The House of Representatives may opt to pass for a vacancy of a legislative seat,
which leads to a special election. The winner of the special election will serve the unfinished term of
the previous district representative, and will be considered as one elective term. The same rule also
applies in the Senate, however it only applies if the seat was vacated before a regular legislative
The current President of the Senate is Franklin Drilon, while the current Speaker of the House of
Representatives is Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.
Executive Department
The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines. The old executive branch is
headed by President NoyNoy Aquino III of the Liberal Party. The President is also the Commander-
in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and is elected by popular vote to a term of six years.
The president then appoints his or her cabinet over whom he or she presides. The executive seat of
government is administered officially from Malacaang Palace in Manila. The president may not run
for re-election unless he or she had become president through constitutional succession and had
served for no more than four years.

The president is assisted by his or her cabinet that is made up of different departments and is
headed by a secretary. The president appoints the secretary with the consent of the Commission on
The second highest official, Vice President Jejomar Binay of the PDP-Laban party is also elected by
popular vote. The Vice-President is first in line to succession if the President resigns, is impeached
or dies. The Vice-President usually, though not always, is a member of the president's cabinet. If
there is a vacancy in the position of vice-president, the President will appoint any member of
Congress (usually a party member) as new vice-president. The appointment must then be validated
by a three-fourths vote of the Congress.
Judicial Department
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines and lower courts established by
law. The Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, occupies
the highest tier of the judiciary. The justices serve until the age of 70. The justices are appointed by
the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council. The sitting Chief Justice
is Maria Lourdes Sereno, the 24th to serve in that position.
Office of the Ombudsman
The government and all three of its branches are independently monitored by the office of the
Ombudsman (FilipinoTanodbayan). The Ombudsman is given the mandate to investigate and
prosecute any government official allegedly guilty of crimes, especially Graft and Corruption. The
Ombudsman is assisted by six deputies: the Overall Deputy, the Deputy for Luzon, the Deputy for
Visayas, the Deputy for Mindanao, the Deputy for the Armed Forces, and the Special Prosecutor.
Administrative divisions
The [Philippines has four main classes of elected administrative divisions, often lumped together
as local government units (LGUs). They are, from the highest to the lowest division:
1. Autonomous regions
2. Provinces (lalawigan, probinsiya) and independent cities(lungsod, siyudad/ciudad, dakbayan,
3. Municipalities (bayan, balen, bungto, banwa) and component cities (lungsod, siyudad/ciudad,
dakbayan, lakanbalen)
4. Barangays (also known as barrio)
Beyond these, the national government groups provinces and independent cities into regions, e.g.
Metro Manila or Region VI. The President has the prerogative to create, abolish and determine the
composition of regions, which is done so most often in consultation with the local government units

affected, with the exception of autonomous regions, where the residents of the local government
units have to ratify in a plebiscite their inclusion in such a setup.
Law is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition but one definition is that law is
a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior.
The Concept of Law (ISBN 0-19-876122-8) is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L.
A. Hart. It was first published in 1961 and develops Hart's theory of legal positivism (the view that
laws are rules made by human beings and that there is no inherent or necessary connection
between law and morality) within the framework of analytic philosophy. In this work, Hart sets out to
write an essay of descriptive sociology and analytical jurisprudence. The Concept of Law provides
an explanation to a number of traditional jurisprudential questions such as "what is law?", "must laws
be rules?", and "what is the relation between law and morality?". Hart answers these by placing law
into a social context while at the same time leaving the capability for rigorous analysis of legal terms,
which in effect "awakened English jurisprudence from its comfortable slumbers". As a result Hart's
book has remained "one of the most influential works in modern legal philosophy" and is also
considered a "founding text of analytical legal philosophy", as well as "the most successful work of
analytical jurisprudence ever to appear in the common law world.
Fundamental and entrenched rules governing the conduct of an organization or nation state, and
establishing its concept, character, and structure. It is usually a short document, general in nature and
embodying the aspirations and values of its writers and subjects. The oldest (1787) written national
constitution is that of the US.
A government is the system by which a state or community is governed. In Commonwealth English,
a government more narrowly refers to the particular rexecutive in control of a state at a given time
known in American English as an administration. In American English, government refers to the
larger system by which any state is organized. Furthermore, government is occasionally used in
English as a synonym for governance.
The Constitution of the Philippines (Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas in Filipino) is the supreme law of the
The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon
Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution". Philippine constitutional law experts recognize
three other previous constitutions as having effectively governed the country the 1935 Commonwealth
Constitution, the 1973 Constitution, and the 1986 Freedom Constitution. Constitutions for the Philippines

were also drafted and adopted during the short-lived governments of Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo (1898)
and Jose P. Laurel (1943).
We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and
humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote
the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity
the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice,
freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Article I: National Territory
The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced
therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting
of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the
insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the
islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal
waters of the Philippines.
Article II: Declaration of Principles and State Policies
Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the
people and all government authority emanates from them.
Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the
generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres
to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of
the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the
sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.
Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The
Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all
citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or
civil service.
Section 5.. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property,
and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the
blessings of democracy.

Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.
State Policies
Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other
states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national
interest, and the right to self-determination.
Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy
of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.
Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies
that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living,
and an improved quality of life for all.
Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.
Section 11. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect
for human rights.
Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen
the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the
mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of
parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character
shall receive the support of the Government.
Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall
promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public
and civic affairs.
Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the
fundamental equality before the law of women and men.
Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill
health consciousness among them.
Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and
healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture,
and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total
human liberation and development.
Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the
rights of workers and promote their welfare.

Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy
effectively controlled by Filipinos.
Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages
private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.
Section 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.
Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural
communities within the framework of national unity and development.
Section 23. The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral
organizations that promote the welfare of the nation.
Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-
Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments.
Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and
prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.
Section 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take
positive and effective measures against graft and corruption.
Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and
implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.