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Kozová Mária

1
, Majchrowská Anna
2
, Pauditšová Eva
1
1
Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Łódź University, Poland
Teaching Landscape Ecology
and the European Landscape Convention
at Slovak and Polish Universities
Liptov region, Slovakia
Content of the presentation
The aim is to present detailed results of a survey on Landscape Ecology (LE) and
European Landscape Convention (ELC) education carried out from April to July
2013 in Slovak (5/8) and Polish (9/9) universities / faculties and updated in
February/April 2014.
Based on the survey results we evaluate and compare Slovak and Polish universities
in terms of following research questions:
(a) what additional courses extending theoretical knowledge of Landscape
Ecology / Landscape are included in the curriculum?;
(b) what related courses expanding the practical application of knowledge of
Landscape Ecology / Landscape related to the European Landscape Convention
issues are on the offer for students;
(c) what future development and upcoming changes are expected in Landscape
Ecology / Landscape education and in other courses related to the European
Landscape Convention?
Park in Łódź
University of Žilina (1953) University of
Prešov (1997)
Technical Univ. of Košice (1952)
P. J. Šafarik Univ. (1959)
Technical University in Zvolen
(1952)
University. of Matej Bel in
Banská Bystrica (1992)
Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra (1952)
Constantine the Philosopher
Univ. in Nitra (1996)
Comenius University in
Bratislava (1919)
Slovak University of Technology
in Bratislava (1937)
Catholic University in
Ružomberok (2000)
Slovak universities with tradition of teaching
Landscape Ecology or Landscape Sciences
HEI engaged
to the survey
Density of collegiate-level institutions of higher
education in Poland
Source of map: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PL-uczelnie.png
In total, there are 453
universities and
collegiate-level
institutions of higher
education in the country
including 132
government-funded and
321 privately owned
universities, with almost
1,68 million enrolled
students as of 2013.
Source: Central Statistical Office
(Poland): Higher Eductation
Institutions and their Finances
2012, Warsaw 2013
LS/LE education in selected Slovak universities: History and current status

Name of the
university
History and current status
Question: When were
Landscape Science (LS)
courses introduced?
Question: When were Landscape
Ecology (LE) courses introduced?
Current dominant thematic focus of
LE or LS (with historical
background)
Comenius
Univ. in
Bratislava
(Faculty of
Natural
Sciences)
• as early as the 1960s LS and
Geoecology were taught by
teachers from the Dept. of
Physical Geography for the
students of Geography (L.
Mician)
• Since the beginning of 1990s – LE
was established as a one of the main
courses of Environmental studies
• 1992 – LE course was lectured for the
students of Environmental Sciences
and Geography Programmes
• 2004 – LE course was lectured for the
students of Geology Programme
• in the 1960s dominated abiotic
approach to the landscape study
• in the 1980s LS courses were
influenced by Soviet (Russian)
landscape school and also Landscape
Planning was influenced by the
methodology LANDEP (Ružička,
Miklós)
• courses were and are oriented to
abiotic and biotic environment
Slovak
University of
Agriculture in
Nitra
• 1996 – Dept. of Ecology,
Horticulture and Landscape
Engineering Faculty
• 2004 – Dept. of Ecology,
Faculty of European Studies
and Regional Development
• 1996 - LE course was lectured for the
students of Landscape engineering
and Garden and Landscape
Architecture Programmes and from
2004 also for students of Dept. of
Ecology
• courses are focused ecologically and
biologically, biotic component of
landscape is dominant
Slovak
University of
Technology in
Bratislava
• 1990s – Faculty of
Architecture, Dept. of Ecology
and Faculty of Civil
Engineering, Dept. of Water
Management of Landscape
• 2008 – Institute of
Management
• 1990s – LE was established as a one
of the main courses of the studies
• 1990 onwards – LE course has been
lectured for landscape architects,
water engineers and from 2008 also
for spatial planners
• courses are focused environmentally,
abiotic and biotic components of
landscape are dominant, substantial is
the impact of the landscape planning

LS/LE education in selected Polish universities:
History and current status

Name of the
university
History and current status
Question: When were
Landscape Science (LS)
courses introduced?
Question: When were
Landscape Ecology (LE)
courses introduced?
Current dominant thematic focus of
LE or LS (with historical background)
Warszawa Univ.,
Faculty of
Geography and
Regional Studies
• Since the 1980s
Comprehensive Physical
Geography course was
conducted, course was
replaced by Geoecology
• 1993-1995 for students of
Geography
• 1996-2002 – two parallel
lectures LE – for Geography
and Environmental Science
• 2013 for Geoecology and
Landscaping
• Courses are associated with a long
tradition of comprehensive physico-
geographical research, dating back to
before World War II (lectures: J.
Kondracki, A. Richling, J. Solon)
• in the 1980-ies LS courses were
influenced by Soviet (Russian)
landscape school
Maria Curie-
Skłodowska
University in Lublin
• 1990 (Study of landscape) • 1995 – Institute of Biology
• 2009 – Institute of Earth
Sciences and Spatial
Management, Geography
• LS courses were associated with
Russian school and Polish Landscape
Aesthetic School as well as with
American Human Geography
• LE courses are more biologically
oriented
Nicolaus
Copernicus
University in Torun
• 1987 (Basics of Physical
Geography)
• 2004 (Geoecology) • BoPG – holistic approach to
environment
• Geoecology – oriented to abiotic
environment
Bialystok Technical
University
• 1993 (Landscape Ecology) • 1993 (Landscape Ecology) • Oriented on abiotic and biotic
environment
General topics of LE courses and examples of
additional courses/topics extending theoretical
knowledge of LE Examples from SK and PL
Comenius
University in
Bratislava (SK)
Technical
University in
Zvolen (SK)
Warsaw
University (PL)
Maria Curie-
Skłodowska
University in Lublin
(PL)
Bialystok Technical
University (PL)
Classification and
Typology Landscape
LANDEP Methodology Geochemistry of
Landscape
Geochemistry and
Geophysics
Geology and
Geomorphology
Landscape
-components
-structure
-potentials
Assessment and
Evaluation of
Landscapes
Landscapes of
Poland and Their
Use
Ecophysiography Functioning of
Geosystems; Shaping of
Environment
States of landscape;
Landscape Processes

Functioning of
Geosystems
Soils in Landscape Protection of
Landscape
Geobotany in
Environment protection

Ecological networks;
Green Infrastructure
Territorial Systems of
Ecological Stability
Abiotic Landscape
Characteristics
Revitalisation of
Landscape
Nature protection,
Protection of Forest
Habitat
Aesthetic
Characteristics of
Landscape
Environment
Protection in spatial
Management

Assessment and
Evaluation of Landscapes;
Environment Protection
in Spatial Management
Examples of related courses expanding the practical
application of knowledge of LE related to the ELC issues
which are on the offer for students SK and PL
Name of
university
Nature Protection Landscape Planning Landscape management Landscape
design
Comenius
University
in
Bratislava
Botany; Zoology; Ecosozology;
Protection of Nature
Resources; Biotopes; Forest
Ecology; Urban Ecology
Introduction to the Landscape
Planning; Landscape Planning;
Spatial Planning; Territorial
System of Ecological Stability;
Ecosystem Services;
Environmental Impact
Assessment
Environmental Planning and
Management; Applied
Landscape Ecology;
Management Of Protected
Areas; Landscape
Management

Creation Maps for
Spatial Planning;
GIS
Technical
University
in Zvolen
Forest Ecology; Mapping of
Biotopes In Landscape;
Selected Problems of Practical
Nature Protection; Geoecology
of Mountain and Upland Areas
Territorial System of Ecological
Stability; Spatial Structure of
Landscape; Land Use for
Tourism
Integrated Landscape
Management; Management
Of Protected Areas;
Integrated Water
Catchment Management
Modelling of
Processes in
Landscape;
Designing of
Country
Adam
Mickiewicz
University
in Poznan
Botanical Methods in
Environmental Analysis;
Geobotany; Geochemistry and
Ecotoxicology; Assessment and
Protection of Biodiversity;
Environmental Monitoring
Reconstruction of Landscape
Systems; Environmental
Reclamation;
Environmental Impact
Assessment; Human Impact (By
Sectors Of Economy)
GIS; Basics of Environmental
Management;
Environmental
Management And Planning;
Assessment And Valuation
Of Environment
Information
Technology;
Models and
Prognosis of
Environmental
Systems; GIS
University
of Lodz
Shaping and Protection of
Environment; Functioning of
Landscape Systems
Shaping and Protection of
Environment; Functioning of
Landscape Systems;
Ecophysiography
Environment in Tourism;
Environment in Spatial
Management
-
Similarities between LE and ELC
education at Slovak and Polish universities
• Very similar theoretical basis in landscape
ecology/landscape science (background from Russian school)
• Topics/themes of study (landscape, abiotic and biotic characteristics of
landscape, landscape processes, potentials of landscape etc.)
• Beginning of study (approximately the same), the LS/LE was
progressively established in education since 1960 (Landscape Science /
Geoecology) and after 1990 (Landscape Ecology)
• Similar tools for landscape planning, landscape protection and
management
• The systematic development of teaching and learning methods,
assessment methods of landscapes
• Need for a more practical approach in landscape ecology courses
(exercises/projects/student group work)


University in Poznań
Similarities and differences between LE and
ELC education at Slovak and Polish universities
Field of studies in which curricula of the „landscape“
study programs are based
• SK – within the natural sciences (field of studies: ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT; PROTECTION AND USE OF LANDSCAPE; GEOGRAPHY). Examples
of study programmes: Protection of Nature and Use of Landscape, Environmental
Planning and Management, Environmental Sciences, Physical Geography and
Geoecology
• PL – at universities: mainly as a part of field of study GEOGRAPHY (different
study programmes), other HEI (non-university institutions) part of field of study
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Differences in practice / institutional support:
• ELC acceptance at the institutional level (in PL – higher support)
• Continuity of related activities by promoting the ELC into practice
• Different efforts for establishment of ELC ideas into new legal rules

New project of the university’s
building in Bratislava
Similarities and differences between institutional support of
ELC implementation to planning in the SK and in PL (examples)
SLOVAK REPUBLIC
•the real steps (with the view to reinforcing the tools of
landscape protection) towards the amendments to those
laws:
– nature and landscape protection
– land use planning and building code
– Environmental impact assessment
•the initiative of creating a typology of Slovak landscapes
•draft of the Act on Landscape Planning (2006)
•the most important initiative with direct relation to the
new Act on landscape / landscape management
(started from 2014)
•raising awareness for perception of landscapes (e.g.:
competition Landscape Award – practical projects aimed
at improving landscapes in Slovakia)
It introduced:
•landscape definition from the ELC
•environmental audit – as a monitoring tool in the frame of
building control
•Emphasis on „landscape image“ in planning processes.
POLAND
•until now no comprehensive legislation pertaining to
landscape, some amendments to the existing acts only
•The most important initiative with direct relation to the
European Landscape Convention: the president’s bill „On
changes in some acts with the view to reinforcing the
tools of landscape protection”

It introduces:
•landscape definition from the ELC
•landscape audit – protection and monitoring tool
•priority landscapes – urban rules of landscape
protection
•new rules of placing the adverts in public space and
along roads and fees for non-compliant adverts
•new restrictions on placing the structures which could
dominate in the landscape.

What future development and upcoming changes are
expected in LE education and in other courses related
to ELC issues? – examples of findings
Examples from Slovak universities
• More practically oriented topics close to practical needs, incl. the implementation
of ELC – Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra
• Modifying the teaching of certain subjects related to landscape ecology, which are
provided by multiple geographical and environmental sections, current lacking
coordination among them – Comenius University in Bratislava and Catholic
University in Ružomberok
•Strengthening/extending of spatial modelling in Landscape Ecology with using GIS
– Technical University in Zvolen, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
•More LE for Landscape planners and more interdisciplinary courses for Landscape
ecologists – Slovak Univ. of Technology in Bratislava and Comenius Univ. in BA
• Greater emphasis on advanced theoretical background in the courses (in English)
by modern methodological foreign aid in developing countries – Comenius University
in Bratislava
What future development and upcoming changes are
expected in LE education and in other courses related
to the ELC issues? – examples of findings
Examples from Polish universities:
•More practical courses and projects, LE for engeenering studies –
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
•More practical courses and projects – Adam Mickiewicz
University in Poznań
•More new practical courses relating to LE – Warsaw University
•LE for Landscape architects and interdisciplinary (integrating)
courses – Warsaw University of Life Sciences
•Mastering of teaching methods – Bialystok Technical University

Conclusions and recommendations (1)
Fields of study / study programs (Geography, Landscape Ecology,
Environmental Sciences, Agricultural and other technical oriented fields of
study: Horticulture, Forestry, Landscape Architecture, Spatial Planning,
Landscaping etc.), which have been dealing for more than 40 to 50 years with
the Landscape should be strengthened with the new actual landscape-
relating topics e.g.:
•the landscape quality objectives
•perception and cultural values of landscapes
•landscape dimensions of sectoral policies of EU
•sustainable landscape and economy,
•landscape policies and landscape governance
•dynamic and transformation of landscape
•landscape and transfrontier cooperation.
It is important to take into account the integrated transdisciplinary approach
and landscape governance approaches.
Conclusions and recommendations (2)
• Key topics of ELC (landscape identification, landscape assessment, typology
and classification of landscapes, multifunctional landscapes) shall be applied
also in other fields of study / study programs (economic science, regional
planning, public administration, community development) whose alumni will
manage / govern the landscape
• More attention must be given to strengthen curricula for teachers of primary
and secondary schools (geography, biology, etc.) on topics related to
landscape and even more to link teaching of Landscape Ecology and ELC with
environmental education, education to sustainable development and global
education
• As far as possible to use innovative teaching methods and new
technologies (GIS and modelling)
• In addition to traditional methods more flexible teaching methods and
participatory education should be used with examples from the global -
regional - local and community levels.

Thank you for your attention!
Landscape in the Middle Slovakia