You are on page 1of 29

RATIONALE PAPER 1

Ashley Hungerford
Technology Coordinator, Stevens Cooperative School
617/2014

Introduction

This is my tenth year in education; looking back to the beginning I often reflect on how I
came to be on my current path. I graduated with an undergraduate degree in Film and Television
with a minor in Religion. Growing up with a family of educators, teaching had never entered my
mind as a possible career option, in spite of everyone telling me I was meant to be a teacher.
Eventually, the calling was stronger than my resistance to it, and I entered into an alternative
certification program. Having never received proper teacher training, I always had the desire to
go back to school, but I knew that I didnt want my masters degree to be strictly in education; so
for years I let it rest.
I was always a technology enthusiast probably because my dad was a computer analyst
back when computers were the size of rooms. I remember the Apple 1 my dad had, and almost
each upgrade thereafter; so when I got into my first classroom, technology was second nature. I
soon found that others were coming to me for help and advice on how to use technologies in the
classroom. That is when I started looking at a degree in computers. Once I found the MET
program at Boise State I knew I was in the right place at the right time.
In this paper I will take you through my educational journey as an MET student. In the
MET program, the classes and their assignments are built around learning objectives or
standards. These standards are split into 5 main areas: design, development, utilization,
management and evaluation; this paper will be organized by those standards and their sub-
RATIONALE PAPER 2

standards. For each sub-standard I will provide at least one example assignment from an MET
class and an explanation of how that assignment meets the standard it is placed under.

Standard 1: DESIGN
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning
by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies,
and learner characteristics.

1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Within the application of this definition, design is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level
in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The
importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.
1.1.1 Analyzing: process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be
learned.
1.1.2 Designing: process of specifying how it is to be learned.
1.1.3 Developing: process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
1.1.4 Implementing: actually using the materials and strategies in context.

EdTech 503- Instructional Design Final Project; IB Exam Webquest Lesson
The final instructional design project for EdTech 503 challenged me to design instruction
that I could actually use in my classroom. Throughout this class I learned about systematic
approaches to design, including the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation
and Evaluation) method. Ragan and Smith (2005) in Instructional Design list some of the
RATIONALE PAPER 3

advantages to using a systematic approach to instructional design, they are as follows:
supporting effective instruction, facilitating instruction that matches the standards, and providing
a framework for addressing the learning goal (pp. 11-12).
I began the course with the thought that instructional design was designing a website that
you would use to teach or instruct. Upon reading the course materials I replaced that definition
with one that addressed instructional design as a process, facilitated through a series of steps,
with which one creates materials to engage and instruct learners. This process is ongoing and
involves a non-linear pathway often approached through a linear model.
The preparation that is required prior to beginning the design process is almost
overwhelming. The needs assessment, approaches to learning, instructional strategies, the
learning context and environment, the learner profile descriptions, the flow charts for pre-
requisite knowledge, and the learning objectives and how they would be addressed on the higher
level thinking scale; all of these tasks were prior to writing the actual instruction. Throughout
this process I started to see all of the curriculum and online lessons that I had ever purchased,
used, taught from or learned from in a new light.
In the case of my final ID project for EdTech 503 I used the ADDIE model to design an
advanced Biology lesson to help students prepare for their final IB Biology exams. Instructional
design, while amazingly thorough, is time consuming and would not be ideal for each and every
lesson completed; however, I have been utilizing the ID process in my larger units to ensure a
strong foundation for concepts.
This course, and my experience with instructional design throughout the course, has
helped me to become a better teacher. This course has shown me that not all instruction is
created equal. I have already taken away so much from this course that I have been able to apply
RATIONALE PAPER 4

in my daily life. Earlier this year the Science Department was given permission to order new
curriculum and lab lessons for next year. Prior to this course I would have chosen the instruction
that looked the most interesting, covered the material I needed, and had the most technology
applications. This year I read through the background information, I spoke to my students that
would be using the materials, I considered my demographics, I assessed the content and
usability, I attempted to complete a lesson from each book using the labs and worksheets
provided, and most importantly I evaluated the effectiveness of the material afterwards. The
book I ordered was not the book I would have ordered prior to this course, it doesnt look as
fancy, but it is far more effective because it was well researched and designed, and it met the
needs of my students in my situation.

1.2 Message Design
Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral,
perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention,
perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain
is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.
EdTech 506- Final Website Design Project
In EdTech 506 I created a final project in the form of a website. The website brought
together the various design pieces that I created in 506; my final project emphasizes how
imagery can send a message. The messages are sent through a variety of medium that each
address various learning theories. I have broken down several of the images, explaining the
message that was being conveyed by the choice of color, text, white space, image placement
etc
RATIONALE PAPER 5


Mitochondria page- I decided to use a transformation image; by changing the visual
representation of the mitochondria from a cell part to a battery I am able to help students
remember that the mitochondria are the powerhouse energy supplier for the cell (Lohr, 2008, p.
75). I chose the name Mighty Mitochondria with special lettering and bright red colors to
symbolize power (Geer, 2007, para. Color Survey). I attempted to bring the images and the
words together by using the placement, size, and color of the words mighty mitochondria. The
color, gradient, and fill pattern of the title make it stand out, but its placement, or proximity to
the rest of the graphic, at the top of the page covering the length of the images and text help
bring the graphic together (Lohr, 2008, p. 203). Throughout the series of organelles, I repeated
the image of the cell in order to link the images together and create consistency throughout the
site. According to Reynolds (2008) Repetition of certain design elements in a slide or among a
deck of slides will bring a clear sense of unity, consistency (p. 154).

Nucleus page- I created the image using scale, texture, color, text, repetition, and font to help
create a working analogy. Scale- The brain is the largest aspect of the image in order to
communicate its importance in the image (Lohr, 2008, p. 272). The brain has a drop shadow to
provide dimension (Lohr, 2008, p. 272). I used the same font for the title Knowing Nucleus
as the cell, and the same font for the word information and the actual information. I chose to
repeat this font to connect thoughts and ideas within the image. I chose to make the title
knowing nucleus orange because orange is associated with knowledge (Kotak, 2001, para.
Color Chart). According to Lohr (2008) colors evoke emotional responses and I wanted to
evoke that feeling of knowledge by using chrome orange with gold markings. I chose to keep the
RATIONALE PAPER 6

image simple and leave a balanced white space to encourage readability and increase
understanding. By being concise I am able to reduce the visual information to its most basic (p.
102).
Golgi Complex page- This image of the Golgi complex as the packaging center of the cell
was created using a compilation of the skills we have learned thus far, focusing primarily on
organization and hierarchy. I chose to give the title Golgi complex a wooden fill to create the
feeling of creating and building, much like the job of the Golgi complex. I attempted to use my
white space to give students and idea of the big picture as well as the smaller details (Lohr, 2008,
p. 126). By using the arrows to point to each job, I am attempting to show the sequence.
Sequence, such as steps, is a process or alphabetical ordering, and is clearly hierarchical in
nature (Lohr, 2008, p. 124). By using symbols to represent the different jobs, I am able to tell a
story without extraneous text. A symbol, for us in the design world, is usually a combination of
graphic elements that represent something to us-in other words, a picture that tells a story
(Guerrini, 2012, para. 2). I attempted to balance the white space and the images with the text.
According to Bear (2012) Visual balance comes from arranging elements on the page so that no
one section is heavier than the other (para 2).

Cell Wall page- This image of the cell wall is transformative, it focuses more on helping the
learner understand the concept than presenting the content (Lohr, 2008, p. 22). The purpose of
this image is to help students see the structure of the cell wall. The colors of this image were
chosen to represent the idea of a solidly built structure. Brown represents reliability and duty
according to Lohr (Lohr, 2008, p. 270). The pattern in the wood, and in the text Cell Wall
helps to add depth and makes it stand out (Lohr, 2008, p. 272). I used the negative space to show
RATIONALE PAPER 7

the importance of the structure and to draw your eye to the important information by separating
instructional elements (Lohr, 2008, p. 272). I decided not to include the typical green cell in this
image because I didnt feel it was adding anything to the final image (Lohr, 2008, p. 89).

Vacuole page- This image of the vacuole was created as a transformative visual, to help make
information more memorable. This image affects long-term memory because it relies on analogy
to help people learn (Lohr, 2008, p. 22). The colors were chosen to represent the stored item in
the vacuole. Brown, which is often associated with dirt and poverty, was used to represent waste.
The blue, which is associated with dependability and life, was used to represent water (Lohr,
2008, p. 270). The fact that the vacuole is half brown and half blue is part of the analogy
because it stores both waste and water depending on the cell. I used a water filler for the glass of
water to add texture. According to Chapman (2011) Textures can add to the feeling and mood
of a design, or they can take away. I used the image placement to help split the page into two
halves the water being slightly larger to show an almost equal hierarchy. Aside from using
alignment, hierarchy is perceived through color and size (Lohr, 2008, p. 133). I wanted to use
more blue and a larger space for water, because it is present in both plant and animal cells and
makes up the majority of a cell, but animal cells often contain mostly waste.

Cell Systems page- I designed the image with the thought that I want students to be able to learn
a concept using words and shapes only. I wanted them to learn that cells form tissues which form
organs not just by the words, but the image that is represented within the words. I believe my
image will work because the lesson is presented in both words and visuals. According to Lohr
(2008), the first function of color is to label or differentiate information, which was the
RATIONALE PAPER 8

purpose differentiating the color of each level of cell growth. The fourth function of color is to
create decoration or aesthetic appeal. (p. 265) By using a different color for each word the color
now represents and differentiates the information. I used colors that would stand out against their
backgrounds and appeal to the students. I have discovered that contrast in colors seems to appeal
to students, especially those in the lower MS grades. I gave the cell texture and added cell
parts surrounding the word cell. I did this in order to remind students that even though the cell
is the starting point, the most basic building block of life, it is made up of smaller parts.
According to Lohr, (2008) people tend to perceive shapes as wholes (or Gestalt). A shape is
seen as a unit, and anything superimposed on a shape, or aligned to it, is likely to be seen as part
of that unit. Therefore, a shape can be an effective way of presenting related but distinct
information as one unit (p. 250). In my image I used not only a cell shape, but actually used the
words tissue and organ as a shape as well. The shape of the words, and the meaning behind
the words being filled with smaller words, all acts together as one unit to represent the
interconnectedness of the three words.

Cell Division page- These images were placed on this page as decorative, organizational, and
interpretive tools. These images each represent a step in the process of mitosis. They are
organizational because they are sequential, each picture representing a step. The information
surrounding the picture is chunked, which helps the learner think about information in a
meaningful or efficient way (Lohr, 2008, p. 125). The information is interpretive because it
helps learners understand difficult content by breaking down the steps visually (Lohr, 2008, p.
20). The images are used as repetitious figures (the same cell with slight adjustments to the
RATIONALE PAPER 9

organelles). There are many versions of the process of mitosis but the repetition of these images
added a sense of harmony and congruency to the flow (Lohr, 2008, p. 203).

1.3 Instructional Strategies
In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these
interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of
instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including
learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.

EdTech 502- Webquest Activity
In EdTech 502, the internet for educators, we learned about creating practical and useful
internet lessons while using Dreamweaver to build our own activities website. The first internet
activity I would like to explain in more detail is the webquest activity. Creating my own
webquest from the code to the material covered within the code. The purpose of the webquest I
designed is to teach students about the biological imperative by allowing them to recognize and
identify it in modern fiction. This webquest teaches a crucial lesson in understanding life of the
past, present, and future. By connecting these concepts to a popular piece of fiction, The
Hunger Games, we are helping to make the concepts relevant to students as well. If a student
can identify key biological implications in a fictional story, the process of identifying and
applying them in real life becomes that much easier. Using the mode of the webquest helps
students to learn through exploration, and it provides the interactivity and independence that we
attempt to provide for our students.
RATIONALE PAPER
10


EdTech 502- Jigsaw Activity
The second activity in EdTech 502 I would like to relate in further detail is the jigsaw
project. This project focuses on scientists responsible for the discovery or advancement in
understanding of various aspects of DNA information. In the jigsaw activity students are asked
four questions, but they are split into 4 expert groups to answer the same questions about
different scientists. Students are provided resources which allow them to explore information
relevant to the topic while gaining insight into DNA structure and function. This insight is then
shared with the other expert groups in the class. In the jigsaw activity students are responsible for
their own learning, which leads to a more authentic learning experience.

1.4 Learner Characteristics
Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and
implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the
selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner
characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning
situation, and the nature of the content.

EdTech 504- Synthesis Paper (Learning Theories)
In order to properly educate a student you must first understand how that student learns,
what characteristics they possess that influences their learning patterns. In 504, Theoretical
Foundations of Educational Technology, I learned about various epistemological theories. My
RATIONALE PAPER
11

synthesis paper was entitled The Effectiveness of Educational Technology, Through the
Implementation of Technology Integration, on Inquiry-Based Learning. I choose to research
inquiry-based learning because I teach at an IB school, which is based on the theories of
constructivism and inquiry-based learning. Through my exploration of these two learning
theories and many others, I was able to better understand the expectation the IB organization has
of me as a teacher. This class, perhaps more than any other, has immediately impacted my career
and my teaching. Better understanding how students learn, and how the curriculum in my school
is written has made me a stronger teacher.

Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials
and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

2.1 Print Technologies
Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and
photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for
the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.
EdTech 504- Annotated Bibliography
In EdTech 504 I developed a better understanding of learning theories and eventually
wrote a final synthesis paper based on the research of a chosen learning theory. Prior to actually
writing that synthesis paper we were tasked with creating an annotated bibliography, which
served as the foundation for the development of the synthesis paper. This task was challenging,
RATIONALE PAPER
12

and it forced me to reconsider the way I write research papers. The annotated bibliography
helped me to ensure that my resources are valid and that I know how to best utilize my resources.

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and
allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application.
EdTech 513- Digital Storytelling Video
In EdTech 513 I created my own digital story; the story tells about a part of my life. I
found, after completing my own story, that there are so many uses for this type technology in my
classroom. I have already asked my students to use digital storytelling to tell the story of
photosynthesis from the point of view of a chloroplast. I had my other science class create a
digital story for their graduation video. The use of digital stories in the classroom can tell real
stories, like mine, or stories that are more abstract in nature but tell a story none-the-less. The
concept of using images, music, and voice-over techniques to tell a story or convey an
understanding of a concept in a deeper way is something that could be invaluable in a classroom,
if used correctly.
EdTech 513- Worked Example Video
In EdTech 513, I also created a worked example, or a screencast of a lesson. I am
attempting to create more a flipped classroom and using this technology would make those
lessons much easier and much more effective. I have used Khan Academy many times, but never
fully understood how they accomplished the lesson, and now that I have used Camtasia I have a
much better grasp on what is out there. I will be requesting that my school purchase this software
RATIONALE PAPER
13

for next year. I think it would also be a great alternative to substitute lesson plans, as the teacher
could actually teach the lesson and the substitute could supervise classroom management. This
technology can open the door for a truly individualized and facilitated classroom, as one has the
ability to self-pace, rewatch, and teachers can even individualize instruction level.

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital
data. Examples include computer
-based instruction (CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer-managed instruction
(CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global resource/reference access.
EdTech 502- Virtual Fieldtrip Activity
In EdTech 502 I created a virtual fieldtrip, where students had the opportunity to visit
the scenes of natural disasters. One of the benefits of technology is that is opens up the door for
students to experience things that would normally be impossible or at the very least improbable
for most students to experience. Natural disasters are dangerous and seeing them in person would
put students in jeopardy, not to mention the cost of getting the students to the scene, and the time
required to get them there. While it is important to realize that this technology opens doors and
should be used to inform, it is also important to remember that it can be fun and engaging. The
Virtual Field Trip I completed in EdTech 502 Internet for Educators allows students to see, hear,
and feel the power of natural disasters. The use of visual imagery, videos, texts, and outside
links brings students into the event. Prior to this course my website design skills were limited to
graphic interface drag and drop websites, but this website is of my own design; and that is a
very big accomplishment for me.
RATIONALE PAPER
14


2.4 Integrated Technologies
Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various
levels of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio,
video, and graphic environments. Examples include hypermedia authoring and
telecommunications tools such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.

EdTech 505- Evaluation Model Glogster
In EdTech 505 we given the option to present our weekly assignments using any medium
we saw fit. Most weeks I chose to use some form of a Web 2.0 technology. I wanted to practice
taking an assignment and turning it into something more interactive and creative and this
assignment was one such example. In this project my goal was to explain the evaluation model I
was using for my final evaluation paper. I chose to use Glogster as the medium with which I
would break down the goal-based model I was using for my evaluation. Glogster allows the
creator to add hypermedia links, video, sound, graphics, images, and text. My Glog not only
provided the information required, but it allowed me to express that information in a way that
was both engaging and informative. I was forced to consider how to organize my information on
the page, what graphics, text, and video would best inform the viewer and where I would place
those items. Glogster is an interactive media that is saved on the web; its very nature encourages
the use of integrated technologies.



RATIONALE PAPER
15

Standard 3: UTILIZATION
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources
for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation,
and policy-making.

3.1 Media Utilization
Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design
specifications.
EdTech 505- Learning Statistics Glogster
Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning (AECT, 2000). In the
EdTech 505 Statistics project I once again decided to use a Glog. I found from previous
experience that Glogster allowed me to use a variety of media (links, text, images, and video) on
one poster page. The fact that Glogster makes media utilization easier by providing simple links
and embedding capabilities makes it the perfect resource for teachers that want their students to
utilize resources in meaningful ways. In my Glog I used a variety of resources to help explain a
complicated concept. I found myself struggling to understand all of the aspects of statistics we
were being taught in EdTech 505, but finding resources for this Glog helped me to better
understand the concept myself, and as a result, I utilized the resources that I found most helpful
to help others better understand the concept as well. My mom, who was a teacher, always said
the best way to learn something is to teach it to others. Glogster provides a medium for students
to be creative, engaged, and to utilize media in a way that will teach both themselves and others.

RATIONALE PAPER
16

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
With an ultimate goal of bringing about change, the process includes stages such as awareness,
interest, trial, and adoption.
EdTech 501- Technology Use Planning Project
In EdTech 501, I created the technology use plan, in which we were asked to create a
strategic technology use plan for our school. The technology use plan allowed for open
communication with school stakeholders about the schools technology goals and strategies for
attaining them. The plan was written with the intent of adoption by school officials. The rationale
of the plan was to create an on-going plan of action that work in phases to help the school meet
their goals and expectations. The EdTech 501 technology use plan project exemplifies the
diffusion of innovations. Through this project we opened the doors of communication, sharing in
our awareness of our deficiencies, we came to together to build on our common interest to
improve our technology situation, we created surveys and truly examined all aspects of the
current technology use with the hopes of creating a plan that would eventually be adopted by
school officials. I am very proud of the plan I created for my school, and my school has adopted
the plan and we have just completed the first phase of the plan, which was to build an
infrastructure that can support current technologies, and hopefully, future technologies that the
school possesses and/or will possess.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings.
Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure
and culture of an organization.
RATIONALE PAPER
17

EdTech 541- Integrated Technology Lesson Plans (Science, Language, and the Arts)
In 541, Integrating Technology, the technology integration lesson plans we created for
various subject areas are a great example of how these EdTech projects can be used in our daily
lives immediately. When I created the lesson plans for integrating science and technology with
Language Arts, P.E., and Math my goal was to create a resource for my colleagues. When I
began the process I reached out to my colleagues to ask them to sit down with me and tell me
about what they do in the classroom, EdTech once again opened the door to
communication. This project was the stepping stone for a serious of joint projects that I
completed with my colleagues this year to help integrate multiple subjects through the use of
technology. Each lesson plan that I created included media utilization, computer-based
technologies, integrated technologies, learner theories, and instructional strategies. This project
meets the standard of implementation and institutionalization perfectly because I used it in my
real-life classroom situation and it has changed the way that my colleagues and I work together,
our school culture is now one of cooperation and integration.

3.4 Policies and Regulations
Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the
diffusion and use of Instructional Technology.
EdTech 502- Netiquette Webpage
In EdTech 502, I made one of my first attempts at web page design, with a project on
Netiquette. While I was already familiar with the topic from previous EdTech courses I found the
creation of a Netiquette webpage both challenging and useful. I was teaching in a new school at
the time that I was creating this project and the school had never even heard the term Netiquette,
RATIONALE PAPER
18

much less created any policy around the concept of Netiquette. I know from experience that it is
important for schools to have technology use policies in place and clearly defined for students
and faculty. Using proper Netiquette is essential for online communication, whether it is
students, parents, teachers, or administrators communicating to any of the above. Once I showed
my administration the webpage I created in EdTech 502 they understood the importance for a
Netiquette policy and asked me to share my webpage with each of the grade level classes. Since
introducing this policy to the school we have all noticed a big difference in the online
communications on campus. It was not a quick or easy process, everyone needed reminders to
continue following the policies but it has proven well worth it in the end.

EdTech 502- Scavenger Hunt Activity
After the introduction of Netiquette I approached my administration with my next
EdTech 502 project, Copyright & Plagiarism, which is an Internet scavenger hunt that provides
students with a variety of online resources and videos to learn more about copyright and
plagiarism. This webpage challenges students to investigate the provided links and answer
questions to determine understanding. My administration had policies in place for Copyright and
Plagiarism, but agreed that students should be required to complete the scavenger hunt and pass
in order to utilize the schools technology. These two projects are perfect examples of policy and
regulation implementation in real-life situations.



RATIONALE PAPER
19

STANDARD 4 MANAGEMENT
Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and
supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system,
and information management.

4.1 Project Management
Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and
development projects.

EdTech 503- Instructional Design Final Project; IB Exam Webquest Lesson
In EdTech 503 Instructional Design, I created an IB exam webquest project that meets
the requirements for this standard. Prior to creating the lesson, I first had to take into
consideration the learner characteristics, the contextual analysis, strategies to improve student
buy-in, learning theories and strategies, objectives for learning, and of course formative and
summative evaluation, which are key in IB instruction. Part of completing the lesson involved
creating the instructional materials that would accompany the lesson. This project took on one
more dimension as we were required to create an instructors guide as well, it was to be based on
Kellers (1987) ARCS model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction). In order to
determine if the project was in fact effective I had to have another person implement the
instructional design, part of that process required me to have an expert review the lesson, to have
one-on-one and small group evaluation of the instructional design unit and a field trial of the
lesson. In the monitoring process I received feedback from my subject matter expert which
helped me to make necessary adjustments to the lesson. Prior to creating this project I did not
RATIONALE PAPER
20

have a thorough understanding of all of the elements that go into instructional design. This
project is a perfect example of project management. I was required to plan, develop, implement,
monitor, and control the various aspects of the instructional piece.

EdTech 505- Final Evaluation Project (Teacher Technology Training)
Another example of project management is the final evaluation project in EdTech 505,
Evaluation for Educational Technologists. This evaluation project proved to be quite
challenging. I found myself struggling with my role in the evaluation because I was the creator
of the program being evaluated as well as the evaluator. The dual role made objectivity all the
more important. The project began with planning, choosing an evaluation model, researching the
programs objectives, the schools goals, and understanding the background leading to this
programs implementation. Planning then led to monitoring and observing the program in action.
Monitoring included surveys, observation checklists, and recording raw data. From there the
program was formatively evaluated and changes were made to see if the changes implemented
would improve the program in areas of concern. From there more information and monitoring
and then summative evaluation took place. In the end being both the creator of the program
(which allowed me to utilize my knowledge from EdTech 503) and being the evaluator (which
allowed me to find objectivity as a project manager and evaluator).

4.2 Resource Management
Resource management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support systems
and services.
RATIONALE PAPER
21

EdTech 505- RFP Evaluation Proposal
The EdTech 505 Evaluation Project exemplifies standard 4.2. We were tasked with
developing an evaluation proposal for the Far West Laboratories, a fictional company. The Far
West Laboratory needed to evaluate a training program for current and future administrators to
learn to plan effective school programs. Throughout the development process I had to take into
consideration the resources that the company had available and the goals and outcomes that were
to be met by the program. I had to create a plan for how to properly evaluate the programs
effectiveness, how my evaluation company would go about monitoring the progress of the
program, and I had to provide reasonable but accurate billing for the services provided. This
evaluation proposal required me to think about how all aspects of the evaluation process would
work prior to actually seeing the program in action, and I had to consider how my companys
would provide the Far West Laboratory with the best evaluation for their situation.

4.3 Delivery System Management
Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling the method by
which distribution of instructional materials is organized . . . [It is] a combination of medium
and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner.

EdTech 502 M-Learning Activity
In EdTech 502 I created a project called M-Learning, which was a mobile learning
webpage that was designed to be completed by students while on a field trip to the Florida
Botanical gardens. The reason I choose to classify this as in the delivery system management
standard is because the this mobile webpage was the medium by which students were presented
RATIONALE PAPER
22

an assignment to complete in an interactive method in order to learn more about plant science.
The webpage included links to more information on plant science, it included instructions for the
project, images, and even a link to an application that students needed to download to complete
the activity. The webpage was completed on a fluid layout so that it could be viewed on
computers, tablets, or cell phones. The website was organized in such a way that the instructional
materials could be viewed in the correct sequence to complete the assignment.

4.4 Information Management
Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage, transfer, or
processing of information in order to provide resources for learning.

EdTech 501- RSS for Educators
When I think about information management I think about EdTech 501 and the RSS for
educators project. Going in to this assignment I was a bit apprehensive, because while I know
what an RSS feed is, I don't use them. I am not a big blog follower, but as I began to think about
how I could use this technology in my classroom I realized that kids would prefer to read short
articles from the internet far more than reading from a textbook. By teaching students how to
initially seek out information, and then save time by having that site update you with new
information, we teach them to become active learners. Having so much information available
from so many different sources, opens up the possibilities for learning. RSS feeds not only
provide up-to-date information but they provide a means by which to share and organize that
information.
RATIONALE PAPER
23

STANDARD 5 EVALUATION
Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of
instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced
measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

5.1 Problem Analysis
Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using
information-gathering and decision-making strategies.

EdTech 505- Final Evaluation Project (Teacher Technology Training)
In EdTech 505, the evaluation of my schools technology training program served not
only as a great way to learn to manage a program, but also as an opportunity to learn to analyze a
problem by gathering data and making decisions based on that data. As a part of the evaluation
process I had to gather background information on the school and its needs, and sit down with
administrators and other stakeholders to determine the objectives of the program they wanted to
evaluate. These individual aspects are all a part of a greater picture of problem-solving. The
evaluator must consider the goals of the organization and determine if the program they are
evaluating will help the company meet those goals. In order to make this determination
information must be gathered, then processed and decisions must be made that help stakeholders
determine if the program could potentially solve their problem and meet their needs.


RATIONALE PAPER
24

EdTech 501- Technology Use Planning Project
In EdTech 501, the technology use project allowed me to create a method by which I
could gather data on my schools technology maturity. I surveyed school stakeholders, observed
the technology usage, researched the policies and procedures in place, and then processed the
data I collected to determine the schools technology strengths and weaknesses. The gathering
and processing of this data helped open the conversation for school administrators to determine
how to strengthen the areas of deficiency.

5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement
Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-
specified content.
EdTech 503- Instructional Design Final Project; IB Exam Webquest Lesson
The EdTech 503 final instructional design project was built to be a complete lesson for
instruction. I set objectives for learning, provided material for instruction, and included a
criterion based rubric for evaluation. Rubrics are an effective way to meet the 5.2 standard,
because they are criterion-referenced measurement devices utilized for determining learner
mastery of content.
EdTech 541- Integrated Technology Lesson Plans : The Arts
In EdTech 541, I created biology theme units that were integrated with technology and
another subject. In the integration project with Biology and the Arts and I created a Glogster
project that included a rubric for criterion based evaluation of student understanding. By creating
RATIONALE PAPER
25

a rubric for the project the students know how they are to be graded and the Glogster itself shows
understanding of the concepts being taught.

5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a
basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on
adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization.
EdTech 501- Technology Use Planning Project
In EdTech 501, the technology use program used formative assessment in the form of the
checklist that was used to determine what level of technological maturity the school has achieved
in the various areas.
EdTech 505- Final Evaluation Project (Teacher Technology Training)
In EdTech 505, the final evaluation project on my schools teacher technology training
program is the perfect example of both formative and summative evaluation. Throughout the
program, the evaluator observes, surveys, and gathers data to assess the program formatively. At
the middle point of the program trial period, the information gathered throughout the formative
evaluation is shared with program creators and stakeholders so that recommendations can be
made for change. The second half of the trial period is used to evaluate the program now that
changes have been made. Upon the completion of the program the evaluator gathers more data,
and processes all program data in order to evaluate the program as a whole, or summatively.

RATIONALE PAPER
26

5.4 Long-Range Planning
Long-range planning that focuses on the organization as a whole is strategic planning....Long-
range is usually defined as a future period of about three to five years or longer. During strategic
planning, managers are trying to decide in the present what must be done to ensure
organizational success in the future.

EdTech 505- Final Evaluation Project (Teacher Technology Training)
The evaluation report that was written for the teacher technology training program in
EdTech 505 exemplifies the standard 5.4 long-range planning. The purpose of the teacher
technology training program is to create a program that will keep teachers up-to-date on new
technologies, to train new teachers, and to improve technology use school wide for years to
come. The evaluation was created to determine if this training program is sustainable for the
school, and if the program would be the most efficient and effective plan to meet the needs of the
school.

EdTech 503- Instructional Design Final Project; IB Exam Webquest Lesson
The EdTech 503 final instructional design project is also an example of long-range
planning. The project is intended to be the culminating activity after a two year program. The IB
examination is something that teachers prepare students for each year, and there is no real study
guide for the exam. This project allows students to create their own study guide and share it with
classmates to split the load of information. Upon completion of this project I began using it with
my classes, and I shared the idea with other teachers. The project has grown, and each teacher
RATIONALE PAPER
27

does it in their own way with their own adjustments, but it has become a school wide adoption
by Diploma Program teachers.

RATIONALE PAPER
28

Bibliography
Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (2005). Standards for the
accreditation of school media specialist and educational technology specialist programs
(4th ed.). Bloomington, IN.
Chapman, C. (2011). A Graphic Design Primer, Part 1: The Elements of a Design - Noupe. Noupe:
The curious side of smashing magazine. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from
http://www.noupe.com/design/a-graphic-design-primer-part-1-the-elements-of-a-design.html

Geer, C. (2007). Graphic Design Using Color. Web Design Library. Retrieved June 28, 2012, from
http://www.webdesign.org/web-design-basics/color-theory/graphic-design-using-
color.12801.html

Guerrini, S. (2012). Symbols & Its Impact in Logo Design. Hongkiat.com. Retrieved July 11, 2012,
from http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/symbols-impact-on-logo-design/

Kotak, M. (2001). Color theory to maintain color symbolism in website design. Layout Galaxy:
Ready to use design concepts for the web. Retrieved July 5, 2012, from
http://www.layoutgalaxy.com/html/htmnewletter9-page5.htm

Lohr, L. (2008). Creating graphics for learning and performance: Lessons in visual literacy (2nd
ed.). Pearson Education Inc.,.

Ragan, P. L. (2005). Instructional Design (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
RATIONALE PAPER
29