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the first inhabitants were the Celts
o Christians, building churches
Romans, who came after them, never owned the whole island
o they couldnt get further than to the Hadrians wall in Scotland
o they built roads, some of which exist up until now
o towns that theyve established end with chester, -caster, -cester
o left Britain 410 AD
Angles, Saxon and Jutes
o the main three groups of Germanic tribes that settled there after the Romans
o pushed Celtic tribes to todays Wales, took control of most of todays England
o 7 main Germanic Kingdoms emerged (Kent, Sussex, Essex, Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia,
o came in the 9
Century from Denmark
o Wessex (king Alfred the Great) the only Kingdom that resisted them
o 878 - king Alfred signed a treaty with the Vikings, separating his kingdom from Viking-
controlled lands
he began the creation of England as a single nation
o 1000 most of todays Britain under the Anglo-Saxon king
Century; from northwest France Duchy of Normandy, related to Vikings
The Norman royal family had intermarried with the royal family of England
William, the Duke of Normandy furious, that he didnt become the next King of England
1066 the Battle of Hastings
o William defeated the army of king Harold and killed him
o he became the next king
William the Conqueror
o he rewarded the Norman lords who had helped him he took the land of the Anglo-Saxon
aristocracy and gave it to the Norman aristocracy
they have built many castles to be able to control the people and their lands
the Norman rulers spoke only Norman French, ordinary people spoke English
o thats why the names for animals and for its meat differ
the first king to speak English again was Henry V. at the beginning of the 15
France was more important to them
centralized England they had organized power

Civil war about 200 years after the Norman Takeover
o in need of a strong leader Henry II. ended the war
Henry II.
o he started to make laws against the leader in case he does things people dont like
o in the Anglo-Saxon times the king had organized courts, was a judge himself; unwritten laws
had been followed
Henry II. used his authority to make laws of England official and national
provided national legal institutions and a set of rules applicable all over the country
judges were travelling around the country
laws and justice were the same all over England, independent of the king could be
used to deal with a bad king
people began to see law as something that protects them
John I.
o his son, Mad/Bad king
o not trusted by the people nor by his barons
barons made John I. agree to this documentary
limited the kings power, nobody is above the law
the idea of the rule of law the law can limit the king
king can no longer imprison someone for no reason
very important first step to rights of free people
o barons had made themselves a check on kings power and an alternative source of power
they started to meet occasionally, than regularly to discuss laws
their meetings came to be known as Parliament
Henry VIII.
o 1509 became the king of England
o his brother Arthur married to Spain which gained him great power, but he died very soon
Henry was encouraged to marry his ex-wife
o he gained a special permission from the pope and married Catherine of Aragon
kids: Mary no male heirs
he started to claim, that their marriage is invalid (for she had been his brothers
wife) he began to persuade the Pope to annul their marriage;
o without having the support from Rome, Henry married Anne Boleyn
the Archbishop of Canterbury = the most important one in England claimed, that
the first marriage had been illegitimate
began the split from Rome
o he introduced a series of changes so that Pope would have no power or control over the law
in England
the King of England is the head of the church in England
Parliament passed it
arguing against would be an act of treason
made room for Englands Reformation to happen
o he still didnt have any heirs married Jane Seymour son Edward VI.
she died
o Anne of Cleves annulled within a week
o Catharine Howard - executed
o Katherine Parr
Century religious revolution the Protestant Reformation
o teachings of Martin Luther (Germany)
o The Church hierarchy had become too focused on power serving themselves, not others
Edward VI.
o Protestant Principles
Rome Catholics Protestants
Hierarchy Pope Jesus gave him the power,
he gives it to others
No Pope, the King is the Head of
the Church
Truth The Bible + traditions via the priest The Bible, no one between; priests
can get married
Language Latin Bible, Latin Mass Translations, Service in English
Salvation Faith + Works otherwise hell
Continuing sacrifice
Sacrifice once youre saved
o he claims, that his sisters are no longer bastards (Mary and Elizabeth)
o strongly Catholic, tried to reverse the protestant changes
o died 5 years after becoming a queen
o she married the heir to the Spanish throne danger to the security and independence of
o she brutally persecuted about 300 Protestants Bloody Mary burnt them
o agreed with the independence of the Church of England; taught by protestants
o her 45 years reign - Golden age in many ways colonies
o she wanted to make a compromise (angry Protestants x angry Catholics)
o her pragmatic and sensible policies made the Church of England permanently Protestant
o passed the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity
re-confirmed the Protestant liturgies and doctrines
kings/queens supremacy over it
a woman can become the head of the Church
o she changed only what was necessary
the extreme Protestants were not satisfied Pilgrims left to America
o thanks to the printing press anyone could read the Bible


Constitutionalism Absolutism
Rulers get their authority from the people Rulers get their authority from God
Parliament expresses the peoples will Parliament can advise but cannot limit the ruler
Executing and making laws should be separate All power is concentrated in the rulers hands

James I.
o first to be the king of both England and Scotland in favor of joining them together
came up with the name Great Britain
o Royal absolutism
popular in Europe at that time
o England - in debt after Elizabeth he wanted to raise taxes, the Parliament didnt pass it
he started to raise them by himself
Charles I.
o carried on absolutism and on high taxes
o rebellions in Scotland hes applying the same system as in England
he needs more money, asks the Parliament to pass higher taxes
Parliament doesnt Charles dismisses it (1629-1640)
o after a period of time, Charles called up the Parliament again
Parliament demands:
meetings at least twice a year
king cant simply dismiss the Parliament
o CIVIL WAR 1642
army of the king x army of the Parliament
1646 Parliament won, imprisoned the king
they want to have a king, but they want his powers to be limited
Charles corresponded with France, asking for help
1648 war was restarted, same ending
o Parliament decides to put the king on a trial
he was sentenced to death he committed a crime of treason
o no king or queen in Commonwealth
o Oliver Cromwell was the leader at that time he was a member of the New Model Army that
fought in the Civil War on the side of the Parliament
o after his death chaos new king needed
o 1660 The Restoration Parliament was brought back
Charles II.
o he had same ideas as his father he executed all of those, who were on the trial and were
still alive
o the Civil War didnt end the argument about absolutism and constitutionalism
James II.
o brother of Charles II.
o unpopular like his father & brother
o Catholic, wanted to rule without the parliament
o had a daughter Mary with his protestant wife
Mary married Dutch protestant prince William Orange
ends the debate between absolutism and constitutionalism
a bloodless revolution, James II. loses his crown (ran away)
November 1688 William Orange and Mary land in England with an army
the kings army was bigger, but his soldiers deserted to the other side
welcomed, no shot has been fired
1688 End of absolutism, beginning of Constitutional Government in England
Mary and William Orange
principles of constitutionalism from now on, every king had to sign up to it
one of the first and most important constitutional documents to limit the power of a
rules that monarchs must obey otherwise, they could be dismissed
f.e.: raising taxes without Parliaments consent is illegal; no excessive, cruel or
unusual punishments; nobody can be punished before conviction and trial
1706-7 England and Scotland negotiated and then passed a treaty uniting them into Great Britain
1706 The Treaty, 1707 Act of Union
o England and Scotland joined together
they have had the same king since James I.
they shared the island, language and religion
began in the 17
Century - England was not the first power in Europe to have colonies
o progress in cartography
o England could copy:
navigation, slave trade, raw materials SPA, POR
maritime trade, exotic goods, Joint-Stock-Company (a group of investors, each one
of them bought a part stock of the trips gained goods) - NDL
Elizabethan Age
o Francis Drake, Walter Raleigh explorers
o 1580s the 1
attempt to establish a colony in todays Virginia
Coastal Colonies in the 17
o North America 1607 in Virginia 1
colony founded
New York originally a Dutch colony; British took over in 1664
o India
East India Company monopolized the English trade with Asia
established 1600, royal character
started colonies in coastal cities trading ports
cotton cloth, later tea
o Caribbean
African slaves were transported there to work on large sugar plantations
England took Jamaica away from Spain important colony for sugar trade
the profits helped launch the Industrial Revolution

the Slave trade affected Britains growth as a Colonial power
o essential for the Industrial Revolution
Caribbean sugar- trade
slave trade was organized by a joint-stock company established by James II.
o businessman becoming very rich
o growth of cities Liverpool, Bristol
lead to many technological inventions could have been put into practice thanks to a lot liquid capital
o James Watt vital improvement of the steam engine
o Eli Whitney cotton gin 1793 (American)
efficiently produced cotton from large plantations with lots of workers
Manchester heart of the cotton industry
first happened in Britain
o a lot of liquid capital = money, that can be spent
o middle class started to invest
a series of economic, technological and social changes and events over many years
1750 the start of the Industrial Revolution
what enabled the Industrial Revolution in Britain:
o Colonies: Trade, Markets, Capital
overseas trade helped create a strong merchant class
o Agricultural Revolution
fertilizers put into the land to make it more productive; more efficient
enclosure acts the land that wasnt private was divided between the farmers
Machines and Innovation
o machines did important things quicker with less people involved
o specializing people would only do one thing in the process of making something
o textile factories first ones to use machines and specialization to revolutionize an industry
spinning jenny, spinning frame, spinning mule
Steam and coal
o factories built on rivers danger of floods
wood as an energy source could run out of it
solution: Steam engine using coal
o Britain had large coal reserves situated near the factories that were built in the 18
o Thomas Newcomen the inventor of Steam Engine
pumped water out of coal mines, so that they could gain more coal
o James Watt improved the Steam engine could be done on a large scale
o coal powered steam engines into factories
Transport revolution
o the efficient production of iron (Iron mill) and the new steam engine (steam trains) enabled
the products of the Industrial Revolution to be quickly taken around the country