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Mini Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are gaining popularity in military operations
as surveillance and weapons platforms. The size of military UAVs varies from
very large to hand-held and they are so popular that more UAVs are now being
produced than conventional aircraft. These military platforms are expensive to buy
and to support. This cost factor has so far limited their use in commercial and
industrial applications, such as, security, inspection, law enforcement, or search
and rescue.

Specifically, we plan to design and build a V-Tail MAV with an auto
pilot system it has been capable of being controlled directly to fly specific pre-
determined missions using a ground station control. The V-tail configuration has
the advantage that it can control the pitching and yawing easily and faster than
other the T-Tail aircraft. With the help of a radio telemetry kit we can set mission
ranges to 5 to 6Km. our aircraft is light weight it is easy to assemble and
disassemble according to the mission needed in a battle field and for spying
purpose also. It is man-portable UAVs that can be carried and launched like an
infantry anti-aircraft missile and powered by electric motor.

Autopilot system is used to navigate the aircraft according to the
mission planned. In case of MAV lost its ground station control during the attack
of EMP jammers fail safe mode will helps to recover and level the aircraft
according to the mission planned.



The main aim of the project is to develop a Miniature UAVs range from mini air
vehicles (MAVs) that can be carried by an infantryman, to man-portable UAVs
that can be carried and launched like an infantry anti-aircraft missile.
Fuselage constructed from the flexible polystyrene and carbon fiber rod, and
wings from flexible material, mini air vehicles are stored fully assembled and
ready to launch from an assault pack. The outer pockets of the assault pack hold a
rugged laptop computer, the ground control station, and antenna assembly, leaving
the large inner compartment of the pack for other required gear. MAVs are
designed for civil applications civil reconnaissance, civil security, mapping, survey
and monitoring, digital elevation model, photography in general. The systems use
electric engine and a puller propeller on the front part of the aircraft. The MAV
have an advanced navigation system and an autopilot which enable the aircraft to
fly with the range of 5 km and flight endurance from 20 to 35 minutes.
Operator-definable failsafe modes provide the ability to land the MAV in a pre-
selected location in the event of loss of communications or GPS. In addition to
automated flight modes, system offers semi-manual and manual flight modes via
standard radio control.




Title: Micro Aerial Vehicle Development: Design, Components, Fabrication,
And Flight-Testing

Author: Gabriel Torres and Thomas J. Mueller
The design of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) is currently hindered by the lack of a
thorough understanding of the flow physics of very small aircraft flying at low
speeds. Trial and error has been the most effective design tool in many cases, often
leading to lengthy and costly design processes. The unavailability of complete
analytical methods and the computational expense of numerical methods make an
empirically-based design optimization approach a practical alternative. This paper
will describe the use of wind tunnel data in the implementation of such a procedure
for the design of a micro aerial vehicle. This MAV was the University of Notre
Dames entry for the fourth annual Micro Aerial Vehicle Student Competition,
held at Fort Huachuca, AZ in May 2000. Restrictions imposed by the use of COTS
components, as well as issues in fabrication and durability will be discussed. Key
features of the final MAV prototype will be outlined and a summary of test flights
will be presented.


Title: Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles
Author: Peter G. Ifju, David A. Jenkins, Scott Ettinger, Yongsheng Lian.
This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-
wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of
gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable
Flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has
been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches.
Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept,
flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and
flight data analysis are presented.

Title: Aerodynamic Measurements at Low Reynolds Numbers for Fixed
Wing Micro-Air Vehicles
Author: Thomas J. Mueller
Abstract: A description of the micro-air vehicle (MAV) concept and design
requirements is presented. These vehicles are very small and therefore operate at
chord Reynolds numbers below 200,00 where very little data is available on the
performance of lifting surfaces, i.e., airfoils and low aspect-ratio wings. This paper
presents the results of a continuing study of the methods that can be used to obtain
reliable force and moment data on thin wings in wind and water tunnels. To this
end, a new platform force and moment balance, similar to an already existing
balance, was designed and built to perform lift, drag and moment measurements at
low Reynolds numbers. Balance characteristics and validation data are presented.
Results show a good agreement between published data and data obtained with the
new balance. Results for lift, drag and pitching moment about the quarter chord

with the existing aerodynamic balance on a series of thin flat plates and cambered
plates at low Reynolds numbers are presented. They show that the cambered plates
offer better aerodynamic characteristics and performance. Moreover, it appears that
the trailing-edge geometry of the wings and the turbulence intensity up to about 1
% in the wind tunnel do not have a strong effect on the lift and drag for thin wings
at low Reynolds numbers. However, the presence of two endplates for two-
dimensional tests and one endplate for the semi-infinite tests appears to have an
undesirable influence on the lift characteristics at low Reynolds numbers. The drag
characteristics for thin flat plate wings of aspect ratio greater than one do not
appear to be affected by the endplates. The effect of the end plates on the drag
characteristics of cambered-plate wings is still under investigation. It is known,
however, that end plates do have an effect on the drag and lift characteristics of a
cambered naca2412 airfoil/wing.

Author: Thomas J. Mueller and James D. DeLaurier

In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in
order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number
and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are
described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the
design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental
boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are
discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this
regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and

flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples
where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the
unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aero elastic behaviour of
a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design
of a successful ornithopter are also described.



To complete this project, we will follow the following flow chart to do this project
in a proper sequence respectively.

The important stages are creating CATIA model, defining constrains, results,
redefining the mesh size and comparing results to the original results to validate
the results and conclusion


Out of the case studies carried out the following configuration for the airframe is
4.2.1Design configuration
Component Configuration Comments
Wing Straight rectangular constant
chord wing with in high
wing configuration
Easy fabrication with higher
roll stability
Tail V tail Effective in slow speeds also
Fuselage Semi Monocoque structure Suitable enough for small
Propulsion system Electric motor propulsion
with propeller configuration
Pollution free and produces
less noise and can be
integrated with the solar
panels or fuel cells for
increased endurance
Propeller configuration Un Foldable Propeller Increased pitch and yaw
control as the slipstream is
near the tail unit and better
visibility for the camera
mounted on the forward
Materials Wing Flexible polystyrene Light weight and High
Fuselage Flexible polystyrene Light weight and High
Control surface
control surfaces are attached
with hinges
Better structural integrity

An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force.
The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift.
The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic
flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by
a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric camber. Foils of similar function
designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils.
The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack and shape. When
oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air, resulting in a
force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known
as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: Lift and drag.
Most foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift,
but cambered airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack. This "turning" of the
air in the vicinity of the aerofoil creates curved streamlines which results in lower
pressure on one side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is
accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting
flow field about the aerofoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface
than on the lower surface. The lift force can be related directly to the average
top/bottom velocity difference without computing the pressure by using the
concept of circulation and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem.


4.3.1Airfoil Design
Aerofoil may be designed to produce
1. low drag without generating any lift
2. low drag while producing a given amount of lift
3. very high lift to drag ratio
4. maximum lift and drag doesn't really matter
To achieve any of these, constraints may apply on
1. thickness, or
2. stagger angle, or
3. pitching moment, or
4. off-design performance, or
5. Stall characteristics, etc.

4.3.2Design Approach
1. Design by authority
2. Use of an already designed aerofoil
3. Works well if the goals of a particular design problem matches with the
goals of the original aerofoil design
4. The availability of the test data ensures, with the available tools now aerofoil
section can be designed with accurate predictability without testing


A flow with Reynolds no. less than 2, 00,000 are termed as low Reynolds
no. flow regime.
The aerodynamics of low Reynolds no. flow regime is fundamentally
different than high Reynolds no. flow regime.
In this flow regime airfoil performance is highly affected by laminar
separation, transition and turbulent reattachment.

According to Carmichaels Report there are 12 Reynolds no. bands
describing all kinds of flow regimes. Below are the bands of interest
Very Low Reynolds No. : This is fractional Reynolds no. where flow is
completely viscous. The practical considerations are falling rates of smoke,
dust, fog, pollen particles. This is outside our interest
Reynolds No. below 150: This regime is of interest for design of low
turbulence reducing screens & smoke streak producing wires in low
turbulence wind tunnel. The flow is laminar & unseperated
Reynolds No. between 1000 - 10,000: Flow is strongly laminar and its
difficult to produce turbulent boundary layer. Its a flow regime for most
insects. A curved surface plate is found superior to flat plates or airfoils.
Reynolds No. between 10,000 30,000: This regime is for hand launched
glider models. It seems that we have 100% laminar flow for some time.
The other side of coin is that that it operates at low lift coefficients around
0.5 or less. Trimming of model to higher lift coefficients can produce
separated laminar layer without reattachment.
Reynolds No. between 30,000 70,000: This regime is technically for all
model aircraft builders and flyers. Induced drag considerations call for
great care in the choice of airfoil section. 6% thick airfoil can become
supercritical. Reattachment of separated layer occurs

Reynolds No. between 70,000 2, 00,000: This regime is for most small
radio controlled model sailplanes & model power planes. Extensive
laminar flow is easy to obtain. No need of tripping. The laminar separation
bubble is the primary performance robber.
Reynolds No. between 2, 00,000 7, 00,000: This regime is for all birds,
large radio controlled models, RPV, ultra-light man carrying gliders.
Higher Reynolds No. bands: This regime is for all the aviation and
aerospace applications.

4.3.5 NACA 2412 AEROFOIL
Geometry of the profile:
Thickness = 12 %
Max thickness position = 30%
Camber = 2%
Max camber position = 40%
Characteristics of the profile:
Thin and highly cambered.
Delays laminar separation.
Increases stalling angle.
Produces lift at zero angle of attack.
Highly concave underside of the airfoil is the major
contribution of lift.


Wind design is made by combination of many airfoil sections. So to design a wind
turbine blade airfoil coordinates are needed. The airfoil coordinates were taken
from airfoil investigation database. Defining airfoil coordinates in CATIA is
tedious, as it requires manually feeding each coordinate of the airfoil in the
textbox. So the airfoil coordinates were moved to a Microsoft Excel file. Microsoft
excels enables coordinates to be transferred to other softwares using macros. This
feature of Microsoft excel is used to transfer the airfoil coordinates from excel to

Specification for rectangular wing as given below,

Parameters Dimensions
Wing area (A) 1750 cm
Wing Span (b) 100 cm
Chord (c) 17.5 cm

Table 4.4.1specification for basic rectangular wing


Chapter- 5

Computer Aided Design (CAD), also known as Computer Aided Design and
Drafting (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process of design and
design- documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting
with a computer. CADD software provides the user with input-tools for the
purpose of streamlining design processes, drafting, documentation, and
manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for
print or machining operations. CADD software uses either vector based graphics to
depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics
showing the overall appearance of designed objects
The imported points in the CATIA were projected in their corresponding
plane. The projected points were joined using a spline. These sections form the
skeleton of the blade design. Multi section solid option in the CATIA was used to
form the skin over the airfoil section. The Completed designed using CATIA is
shown in Figure 5.5.1.





Chapter- 6
It is an analysis tool for airfoil, wings and planes operating at low Reynolds
number (5*10
In this software only the coordinates are imported.
It is given initial conditions as Reynolds no. and angle of attack.
Tripping points can also be specified.
This is based on vortex lattice method and viscous addition coefficient.
For XFLR5 Reynolds No. 46,000, 87,000 & 1, 60,000, for angle of attacks -
4 to 16 deg and for with & without tripping.
It includes,
X-foils direct and inverse analysis capabilities,
Wing design and analysis capabilities based on LLT (Lifting line
theory), on the VLM (Vortex lattice method) and on a 3D panel method.
At this phase, to prove the effectiveness of the C-wing concept over the
conventional rectangular wings, an initial analysis will be carried out using
XFLR5. Since XFLR5 is based on analytical methods, it allows us to do an initial
cut analysis much faster. For the same analysis CFD techniques will involve lot of
time and computational resources.


For this analysis, a rectangular wing using the conventional Eppler 61 aerofoil will
be designed, and it will be compared with for the performance characteristics of
the V tail MAV. The specifications are given below.

Figure 6.1 V tail MAV in XFLR-5



Figure 6.2 CFD Result for V tail MAV

Plots clearly show how the pressure distribution varies over the aircraft; red areas
show positive Cp and blue negative Cp. This configuration produces a L/D of over
26 while cruising at 10 m/s.

The following analysis of the baseline was conducted at Re=350000. Figure shows
information for the Eppler 61 airfoil at -5 to 15 degrees deflection. These
deflections were chosen as they represent the maximum deflection for current

Figure 6.3 variation of C
with angle of attack
The fig 4.3 depicts the information about the variation of induced drag against the
angle of attack. From this graphical information we concluded that the Aerofoil
produces less amount of induced drag .This creates maximum lift in less angle of
attack with low Reynolds number.


Figure 6 .4 variation of lift drag ratio with angle of attack
The fig 4.5 shows the variation of lift to drag with angle of attack. From this
graphical information we concluded that the V-TAIL MAV produces maximum
amount of aerodynamic efficiency.
From the above specification wing is design in XFLR-5.


Rapid Prototyping (RP)
Rapid Prototyping (RP) can be defined as a group of techniques used to
quickly fabricate a scale model of a part or assembly using three-dimensional
computer aided design (CAD) data. What is commonly considered to be the first
RP technique, Stereolithography, was developed by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA,
USA. The company was founded in 1986, and since then, a number of different RP
techniques have become available.
Rapid Prototyping has also been referred to as solid free-form manufacturing;
computer automated manufacturing, and layered manufacturing. RP has obvious
use as a vehicle for visualization. In addition, RP models can be used for testing,
such as when an airfoil shape is put into a wind tunnel. RP models can be used to
create male models for tooling, such as silicone rubber molds and investment casts.
In some cases, the RP part can be the final part, but typically the RP material is not
strong or accurate enough. When the RP material is suitable, highly convoluted
shapes (including parts nested within parts) can be produced because of the nature
of RP
Why Rapid prototyping
o To increase effective communication
o To decrease development time
o To decrease costly mistakes
o To minimize sustaining changes
o To extend product life time by adding necessary features and
o Eliminating redundant features early in the design
Rapid prototyping decreases development time by allowing corrections to a
product to be made early in the process. By giving engineering,
Marketing, manufacturing and purchasing a look at early in the process, mistakes
can be corrected and changes can be made while they are still expensive. Trends in
manufacturing industries continue to emphasise the following,

Increasing number of variants of products.
Increasing product complexity.
Decreasing product lifetime before obsolescence.
Decreasing delivery time.

Fig 7.1 Rapid Prototype



Carbon fiber can be described as very thin, strong fibres and is generally used to
reinforce composite materials, particularly the category of materials known as
carbon fibre or graphite reinforced polymers. It is also known as reinforced plastic
or carbon fibre composites. As a compound, it's admired for being stronger and
lighter than fiberglass. It is of much importance to designers and engineers due to
its sturdiness. It's a kind of material that is lighter than aluminum and stronger than
steel. It's amazing.

Carbon Fiber is composed of carbon atoms that are bonded together to form a long
chain. These carbon fibers are extremely stiff, strong, and light are the top choice
for many processes to create excellent building materials. Carbon Fibre material
comes in a wide variety of raw building blocks such as yarns, weaves, uni-
directional, braids and many others which are used to manufacture advanced
composite products.

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is an extremely strong and lightweight
material that is gaining increasing popularity with engineers and manufacturers. In
tension strength, for a given weight of material, it's at least 4.5 times stronger and
stiffer than any steel, aluminum or titanium in the industry. Carbon fibres are very
thin strands of carbon which are much thinner even than a human hair. Individual
fibers are corralled together in what is known as a carbon fiber towline.

A towline can have between 1,000 and 50,000 individual fibers in the bunch. This
towline material is then woven and/or stitched together to become different carbon
fiber woven cloth materials. The towline can also be used by itself (filament
winding) to manufacture certain parts. The step between these dry towlines, fabric
woven cloth materials and a finished solid material is the introduction and curing
of a resin to turn the carbon fiber into a CFRP. Carbon fiber is used in an tail part

Fig 7.2 Carbon Fiber Frame

Benefits of Carbon Fiber, Advanced Composites

High stiffness to weight ratio
High strength
Corrosion resistant
Fatigue resistant
Energy Absorption on Impact
Tailored material properties

Figure 7.3 : Wing Fabrication



8.1 DC Servo motor
A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular
position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a
sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller,
often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.
Servomotors are not a different class of motor, on the basis of fundamental
operating principle, but uses servomechanism to achieve closed loop control with a
generic open loop motor. Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics,
CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

8.1.1 Mechanism

As the name suggests, a servomotor is a servomechanism. More specifically, it is a
closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion and
final position. The input to its control is some signal, either analogue or digital,
representing the position commanded for the output shaft.

The motor is paired with some type of encoder to provide position and speed
feedback. In the simplest case, only the position is measured. The measured
position of the output is compared to the command position, the external input to
the controller. If the output position differs from that required, an error signal is
generated which then causes the motor to rotate in either direction, as needed to
bring the output shaft to the appropriate position. As the positions approach, the
error signal reduces to zero and the motor stops.

The very simplest servomotors use position-only sensing via a potentiometer and
bang-bang control of their motor; the motor always rotates at full speed (or is
stopped). This type of servomotor is not widely used in industrial motion control,

but they form the basis of the simple and cheap servos used for radio-controlled

More sophisticated servomotors measure both the position and also the speed of
the output shaft. They may also control the speed of their motor, rather than always
running at full speed. Both of these enhancements, usually in combination with a
PID control algorithm, allow the servomotor to be brought to its commanded
position more quickly and more precisely, with less overshooting.

Servomotors are generally used as a high performance alternative to the
stepper motor. Stepper motors have some inherent ability to control position, as
they have built-in output steps. This often allows them to be used as an open-loop
position control, without any feedback encoder, as their drive signal specifies the
number of steps of movement to rotate. This lack of feedback though limits their
performance, as the stepper motor can only drive a load that is well within its
capacity, otherwise missed steps under load may lead to positioning errors.
The encoder and controller of a servomotor are an additional cost, but they
optimize the performance of the overall system (for all of speed, power and
accuracy) relative to the capacity of the basic motor. With larger systems, where a
powerful motor represents an increasing proportion of the system cost,
servomotors have the advantage.


Hobby servo motor is chosen for this turret prototype since they offer high
performance and higher torque for lower power with low cost and more over can
be easily customized when compared with industrial servo motor


Fig 8.1 DC Servo motor
Dimension: 23x12.2x29mm
Torque: 1.5kg/cm (4.8V)
Operating speed: 0.10sec/60 degree
Operating voltage: 4.8V
Temperature range: 0-55C
Dead band-width: 7us
Lead Length: 260mm

This type has technologically evolved from lithium-ion batteries. The
primary difference is that the lithium-salt electrolyte is not held in an organic
solvent but in a solid polymer composite such as polyethylene oxide or
polyacrylonitrile. The advantages of Li-ion polymer over the lithium-ion design
include potentially lower cost of manufacture, adaptability to a wide variety of
packaging shapes, reliability, and ruggedness, with the disadvantage of holding
less charge. Lithium-ion polymer batteries started appearing in consumer
electronics around 1995


Cells sold today as polymer batteries are pouch cells. Unlike lithium-ion
cylindrical cells, which have a rigid metal case, pouch cells have a flexible, foil-
type (polymer laminate) case. In cylindrical cells, the rigid case presses the
electrodes and the separator onto each other; whereas in polymer cells this external
pressure is not required (nor often used) because the electrode sheets and the
separator sheets are laminated onto each other. Since individual pouch cells have
no strong metal casing, by themselves they are over 20% lighter than equivalent
cylindrical cells.

The voltage of a Li-poly cell varies from about 2.7 V (discharged) to about 4.23 V
(fully charged), and Li-poly cells have to be protected from overcharge by limiting
the applied voltage to no more than 4.235 V per cell used in a series combination.

Early in its development, lithium polymer technology had problems with high
internal resistance. Other challenges included longer charge times and lower
maximum discharge rates compared to more mature technologies. In December
2007 Toshiba announced a new design offering a much faster rate of charge (about
5 minutes to reach 90%). These cells were released onto the market in March 2008
and were expected to have a dramatic effect on the power tool and electric vehicle
industries, and a major effect on consumer electronics. Recent design
improvements have increased maximum discharge currents from 2 times to 65 or
even 90 times the cell capacity charge per hour.

In recent years, manufacturers have been declaring upwards of 500 charge-
discharge cycles before the capacity drops to 80% (see Sanyo). Another variant of
Li-poly cells, the "thin film rechargeable lithium battery", has been shown to
provide more than 10,000 cycles.

Fig 8.2 Lithium Polymer Battery

Capacity: 2200mAh
Voltage: 3S1P / 3 Cell / 11.1V
Discharge: 25C Constant / 50C Burst
Weight: 187g (including wire, plug & case)
Dimensions: 106x35x24mm
Balance Plug: JST-XH
Discharge Plug: XT60
Advantages over traditional Lipo batteries;
-Power density reaches 7.5 kw/kg.
-Less Voltage sag during high rate discharge, giving more power under load.
-Internal impedance can reach as low as 1.2m compared to that of 3m of a
standard Lipo.
-Greater thermal control, pack usually doesnt exceed 60degC
-Thickness swelling during heavy load doesnt exceed 5%, compared to 15% of a

normal Lipo during heavy load.
-Higher capacity during heavy discharge. More than 90% at 100% C rate.
-Fast charge capable, up to 15C on some batteries.
-Longer Cycle Life, almost double that of standard lithium polymer technology.
Brushless motor

Figure 8.3 brushless motor


Battery: 2~4 Cell /7.4~14.8V
RPM: 1000kv
Max current: 30A
No load current: 1.7A
Max power: 430W
Internal resistance: 0.052 ohm
Weight: 102g (including connectors)
Diameter of shaft: 5mm
Dimensions: 35x36m
Prop size: 7.4V/11x5 14.8V/10x6
Max thrust: 1160g
This is an runner brushless motor for an light weight aircraft and The main
drive motor is one of the most important parts to be selected because it makes up
one of the major weight components of the drive system. The highest power
density possible is desirable for obvious reasons, but second to that is a high
exploded view of the four bar linkage the drivers the wing motion. Notice the
planar motion in comparison to the kestrels linkage and ball bearings at every



Fig 8.4 V-tail Mixer
An advanced electronic servo mixer for Flying Wings and V-tail gliders and
planes. Extremely easy to use and very reliable.

Size: 31x8x7mm
Weight: 4g (with wires!)
Mixing Rate: 1x1 Fixed
Precision: 200 steps



Fig 8.5 Radio telemetry kit 915 Mhz
This Radio Telemetry kit offers a great low price, longer range (approx. one mile
with supplied antennas) and superior performance. The system utilizes the 915
MHz band and provides a full-duplex link using Hope RF's HM-TRP modules
running custom, open source, firmware.

The SiK firmware includes a boot loader that permits radio firmware upgrades
over the serial interface, and configuration of system parameters. Firmware
upgrades and configuration are fully supported in the APM Mission Planner.
Configuration is also possible through the 3DR Radio configurator and AT
Interface to the module is via standard 5V-tolerant TTL serial / FT232 USB serial.

Very small size
Light weight (under 4 grams without antenna)

915Mhz frequency band
Receiver sensitivity to -117 dBm
Transmit power up to 20dBm (100mW)
Transparent serial link
Air data rates up to 250kbps
Range of approx. 1 mile with supplied antennas
Demonstrated range of several kilometers with a small omni antenna
Can be used with a bi-directional amplifier for even more range
MAV Link protocol framing and status reporting
Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
Adaptive time division multiplexing (TDM)
Support for LBT and AFA
Configurable duty cycle
Built in error correcting code (can correct up to 25% data bit errors)
Open source firmware
AT commands for radio configuration
RT commands for remote radio configuration
Adaptive flow control when used with APM
Based on the Hope RF HM-TRP radio module, featuring an SiLabs Si1000 RF

The most basic radio control transmitters have 6 channels, rudder or aileron,
thruttle and setting or rudder and aieron in case of radio controlled aeroplans. It
takes 4 chennals to gain complete acrobatic capacity that will enable you to fly
nearly every rodio controlled plane.
Because of this, it might be worth it to by a bit more expensie and better
radio with at least 4 channels, even for your first plane, because you can re-use
the same radio for your next RC plane

Fig 8.6 6channel Transmitter
Band: 915MHz
Antenna connectors: RP-SMA connector
Output power: 100mW (20dBm), adjustable between 1-20dBm
Sensitivity: -117dBm sensitivity
Interface: Standard TTL UART
Connection status: LED indicators

Radio Telemetry base station (USB Connection)
Telemetry Transceiver (Pin Header)
lead set x1
Antenna x 2

Autopilot system contains Autonomous Navigation and Control system for
a fixed wing plane (Autopilot system). The project includes the Adaptive Neuro
Fuzzy Inference Based Control system Development, and programming it into
single board computer installed in the model aircraft. The software architecture
was developed using C++ language in Linux operating system. All sensors,
necessary for the control are interfaced with the system. It also includes Live data
transmission with graphical representation in MATLAB (defining all states of the
aircraft during flight); live video transmission for surveillance purpose and
Intelligent control system for Online System Identification was developed & tested
on a real flight.
8.7.1 Flight Control board:

Fig 8.7 Flight Control Board


3-axis gyro, accelerometer, magnetometer and high-performance barometer
Built in 4 MP Data flash chip for automatic data logging
Honeywell HMC5883L-TR Digital compass
Intenseness 6 DoF Accelerometer/Gyro MPU-6000
Measurement Specialties MS5611-01BA03 Barometric pressure sensor.
Atmel ATMEGA2560 and ATMEGA32U-2 (processing and USB function).
The Arudu Mega 2.5 is a complete open source autopilot system featuring the best-
selling technology. This version is ready to use, with no assembly required. It
allows the user to turn any fixed wing, rotary wing or multi-rotor vehicle into a
fully autonomous vehicle capable of performing programmed GPS missions with
waypoints (GPS module required - sold separately).

Fig 8.8 Auto pilot system schematic control



GPS receiver is an integrated receiver/antenna modulus (SiRF StarII/LP chipset) provides
inertial system with coordinates information


8.9 GROUND STATION (designed-to-order)

Ground Station allows remote control of V- Tail MAV, receives and processes
navigation data from V- Tail MAV via the data link, supports flight planning and
communicates with the autopilot board on ground via RS232 interface (flight plan
upload, system configuration and control laws adjustment). Conventional Remote
Control is responsible for Autopilot engagement and disengagement as well as
allows manual / remote controlled flight operations during visual contact with V-
Tail MAV. If Data Link is installed, Ground Station can support flight control
without visual contact with V- Tail MAV through proprietary software application
with predictive flight guidance and synthetic vision capability.

Fig 8.10 Ground Segment Architecture

Many test flights were conducted with the finished ,first with an equivalent
weight and distribution pay load under manual control to determine whether the
machine would actually be able to fly. Initial tests showed that sustained flight was
possible but the control was exceedingly difficult and quickly crashed. Later tests
with a PD control on the rotors to stabilize pitch qualitatively showed promise but
difficulties with torque assembly.
Firstly we have to check out the electrical connections of the V TAIL MAV is
proper or not.
The battery of the V-Tail MAV is to be checked for its charge and then it will
be connected to the electronic speed control.
Check weather all control surfaces are working according to the Transmitter
stick control and also check the auto stabiliser mode on or not.
After all the checking is done the V-Tail MAV will be ready for its lanching.
During the flight the V-Tail MAV should be taken care of obstacles and sudden


Fig 9.2 Final Model of V- Tail MAV


Fig 9.3 Test Flight of V- Tail MAV


The aim of our project was to have to develop a V-TAIL MAV with
Autopilot system has a capable of directional motion based on operator inputs.
During our test flight we made our mission successes fully with the function of
Autopilot and GPS system. Losing and Gaining altitude are measured accurately
with help of ground station as per we design.
In this paper the case for the Development of V-TAIL MAV suitable for
control system research is motivated.
All components have been designed to be as light weight and high
performance as possible so as to maximize payload capacity and are intended fail
safe mode is activated to recover the aircraft in case of failure
Manual and auto flight test have been conducted and V-TAIL MAV is
capable of sustained flight with a full load of electronics and can be stabilized by
simple controllers in common use in aircraft.


In future the model will be develop in the composite material to add more
strength as per the battlefield usage. In V-Tail section satellite radio/video
transmitter will be fixed to make the visible and audiable from the ground , they
could be used for military applications, such as aerial reconnaissance without
alerting the enemies that they are under survilance.
Special type of cameras will be boarded in the aircraft such as sonar cameras
thermal cameras which helps by detecting mines and underground building and
there are many future improvements we are going to include in it.


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