You are on page 1of 24

Proposed Condominium Residential Maissonnetts

on Plot 1 Bandali Close Nakawa Division Kampala




Structural Integrity Report and Design Calculations


Client:
Krish Developers and Consultants
P.O.Box 28341, Kampala

Date: March 2014
Report/Calculations by:


Checked /approved by:

2

Executive summary
This report presents the structural integrity report, analysis and design of a three-storied
condominium residential development (apartments) on plot 3 Kimera close, Bugolobi in
Nakawa division of Kampala city. The development comprises four blocks A,B,C and D. The
blocks are typical with the same design and dimensions.
The construction started and all the four blocks are halfway done i.e. up to the second floor
level. The original structural design calculations were prepared in India based on Indian
design codes. This report shows a design review based on British standards i.e. BS8110 Part 1
of 1997. The structure was designed to meet both strength and serviceability requirements
when subjected to both gravity and lateral loads.
Since the structure has already been constructed halfway, the KCCA planning committee
demanded for a structural integrity report for the as-is structure before approving further
construction to take place.
For strength design, the Limit state criteria were used where all standard load combinations
were considered and members were designed to resist the ultimate factored loads.
For serviceability design, beam deflections were limited to L/200 and L/360 where relevant
according to the BS8110 1997 structural use of reinforced concrete code. Cracking was also
controlled by the spacing limitations for reinforcement according to the design code.
Findings from integrity report
The quality of workmanship exhibited on the site is quite satisfactory with fair finishes and
straight edges. The structural drawings being used are followed strictly. Number and size of
reinforcing bars are all adhered to. The grade of concrete looks good and to the right grade.
Results from the structural design calculations indicate that the design conforms to the
BS8110 recommendations.

3



4



5


6

Table of contents
Executive summary .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Table of contents .............................................................................................................................................. 6
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 7
2 Visual inspection ...................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Design technique and philosophy .................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Loading ............................................................................................................................................. 8
2.3 Geotechnical Conditions .................................................................................................................. 8
2.4 Design Loadings ............................................................................................................................... 8
2.5 Deflection Criteria ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.6 Durability ....................................................................................................................................... 10
3 Framed structural system design .......................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Design of floor slab ........................................................................................................................ 11
3.2 Design of stair case ........................................................................................................................ 13
3.3 Design of beams .............................................................................................................................. 17
3.3.1 Design of ring beam ...................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.2 Design of columns ......................................................................................................................... 20
3.3.3 Design of foundation bases .......................................................................................................... 21
References ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

7

1 Introduction
This report shows the design calculations for the most critical elements of the structure. These
elements include the largest slab panel, the staircase, the beams, load-bearing walls, columns,
strip footings and foundation bases. For clarity refer to the architectural and structural
drawings attached.
2 Visual inspection
Scope of Visual Inspection
Prior to the commencement of visual inspection, the structural engineer obtained a set of the
buildings structural layout plans from the building owner. The availability of the structural
layout plan helped the structural engineer to:
(a) Understand the structural system and layout of the building;
(b) Identify critical areas for inspection;
(c) Identify the allowable imposed loads, in order to assess the usage and possibility of
overloading; and
(d) Verify if unauthorised addition or alteration works that affect the structure of the building
have been carried out.
In general, the structural engineer carried out, with reasonable diligence, a visual inspection
of:
a) The condition of the structure of the building
- to identify the types of structural defects
- to identify any signs of structural distress and deformation
- to identify any signs of material deterioration
b) the loading on the structure of the building
- to identify any deviation from intended use, misuse and abuse which can result in
overloading
c) any addition or alteration works affecting the structure of the building
8

- to identify any addition or alteration works which can result in overloading or adverse
effects on the structure.
Since there were no signs of any structural deterioration or defects, the visual inspection
should suffice and no further action needs to be taken.
2.1 Design technique and philosophy
It is proposed that the general structural format of the building will include a system of
approximately parallel T-beams on the columns/walls lines. Preliminary design has shown
that the depth of beams will be in the range on 425mm by 230mm wide. The slab will be
designed as a solid slab since that is already done on site.
2.2 Loading
Design codes and floor loadings
The building has been designed in accordance with the re following British standards:
o BS 6399-1 1996 for dead and imposed loads
o BS 6399 Part 2 1997 for wind loads
o BS 8110 1997 Structural use of concrete
o BS 5950 Part 1, 1985 Structural use of steel
The following design live loads will be used for this building:
2.3 Geotechnical Conditions
The ground conditions are were postulated by visual inspection and experience of the design
engineer. No geotechnical tests were carried out on the site hence a conservative soil bearing
capacity of 200kN/m has been used in these calculations.
2.4 Design Loadings
The following design loadings have been derived from the Courts Standards and Design Guide
2007, in conjunction with relevant British Standards:
Imposed Loads
Offices 2.5 kN/m (+ 1.0 kN/m for demountable partitions)
9

Court Rooms 4.0 kN/m
Circulation Areas 4.0 kN/m
Staircases 4.0 kN/m
Roof (with only limited access) 0.6 kN/m
Roof (with access) 0.75 kN/m
Superimposed Dead Loads
Ceiling and Services 0.5 kN/m
Raised Access Floor 1.0 kN/m
Blockwork Partitions 3.0kN/m generally but will be assessed by calculation
Wind Loading
Wind loading was assessed in accordance with BS 6399-2.
Basic Site Wind Speed Vb = 31m/s
Site Altitude _s = 10 m
Design wind pressures have been derived taking into account the altitude, relevant
topography and building geometry.
2.5 Deflection Criteria
The design code stipulates that the total deflection of the floors and total incremental
deflection of the floors cannot exceed 25 mm and 20 mm respectively. This criterion has been
strictly adhered to in all design considerations.
Design Movements
Settlement
Overall settlement of the building is not expected to exceed 25mm.
Differential settlement between piles is not expected to exceed 5mm.
Vertical Deflection limits
Concrete Slabs/Beams generally: Span/250
10

Concrete Edge Beams supporting masonry or glazing: Span/500
Concrete Slabs/Beams supporting brittle finishes: Span/360
Structural Steel Elements generally: Span/200
Structural Steel Elements supporting brittle finishes: Span/360
Horizontal Deflection Limits
Structural Elements supporting masonry or glazing: Span/500
Relative Floor to Floor movement generally: Height/300

2.6 Durability
Structural concrete elements of the built form are to have a design durability, which complies
with the requirements of BS8110: 1997. The exposure condition for each element is shown in
the calculations.
Design Life
All structural elements will be designed to achieve a minimum design life of 60 years.
Protective coatings to structural steelwork will be specified to provide a minimum period of
20 years to first maintenance. Any steelwork inaccessible after completion of the structure
will be specified to provide a minimum period of 60 years to first maintenance.
Fire Resistance
The design of structural elements is to be based on fire resistance levels to satisfy code
requirements as advised.
11

3 Framed structural system design
The framed structural system is designed to transfer vertical and horizontal loading through
the combined action of beams and columns network. The design of elements is therefore done
string with slabs followed by beams up to the column bases.
3.1 Design of floor slab
The typical slab for all floors below the terrace is similar in geometry hence all panels are
exactly the same. The only difference is the imposed loading on the slabs.
Ref: BS
8110: 1997
Calculations Output
Dimensional considerations: Slab panel S1
Lx = 4.4m , Ly = 5.0m
Ly/Lx = 1.14 ~ 1.2 (2-way slab panel)

Ly/lx = 1.14

Fig. 3.2
Table 3.4
Durability and fire resistance
Minimum floor thickness for 1.5 hour fire resistance = 110mm
Minimum concrete cover for continuous floors for 1.5 hour fire
resistance = 20mm


C = 20mm



Loading
Try a slab with thickness 125mm
Dead loads:
Self-weight = 0.125 x 24 = 3 kN/m
Finishes = 0.05 x 21 = 1.05 kN/m
Total characteristic dead load gk = 4.05 kN/m
Imposed/live loads
Qk for residential use) = 1.5 kN/m
Design loading, n = 1.4gk + 1.6qk
= 1.4 (4.05) + 1.6 (1.5) = 8.07 kN/m

H = 125mm



Gk =
4.05kN/m

Qk =
1.5kN/m


3.5.3.6
Table 3.14

Bending moment and shear
Moments
msx = sxlx, msy = sylx
for a 2-way slab panel with one short edge discontinuous,
support moment in x-direction Msx = 0.052 x 8.07 x 4.4 = 8.12 kNm




Mx = 8.12
kNm
12







Table 3.15
span moment in x-direction Msx = 0.039 x 8.07 x 4.4 = 6.09 kNm
support moment in y-direction Msy = 0.037 x 8.07 x 4.4 = 5.78 kNm
span moment in y-direction Msy = 0.028 x 8.07 x 4.4 = 4.37 kNm

Shear forces
Vsx = vx nlx , Vsy = vynlx
For a 2-way slab panel with one short edge discontinuous,
Shear force in x-direction Vsx = 0.44 x 8.07 x 4.4 = 15.62 kN






V = 15.62 kN



3.4.4.4






Table 3.25
Reinforcement steel: moment
Support moment steel,
With c = 20mm, assume a 12mm bar diameter,
Therefore effective depth d = 125 20 -12/2 = 99mm
Considering a 1m strip of slab,
K = M/fcubd = 8.12 x 10
6
/(25 x 1000 x 99) = 0.033 < 0.042
Z = 0.95d = 94.05mm
As= M/0.95fyZ
= 8.12 x 10
6
/(0.95 x 460 x 94.05)
= 197.56 mm
100As/bh = 100 x 197.56 /(1000 x 125) = 0.15% >As, min
Provide T10@300 cc, As = 262 mm

Span moment steel
Md = 6.09 kNm
K = M/fcubd = 6.09 x 10
6
/25 x 1000 x 99 = 0.025 < 0.042
Z = 0.95d = 0.95 x 99 = 94.05mm
As = M/0.95fyZ = 6.09 x 10
6
/ (0.95 x 460 x 94.05) = 148.2 mm
As < As,min calculated above for same section
Provide T10@125mm As = 800 mm (to increase resistance to
deflection)

Distribution steel
Md = 4.37 kNm
K = M/fcubd = 4.37 x 10
6
/25 x 1000 x 99 = 0.013 < 0.042
Z = 0.95d = 0.95 x 99 = 94.05mm
As = M/0.95fyZ = 3.25 x 10
6
/ (0.95 x 460 x 94.05) = 79 mm









Provide
T10@300 cc
Top steel





Provide
T10@150 cc
Bottom steel
layer 1





Provide
T8@200 cc
bottom steel
13

As < As,min calculated above for same section
Provide T8@200mm As = 251 mm
layer 2



Table 3.8




Table 3.7
Shear
Vd = 15.62 kN
= Vd/bvd = 15.62 x 10 / (1000x99) = 0.16 N/mm < 5N/mm <
0.8fcu = 4N/mm
c = 0.79 x (100As/bvd)^1/3 x (400/d)^1/4 x 1/m
100As/bvd = 100 x 524 /(1000 x 99) = 0.53 < 3 OK
400/d = 400/99 = 4 > 1 OK
c = 0.79 x 0.53^(1/3) x 4^0.25 x 1/1.25 = 0.72 N/mm
0.5c = 0.36 > , therefore no shear reinforcement required.








Shear OK

3.4.6.3
Table 3.9
Table 3.10
Deflection
Allowable span/effective depth ratio = 26 x m.f.
Actual span/effective depth ratio = 4015/99 = 40.6
Modification factor for tension steel m.f. is given by
m.f. = 0.55 + (477-fs)/(120x(0.9+M/bd))
M/bd = 6.09 x 10
6
/(1000 x99) = 0.52 kN/m
Fs = 2/3 x fy x As,req/As,prov = 2/3 x 460 x 123 /524 = 71.98 N/mm
M.f. = 0.55 + (477-71)/(120x(0.9+0.52)) = 2.93 but M.f. must be < 2
Hence M.f. = 2
Allowable span/effective depth ratio = 26 x 2 = 52 > 40.6









Deflection
OK

3.12.11.2.4
Cracking control
Clear spacing between bars = 200 mm 12 mm = 188 mm
47000/fs = 47000/71 = 661 mm
Therefore clear spacing < 661 mm and <300mm


Cracking OK

3.2 Design of stair case
The structure has one type of staircase; to be constructed in three positions 2 on block A and 1
on block B.
REF CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
Staircase
14

REF CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
Design parameters
Treads = 0.240 m
Risers = 0.175 m
Waist depth = 0.175 m
Width of stairs = 1.15 m
Effective span = 4.722 m
Concrete unit weight = 24 kN/m
Finishings unit weight = 21 kN/m
Imposed loading = 4.0 kN/m
Thickness of finishing = 0.025 m
Fcu = 25 N/mm
Fy = 460 N/mm



Table 3.3
Table 3.5

Durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for grade 25 concrete with mild exposure = 25 mm
Minimum thickness of floor slab for 1.5 hours fire resistance = 110
mm





Fire resistance
OK
Loading and Internal reactions
Tan = 172/240 , = tan-1 0.73 = 36
Assume 1 m strip of stair case,
Dead load gk:
Weight of steps = 0.5 x 0.172 x 0.233 x 1 x 24/0.233 = 1.92 kN/m
Weight of waist = 0.15x 1 x 1 x 24/cos 36 = 4.27 kN/m
Weight of finishings = 0.05 x 1 x1 x 21/cos 36 = 1.25 kN/m
Weight of landing = 0.15 x 1 x 1 x 24 = 3.6 kN/m

Total dead load on landing = 3.6 + 1.05 = gk=4.65 kN/m
Total dead load on flight = 1.92+ 4.27 + 1.25 = gk= 7.44 kN/m

Design load on landing = 1.4gk+1.6qk = 1.4(4.65)+1.6(4.0) = 12.91
kN/m
Design load on flight = 1.4gk+1.6qk = 1.4(7.44)+1.6(4.0) = 16.82 kNm


15

REF CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
Design moment Md = 24.25 kNm
Design Shear Vd = 28.56 kN










Table 3.25
Reinforcements
Assume bar size = 16 mm,
Eff. Depth, d = 150 25-16/2 = 117 mm
K= M/ fcubd = 24.25 x 10
6
/(25 x 1000 x 117) = 0.071 < 0.156
Z = d(0.5 +(0.25-k/0.9) = d(0.5+(0.25-0.071/0.9) = 0.91d
As = M/0.87fyZ = 24.25 x 10
6
/ 0.87 x 460 x 0.91 x 117 = 569.12 mm
Provide = T12@150 mm = 753 mm
Distribution steel area should be > 0.13%bh
= > 0.13% x 1000 x 200 = 260 mm
Provide T10@200c/c = 392 mm


Provide Bottom
T12@150 mm
(As= 753 mm)


Provide
Distribution
T10@200 cc
(As=392 mm)








Table 3.8

Shear
Shear force Vd = 28.56 kN
V = V/bvd = 28.56 x 10
3
/ (1000 x 117) = 0.244N/mm
V= 0.8fcu = 0.825 = 4 N/mm
Dimensions OK.
100 As/bvd = 100 x 753 / (1000 x 117) = 0.64 N/mm
Vc = 0.79(100As/bvd)^1/3 x (400/d)^0.25 / m
= 0.79 x 0.64^1/3 x 2.4^0.25 /1.25 = 0.67 N/mm
V < 0.5 Vc = 0.30 N/mm








Shear resistance
OK


Table 3.9

Deflection
Basic span/effective depth ratio = 20
M/bd = 24.25 x 10
6
/(1000 x 117) = 1.77
Fs = 5fyAs,eq/8As,prov = 2 x 460 x 569 /(3 x 753) = 231.7 N/mm
Modification factor m.f. = 0.55 + (477-fs)/120(0.9+M/bvd) = 1.56
Limiting span/eff. Dept ratio = 20 x 1.56 = 31.2
Actual Span/eff. Depth ration = 3480/117 = 29.74
Actual < limiting and therefore deflection is ok







Deflection OK



Cracking control


16

REF CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

3.12.11.2.4
Clear spacing between bars = 150 mm 12 mm = 138 mm
47000/fs = 47000/231.7 = 202.8 mm
Therefore clear spacing < 202.8 mm

Cracking OK

17

3.3 Design of beams
The beam design was carried out using Prokon design software as shown in the following
attachments.
3.3.1 Design of ring beam
The ring beam is provided to receive the loading from the roof structures and to provide some
robustness to the entire structure especially as far as resistance to notional horizontal forces.
Although much of it is carried directly by the masonry walls, a few sections of it are suspended
at various openings and cantilevered points.
REF: BS
8110-1
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT









Table 3.2,
3.3, 3.4


Fig 3.2
Dimensional considerations

The most critical span where the ring beam is suspended is above the view
balcony, length = 4.15 m
For rectangular sections, simply supported the allowable span/eff. Depth
= 20
Assuming a modification factor of 1.2, then effective depth , d = 4150 /
(20x1.2) = 185.4 mm

Durability and fire resistance
For mild exposure conditions and 1.5 hour fire resistance provide a
concrete cover = 25 mm.

Assuming a link size of 8 mm and bar diameter of 16 mm, minimum depth
of ring beam, h = 185+25+8+16/2 =226 mm
Minimum beam width for 1.5 hour fire resistance = 200 mm take
architectural dimension of 200 mm.

Try beam depth h = 350 mm
Therefore effective depth, d = 350 -25-8-16/2 = 309 mm









Cover = 25 mm


B = 200 mm

H= 350 mm
Loading

Dead load:
- From purlins and tiles = 2.05 kN/m




18

REF: BS
8110-1
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
- From trusses = 0.64 kN/m
- Self-weight of ring beam = 0.2x0.3x24x=1.44 kN/m
- Total dead load, gk = 4.13 kN/m
Live loads:
- From roof ,qk = 3.0 kN/m

Design load w = 1.4gk+1.6qk = 10.58 kN/m


Gk = 4.13 kN/m

Qk = 3.0 kN/m

W = 10.58



Bending moments and shear forces

Design moment Md = wl/8 = 10.58 x 4.45/8 = 26.2 kNm
Design shear force Vd = wl/2 = 10.58 x 4.45/2 = 23.5 kN



Md= 26.2 kNm
Vd = 23.5 kN




3.4.3




Table 3.25
Reinforcement

Assume bar size = 16 mm,
Eff. Depth, d = 35025-8-16/2 = 309 mm
K= M/ fcubd = 26.2 x 10
6
/(25 x 200 x 309) = 0.055 < 0.156
Z = d(0.5 +(0.25-k/0.9) = d(0.5+(0.25-0.055/0.9) = 0.93d
Hence Z = 0.93d
As = M/0.95fyZ = 26.2 x 10
6
/ 0.95 x 460 x 0.93x 309 = 208.6 mm
100AS/BH = 0.30 > As Min = 0.13
Provide = 2T16 bars, As = 402 mm







Provide 2T16 bars
Top and 2T16 bars
Bottom steel










Shear
Shear force Vd = 23.5 kN
V = V/bvd = 23.5 x 10
3
/ (200 x 309) = 0.38 N/mm
V= 0.8fcu = 0.825 = 4 N/mm Dimensions OK.

100 As/bvd = 100 x 402 / (200 x 309) = 0.65 N/mm
Vc = 0.79(100As/bvd)^1/3 x (400/d)^0.25 / m
= 0.79 x 0.65^1/3 x 1.29^0.25 /1.25 = 0.58 N/mm
V < Vc +0.4 = 0.98 N/mm therefore provide minimum links
Asv = 0.4xbvsv/0.87fy, assume a link spacing of 200 mm with mild steel










19

REF: BS
8110-1
CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
Table 3.25 stirrups, Asv = 0.4x200x200/0.87x250 = 73.56 mm , provide R8@200 mm
links
Provide links
R8@200 cc


3.4.6

Table 3.9
Table 3.10
Deflection
Basic span/effective depth ratio = 20
M/bd = 26.2x 10
6
/(200 x 309) = 1.37
Fs = 2fyAs,eq/3As,prov = 2 x 460 x 208.6/(3 x 402) = 159.1 N/mm
Modification factor m.f. = 0.55 + (477-fs)/120(0.9+M/bvd) = 1.71
Limiting span/eff. Depth ratio = 20 x 1.71 = 36
Actual Span/eff. Depth ration = 4450/309 = 14.4
Actual < limiting and therefore deflection is ok







Deflection OK


3.12.11.2.4
Cracking control
Clear spacing between bars = 200 mm 16 mm = 184 mm
Therefore clear spacing < 300mm

Cracking OK

20

3.3.2 Design of columns
The structure has been designed as a framed structure with the columns carrying the entire
loads from the beams and walls above.
The column design was also carried out using PROKON software and the relevant sheets are
attached below.

21

3.3.3 Design of foundation bases
The design of the foundation was carried out in order to safely transfer all the axial loads and
moment in the walls to the bearing ground (soil). The assumed soil bearing capacity based on
the nature of the soil is 200 kN/m.
22

References
Reynolds C.E., Steedman C.J. 1992. Examples of the Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings to
BS 8110. 4
th
Edition
Ghosh S.K.,Domel Jr. W.A. 1992. Design of Concrete buildings for Earthquake and Wind forces
2
nd
Edition
Allen A.H. 1988. Reinforced Concrete design to BS 8110: simply explained. E.&F.N. Spon Ltd
Newyork, p. 133-137
Mosley W.H, Bungey J.H. 1990. Reinforced concrete design. Macmillan Press Ltd. Hampshire p
192-230

23

Appendix: Images of site works as-is

Figure 1:First floor slab (good and fair finishing)

Figure 2:Well-done blockwork with visibly strong mortar
24


Figure 3: Reinforcement doe as per original structural drawings