You are on page 1of 23


The Dalcroze method embraces aphilosophy of education that i,
student-centered; the focus is on the gradual development of the
student's musicality, not sirnply theleaming ofliterature. Consequently,
the teacher must be sensitive to the developmentallevel of the student
at any particular momento While we give you examples that you may
try, you may find that part of an activity as described may have to be
repeated or altered to fit your student's momentary need. It may not
even be feasible to get to the end of an exercise on some occasions.
Your own personal and musical sensitivity will guide you in reshaping
these examples to suit the momento
A Dalcroze exercise is like a music performance: there is
preparation, a decided beginning, and a rhythmic continuity that
obtains throughout. At its best, the lesson itself is a thrilling music
improvisation, where the teacher and student ride on and contribute to
an underlying rhythm (Fundamental Gesture), which brings the
student's body, mind and spirit into communication. Eurhythmics isa
way of experiencing and exploring musical sensation and musical
knowledge together. Progress begins the first time you walk through
the music with your feet, instead of your fingers.
The exercises in this chapter are based on an educational
philosophy developed by]aques-Dalcroze, in collaboration with the
eminent psychologist Eduoard Claparede. Their concern was to
improve the quality of music education and education in general, by
finding ways to increase the capacity for learning. Their
experiments convinced them that the central necessity was to
elevate the levels of attention, concentration, and memory in
Dalcroze's students. They devised a set of "games" to accomplish
these goals: exercises in the form of "Follow," "Quick Reaction,"
111111111111," ,llltI :,111011." You will uoticc rcferences to these
, 1 d", IISSh, spc i1 exercises.
1111111"I nllow" gamc, the teacher plays "follow the leader," by
1 !lI II.IIIIIV:\ 1110VCment, ar perforrning a pattern, or changing
111111 wliil ' singing a tune; the student-follower must imitate the
luI' ,lit ivity, paying dose attention to every change. The leader
li.11I thc follower by varying patterns, movements, tempo and so
, ,I uuexp .ctedmoments.Throughout theseexercises, the element of
I,111111''' h'comes the key to challenging the student's attention and
urutr.u.ion. For example, inExercise 3.2, Accelerando and Ritardando,
unlcnt followsthe tempo of the music, asthe teacher increases or
, 11,I ('S the speed of her performance.
1111hc "Quick Reaction" game, the student continues repeating a
,111 111until a signal given verbally or by a musical cue tells the
IIIt1I'1\1to change to another activity as quickly as possible. For
11I IIIC,inExercise 3.1, Sound and Silence (Start and Stop), the student
IIIIIIIILlCS to move to the music until the teacher stops playi nr, at
111111 point the student must stop immediat Iy. h, I nsic I :\11 ,,'1101
dli 1\,\llleis to develop any two or more activiti 'S whi 'I! 111' sllld',I!
11111 I bc ready to execute at asignal.
'I'he "Replacement" game involves substituting onc ~.uvrty 101
ruuthcr when the teacher gives acommand. For examplc, in IX 'I''is'
\ 11, Subdivision, the teacher asksthe student to replace asingle tap fc I'
\ 1H':ltwith two taps. By varying which beat in the bar isto be alter d,
1111' tcacher can vary the difficulty of the exercise. Replacement can
d',o bedone by setting apattem: A triplet isperfarmed on beat 4, on
111',11 3 in the next bar, then on beat 2, and finally on beat 1 without
IIlycommands from the teacher. This develops memory, as well as
Iliiysical control.
"Canons" are the most challenging games; the student is asked to
Irpcat apattern after apause in time. InExercise 3.22, Subdivision, the
n.rcher begins with aninterrupted canon, saying, "Repeat what I do, 2
lx-ats after me." The teacher listens and watches while the student
pcrforrns, and then gives2new beats. The more advanced the student,
the more beats the teacher can give and the more complex they < 11II
After some experience with "Interrupted Canon," the teacher incr '(St
the difficulty of the exercise by saying, "I will play without stoppin
Continue to follow me at a2-beat interval."The student must perfon
and, at the same time, listen ahead to the new pattern. Dalcroze refer
to this as"True Canon,' or "Continuous Canon."
In building the performance of a music composition, (this applie
to eight-bar beginners' pieces, as well as Chopin Ballades), we must
begin with the overarching shape of the Fundamental Gesture.
Proceeding this way, we can always sense the relationship of the details
to the whole and develop an understanding of their relative importance
and function.
This chapter presents actrvrties that focus on successively smaller
and smaller parts of the musical scheme. From the Fundamental
Gesture to Supraficial Gesture, the exercises explore ali the levels of
awareness, understanding and control we must develop on the way to
expressive music performance. Although most of the exercises include
specific compositions to illustrate th a tivitics, teachers will see how
these activities can be used to appr L h similar compositions. In
addition, there are limitless variati ns t':1 can devise with their
own students for the sarne musi :11purpos '.
Throughout the exercises, w II.IV' h, '11.arcful to use commands
(in quotation marks and bold) o( .I~!to words as possible, primarily
because most people hear only .1 It' ~lflliflC:Il1twords of any set of
directions. The teacher wants It)111'11' 1II. xt ud .nt develop a decided
sense of confidence at th '()lI!~I'1 11,,\ ,'I wmdx allow the teacher to
express clearly what is mos! iIl1/1I1I1.1I11 H.III1(' I' cisc proceeds to more
and more difficult varint.ious, NII 111,11 1111'IlltI!'ll! ix not allowed to lapse
into automatic 111 v'111'111.W' 1111.11111'Illd"IH's .1(1'nrion to ensure as
much growth as pissihl, 111111111"111,1111111 IIIIISIh, by simple steps,
or it will overl nd til, ,~llIdl'lIl' 1'111111\ 111.1!,I!IVI'ti 'tril11ental to the
rhythm of th I .ssoli,
l, 1111,11 11I 1111II .1111111 I 1111I .111111 "I '/I 'c i )I1S,"W' have
\I I' 111111' 111111'/tIl 111111LI!'111'li! .111I l~.stions, Readmg. the
11I""", dOlllg til' .1.tivity ,11hclp guide your ~bservatlOns
111 , ,'H I~-. Thr ughout the activity, an underlymg rhythm
I, 11l.1I111.ll1 .d; therefore, we have indicated special .times at
11111"of" thc commands should actually be debvered-
111I,'111which specific part of the beato However, because so
di p-nd .nt on the interaction of the teacher and student, there
I 1'I map out aDalcroze lesson exactly. Therefore, these lessons,
I , 11111' only guides. Vou must be the experimenter.
11111111 h some of these exercises are beyond the level of young
I I1I,111111 . istoa simple for more advanced students. Vou will speak
" ,,"11 10students of different ages, whether adult or adolescent or
I 'I' but none should be denied the benefit of the simplest I I".I, ,
II I " , Older students often need more help than younger o~es to
h fl f . F cusing the mind isaskill that I" I1tll('lllselves to t e owo rnusc. o
I 1/"11' r .ncwal throughout life.
W' h.gin the exercise section of this book with adescription of the
l'III'.Il.ltion," known as"ready position." (Think ofthe moment when
111I1I1I1('orsreach the podium and lift their arms to comma~~ th~
111 I 11( 1011of the orchestra. The performers must be in "ready posltlOn,
I" I'" music will not begin successfully.) The teacher t~e~ lSSU~S
ds by rnusic or speech that invite the start of the actrvity. It lS
111111111:111 " d b
d . d tirning of the comman s e uuportant that the tone, ynarrucs, an 1
Il'p/Opriate for the music about to be performed. Imagine wha~would
11.II'PCI1to an orchestra whose conductor made a quick, VlgorOUS
w'~tlln.: as the anacrusis to Beethoven's Allegretto movement in
'Ylllphony No. 7, or Debussy's "L'aprs-midi d'unfaun"!
Sound and SHence (Start and Stop)
Exerdse 3.1
I [cctiv ':
I 111 11111,1,"( 1111I I
, 11111111"p"llll' involves only the contra
111111111111111I'11t. (Conscious action ali
1I 1111111111 11111awareness.) The "Start am
1I ti '1111 111,11 can establish a good "ton ,"
I I " I ,I I,I I' I I' .11.rtness when attention flags
I III I11 1111,I( '1IIphasizeslisteningwithgrea
til tlllIll'l -sx 'lltial in performance at any leveI.
I 11 1111111111 plH'I\' O(ILII1:md challenge. "Start and Stop"
I 11/.t" '1111011qUI 'kly and without words; the music itsel
ti/ 1lllIllllLlllicating.
11 )SITlON
Pr .paration for being alert begins with posture. The student's knees
should be slightly bent and the body weight balanced, so that arms,
torso and legs are free to move with flexibility.
T (Teacher) at piano, S (Student) standing
T plays glissandi up and down the keys (sometimes white
some times black). '
"As long as you hear my music, let your arms swing."
"Lean side to side; sway like a tree in the wind!"
T still playing.
"Stop when the music stops."
\lI I 1111 '1111111 , I '~I )1It1S.
111, lIylllt', (11,1'11 rlh of cach pcriod ofsound.
1111111I'" I -ngths of each period of music?
pois .d,ready to move as soon as the
111\(0moving,so as to stop quickly when the
"'111" li?
111I,ti ,1111l' at the stop?
til II uu-ution is focused, we are ready to proceed with an
1110/\ ,IYSto enrich your students' experience of music. From
111" (:I'slurc, which expresses the overarching flow of music
1111 1111 ('S, WC go through Associative Gestures such as pattern;
10ti 11,,11Ihc leveI of meter; Subordinate, dealing with beats; to
I" ( , '\( urc, focusing on the subdivision of beats.
Fundamental Gesrure
Tempo Variations
/1111. omposers indicate that players should slow the tempo
1 / ,/ / I / . l / r l t l l / ( l o , rallentando) 01' that the tempo should increase
, I '''l / t I " , ( / r i l l y , m d o ) , they are expecting these moments to stir a
II "li ,1I1l1crnotional response in the listener. Because the
lIldl ," IlIf', pulse of music is so critical to our perception of a
""1111'111011,changes in tempi affect our sense of the underlying
"ti, '111" (hllldamental Gesture) of the work. Imagine the effect if a
I"'I"11Nocturne were to end strictly in tempo, instead of tapering to
, ,I" ,', .onsider Brahm.s' Hungarian Dances played in strict tempo,
111"'"1 lhe colorful effects of rubato.
, 1IIIIs of tempi convey human emotions. Speeding up conveys
li, ", III l 'h.rprcr One to review the explanation of the Gestures.
enthusiasm, anxiety, or fear,whereas slowing down 'v k 'sthc ., .Iin,
sadness,tenderness, or tiredness. Dalcroze wasfond of usingwalkin ,
ameans of experiencing changes in tempi and their related emoti 11
Imagine walking to the bus stop and seeing the bus arrive while y(I
are still a half-block away. How do you move? What are y li
emotions? If you missthebus, how do you move? What change tak
pIace in your posture? Your feelings? In the same way, when
perform variations in tempi, we illustrate the movements ali
emotions that find their counterpart in our daily life activities. B
reacting to the tempo variations with the whole body, we clarify th
Fundamental Gesture and the emotions that are associated with it
This strengthens our performance, through a deeper connection t
the music we areplaying.
Accelerando and Ritardando
Exercise 3.2
This game can be used to illustrate accelerando and ritardando.
T holds drum, S ready to stepin place.
T playssteady beato
"Step to the beat (canbe done in place)."
T speeds up or slowsdown, Smatche. tempo with steps.
"Gradually go faster for 10counts, slow down for 10. Count
out loud."
1"1, to l" IUI I. ; \11111 111 11111 111"
11,11 111 11I.ILCh Y LI!' t'I11P han rcs?
'1111111\1 your playingchanged in dynami s, aswcll ,S t '11'1111
.111 11"Ik instructions during movement, so the beat
1I111111l1 'd?
I 111111-'. S stcp and play the drum.
1 .111 monitor the number ofbeats while Sperformed?
1111 I crrise develops restraint in sustaining along accelerando.
1 11 1111111:
I 11 .lIlylO play"Inthe Hall of the Mountain King" by Grieg
111 I use a recording), Sstandsnear piano, holding triangle in on
1111111. striker in the other.
"11 t '11."
1 jll.lysvery slowly (suggestion: two melody notes = 66, accent
1111 lhe first).
"Strike the triangle with my accents."
"(;0." (spoken softly,one half-beat before beginning to pIay)
"Make a circle with your arm as it moves between strikes."
'I' continues through accelerando, until ready to stop.
"And stop." (saidon last 2beats)
Did Sfollow your tempo and dynamics?
Did the circlesbecome smaller?
WasS'swhole body involved?
Did you suggest "Bend the knees," to help keep the body flexible.
S crouches aslow aspossibleat the beginning,
"Slowly stretch higher and higher, for the whole piece."
S'shands arestretched abovehead by the end.
"Again, and this time, spiral up like a vine as you stretch."
Try enhancing the effect by having S trail ascarf in one hand.
Did Srisetoa quickly and find he needed to adjust the tempo of
hismovement to fill the spaceavailable,or toa slowly and needed
to hurry IIp?
Exercise 3.4
The following exerciseon the trampolinc helps students feel a
gradual change in tempo.
T at piano, Son tramp lin'.
I 1111
I 111 I
I I I' IIl' 's slightly bent."
I 1111111" lower,'
I 11111. IH's lhe bounces with chords or rhythmic patterns.
1lluw my beat."
I 1,1.1 S .tion of piece in which there isari tardando and/
til ""I'li'rillldo.
I 1111 stop,"
11 II()llS:
I I youableto maintain the ritardando?
I 'ltI youhaveto encourage S to go higher?
I )1(\ youadjustyour playingto match theritardando in S'sbounces?
111,111011: .
"Show me a ritardando with your bounces, and Iwill play
11) match."
" 1'1 lcrtions:
I )idyou follow the S'stempo closely?
Wasthe S'schange gradual?
Exercise 3.5
Rubato isan emotional ebb and flow, astretching or contraction
the b.eats. The. small deviations from regularity, heightened by liftin
scarf mto the air and watching its curve, give the Fundamental Gestu
asimilar moment of broadening.
T at piano, S holding ascarf.
"Make a figure eight in the air with your scarf."
T says"Bigger," or "Smaller," aspreparation for the entrance of
the music.
T plays to match S'sscarf movements.
T introduces rubato moments.
S follows the tempo of the rubato.
"And stop."
What meter were you playing in to match the scarf?
Perform the exercise again, moving the scarf in various ways.
Do you play differendy when the scarf makes different shapes?
Was the S'swhole body involved in the movement?
Did you have to say,"Bend the knees"?
Were you both sensitive to the drag of the scarf at the moments
of rubato?
I' "AI 1\ " '1IIIIp, )p, IJ H, N . I I,
y .rrrri v riatons
I I minucndo
I I'IOIHI powerful way to affect our response: shifts in
1 1 , , , / 1 1 ,111(/ rlilllinuendo--pull usalong on their fluctuations
I I11 k,' 'I' lISfocused on the underlying flow of music by
1I1I1'11\1\':11r 'sponse, which in turn arouses our emotional
I 1I .tll Ih' prolonged crescendo of Ravel's "Bolero": stretched
111'11, romposition, it creates a tension which demands our
1111cxcitcrnent which comes from the increasing level of
11111111 1irs spreads through our whole body. We can barely
"'1' 10 dance!
, 11'1,11.lllgCS, which we call accents, also have their genesis in
1111 1I1~and emotions. Accent is a quick moment of stress, as
11' uuportant," A leap, asudden turn, alaugh, ayawn, asneeze
I.I 11" of accents from human movement. In apiece of music,
11, Idt11dynamic changes serve aspoints of importance in aphrase
II 11'11 guide the energy of the Gesture. Accents of different
1111 1111,ngogic, textural, pattern-abound in music. We create
I 1111H't!{lI'Inancethrough an increase in energy-in power-
II I1I 1I111\'~ ( j'o m deep inside and pushes out to the extremities. The
li ti, pcrience of increased pressure felt through the whole body
111, !IH'student to express these nuances well.
I 11111'"1\ Prelude inE minor, Op. 28, No. 4, isanappropriate example.
I 1111,"tI of alengthy phrase, there isthe outburst of apassionatecry;with
111111\1111both tempo (stretto) and dynamics (forte), which almost
11111111 .h.uclysubside through admnuendo to the earlier levei ofsoft tones.
I11I1,'dillbTS do soft tones evoke? Wonder, disquiet, tiredness,peacefulness,
1111111 1111011 afew. And loud? Haveyour student make suggestions. Act out
1I 11.11 IOS,like catching the bus, to sense how body posture changes, the
11111111 'I' of moving, the degree oftension in the musdes.
Exercise 3.6
This exercise invo1ves the relationship between space and eneru
. 7
T at piano, S ho1ds arather heavy book or object with two ham
I11 1l111lill' .nding" oflanguage rhythm exists in abundance in
II . I / 1 / 1 ( ) , I !. ~ i n l l fr a s have an inherent tension and re1ease which
1111 "puxh-relax" sensation. Ss who are concentratmg on
111111' hy 11 te miss this nuance, which is vital to the flow of
IlId 111\' Icding ofbreath.
1 I" 111' I Lwo exercises, like others in this book, refer specifically
" \I lli piano. Teachers of other instruments can alter them,
111 111"llg the connection frorn who1e-body movement to non-
I 11111 '111 -nt to finger movernent.)
"Swing the book from side to side."
T says"Bigger,' and "Smaller," aspreparation for the entrance of
the music.
T plays accompaniment to match S'sswings.
(Suggestion: Chopin's Cm Prelude, Op. 28, No. 20, MM = 56)
T plays crescendi and diminuendi, while S follows T's dynamics.
"And stop." I 1111i S face each other, pa1ms upright, ready to touch
Repeat the exercise, with S swaying an imaginary object.
II ,IIIIS up and lean forward to touch."
"J lmll back gently."
(Recalling the feeling of the weight of the book internalizes the
sensation by storing it in memory for later performance.)
"I ".It! with the wrists."
Try the exercise with heavier or lighter objects.
b f "1 " I ,1I1l1 S repeat several times (ca. MM. 50, one eat or ean, one
1111 "bnck").
'" :,lsLcrnow."
Try the exercise with changes in tempo.
1 .rnd S add nonsense syllables ("dee-um") to voca1ize
1IIt,movernent. Reflections:
Did the student involve the who1e body in the sways?
I' moves to piano, plays appoggiatura figure in time with
Did the student's knees remain flcxibl ' in the soft passages?
"Come to the piano and play 'dee-um' on the music rack."
Did the student continue t 1 l l 0V' in th ' soft passages?
..Lead with the wrists."
"PIay fingers 2-3, 3-4, 2-4 (and so forth)."
"Move fingers to the keyboard; play 2-3 (and so forth)."
"And stop."
Did you feel S'sweight?
If not, did you encourage S to lean into your hands with
ful1 weight?
1)1(1.. ~ 'P 111,(low () "I ':lIi-rclcase" going after returning
1& I I'1.11111
1)1"tllt' Wl'iSI ':lrrya flexible connection through the arm to
til' wh 1<.: body?
Wasthe second note softer than the first?
Were S'sback and shoulders involved in the movement?
Did you use some other finger combinations?
Did you change syllables, for the sake of interest?
T at piano, S stands at atable with apillow lying on it.
"Put your hands ou the pillow and lean into it."
"Pull back."
S repeats several times.
T plays a"lean-release" figure at same tempo as S.
T varies tempo and dynamics, whil ' S adds syllables
("dee-um") to vocalize the movem 'J 1t.
"Come to the piano and play 'd ' .-urn' 011 the reading rack."
I, \ I. ' I" 11111 o fOI (11).
j' hourd: play 2-3" (and so forth).
.1\ uv it.i -s.
mpo and Dynamic Variations
I I II 11.110 generalize their energy response intuitively over
I speed. Generalizing energy 1S so common a
11.111111wc 111USt consciously learn to use tempo independent of
I 1101I '1. (Pitch level is a third element which complicates the
"10 111li' hchavior even more.). When learning about accelerando, for
til. I. I , should experience faster with softer, as well as faster with
I .111l1 S face each other with hand drums.
"Watch, and then mirror what I do."
,. holds drum low and to the side and begins tapping softly
." moves drum diagonally upwards, while making an accelerando
.md crescendo.
"Your turn."
Continue exploring the other combinations of tempo and
dynamics within the Fundamental Gesture of the diagonal
drum movement:
acceferando with dirninuendo;
rtardando wth dmnuendo;
rtardando with crescendo.
Did S mateh your gestures?
Did you and S sh . il .
are SIm ar impressions of the gestures?
Diseuss the emotional quality f h .
o tese eomblllations.
Consider stories and eharaeters whch n-: .
eombinations. rnighr SUIt each of the
~id.y LI flnd th3t th' diffi'r'l1t b
111(IJ '1"('11[dir 'Ctioll
? m inations eaused you to rnov
, 111"
1.11I I I I
( I ()(I 'r,with palms touehing.
c'/ll I :lnd step slowly."
, .11111.',\( 'p in place; steps beeomes f
11'c 0111'S stronger. aster, pressure of palms
"I 111111
"And stop."
T and S repeat with other combinations:
"Touch firrnly and step slowly."
"Toueh firmly and step quickly."
"Touch gently and step quickly."
Calling on the il11agination ("lik 1 .
sometimes useful in co .di . e a lurrylllg mouse") is
01 lllatlllg tempo and d . '.
vnamic vanatlOns;
11111. 111"" 111Il/,I I I1I 111'I 1111111I1I 1II 1111'11owu
11 1111111,li Ic 11.1111111111111111.11111'1 .u t.
./1 I 11I 11tllllg/1t rnust begin, develop a sense of direction
) 11111 .IIIIV' :IL a scnse of cornpleteness.
1ftI"'" 0 / uuucaion ought to exist betuieen the
/I1111'f'/lll'lIls r1 1 he body, "bridges" between their point
1'/ tllI:~ill(I 1 1 ri their point of arrival, i f they are to haue
, 1 / 1 f'\l hl 'l i ualue and to convey emotion with
/ l1 ,/ III'III'SS(/ IId elasticity. I n other words, periods of
"Illlilll/;l)I and solidarity must be created in gesture.
I1II 1IIIIowing exercise IS designed to focus on the continuous
11111111\ of which Dalcroze speaks. We want to involve the whole
I 1I1 h.u we cali the Fundamental Gesture, so that the student will
I1I (11comprehend that the body must work as a coordinated whale
1\111I W musical expression.
I 1111f\,sustained movernents are not ca m m o n m everyday life,
111(' thcy are a physical chalienge. Students often find these
1IIIIIIIIOllSmovements to be difficult at first, as we model them
111111111'.11 lhe Dalcroze technique called "Follow" Their delight increases
11111-tudents begin to sense control over their body balance and the
1II1I1IIIent subtlety a f nuance that they are able to portray with the
111tllc', muscles.
I ''I''''' Dalcroze, Eurythmics, Art and Edutation, 65.
T and S stand facing each other. di uruuxu.uc n unif 'timovcrnent with the body?
"Follow me." 1!l1 to follow the shape of the melody within the larger
T demonstrates Fundamental Gesture: feet parallel under hips
(about afoot apart), knees slightly bento (1) Bend at waist so ti
hands reach toward the floor (feel torso, head and arms as
unified). (2) Rise from the floor through the legs and the mus
of the back, and lift the torso upward. (3) Let the right arm flo
up, as the follow-through of the upward rise. Bend down again
and repeat steps 1-3,with the left arm floating. The body sway
slightly with the shift of arms.
Idtl I -call the melody?
"Match your movement to the music you hear."
01 nu cncourage S to vary the movement?
Associative Gestllres Pa rn
S repeats the gesture, alternating the right and left arms with th
T plays slowglissandi up and down the keys (sometimes white,
sometimes bla k)to guid ith student's rise and return.
1111' objective in this game is to develop a corporal und rstan lillg
di 1I1111ic pattern. There are two steps to the process: to sense an
I,I1 Il1ggesture which connects the segments of the pattern and to
1111 \' parts appropriately into the space of the Fundamental Gesture.
I his cxercise begins with an "Interrupted Canon," so that the
11 111'1' can model the controlling gesture. As the lesson continues,
111 tudcnt is encouraged to vary his/her movements in response to
I" ",llLern.
T v, ri 'S \ '11ths o f, l !fi s. I 'r l l l r l i , so that S must listen with full
,1((-ution ,111\ ch:1I1 ' rc 111onc arrn to the other at varying
1.III,t!" 01 tiru "
'I' ,'pll 'S into sillging or playing an ecclesiatical chant (example:
"Veui .rcator Spiritu"), or asimilar asymmetrical melody, so tha
':1 -\, phrase of the chant coordinates with the large Fundamental
Gesture of the whole body.
\111 ".1 rntion:
'I' .md S stand facing each other.
"Let the arm follow the shape of the melody."
.Pollow me, after four claps."
"And stop."
'I' demonstrates four claps, rising diagonally in front of the body
(rlap in circles with just the fingertips and concentrate on the
spaces between the claps). Repeat the chant.
"Sing the melody as you move."
S follows, after four claps.
"And stop."
"one, one, One, ONE."
T demonstrates, while speaking the direction in crescendo.
"one-two taps-One-ONE."
T performs two clapsin the time of one.
(For second note of the second beat, turn one hand to put back
of hand into palmof the other.)
T performs two clapson each beato
T returns to one clapper beato
"Continue the pattern."
"When I say'Change,' put 'two-taps' in the next beat."
T speakson the second half of the previous beat, so that Shas
time to react.
"And stop."
"""1 p\lilll (o pln nI .cording of apiece that uses this patteru,
/' t 1.111 111.11 ('I two 'ighths-guarter-guarter.
"Wh '11 J say go, you perform the pattern, then wait whil
T performs measure 1,Sperforms measure 2.
So that both canmove, T playsarecording of Beethoven's
Symphony No. 7/11. (Suggestion: Bernst in:111I Nvw
York Philharmonic.)
1 IlId Sprepare to"converse" in movement, performing the
I'1111'1'11 in alternation.
'" thc lastofS's 4beats: "My turn."
urh your movements to the music."
, IId stop."
11\11' (o thelength of the excerpt, it may be advisableto stop
I 11111' lhe A Major variation.)
r uuns:
I .' .iblc to respond in atimely manner to the commands?
1 -howing the continuity of aFundamental
I I 11111' whileperforming the patterns?
11 nu ableto develop an expressiveensemble with S?
111.1 \\',Ilcd at thepiano, both haveatennis ball in their right
11.1 (WI' useatennis ball, sothat the student isfreed frorn
I 11\ individual "right notes" to concentrate on the gesture of
I II1111'1 11,)
I 11 \I " I hc tcnnis ball to play four sounds; you play four
I t 1111'"
I"I IllIlI sounds on the keys, using the tennis ball, and
111111111111',111' movem nt with asinglegesture ofthe torso
I 11 11I

"I I I1\
S imitates the four sounds, maintaining Lil ' uuuu but V,II
space on the keyboard and the energy.
T and S conduct a musical conversation, each responding t
other's nuance.
"And stop,"
T adds two eighths on any of the four sounds, and S responds.
T speaks anew command while Sisperforrning the previous eXatl1l
"You play alone. When I say 'Change,' put two notes in th
next beat,"
T speaks on the second half of the beat, so that S has time to rea
"And stop."
Was your shift frorn two players to one smooth?
Did S respond to the changes in two-note pattem?
Did ti r rwo-notc pattern flow into the following beat?
Rhythrn is an element of irrational nature. Metre
exsts and is maintained only through reasoning; it
develops the powers of controlo To vibrate without
metre, then to express oneself with metre: such is the
prouince of man and of the pefect artist.'
9 ]aques-Dalcroze, Eri rhythlllics, Ar! and Education, 54.
11I 1111111 111 I'1111111I li 11 \11\111. 11111,1111d,lIl 'e. 'I'h 'se
I 111111 I1 10,1111'1 111\.1111111I1'111~ lO til' low ofrhythm. We
11\1I 111'111'IILS"111'L' " .md I' 'Iy011 it heavily to express our
11111 M 'Ler is the servant of rnusic, Music subjected solely
I 1111IlIIll4er music.
1 1
I I 111our discovery of measure with an exercise that inv lvcs
,1111',lltCrt1Sof a dance, such as a waltz.
til I 1.1'e each other, T models a waltz step.
1 111111with feet together, moves right foot to the side (beat 1),
"I, 111' lcfi foot over to the right foot (beat 2) and then lifis up
\I Ittl (bcat 3) to prepare for the step back with the left foot.
, Ilt ' movements: step-s-I-i-d-e-lift."
IiI' with me."
1IIIIillue while IpIay."
1I 1'1.1110plays music for a waltz, incorporating changes in
u.unics and tempo.
IId stop."
11V ihcse variations for other meters:
I hcnt l11.eter-step with R foot, lift L knee / step with L foot, lift
4-beat meter-step R foot (to III ' sld '), ,1111, I / NI 'P I~,IIII 1
knee (reversedirection);
5-beat-4 small stepsforward, knee lift / 4stepsback/kn 'ltI
(The knee lifts evoke afeeling of anacrusis, the build-up of
energy that leads direct1yto crusis-the downbeat. This musc \I
experience helps students get over the barline and on to the li!
Discuss the feeling of the different meters+happy, relaxed, bold.
Did Slet arms move with the swing frem sideto side?
Did Skeep head up, instead of looking at feet?
Metric Transformation
Exercise 3.1 2
This .x 'r IS' 111 orporates compound duple meter, simple tripl
mct'r, nnI th 'ir combination in metric transformation. Compoun
111'lCI", with its thrcc subdivisions, affects a curved beat, while simpl
1\1 'I 'r, with two subdivisions, preduces a straight beato
'I 'h' studcnt isaskedto show thebeat in different parts of thebod
'I 'hc cnjoyrnent of this game is increased by the addition of a tenni
ball, which S bounces to match the beat of the music. To kee
attention high, the teacher can include the game of "start and stop'
("quick reaction"), once the student demonstrates that hehasmastere
the ball bounce. This variation, which disrupts the automatic
movements of "bounce-catch" that S has mastered, demands greate
attention and concentration.
t.\lldttllJ ,,1l Iding:J l'nnis bailo
I li,
IIw I~ondo fromClementi's Sonatina in D, Op .36,
I'" beat in your knees; 1-2, 1-GO."
III,IIIt.\lJ ;CS alargegesture ofthe body.
idc-to-side... Shoulders sway."
hounce the ball."
I 'Bounce-catc .
Ihis in time with the dotted-quarter beato
"Co" on beat 2.
IHIIIIIl' 'S on beat 1 ofnext bar, catches on 2,and continues.
\t'-II Ihis movement isweil established,T adds 3-syllablesounds:
""11 f "
I d
" "galloping a o USo
'II-a- ee, ,
I IIIVil'S Sto make up some more 3-syllablesounds, while
1IIIIIIIIuingthe bounce.
IId stop."
"11~lcn and follow me."
1 dl'lllonstrates 3-beat meter:
I",11 I, bounce with one hand;
1\\,,11 _, catch with other hand;
\,,',11 .), transfer back to first hand, prepare for next bounce.
"Count with me, 'one-Two-THREE.'''
-s 'B
ay ounce-catch-pass.'"
T playswaltz or reeording of waltz at mod t
(S . eraetempo.
uggesnon. Brahms', Waltz inA-flat, Op. 39, No. 15)
"Show the beat in your knees."
T eneourages aFundamental Gesture for the body.
"In your hips...In another place."
"Bend a knee when you hear beat 1."
"R ady to bounce? ..Go!"
"I\nd S(Op."
(M 'lI i' tr:wsformation-more advaneed.)
" istcn."
T plays Bernstein's "Ameriea" fram T#st S'd S
No. 7, bar 50and on. I e tory,Aet r,Se.T,
"Bend aknee on beat 1."
"Clap lightly for all the eighth notes."
T demonstrates bounee eombination of"b "
( h
. ounee-eateh 2-beat
meter t reeeighths in eaeh beato"Ta-d h 'T' d '
"b " . e-ya ,J .a- e-yah")and
"Tcuneeh-eTcateh-pass, 3-beat meter (two eighths in eaeh beat:
ee-ya , ee-yah, Tee-yah").
111 1111\1 1 '11l,lill ,I[ ,I \ \1I1~t.llltspccd. Bati movements ehange:
I 1111\1111 'S in2-metcr, faster bounees in 3.
01 (li bounce?" "Go!"
111 til discover ameasureof 6/8, transformed to ameasure
111 11 the music stops, you stop."
1I1111duces accelerando/ ritardando, rubato and crescendo/ decrescendo.
11.1 rop,"
11 IIlu111 :
I uuncc-catch for 2-beat meter."
I "(' three steps (no bounce) for the 3-beat meter."
II I 111l11S:
1.1 til, eighth notes staythe sameduration?
111.1 til, student adjust easilyto the ehanges of spaeeneeessary in
1111 uutr ictransformation?
"Ik,ll"is the impulse-the "push"-to whieh we respond with
1111 t"pping or head-swaying or bending of the torso. Beat, aceording
111 II,d( roze, has three qualities: time, spaee, and energy. For instance,
11" 1('1',1ilarityof walking, inwhieh onesideof thebody isbalaneedfirst
on one leg and then th oth 'r, mak 'S .tI IllfI, ,11111-.11' !lI -, 11111
Dalcroze's description ofbeat. When we excr m rc .ncr n',w- .\11I
longer steps in the same amount of time. If we maintain the ' I
and take shorter steps, the timing speeds up. His deve] pnl -111
Eurhythmics carne from the realization that we carry in our b di
means of creating and feeling the sensation of regular beats.
The following exercises are designed to help the student b
aware that the whole body can express the beato The ability to I(
physically to the beat is universal; however, it is easy to fall 11
inattention when reacting at the "toe-tapping" leveI. Therefor,
need to awaken the student to the multitude of ways that we (
express the beato
Exercise 3.13
Exercse 3. 1 was about moving and stopping; in other worc
moving while the music was sounding. Now the game is moving wit
the music, moving to match the music. S is now ready to listen for th
beat and move with it. This second level of attention arouses a feelin
of moving with purpose, of being part of the music.
Exercise 3. 13 focuses on preparation. At a signal fromT, S shoul
be physically ready, body poised for whatever activity is to take placc
Even a small change in activity keeps S alert and involved, while th
musical goal, repeated in many guises, is stored in memory. It must b
remembered that stopping,just like starting, must be done with ease an
poised controlo
T at piano, S standing, ready to step (in place, if necessary).
T plays amelodic line (or chords) at a cornfortable tempo (easy
to walk).
t" I 1\'" hl 11.
11 1\ tllI til' Its stop, yOll stop,"
11,,1111.11111111 r til, tcmpo,T changes playing to match S'ssteps.
11111 st.irts. T can change tempo during or between playing.
I 11111 whilc I play; wa1k when I stop."
11\ IlI's to be sure Swalks in the same tempo.
11I1 ,t op,"
1.1, Inovewith the beat?
1.1tlUadjust the tempo of your playing to match S'ssteps?
I 'li1 you and S change tempo together?
111.1 ou suggest other ways of moving to match the beat? (Try
111111'and lowering shoulders,jumping, hopping, clappmg,
1 1I'IllIlgadrum.)
Id S move with asense of always flowing to the next beat?
Id S stay in "ready position" during the stops?
clse 3.14
11'1\'\ tive:
\'\1 is game begins with a"Follow" in which the student moves t~the
\ li\\1\11 -d beat. This captures the student's attention. The teacher quickly
"Quick Response" exercisetodevelopthestudent'sconcentratlon.
11111\'\'\ oa
T with ~and drum, (drum technique: pull the sound ut )1 'I
dru~ with an arm gesture), S assumes a standing or seat '<.I
posltlOn, as space allows "Ready position" for silent clappin "
(dap m circles with just the fingertips; concentrate on the
spaces between the claps.)10
Teacher performs series of beats on the drum.
"Clap your hands to match the beat."
"Move your shoulders to the beat."
"Match the beat in one foot. ln the other foot."
"ln the head."
"In another place."
"Takc a walk,"
"Aliei N(Op."
Wlli '11 movernent seemed unfarniliar or awkward?
Did some movements seem more appropriate than others for
the beat?
Was the student successful in matching movements to the beat?
Variations:. The teacher continues the exercise, but incorporates
the followmg elements: accelerando/ ritardando, rubato and
crescendo/ diminuendo.
IOSee Also: The Rhvth.n lnside p. 122
I 1111111' voi e with 111.ovementand mUSlCblends several ways of
li,11I111j.!, rhythmic beats. Speaking rhythrnically and singing help
I 1 k~,1hreath and phrasing. There are frequent opportunities to
dll orce musically, even when speaking.
I'11 1I1o11:
,11111 S face each other,T holding atennis ball
j'IS tempo by speaking arhythmic phrase.
U~lrkand forth," or "You and me."
h'gins the passing, Sjoins in the words and passes back toT.
" -psaway.
"I'.ISS between your own hands."
I I'oes to the piano and plays melody notes or chords to match
,IH' beato
I .uid S can trade activities, giving S the chance to improvise.
'\' .ind S may want to use tennis balls for improvising at
illl' keyboard
I )id you vary this activity by speaking louder 01' softer?
I )id yOLladd footsteps to the beats?
Vou might sing asong or say apoem in time with the beats.
Exercise 3.16
ln this activity, S keeps the beat going when T drops out (11
game. The activity canbe tapping knees, passinganobject (tennis \llll
bean bag), sayingapoem, walking, or swayingfromsideto side.
T and Shold ahand drum between them, or each hasadrum
"Match my tap." (Both to move the drum through a large
movement as they tap.)
Both tapat the samesteady beato
"When I stop, you continue."
T stops, Scontinues to play.
T re-enters and leavesseveral times, either to reset the beat or to
change tempo.
"And stop."
.(1 , 'li( IlS:
Did Smaintain flowofbeats when T stopped?
Did Sadjust to tempo changes?
Exercise 3.17
lmprovisation skiliscan be encouraged with simpleactivities. The
give-and-take of improvising with another player requires an
understanding of where the other person isin the music at ali times.
1111111 ,li 111 I PI,III I, WILh L'1111is ballsin their right hands;
I 11 1\1\' "PP 'I' r 'gistcr, S at thelower
1111 his note, (T plays the highest note on the
I I 10p. Y u play."
I I'~ by IlIovingtennis bali acrossthe keysor bouncing,
111 11111" 011 r'P .ated notes. When T playshighest note, S
111 111 pl.IY
11I1 top."
IIi11 you hit the lowest note, you stop, Iplay."
,I ':1111. They goback and forth, asoften asT feelsis
1111 " I "
I 1111 SLOp."
111" " pick up thebeat, dynamics, and musical character of
11111 music?
111" you introduce some changes in dynamics and tempo?
I Ill' capaciryto maintain aninner senseof pulseisvaluableto any
11111111.111. Ss take great delight in this game's chalienge to their
11111\ 1'111ration.
T with drum, Sstanding nearby
T establishesabeat with drum or other instrumento
"Put the beat in your knees."
"Swing your arms."
,OJ 1tinuc, no matter what I play!"
'I' pl.iys a J liffcr .nt tempo, or with no discernible beato
S SI riv'S to continue the original beat through ali the distraction.
'I' returns to the original beato
"And stop."
Did Smaintain aFundamental Gesture (aflowing body
movement) throughout?
Didyou useablinkingmetronome or thesecondhand of aclock to
besureyoureturned to thesametempo afterplayingthedistraction?
Did Smaintain the beat throughout the distraction
and afterwards?
Exerdse 3.19
This exerciseusesth. trruupolinc 10 h -lp organize beats. When the
beat sensation is wcll .stnhlishcd, W' C:1J 1 -xprcss stronger and weaker
impulses, whi hrcsult iu 1II':IS111\' KIOUpillI-\S. 'I'hc cxhilarating bounce
f the trarnp linc is;111 -x ,\I '111 ' I \'1 i'11(\' 0("b.ats.
I 11 1111111
I 1I 1'1.1110, S )1111.1111\11 1111 '.
11\\1 \11 .cs,stayingat the sameenergy level.
I'l.lys singletones or chords to match the bounces.
.lyS, "Count your bounces in groups of four."
vliould speak rhythmicaliy, with the flowof the music.
Il('I"a short time, T says,"Three." (or five, seven, etc.)
I 'visescounting to"One, two, three," without missing
I hounce.
I 11 -rtions:
I iid Smake these changes within the flowofbounces?
I)idyou cali the change abeat or half-beat ear1y,sothat Scould
k 'cp the beat?
u r.uions:
"Clap on the downbeat."
"Clap on ali beats."
"Clap on 1 and 3 and other beat combinations."
I)id Selapmusically,moving elapsthrough vertical, diagonal,
or horizontal space?
Did S'shands move in acircular motion between elaps?
Did your playing match S'selaps?
T at piano, Splaces hula hoop on floor.
"Put one foot inside the hula hoop, one outside."
"Hop four times on the inside foot, four on the outside."
"Go." (T speakson fourth beat before playing)
T plays(improvises)in 4-meter.
"Hop 1 beat inside, 3 outside."
Did you change tempo and dynamics?
Did Schange energy in the movements to match?
Try other meters.
Exercise 3.20
t " tive:
'I'hi p,.IIlI IOClISl'S 011 prolongation of beats. We approach th
\ 111I 'pl ,/ Inllg -r II ires through the physical sensation of "ties." Fo
" .uupl,,I \111.1I'1 'r II otc-half note-quarter note canbeinterpreted asfou
11!.lll' IIOll'S , where thesecondistiedto thethird. This sameprocedur
(,111 Ic uscdfor patterns within abeato (A 16th-eighth-16th pattern can
bc interpreted asfour 16ths, with thesecond tiedto the third.)
T and Swith drums, Sstanding ready to stepin place
T playsbeats with drum.
" 11"
1 , 11\ Ile" til, h':'1.."
111 li". II in groups of four."
1111 11I1 I,"
I 111111111 houkl bc given sothat thelastword ison beat 4.)
111111.1 , I' sh w the length of thesound (4beats, in this
1111 11H' wh)1' body, moving the drum horizontally,
10 til ,111 nu thc diagonal.
til I \,''I,2 and 4,' and so forth."
111111.1, Sto show the spacebetween the beats.
ItI 1111' studcnt respond with thewhole body to the
I I' I"1I11',l'd notes?
I 111 'Il' flexibilityin the student's movements?
SupraficiaL Gesllre
" I 4' 3.21
111\' objective of this game is to help S understand the spaceand
111 Ifi.\' .rdjustments required to divide the beat into 2,3,4,01' 5 equal
I 111 'I' begins this game with an"Interrupted Canon," which lets S
I 1111 I"s movement. T taps the drum in different places for the
subdivisions andusesdifferent fingerswhere thc te.hniqu ' ti'I}I,IIIII
Once these movements become confident, T introduc s a "'I
Canon." "True Canon" means that T continues to play witl:
interruption, while S continues to echoT'spatterns at acertain nU1I1
of beats behind. When more beats are added to T's statement, 1.1
greater challenges in concentration and attention to nuance.
T and S faceeach other, each holding ahand drum
"Follow me, 2 beats Iater."
T "passes" the beats to S, who passesthem back. This isdone
within aFundamental Gesture that givesdirection to the beats,
such asaswayto the Ieft on beat 1, right on beat 2.
T divides ith'r or bothbeatsinto2,3,4, or 5subdivisionsandS
irnitat 's. (1' rnnm.nts aquarter-notemeIody,using:appoggiatura=
'i.J llll IlOl's; IIlO! 1 -nt = tripleteighths;turnstartingontheupper not
qu.uh upl 'lI ithx; turn startingonprincipal note= quintuplet 16ths.
111111 irlu.rl (1I1g .rs may beessential for 4- and 5-part subdivisions
dt'lWlldillg 011 the tempo.
ontinue to follow me, 2 beats Iater."
T and S develop atrue canon.
"And stop."
T goes to piano.
"Tap the pattern 2 beats after me."
"Go!" (spoken on the second beat)
"Now 1beat (or 3, 4, and soforth) after me."
"And stop."
11111" 111' 1111tlOI} ( ( Y iur 1I10V '111 .nts?
tltll 111 I "p lhe b .at while playingsubdivisions?
uu-lody in quarter notes at this tempo."
Iql h.uids about. MM=60.
111 11 I say'Two,' play two eighths on the next beat only."
111 11 1say 'Three,' pIay a triplet,"
11 I 11)' 'Four,' play four 16ths."
I1 I n)" Five,' playquintupIet 16ths."
[uw you choose where to add subdivisions."
1111 stop."
I " 11111:
II til . piano, reviewterms appoggiatura, mordent and turn
l'luy ameIody in quarter notes at this tempo."
I ,I.,ps handsabout MM=60.
b "
Wlrcn I calI out a term, play it on next eat.
1 .rlls the terms on the prior beato
Now you choose where to add an ornament."
Aud stop."
I ),d Smaintain asupplewrist?
Did S release weight into thc k 0y (li )l Illl\l\) \111I1111101' liII1
More advanced students may add acounterpoint below th o
Exercise 3.22
Trampoline sets beat for feeling subdivisions in various simpl o
compound meters.
T at piano, S on trampoline, holding hand drum.
"Bounce in time to my music."
T plays steady beats.
"Tap the drum with every bounce."
"Tap twice for every bounce."
"Tap three times for every bounce."
T switches s veral times between saying "two,' "three" and "one."
"And stop."
"Bounce in time to my music."
T p1ayssteady beats.
"Tap the drum with every bounce."
"Count your bounces in groups of four."
"Tap twice on 4."
Iill' S ,IIlI' 1111liI,,11I 1111101 , , and so forth.
It IIIHos the nurnbcr of beats.
"li ,I pattern from S'sliterature (eighth and two 16ths, for
I I 1111,):1I1dmakes the connection between the exercise and
1111 1'1'.
Concurrent. Ges.ure
rhrnics, canon, fugue
There is another important reason why,Jor the
rhythmic training of man, it is necessary to exercise all
his limbs, and that is-that a child is rarely born
polyrhythmic. To create in him the sense of
simultaneous rhythms, it is indispensable that he
should be made to execute, by means of different
limbs, movements representing different durations
of time.t)
1/'/1I IIV ':
1/1(' goal with this game is to be as expressive aspossible with two
111 11ilr.ull'OUS lines ofmusic. This training isespecially important for the
1I111111:111Ce of music from the Baroque period, but the skill is
, I I .~,IIY for practically ali music that the pianist performs. We
1'1"11,1('11 the problem by first acquiring skill with both parts
IlIdl\'ldll:tllyand then combining them. A certain degree of automatic
, 1"I"'l' with each of the two lines allows the performer to switch
ruu rntration frorn one line to the other.
1'"11, 1.I\I"l's-Dalcroze, Rhvthm, Music and Edutation, trans. Harold F. Rubenstein (Aylesbury, Great Britian:
li 11, W.tlson and Vinney Lrd., 1973),43.
The gamebegins with a"Follow,' S h.u l" 111 I 'lI! \ ,111 h
immediately cornfortable with each of the parts. Wh'11 hc l',1\ I",
sure the student has control of the two patterns, they play I I t I I
parts simultaneously. The next step isfor the student to perf rm h
lines simultaneously. The teacher should make surethat the stud'111
secure with the drum taps before proceeding. This movement slHl1
displayadegree of automatism. The student should beusingthe 1.11
muscles to incorporate the three taps into a single group. This
further help the student make thepattern automatic.
The greatest challenge of this exerciseis developing the ability
switch the rolesof speech and the hands in a"Quick Reaction" gan
At first, it isadvisablefor the teacher to demand the"switch" at regu
intervals, until there is some level of success. When this has be
achieved, the teacher can givethe commands at random intervals.
T and Sfaceeach other with drums (silent clapping may be use
in placeof drununing)
"Follow me, one bar later."
T inton 'S a-beat pattem out loud, while tapping on 1and 4.
(Sillysyllableshelp: "Dig-a-de Dig-a-de")
T taps 1and 4at two different places on the drum, maintaining a
flowingmovement in the body.
T stops, Simitates ("interrupted canon").
T continues pattern several times.
"And stop."
"Follow me, one bar later."
T intones a6-beat pattern out loud, while tapping on 1,3, and 5.
("Dig-a Dig-a Dig-a")
1111 1111111 d'll"', 111,1111t.llIlIllg til, Ilow,
1111' ,S irnit.u " 1111, uuutiug out loud ("interrupted
") 11' 111 ,
I 11111 I 11LI cspattern several times.
1 ntain this pattern while I change,"
II 1I r returns to firstpattern.
hcn I say'Change,' change to my pattern," (T calls
I h.ruge" at regular and then irregular intervals.)
t 'n."
II .11 " T improvisesawaltz accompaniment with aduple melody
(111 dotted quarters in 3/4). The samemusical pattem isfound
111 t'hopin's Waltz inA-flat, Op. 42.
I I]) the left-hand pattern on the drum,"
:ount out loud on 1, 3 and S."
"Whcn I say'Change,' tap the rhythm of the melody,"
'ount on 1 and 4."
.ills "change" at regular and then irregular intervals.
"Kccp tapping the drum on 1,3 and S."
"( .ount on 1and 4."
li When I say,'Switch,' reverse roles."
li Voudecide when to switch,"
/\Ild stop,"
T and Sseatedat thepiano, T playsostinato in 6/8. nnis h.ill
may be used, or acomposition such asBartk's Mikrokosmos ,
"Play any black key on counts 1,3 and 5."
T counts 1-2-3-4-5-6, while playingthe ostinato which clarifi 'S
6/8 meter. '
" Go."
T speaks"go" on count 5.
"When I say,'Change,' play on counts 1 and 4."
T alls" hang "at regular andthen irregular intervals.
"I\nd stop,"
"You play the ostinato."
"Add ameIody on counts 1 and 4."
"When I say'Change,' pIay on counts 1,3 and 5."
Tall"h" .
c s c ange at regular and then irregular intervals.
"And stop."
11 11 11 11I1 I 111 I
\lI I 11 ,111(.1 LH.
I 1111 P -r or nuu] I \ 111 ,( 'I ssilllultaneously.
1111 IlIp"lllizationofthis chapter emphasizesthe importance ofthe
,11 \lI musical levels. The large Fundamental Gesture should
liI 11\' . ncentration on every level, ali the way to Supraficial
'I'his approach ishelpful at ali stagesof accomplishment. A
1I11111P, student shouldbe asawareof the flowfromthe first bar to
,,"ItI to thethirdandon to thelastastheperformer of aBrahms
11111 /'10. The purpose of playingone note after another isnot just
I, tll\' note after another, but to make music. The emphasis on
(IIIJ t hc senseof them.usicfromthelargest gestureto the smallest
I tlll .cts everyone's attention-teacher and student-to the
I .ispect ofthe MUSIC LESSON.
T says,"White" or "BIack," to switch S'smelody back and forth
fromwhite keysto black.