INTRODUCTION

The beautiful 'Blue Sapphire', is regarded as the 'Stone of the Stones' and is considered to give peace of mind, tranquility, happiness and spiritual enlightenment. Sapphire is a precious blue stone that has been regarded as a gem by mankind since very early times. It is also regarded as such by The Lord. In the Holy Scriptures, sapphire is consistently described as being around the Throne of God. Sapphire was one of the designated precious stones of the high priest's breastplate (which were symbolic of the tribes of Israel), the "foundations" which will be fulfilled with the coming of the New Jerusalem. This is the blue variety for corundum. The name is probably derived, through the Latin sapphires, and Greek sapheirus, from a Sanskrit word. As with other gem names, however, the Latin sapphires did not originally denote the gem it is associated with today, judging by the description of Pliny the Elder, it almost certainly refer to what is now, known as lapis lazuli, rather than corundum.

1

Appearance:
Sapphires can be a very dark blue to the point of seeming dense and blackish from a distance. Some times accompanied by a blue to dull green pleochroism, which is only visible from the side in cut stones. They may also be a strong but not too bright blue, easily recognizable from a distance, this being the idle color. Other possibilities are light, usually bright blue with color, unevenly distributed, pail blue or finely blue, with a violet tinge, atleast in bright light. Like all corundum, sapphire always, has good luster, some sapphires display clearly defined streaks of paler color, in contrast to a dark ground. Other has areas with a slightly silky sheen, which are not clearly delineated. Still other, uncommon variety assumes a distinct, milky appearance in strong light, with a marked in increase in color intensity. Inclusions are, as a role, less obvious in very dark stones, due to their general lack of their transparency, whereas, medium to large pale stone often show distinct ‘veils’ or ‘feathers’ caused by very fine inclusions and foreign crystals, which are some times transparent, sometimes dark sub metallic and opaque, and very occasionally bright red. Sapphires are usually given oval or less frequently round mix cuts, but rectangular or square step cuts with or without trim corners are also possible. The cabochon cut 2

is used as well, although less frequently than in the past. Nowadays, it is generally preserved for stones full of inclusions, are those in which the color is concentrated in a few streaks on a light ground. In the later case, in fact, the cabochon cut gives the color a more uniform appearance. Stones weighing several carats or even 10 to 20 carats in the case of light colored specimens are not uncommon.

Distinct features:
Like other types of corundum, sapphires have strings luster. The color is also quite distinctive, whether or not clear blue green pleochroism is visible. The overall appearance is very important. For example, in deep blue color with distinct blue green pleochroism, and internal streaks, straight across or at and angle of 120 degrees, combined with the powerful luster of corundum indicates a sapphire of Australian origin. A slightly patchy blue color with imperceptible pleochroism and strong transparency, showing very veil like inclusion and a slight silk effect, still with excellent luster, denotes a sapphire from Sri Lanka. Cornflower to deep blue in a stone without obvious inclusions but of slightly milky appearance, acquiring a distinct fullness of color in bright light, is characteristic of

3

the rare sapphire from Kashmir. Of the other blue stones, tanzanite always has shown a hint of violet, fairly obvious pleochroism, and fewer lusters than sapphire. Cordierite, apart from being less lustrous and violet or gray blue, has striking pleochroism from blue to an unmistakable drab yellow. Strongly colored specimens of indicolite tourmaline are often and attractive greenish blue with a pleochroism ranging from blue to green, but the green is very different from that of sapphires which, when it is present, is always dull or yellowish. Still on the subject of pleochroism tourmaline, the direction corresponding to the blue color shows a characteristic lack of transparency. While blue zircon has luster similar to that of sapphire, it is an electric blue or blue green, unlike that of any other gem stone. Furthermore, its strong birefringence seen in a clear duplication of the facet edges, when viewed through the stone with a lance, would remove all trace of doubt, sapphire is doubly refractive as well, but to a much lesser degree. In the rare cases, when blue spinel is not cloudy blue or violet grey, but a vivid mid-blue it can look very much like sapphire partly on account of its strong luster. In this case, it can only be distinguished by its physical characteristics; establishments of single refractivity or measurement of the density or refractive index should suffice.

4

BLUE SAPPHIRE HISTORY

AND LORE

The blue sapphire, for thousands of years has been mesmerizing people, entrancing people. Be it a smaller stone under 1 to 2 carats or the larger blue sapphires these great stones have made the human soul dance. Maybe its's the deep rich blue sapphire color or the sparkle, the brilliance the fire, that jumps out at you and pulls you in, these stones have earned their place in history. You'll discover though that the history of the blue sapphire is rather colorful in its own right. The word sapphire comes from the Latin word 'saphirus', which means 'blue'. When it comes to the history of the blue sapphire you'll discover that it's been praised by many civilizations as a special gemstone over the millenniums. History of the Blue Sapphire - Before and After Christ The history of the blue sapphire goes as far back as 800 B.C. and the rulers of Persia in the Middle East. They believed the

5

Earth itself was imbedded into a gigantic blue sapphire and that the color of the sky was a result of blue sapphires being reflected upward. The early Catholic Church also held the 'sky theory' and felt that blue sapphires were holy stones. Over time many other religions revered these blue sapphire gemstones because they represent the heavens. During Medieval times royalty often wore them as a means of protection from their foes or to keep them out of harms way. History of the Blue Sapphire - A Cultural Connection The history of the blue sapphire continued over the centuries. What's rather interesting is that even though many different cultures with belief systems that varied greatly felt blue sapphire gemstones had similar meanings. For example, Buddhists felt that blue sapphires represent loyalty while 18th century European cultures used the gemstones to test female loyalty. If a woman was unfaithful it was said the color of the stone would change, making the sapphire one of the first 'mood rings' in history. But the history of the blue sapphire doesn't end centuries ago. When Prince Charles proposed to Lady Diana he did it with a sapphire engagement ring. What few people realize is that it was also a sapphire engagement ring that his father, Prince Phillip, gave to his mother, Queen Elizabeth. So as you can see the history of the blue sapphire, and sapphires in general, is a rather colorful one, not to mention one that continues in modern times. Sapphire history in very interesting. The word sapphire is derived from the Latin

6

word ” sapphirus”, meaning blue. The history of sapphire dates back to the seventh century B.C. The oldest sapphire mines are in Sri Lanka. Indeed Marco Polo described sapphires in his thirteenth century book detailing his visit to the island of Serendib (Sri Lanka). In medieval times, blue sapphire was much sought after by European royalty. In ancient times it was believed to ward off harm and envy as well as to make stupid men wise and ill tempered men good tempered! One of the most famous sapphire deposits in located in Kashmir. This deposit dates from the 1800’s and produced magnificent sapphires of a very intense pure blue color that is intensified by the presence of very fine silky inclusions. Sapphires are mined all over the world, but the largest sapphire source in the world is Australia. In 1987 about 75% of the world’s supply came from there. Thailand is the next largest producer of gem quality sapphires. In the 1990’s a huge deposit of fine quality blue sapphire and fancy sapphires was discovered on the island nation of Madagascar. This deposit is still being mined and numerous other deposits have been discovered all over the island. The most valuable gems come from Sri Lanka, Burma and Kashmir, although the Kashmir production is almost non existent. Sri Lanka has been mining for sapphires since before the time of Buddha. Another major source of sapphires is the Yogo Gulch deposit in Montana. Other important high quality sources recently discovered are Burma and Tanzania.

7

In evaluating a sapphire, the most important considerations for the evaluation and valuation of a sapphire, both blue and fancy color is color, size, quality of the cutting and clarity. Sapphire gemstones, along with Ruby gemstones also are valued by the source of origin. A Burma or Kashmir sapphire gemstone will have a higher value than a Sri Lankan sapphire of equal quality. Source can be determined by gemological tests so this has become an important criterion in valuation of very fine, larger gem sapphires. The treatment of sapphires also plays an important factor. Natural, untreated sapphire gemstones will have a higher valuation than a similar quality heat treated sapphire as they are much rarer. Color is of course the most important consideration when buying a loose sapphire. If the sapphire appears dark in low light conditions or appears lifeless and dull, its value will be greatly diminished.

Sapphire Gemstone Sources :The largest sapphire source in the world is Australia. In 1987 about 75% of the world's supply came from there. Thailand is the next largest producer of gem quality sapphires. In the 1990's a huge deposit of fine quality blue sapphire and fancy sapphires was discovered on the island nation of Madagascar. This deposit is still being mined and numerous other deposits 8

have been discovered all over the island. The most valuable gems come from Sri Lanka, Burma and Kashmir, although the Kashmir production is almost non existent. Sri Lanka has been mining for sapphires since before the time of Buddha. Another major source of sapphires is the Yogo Gulch deposit in Montana. Other important high quality sources recently discovered are Burma and Tanzania.

Mining
Sapphire from Madagascar Sapphires are mined from alluvial deposits or from primary underground workings. The mining locations include Myanmar, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Australia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Kenya and China. The Logan sapphire, the Star of India and the Star of Bombay originate from Sri Lankan mines. Madagascar leads the world in sapphire production (as of 2007) specifically in and around the city of IlakakaPrior to Ilakaka, Australia was the largest producer of sapphires (as of 1987) In 1991 a new sapphire occurrence was discovered in Andranondambo, southern Madagascar. That area was industrially exploited since 1993 and has been almost abandoned few years later because of difficulties of exploiting sapphires in their bedrock] In the United States sapphires have been produced from deposits near Helena, Montana. Gem

9

Varieties of blue sapphire:RUBY, BLUE SAPPHIRE AND FANCY SAPPHIRE Sapphire is made up of the mineral corundum, also known as aluminum oxide or alumina. Depending on impurities of iron, titaniun, vanadium or chromium, corundum can have almost any color. Red corundum is known as ruby – the blood-red birthstone for July. Every other variety is considered a type of sapphire. Sapphires other than the classic blue are known by their color – purple sapphire, green sapphire, yellow sapphire, orange sapphire, and even white (colorless) sapphire. Collectively, they are called fancy sapphires STAR SAPPHIRES Blue sapphire often has inclusions of rutile, a mineral which forms tiny strands or branches within other gemstones. The most beautiful of these are called "star sapphires" and are highly valued. Legend says that lovers can be joined together for life by the gift of a star sapphire. Star sapphires are usually sold in cabochon or half-dome cuts to display the rutile stars to their best effect. The stars usually have six rutile branches, but some have 12. Star sapphire is the official gemstone gift for the 65th wedding anniversary 10

COLOR-CHANGING SAPPHIRE Some very rare sapphire varieties appear to change color in different light. These sapphires can change from blue in natural light to purple under fluorescent lighting, or from pink in sunlight to green under artificial lights. Some sapphires change only subtly, from royal blue to violet-tinged blue. Tanzania is the main source for sapphires that change colors, but they can also be produced synthetically

Synthetic
Although sapphires come in almost every color except red (which is designated ruby), the traditional color one thinks of is a deep blue. grown or created synthetic blue sapphire gems are synthesized from the melt at temperatures over 2000 oC or 3600 oF. They have the same composition and physical properties, but have higher perfection than is usually seen in natural sapphires. Sapphire is aluminum oxide, or corundum, with the chemical composition Al2O3. Various dopant atoms present in small amounts provide the different colors. Chromium (Cr) gives the ruby red color. Blue is trickier because both titanium (Ti) and iron (Fe) must be present as 11

dopants and on neighboring sites in the crystal lattice, and they must be in the proper valence state which chemists designate as Ti4+ and Fe2+. Charge transfer between the two species gives rise to the light absorption causing the sapphire blue color. Neither Ti4+ or Fe2+ is easily incorporated in Al2O3 and most natural sapphire is not blue. Even when both elements are present, they are usually not in the proper valence state. Consequently almost all "natural" blue sapphire on the market has been heat-treated before sale to enhance the blue color. An exception is the blue sapphire from Yogo Gulch, Montana. We are able to offer lab-grown blue sapphire gemstones at a small fraction of the cost of comparable natural sapphire stones SAPPHIRE was first synthesized in 1902. The process of creating synthetic sapphire is known as the VERNEUIL
PROCESS.

Only experts can

distinguish between natural and synthetic sapphire

Simulants
SPINEL,
AQUAMARINE,

cobalt glass, TOURMALINE, ZIRCON, KYANITE, zoisite, synthetic SAPPHIRE, benitoite and IOLITE are gemstones that closely resemble the blue sapphire
VS.

SYNTHETIC

SIMULANT

Synthetic gemstones have all of the same chemical make up as their natural counterparts. They also have most of the same optical properties. Synthetic gemstones also have the same crystal structure as their natural counterparts. Basically, a Synthetic gemstone will be identical to its natural counterpart in every way possible except it can differ in properties. What this 12

also means is that a Synthetic gemstone will test out on equipment as its natural counterpart in most cases. The only real difference is that Synthetic gemstones are man-made/grown in a Laboratory whereas natural ones are formed in nature. Now we have Simulants. Simulants are basically any stone that have the same appearance as their natural counterpart but that is where the similarities stop! A simulant can be anything from another natural stone to a piece of plastic or even a different Synthetic gemstone! For example a Diamond Simulant could be a beautiful White Zircon, a stunning CZ, or a simple piece of nicely cut glass. You have to be very careful when purchasing a Simulant, you need to know what the material is your are buying!! A Synthetic is simple, you are buying a lab grown version of the natural stone and if you purchase one that tests out as something else then you were sold a Simulant instead of a Synthetic

BLUE SAPPHIRE •KYANITE IS A COMMON SIMULANT FOR SAPPHIRE •SYNTHETIC BLUE SPINEL IS ANOTHER COMMON SIMULANT FOR SAPPHIRE •GLASS •IOLITE Iolite,
INDICOLITE TOURMALINE,

and blue ZIRCON may resemble blue sapphire, but are softer. The other color varieties of 13

HERE

sapphire are commonly confused with many gemstones, but their great hardness distinguishes them IS A LIST OF SYNTHETIC STONES THAT ARE CURRENTLY ON THE MARKET:

•RUBY •SAPPHIRE •SPINEL •ALEXANDRITE •AMETHYST •AMETRINE •DIAMONDS (STILL •OPALS •QUARTZ (CITRINE, CLEAR,
AND VERY RARE, MOST BEING SOLD ARE

SIMULANTS

AND NOT SYNTHETICS)

SMOKY)

TREATMENTS Sapphires may be treated by several methods to enhance and improve their clarity and color. It is common practice to heat natural sapphires to improve or enhance color. This is done by heating the sapphires in air to temperatures between 500 and 1800 °C for several hours, or by heating in a nitrogen-deficient atmosphere oven for seven days or more. Upon heating, the stone becomes a more blue in color but loses some of the silk. When high heat temperatures are used, the stone loses all of the silk and becomes clear under magnification. Evidence of sapphire and other gemstones being subjected to heating goes back to, at least, Roman timesUn-heated stones are quite rare and will often be sold accompanied by a certificate from an independent gemological laboratory attesting to "no evidence of heat treatment".

14

Diffusion treatments are somewhat more controversial as they are used to add elements to the sapphire for the purpose of improving colors. Typically BERYLLIUM is diffused into a sapphire with very high heat, just below the melting point of the sapphire. orange sapphires were created with this process, although now the process has been advanced and many colors of sapphire are often treated with beryllium. It is unethical to sell beryllium-treated sapphires without disclosure, and the price should be much lower than a natural gem or one that has been enhanced by heat alone. Treating stones with surface diffusion is generally frowned upon; as stones chip or are repolished/refaceted the 'padparadscha' colored layer can be removed. (There are some diffusion treated stones in which the color goes much deeper than the surface, however.) The problem lies in the fact that treated padparadschas are at times very difficult to detect, and they are the reason that getting a certificate from a reputable gemological lab (e.g. Gubelin, SSEF, AGTA, etc.) is recommended before investing in a padparadscha. According to Federal Trade Commission guidelines, in the United States, disclosure is required of any mode of enhancement that has a significant effect on the gem's value.
STYLES OF CUTS

ROUND RUND / REDONDO

OVAL

PEAR TROPFEN / PERO

OCTAGON ACHTECK / OCTOGONAL BAGUETTE

15

HEART HERZ / CORACAO

SQUARE QUADRADO / CARRE

MARQUISE NAVETTE

TRIANGLE TRIANGULO

How to clean blueSapphire Jewellery.
Sapphire is a durable stone. It is ranked 9 on the Mohs scale. Mohs scale is scale of hardness. You can wear sapphire everyday almost. You can use it daily without worrying about the cracking and scratching of stone. You can get a durable piece of jewellery by pairing it with diamond. But this doesn’t mean to test its strength 16

because everything has its breaking point. Due to its durability, you don’t have to worry about its cleaning over and over. You can give it to the jewellery store for cleaning. If you are interested in cleaning your own sapphire jewellery at your home, clean the material with soft jewellery cloth and soak your sapphire into the soapy water. Water should be warm too. You can also soak your whole necklace into that warm soapy water. But ultrasonic cleaning and steamer can be better for your jewellery

17

Astrology purpose
Blue Sapphire stone represents planet Saturn mostly known for regular gains through mass labor industry and development of land. This stone should be worn minimum of 3-9 carat embedded in Gold/Silver Ring/Pendant in the middle finger of the right hand in designated auspicious time. Blue Sapphire stone is beneficial in learning, studies, gains in heavy industries, marital problems, longevity and can provide relief from ups and downs in professional career, losses through servants, labor problems etc. Blue is the main color of the sapphire. This color is strongly linked with feelings of sympathy and harmony, friendship and loyalty. The sapphire belongs to the corundum group, the members of which are characterized by their excellent hardness. Indeed their hardness is exceeded only by that of the diamond. Due to the hardness, sapphires are easy to look after, requiring no more than the usual care by wearer. A blue sapphire fits in best with a well-balanced lifestyle in which reliability and temperament go simultaneously. Rituals for wearing The weight of the gemstone should not be less than 3 Ratti (360 mg). Blue sapphire should be embedded in silver or iron ring.

18

Its ring should be kept in a copper bowl full of water on Saturday. It should be worn after pouring the water of the bowl on the roots of a peepal tree, two hours before the sun set in the left middle finger reciting the Mantra: "Om Aim Hreem Shanecharaya Namah". One should pray to Saturn for bestowing the best results and providing help in overcoming difficulties. One should donate black urad, salt, mustard oil, soap, tea leaves, money (Dakshina) according to one's capacity at the feet of peepal tree and pray for well being. Male buffalo should be fed with green leaves and cotton seed and Shivalinga should be bathed with milk. Day for wearing: Saturday Time for wearing: Sunset

METAL TO USE FOR SETTING BLUE SAPPHIRE
Those who choose to wear blue sapphires should choose stones that are at least two carats-and ideally at least five carats. Such stones should be set in rings made of steel (iron), and if necessary, ashta dhatu, an alloy of eight metals, which are gold, silver, copper, tin, zinc, mercury, lead and iron. They can also be set in rings of gold and silver. The proper rituals should be performed to install the gem. The ring should be worn on the middle of the right hand on a Saturday.

Buying guide
19

Like diamonds, sapphires are graded on color, cut, clarity and carat weight. The ideal color for sapphire is a rich, medium tone of its primary shade - for example, blue with no hint of green or red. Pale blue sapphires that have no overtones of other colors also rate high on the grading scale for gems. Because of the wide variety of sapphires available, describing the grading process would take nearly a book. The most important factor in choosing a quality sapphire is in finding one that is attractive to your eye

Category notes
Categories represent broad, integrated quality grades, based on a combination of color, clarity and cutting quality.

Exceptional
These stones are seen only in the finest jewelry, and are rarely encountered. High-end prices for category A represent the highest prices paid at auction. Stones fetching the highest prices are generally those certified as being untreated and of preferred origin (Burma for ruby; Kashmir and Burma for sapphire). All stones in this category will feature exceptional color, with good clarity and cutting.

Very good
These gems are found in high-quality jewelry, but are also rarely seen. Such stones feature fine color, with good clarity and cutting.

Good
This category includes stones found in most jewelry. They represent the vast majority of stones traded. Such stones may feature good color, with slight clarity or cutting problems, or be clean and well cut, but have slight color problems (generally lower saturation or overly dark color).

20

Fair
The upper end of this category represents stones traded in inexpensive jewelry. Such stones often have serious clarity problems, or feature color that is overly dark or light.

Poor
High-end prices for this category represent the lowest quality of stones found in the cheapest jewelry. Low-end prices for this category represent material of little or no gem use. Typically, stones in this category are far too heavily included, or possess the lowest in color saturations

Price notes
Prices quoted should be considered average world prices. They represent average cost to retailers from dealers for net cash single-stone or small lot purchases. Net cash means payment by bank wire immediately after receipt, or a check within 15 days of receipt. In general, large lot purchases are less expensive, while memo and term transactions are more expensive. Matched pairs or suites of any size or shape will almost always cost more than single stones of the same quality. All prices are for uncalibrated stones, unless otherwise noted. The prices provide only a crude estimate; accurate estimates of the price of individual stones can only be made by an experienced dealer via personal examination (no pictures or lab reports!). Quality is determined by a combination of color, clarity and cut, relative to probable origin and size. Most stones used in jewelry will fall into the Fair to Good range.

21

SUPPLIERS OF BLUESAPPHIRE

Engaged in manufacture and export of blue sapphire, oval blue sapphire, precious blue sapphire and sapphire gemstones. Also offering red ruby, green emeralds, lemon quartz, smoky quartz, citrine stones, garnet stones and aquamarine stones etc. Address: 3502/A, Pahargunj, Suraj Pole, Jaipur, Rajasthan - 302 003, India Phone: +(91)-(141)-2374643 Fax: +(91)-(141)-2610035 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9929817786/9929917786 Website: HTTP://WWW.RAINBOWGEMSTONES.COM/PRECIOUS-STONES.HTML

SPECTRUM GEMS JAIPURManufacturer and supplier of blue sapphire, blue sapphire stones, blue sapphire cut stones, precious blue sapphire stones and semi precious blue sapphire stones. Also supplying ruby stones, quartz stones, emerald stones and blue topaz stones. Address: 3767, KGB Ka Rasta, Johri Bazar, Jaipur, Rajasthan - 302 003, India Phone: +(91)-(141)-2576191 Fax: +(91)-(141)-2562675 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9828064574 Website: HTTP://WWW.FINEBEADSMANUFACTURER.COM/STONE-BEADS.HTML

BELLO JEWELS PVT. LTD.

22

Deals in supplying and exporting of blue sapphire like precious cut blue sapphire, semi precious blue sapphire, faceted blue sapphire, precious blue sapphire and natural blue sapphire. Address: GAL-803, Galleria Tower Complex, DLF Phase - IV, Gurgaon, Haryana - 122 009, India Phone: +(91)-(11)-4235099/4235077 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9899149149 Website: HTTP://WWW.INDIAMART.COM/BELLOJEWELS/BLUE-SAPPHIREGEMSTONE.HTML

VEDIC PREDICTION . ADDRESS: 11, RAM BHAWAN, GALI NO-3, SRI NAGAR, SHAKUR BASTI, NEW DELHI, DELHI - 110 001, INDIA PHONE: +(91)-(11)-27193271/27108271/27195271 FAX: +(91)-(11)27130015/27105271 WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.VEDICPREDICTION.COM/GEMSTONES.HTML

MIRACLE GEMS ADDRESS: 60/62, GOVIND NIWAS, DHANJI STREET, ZAVERI BAZAAR, MUMBAI, MAHARASHTRA - 400 001, INDIA PHONE: +(91)-(22)-23448945 MOBILE / CELL PHONE: +(91)-9820655050 WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.INDIAMART.COM/MIRACLEGEMS/PRECIOUS-STONE.HTML

K. K. GEMS TRADING COMPANY, JAIPUR 23

ADDRESS: K. K. HOUSE, BHARAT MATA PATH, JAMUNA LAL BAJAJ MARG C- SCHEME, JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN - 302 001, INDIA PHONE: +(91)-(141)-2373893/4026181 FAX: +(91)-(141)4090099/2371186 MOBILE / CELL PHONE: +(91)-9829056181 WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.KKGEMSTRADING.COM/SAPPHIRE-GEM-STONES.HTML

24

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful