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Zack Heim, P.E.

DGA Consulting, PLLC


Tempe, AZ
State of the Art Foundation
Design and Installation
J anuary 15, 2013
Overhead Line Structural Materials Group
Memphis, TN

Summary
Standard Soils for Foundation Design
Geotechnical Investigations for
Transmission Lines
Foundation Types
Specialty Foundation Installation

Standard Soils for Foundation
Design
After years of research, the standard soil has been established
S
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d
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d

S
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*

* Other continents may or may not exhibit standard soil properties
The Standard Foundation
This is Going to be Huge
Long Linear
Projects
Challenging
Logistics
Discrete Structure
Locations
Sensitive
Environments
Geotechnical Investigations
What Makes Transmission Lines Special




Geotechnical Investigations
Components of an Effective Investigation
Geotech
Investigation
Geologic
Recon
Past
Investigations
Structure
Types/Locations
Number/Location
of Borings
Design
Criteria
Additional
Testing
Soil
Parameters
Foundation
Design
Full Scale
Testing
Geotechnical Investigations for
Transmission Lines
Avoid the perils of standard soil design
Data from a 300 mile transmission line (1994 $)



0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
T
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t
a
l

F
o
u
n
d
a
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i
o
n

C
o
s
t


R
e
d
u
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t
i
o
n

(
$
M
)

Engineering and Investigation ($M)
Sup. Geotech
Savings/Cost: 10.4
Full-Scale Testing
Savings/Cost: 4.5
Initial Geotech
Geotechnical Investigations
Using Geology to Locate Borings
Geologic variation geotech
variation
Investigation sites should be
located according to important
geologic regions
Number of investigation sites
influenced by
Economics
Schedule
Access
Project Scope

Foundation efficiency varies with structure type




Geotechnical Investigations
Structures Transfer Load Differently
Wind
Ice &
Dead
Loads
Uplift/Compression Shear/Moment
Testing/Sampling methods vary with
anticipated conditions and Structure
Type





Geotechnical Investigations
Sampling Techniques




Geotechnical Investigations
Sampling Techniques SPT Sampling
Samplers vary regionally
Shelby Tube One use in Arizona
Split Spoon Sampler
Measures wave velocities to
determine
Rock depth, soil/rock strength
Useful for sites with difficult
access




Geotechnical Investigations
Sampling Techniques Seismic Refraction
Determines lateral
modulus of soils
Useful for laterally
loaded foundations
in softer deposits




Geotechnical Investigations
Sampling Techniques Pressuremeter
A probe is pushed into the ground measuring
shear resistance and end bearing
Continuous data with depth
Suitable in softer soil conditions
Fast & air conditioned comfort




Geotechnical Investigations
Sampling Techniques CPT
Typical CPT probe




Geotechnical Investigations
Full Scale Foundation Testing
Full Scale Foundation Testing:
Optimization of foundation designs
(reduced total installed cost)
Verification of soil parameters
Transmission Line
Foundations
(Photo courtesy of Hayward Baker)
Very common due to versatility
Suitable for lateral loading &
uplift/compression
Compatible with most soil conditions
Commonly available equipment
Easy Installation (Depending on Soil
Conditions)





Transmission Line Foundations
Drilled Piers
Suitable for softer strata (Helical
and Driven)
Rapid installation
Well suited for caving conditions
Lateral loading may require
multiple piles
Requires construction of a pile
cap or alternate connection to the
structure




Transmission Line Foundations
Pile Foundations
(Photo courtesy of Hubbel Power Systems)
Suitable for all structure types
Primarily used in rock conditions
Requires specialty equipment
Can be installed via helicopter
Requires either a specialty transfer
plate or transfer pier




Transmission Line Foundations
Micropiles
(Photo courtesy of CRUX Subsurface)
(Photo courtesy of Hayward Baker)
Suitable for all structure types
Utilizes drilled anchor rods to transfer load
Can be installed in remote locations
Large equipment is preferable Hand methods are possible





Transmission Line Foundations
Anchored Rock Sockets
Primarily used in uplift-compression
Reinforced concrete or grillages
Can be effective in soft conditions where
settlement is a concern (Excavation?)
Corrosion can be a concern (Grillages)




Transmission Line Foundations
Shallow Foundations
Specialty Foundation
Construction




Specialty Installations
Gila River Crossing Polymer Slurry Stabilization
190 Pole
104
Foundation




Specialty Installations
Gila River Crossing Polymer Slurry Stabilization




Specialty Installations
Gila River Crossing Polymer Slurry Stabilization




Specialty Installations
500kV Tower Modification




Specialty Installations
500kV Tower Modification
Thank you for your kind
attention