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1. (x 5)

2

= 49

2. (x + 6)

2

= 20

ANSWER

6 + 2 5 , 6 2 5

Solve the equation.

12 , 2

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

3. x

2

+ 18x + 81

ANSWER

(x + 9)

2

Factor the expression.

4. x

2

+ 22x + 121

ANSWER

(x + 11)

2

5. 27 plus a number is 6

2

. What is that number?

ANSWER

9

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 1 Solve a quadratic equation by finding square roots

Solve x

2

8x + 16 = 25.

x

2

8x + 16 = 25 Write original equation.

(x 4)

2

= 25 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

x 4 = +5 Take square roots of each side.

x = 4 + 5 Solve for x.

The solutions are 4 + 5 = 9 and 4 5 = 1.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 2 Make a perfect square trinomial

Find the value of c that makes x

2

+ 16x + c a perfect

square trinomial. Then write the expression as the

square of a binomial.

SOLUTION

STEP 1

Find half the coefficient of x.

STEP 2

16

2

= 8

Square the result of Step 1. 8

2

= 64

STEP 3

Replace c with the result of Step 2. x

2

+ 16x + 64

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 2 Make a perfect square trinomial

The trinomial x

2

+ 16x + c is a perfect square when

c = 64. Then x

2

+ 16x + 64 = (x + 8)(x + 8) = (x + 8)

2

.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

1. x

2

+ 6x + 9 = 36.

x

2

+ 6x + 9 = 36 Write original equation.

(x + 3)

2

= 36 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

x + 3 = + 6 Take square roots of each side.

x = 3 + 6 Solve for x.

The solutions are 3 + 6 = 3 and 3 6 = 9.

ANSWER

Solve the equation by finding square roots.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

2. x

2

10x + 25 = 1.

x

2

10x + 25 = 1 Write original equation.

(x 5)

2

= 1 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

x 5 = + 1 Take square roots of each side.

x = 5 + 1 Solve for x.

The solutions are 5 1 = 4 and 5 + 1 = 6.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

3. x

2

24x + 144 = 100.

x

2

24x + 144 = 100 Write original equation.

(x 12)

2

= 100 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

x 12 = + 10 Take square roots of each side.

x = 12 + 10 Solve for x.

The solutions are 12 10 = 2 and 12 + 10 = 22.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

4.

x

2

+ 14x + c

x

2

7x

7x 49

x

x

7

7

SOLUTION

STEP 1

Find half the coefficient of x.

STEP 2

14

2

= 7

Square the result of Step 1. 7

2

= 49

STEP 3

Replace c with the result of Step 2. x

2

+ 14x + 49

Find the value of c that makes the expression a perfect

square trinomial.Then write the expression as the

square of a binomial.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

The trinomial x

2

+ 14x + c is a perfect square when

c = 49.

Then x

2

+ 14x + 49 = (x + 7)(x + 7) = (x + 7)

2

.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

5.

x

2

+ 22x + c

x

2

11x

11x 121

x

x

11

11

SOLUTION

STEP 1

Find half the coefficient of x.

STEP 2

22

2

= 22

Square the result of Step 1. 11

2

= 121

STEP 3

Replace c with the result of Step 2. x

2

+ 22x + 121

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

The trinomial x

2

+ 22x + c is a perfect square when

c = 144.

Then x

2

+ 22x + 144 = (x + 11)(x + 11) = (x + 11)

2

.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

6.

x

2

9x + c

x

2

x

x

SOLUTION

STEP 1

Find half the coefficient of x.

STEP 2

STEP 3

Replace c with the result of Step 2.

9

2

x

9

2

x

81

4

9

2

9

2

Square the result of Step 1.

x

2

9x +

81

4

9

2

9

2

=

9

2

( )

=

81

4

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 1 and 2

ANSWER

The trinomial x

2

9x + c is a perfect square when

c = .

Then x

2

9x + = (x )(x ) = (x )

2

.

81

4

81

4

9

2

9

2

9

2

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 3

Solve ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 when a = 1

Solve x

2

12x + 4 = 0 by completing the square.

x

2

12x + 4 = 0 Write original equation.

x

2

12x = 4 Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

x

2

12x + 36 = 4 + 36 Add

12

2

2

( )

=

(6)

2

=

36

to each side.

(x 6)

2

= 32 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x 6 = + 32

x = 6 + 32

x = 6 + 4 2 Simplify: 32

= 16 2 = 4 2

The solutions are 6 + 4 and 6 4 2 2

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 3

Solve ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 when a = 1

CHECK

You can use algebra or a graph.

Algebra Substitute each solution in the original

equation to verify that it is correct.

Graph Use a graphing calculator to graph

y = x

2

12x + 4. The x-intercepts are about 0.34 6 4 2

and 11.66 6 + 4 2

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 4

Solve ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 when a = 1

Solve 2x

2

+ 8x + 14 = 0 by completing the square.

2x

2

+ 8x + 14 = 0

Write original equation.

x

2

+ 4x + 7 = 0

Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

x

2

4x + 4 = 7 + 4

Add

4

2

2

( )

=

2

2

=

4 to each side.

(x + 2)

2

= 3 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x + 2 = + 3

x = 2 + 3

x = 2 + i 3

x

2

+ 4x = 7

Divide each side by the

coefficient of x

2

.

Write in terms of the imaginary unit i.

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 4

Solve ax

2

+ bx + c = 0 when a = 1

The solutions are 2 + i 3 and 2 i

3 .

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 5

Standardized Test Practice

SOLUTION

Use the formula for the area of a rectangle to write

an equation.

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 5

Standardized Test Practice

3x(x + 2) = 72

3x

2

+ 6x = 72

x

2

2x + 1 = 24 + 1 Add

2

2

2

( )

=

1

2

=

1 to each side.

(x + 1)

2

= 25 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x + 1 = + 5

x = 1 + 5

x

2

+ 2x = 24 Divide each side by the

coefficient of x

2

.

Length Width = Area

Distributive property

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 5

Standardized Test Practice

So, x = 1 + 5 = 4 or x = 1 5 = 6. You can reject x = 6

because the side lengths would be 18 and 4, and

side lengths cannot be negative.

The value of x is 4. The correct answer is B.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

Solve x

2

+ 6x + 4 = 0 by completing the square.

x

2

+ 6x + 4 = 0 Write original equation.

x

2

+ 6x = 4 Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

x

2

+ 6x + 9 = 4 + 9 Add

6

2

2

( )

=

(3)

2

=

9

to each side.

(x + 3)

2

= 5 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x + 3 = + 5

x = 3 + 5

The solutions are 3+ and 3 2 5

ANSWER

7.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

Solve x

2

10x + 8 = 0 by completing the square.

x

2

10x + 8 = 0 Write original equation.

x

2

10x = 8 Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

x

2

10x + 25 = 8 + 25 Add

10

2

2

( )

=

(5)

2

=

25

to each side.

(x 5)

2

= 17 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x 5 = + 17

x = 5 + 17

The solutions are 5 + and 5 17 17

ANSWER

8.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

Solve 2n

2

4n 14 = 0 by completing the square.

Write original equation.

2n

2

4n = 14 Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

n

2

2n + 1 = 7 + 1 Add

2

1

2

( )

=

(1)

2

=

1

to each side.

(n 1)

2

= 8 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for n.

Take square roots of each side. n 1 = + 8

n = 1 + 2 2

The solutions are 1 + 2 and 1 2 2 2

ANSWER

9.

2n

2

4n 14 = 0

n

2

2n = 7

Divided each side by 2.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

Solve 3x

2

+ 12n 18 = 0 by completing the square.

Write original equation.

x

2

+ 4n = 6 Write left side in the form x

2

+ bx.

x

2

+ 4x + 4 = 6 + 4 Add

4

2

2

( )

=

(2)

2

=

4

to each side.

(x + 2)

2

= 10 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side. x + 2 = + 10

x = 2 + 10

10.

3x

2

+ 12n 18 = 0

Divided each side by the

coefficient of x

2

.

x

2

+ 4n 6 = 0

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

The solutions are 2 + and 2 10 10

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

6x(x + 8) = 12

6x

2

+ 48x = 12

x

2

+ 8x + 16 = 2 + 16 Add

8

2

2

( )

=

4

2

=

16 to each side.

(x + 4)

2

= 18 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side.

x

2

+ 8x = 2 Divide each side by the

coefficient of x

2

.

Distributive property

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

11. 6x(x + 8) = 12

Write original equation

x + 4 = + 3 2

x = 4 + 3 2

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

The solutions are 4 +3 and 4 3 2 2

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

4p(p 2) = 100

4p

2

8p = 100

p

2

2x + 1 = 25 + 1 Add

8

2

2

( )

=

4

2

=

16 to each side.

(p 1)

2

= 26 Write left side as a binomial

squared.

Solve for x.

Take square roots of each side.

p

2

2p = 25 Divide each side by the

coefficient of p

2

.

Distributive property

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

11. 4p(p 2) = 100

Write original equation

p = 1 + 26

p 1 = 26

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 3, 4 and 5

The solutions are 1 + and 1 26 26

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 6

Write a quadratic function in vertex form

Write y = x

2

10x + 22 in vertex form.

Then identify the vertex.

y = x

2

10x + 22 Write original function.

y + ? = (x

2

10x + ? ) + 22 Prepare to complete the square.

y + 25 = (x

2

10x + 25) + 22 Add

10

2

2

( )

=

(5)

2

=

25 to each side.

y + 25 = (x 5)

2

+ 22 Write x

2

10x + 25 as a

binomial squared.

y = (x 5)

2

3 Solve for y.

The vertex form of the function is y = (x 5)

2

3.

The vertex is (5, 3).

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 7

Find the maximum value of a quadratic function

The height y (in feet) of a

baseball t seconds after it is

hit is given by this function:

Baseball

y = 16t

2

+ 96t + 3

Find the maximum height of the baseball.

SOLUTION

The maximum height of the baseball is the

y-coordinate of the vertex of the parabola with the

given equation.

Warm-Up Exercises EXAMPLE 7

Find the maximum value of a quadratic function

y = 16t

2

+ 96t +3 Write original function.

y +(16)(?) = 16(t

2

6t + ? ) + 3 Prepare to complete the square.

y 144 = 16(t 3)

2

+ 3 Write t

2

6t + 9 as a

binomial squared.

y = 16(t 3)

2

+ 147 Solve for y.

y = 16(t

2

6t) +3 Factor 16 from first two terms.

y +(16)(9) = 16(t

2

6t + 9 ) + 3 Add to each side.

(16)(9)

The vertex is (3, 147), so the maximum height of the

baseball is 147 feet.

ANSWER

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 6 and 7

Write y = x

2

8x + 17 in vertex form.

Then identify the vertex.

y = x

2

8x + 17 Write original function.

y + ? = (x

2

8x + ? ) + 17 Prepare to complete the square.

y + 16 = (x

2

8x + 16) + 17 Add

8

2

2

( )

=

(4)

2

=

16 to each side.

y + 16 = (x 4)

2

+ 17

Write x

2

8x + 16 as a

binomial squared.

y = (x 4)

2

+ 1 Solve for y.

The vertex form of the function is y = (x 4)

2

+ 1.

The vertex is (4, 1).

ANSWER

13.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 6 and 7

Write y = x

2

+ 6x + 3 in vertex form.

Then identify the vertex.

y = x

2

+ 6x + 3 Write original function.

y + ? = (x

2

+ 6x + ? ) + 3 Prepare to complete the square.

y + 9 = (x

2

+ 6x + 9) + 3 Add

6

2

2

( )

=

(3)

2

=

9 to each side.

y + 9 = (x + 3)

2

+ 3

Write x

2

+ 6x + 9 as a

binomial squared.

y = (x + 3)

2

6 Solve for y.

The vertex form of the function is y = (x + 3)

2

6.

The vertex is ( 3, 6).

ANSWER

14.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 6 and 7

Write f(x) = x

2

4x 4 in vertex form.

Then identify the vertex.

f(x) = x

2

4x 4 Write original function.

y + ? = (x

2

4x + ? ) 4 Prepare to complete the square.

y + 4 = (x

2

4x + 4) 4 Add

4

2

2

( )

=

( 2)

2

=

4 to each side.

y + 4 = (x 2)

2

4

Write x

2

4x + 4 as a

binomial squared.

y = (x 2)

2

8 Solve for y.

The vertex form of the function is y = (x 2)

2

8.

The vertex is (2 , 8).

ANSWER

15.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 6 and 7

16.

SOLUTION

The maximum height of the baseball is the

y-coordinate of the vertex of the parabola with the

given equation.

y = 16t

2

+ 80t +2 Write original function.

y +( 4)(?) = 4((2t)

2

20t + ? ) + 2 Prepare to complete the square.

y = 4((2t)

2

20t) +2 Factor 4 from first two terms.

What if ? In example 7, suppose the height of the

baseball is given by y = 16t

2

+ 80t + 2. Find the

maximum height of the baseball.

Warm-Up Exercises

GUIDED PRACTICE

for Examples 6 and 7

The vertex is (5, 102), so the maximum height of the

baseball is 102 feet.

ANSWER

y 100 = 4(2t 5)

2

+ 2

Write 2t

2

20 + 25 as a

binomial squared.

y +( 4)(25) = 4((2t)

2

20t + 25 ) + 2 Add to each side.

(4)(25)

y = 4(2t 5)

2

+ 102 Solve for y.

Warm-Up Exercises

Daily Homework Quiz

1. What value of c makes x

2

5x + c a perfect square

trinomial? Write the trinomial as the square of a

binomial.

2. Solve x

2

14x + 9 = 0 by completing the square.

3. Solve 3x

2

24x = 48 by completing the square.

ANSWER

25

;

( )

4

x

5

2

2

7 + 2 , 7

ANSWER 10 10 2

ANSWER

4

Warm-Up Exercises

Daily Homework Quiz

4. Write y = 3x

2

+ 24x + 40 in vertex form. Then identify

the vertex.

y = 3(x

+ 4)

2

8; ( 4, 8) ANSWER

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